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phase and gain margins of the servo. • To understand the relationship between the gain and instability. Results & Sample Calculation For f = 0.5 Hz, ω = 2π x 0.5 = 3.142 rad/s For Vi = 5.00V and Vo = 4.72V, Gain = 20 log (Vo / Vi ) = 20 log (4.72/5.00) = -0.06977 For Δtime = -0.18s and f = 0.5Hz, Phase angle = Δtime x f x 360o = -0.18 x 0.5 x 360 o = -32.4o Results from Nichols Charts, Theoretical Gain Margin = 23.7dB Theoretical Phase Margin =106° Value of gain K for system to reach instability = 49 Experimental Gain Margin = 20 log K = 20 log 49 = 33.8 dB

Table 1: f (Hz) ω (rad/s) eg) = Δtime X f 360o 0.5 3.142 5.00 1 6.283 5.00 2 12.566 5.00 3 18.850 5.00 4 25.133 5.00 5 31.416 5.00 6 37.699 5.00 7 43.982 5.00 8 50.265 5.00 9 56.549 5.00 10 62.832 5.00 11 69.115 5.00

Vi (V) Vo (V) Gain (dB) = 20 log Vo/Vi 4.96 4.32 3.28 2.40 1.84 1.44 1.16 0.86 0.72 0.62 0.52 0.38 -0.070 -1.270 -3.662 -6.375 -8.683 -10.812 -12.690 -15.289 -16.833 -18.132 -19.659 -22.384 -0.180 -0.140 -0.112 -0.088 -0.080 -0.068 -0.064 -0.056 -0.052 -0.050 -0.046 -0.044 -32.40 -50.40 -80.64 -95.04 -115.20 -122.40 -138.24 -141.12 -149.76 -162.00 -165.60 -174.24

Δtime (s)

Phase

12 13 14 15

75.398 81.681 87.965 94.248

5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00

0.36 0.30 0.26 0.22

-22.853 -24.437 -25.680 -27.131

-0.042 -0.040 -0.038 -0.036

-181.44 -187.20 -191.52 -194.40

Table 2: ω (rad/s) 3.14159 5.3 6.28318 0.7 12.5664 -4.5 18.8495 -7.3 25.1327 -10.0 31.4159 -11.1 37.6991 -13.5 43.9823 -16.0 50.2654 -18.0 56.5486 -19.0 62.8318 -20.5 69.115 -23.7

Open Loop Gain (dB) -105.0 -105.0 -115.0 -118.0 -130.0 -134.0 -145.0 -145.0 -151.0 -162.5 -165.0 -174.0

Open Loop Phase (Deg)

Discussion Since open-loop control systems are sensitive to disturbances, Nicholls chart p rovides a good alternative to determine the open-loop transfer functions as we a re able to measure the close-loop gains and phase angles with unity feedback, wh ich is more stable, and then convert it to the corresponding open-loop gains and phase angles from the chart. Conclusion from the Bode Plot: From the graph of Open Loop Gain vs. ω, there is two negative straight line slopes with different gradient and meet each other at one point. Time constant, = 0.0323 s The graph intercepts the y-axis at 13 dB and the line of the first slope decreas es 16 dB over a decade while the second slope decreases 33 dB over a decade, whi ch is 2 times steeper than the first straight line slope.

= 6.49 The transfer function is = = The transfer function of this graph is a second order system.

Compare the experimental and theoretical gain margin. Using the Nichols Chart, the gain margin obtained theoretically was 23.7 dB wher eas the experimental gain margin was 33.80 dB. The theoretical gain margin is 70 % of the experimental gain margin. This shows that there is a difference in resu lt obtained through modeling system and the true system. This is because we migh

t not have considered all the essential details when we are modeling a system. Some other reasons for the difference in values is probably due to in inaccuraci es of the Nichols’ Chart. The lack of finer divisions make estimation the next bes t method to determine the system’s open loop gain and phase angle at a particular frequency. Coupled with the non-linear contour lines that are not uniformly spac ed apart, this raises a substantial amount of ambiguity in finding the gain and phase margin. Another reason of the inaccuracy is due to the experimental gain m argin obtained through observation in the instability of the results. We might n ot notice the exact second where the instability occurs. Conclusion From this experiment, we’ve learnt how to obtain the gain and phase margin using t he Nichols Chart as well as the limitations of the Nichols Chart. We’ve also learn t how the system would respond to increasing input frequency and gains, discover ing that too high a gain or input frequency setting would result in the system b ecoming unstable, thus emphasizing the need of a determined operating range of g ain and frequency that would not result in the system becoming unstable. In the case of this experiment setting, the theoretical gain and phase margin would be 19.5 dB and 107o respectively.

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