Micro-structuring of ridge waveguides on (Yb,Nb):RTP/RTP by fs-laser beam multiplexing.

A. Ruiz de la Cruz1, J. Cugat2, R. Solé2, J. Massons2, X. Mateos2, J.J. Carvajal2, M. Aguiló2, F. Díaz2 and J. Solis1
1- Grupo de Procesado por Láser (GPL), Instituto de óptica “Daza de Valdés” (CSIC), Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid. 2- Física i Cristal·lografia de Materials i Nanomaterials (FiCMA-FiCNA). Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Campus Sescelades, c/ Marcel·lí Domingo s/n. E43007 Tarragona, Spain

1

Outline
• Introduction.
Ridge waveguides. Approximation scanning. Beam multiplexing.

• (Yb,Nb):RTP/RTP. • Experimental set-up and results. • Waveguide characterization. • Summary.
2

Ridge waveguides
Planar waveguide Guiding layer, n2 Substrate, n1 Substrate Ridge waveguide

Channel fabrication methods: •Ion milling. •Reactive ion etching. •Laser structuring.

Ideal channels: •Vertical walls. •Minimal roughness.

3

Channel inscription
Debris

Substrate

4

lse energy was different for KTP1 and KTP2 samples that resulted in a different diameter for the pores of TP2 sample when compared to the width of the channels of KTP1.

Cross sections of the channels and circular pores that formed the RTP and KTP diffraction gratings are sho Figure 3. As can be seen in these pictures, the roughness of the lateral walls is 0.4 µm, specially in the R mples. These images reveal that channels have a V shape and holes are conical. The depths of the groove TP1 and RTP2 are 5 and 7 µm respectively.

Channel inscription
Channel cross-section

Golconda et al. Physics Procedia (2010) vol. 8 pp. 126-135

5

Approximation scanning
Debris

Substrate

•Minimize deposition of debris. •Decrease roughness by resolidified material.
Gottmann et al. Proc. SPIE vol. 4941 (2003) pp. 148

6

Approximation scanning
Debris

Substrate

•Minimize deposition of debris. •Decrease roughness by resolidified material.
Gottmann et al. Proc. SPIE vol. 4941 (2003) pp. 148

7

Approximation scanning
Debris

Substrate

•Minimize deposition of debris. •Decrease roughness by resolidified material.
Gottmann et al. Proc. SPIE vol. 4941 (2003) pp. 148

8

Approximation scanning
Debris

Substrate

•Minimize deposition of debris. •Decrease roughness by resolidified material.
Gottmann et al. Proc. SPIE vol. 4941 (2003) pp. 148

9

Approximation scanning
Ridge waveguide

Substrate

•Minimize deposition of debris. •Decrease roughness by resolidified material.
Gottmann et al. Proc. SPIE vol. 4941 (2003) pp. 148

10

Figure 5: Groove structured with 150 fs laser radiation with re-solidified material (left). The laser beam sca

Approximation scanning
Single scan

direction is from the top to the bottom (right).

Approximation scanning

Gottmann et al. Proc. SPIE vol. 4941 (2003) pp. 148 .\ radiatvn.

aser

laser

\

t Hasrna/
(
Y

-

A

',UCC!tO O trdck2 /\ . / I

: 1/ 2/ ,

11

Beam multiplexing
Sample translation

Multiplexed beam

Top view

12

Beam multiplexing
Sample translation

Multiplexed beam

Top view

13

Beam multiplexing
Sample translation

Multiplexed beam

Top view

14

Beam multiplexing
•Spatial light modulator. •Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm. •Optimization for uniform intensity[1]. •Beam multiplexed into seven spots. •50% overlap between writing beams.
Target intensity distribution Calculated phasemap

[1] di Leonardo et al. Opt. Express (2007) vol. 15 pp. 1913

15

(Yb,Nb):RTP/RTP
(Yb,Nb):RTP RbTiOPO4 (RTP) Substrate

nlayer=1,8632 nsubs=1,8573 @ 972 nm

•Crystalline samples. •10 µm thick layers of (Yb,Nb):RTP. •Grown by liquid phase epitaxy
J. Cugat et al. Cryst. Eng. Comm., vol. 13 (2011) pp 2015

16

Experimental set-up
f=1 kHz E=1 mJ t=120 fs λ=800 nm

fs-pulsed laser
Sample

SLM
f1 f2

y Focusing objective x z

Image Relaying + Telescope M=0.4

Irradiation parameters:
•E=2.7 µJ •20X (NA=0.4) lens. •v=100 µm/s •Seven multiplexed spots. •Channel separation 6-18 µm

17

Experimental results
Singe channel trials Linear polarization Circular polarization

100 µm

Confocal microscopy

18

Experimental results
Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) image

19

Experimental results
Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) image

20

Experimental results
Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) image

21

Experimental results
Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) image

•Waveguides with trapezoidal shape. •Non-curved walls. •Internal channel wall less rough. •Estimated roughness ≈500 nm.

!

22

µ-Raman scattering

! •Material remains crystalline in the ablated zones. •Modification probably due to stress caused by shockwaves. •Stressed area about 3 µm thick around ablated zones.
23

Waveguide characterization
632 nm 972 nm

•Simulations show confinement ≈99% for all waveguides. •Measured propagation losses < 4.4 dB/cm. •Losses comparable to previous results in Er:ZBLAN.
Wortmann and Gottmann. Applied Physics A (2008) vol. 93 pp. 197-201
24

!

• • • • • •

Summary
We have fabricated channels in (Yb,Nb):RTP layers on top of an RTP substrate. Channels fabricated by fs-laser ablation using beam multiplexing and approximation scanning. With these channels it has been possible to create ridge waveguides. The performance of the waveguides is comparable to previously published results. The material remains crystalline after the laser ablation. J. Cugat et al, “fs-Laser microstructuring of ribs on active (Yb,Nb):RTP/RTP planar waveguides,” Optics Express, (under review).

25

26

Rb-O Polar vibration

v2 vibration mode for TiO6 octahedron

v1 vibration mode for PO4 tetrahedra

!

27

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful