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Basic Operation Of Airbag System An airbag is a vehicle safety device.

It is an occupant restraint system consisting of a flexible envelope designed to inflate rapidly during an automobile collision. Its purpose is to cushion occupants during a crash and provide protection to their bodies when they strike interior objects such as the steering wheel or a window. Modern vehicles may contain multiple airbags in various side and frontal locations of the passenger seating positions, and sensors may deploy one or more airbags in an impact zone at variable rates based on the type and severity of impact; the airbag is designed to only inflate in moderate to severe frontal crashes. Airbags are normally designed with the intention of supplementing the protection of an occupant who is correctly restrained with a seatbelt. Most designs are inflated through pyrotechnic means and can only be operated once.

1.Ignition judgment and conditions (1)Front collision When both the deceleration sensor and safing sensor in the center airbag sensor assembly turn on, the driver airbag, front passenger airbag and seat belt pretensioners are ignited. The center airbag sensor assembly switches the threshold level that should be activated according to the signal from the front airbag sensors (front satellite sensor). The safing sensor of the center airbag sensor assembly is designed to be turned on by a smaller deceleration rate than the deceleration sensor. There used to be a three sensor type in which the driver airbag, front passenger airbag and seat belt pretensioners were ignited when the front airbag sensor turned on or the deceleration sensor in the center airbag sensor assembly turned on, and the safing sensor in the center airbag sensor assembly turned on. There also used to be a one sensor type that had no front airbag sensor and performed all the control only with the airbag sensor assembly. (2)Front side collision The safing sensor of the center airbag sensor assembly is designed to be activated by a smaller deceleration rate than the deceleration sensor of the side airbag sensor. As illustrated, ignition of the side airbag and curtain shield airbag is caused when current flows to the initiator, which happens when a safing sensor and the deceleration sensor go on simultaneously. Some model with E-type SRS airbags have a safing sensor in the side airbag sensor. Vehicle with side door sensor When the safing sensor in the center airbag sensor assembly turns on and the deceleration 1

sensor in the side door sensor or in the side airbag sensor is on, the side airbag and curtain shield airbag are ignited. (3)Rear side collision When both the safing sensor and the deceleration sensor in the curtain shield airbag sensor turn on, the curtain shield airbag is deployed. Some models have a safing sensor outside the curtain shield airbag sensor and control with the safing sensor in the center airbag sensor assembly. Basic Operation Of Keyless Entry System A keyless entry system is an electronic lock that controls access to a building or vehicle without using a traditional mechanical key. The term keyless entry system originally meant a lock controlled by a keypad located at or near the driver's door, that required pressing a predetermined (or self-programmed) numeric code for entry. These systems, having evolved into a hidden touch-activated keypad, are still available on certain Ford or Lincoln models. The term remote keyless system (RKS), or more commonly just as keyless entry, refers to a lock that uses an electronic remote control as a key which is activated by a handheld device or automatically by proximity. Widely used in automobiles, an RKS performs the functions of a standard car key without physical contact. When within a few yards of the car, pressing a button on the remote can lock or unlock the doors, and may perform other functions. A remote keyless system can include both a remote keyless entry system (RKE), which unlocks the doors, and a remote keyless ignition system (RKI), which starts the engine.

Basic Operation Of Tires Pressure Monitoring System A tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS) is an electronic system designed to monitor the air pressure inside the pneumatic tires on various types of vehicles. TPMS report real-time tirepressure information to the driver of the vehicle, either via a gauge, a pictogram display, or a simple low-pressure warning light. TPMS can be divided into two different types direct (dTPMS) and indirect (iTPMS). TPMS are provided both at an OEM (factory) level as well as an aftermarket solution.

Direct TPMS Direct TPMS employ pressure sensors on each tire, either internal or external. The sensors physically measure the tire pressure in each tire and report it to the vehicle's instrument cluster 2

or a corresponding monitor, sometimes also the temperature inside the tire. These systems can identify under-inflation in any combination, be it one tire or all four, simultaneously. Although the systems vary in transmitting options, many TPMS products (both OEM and aftermarket solutions) can display real time tire pressures at each location monitored whether the vehicle is moving or parked. There are many different solutions but all of them have to face the problems of limited battery lifetime and exposure to tough environments. If the sensors are mounted on the outside of the wheel, which is the case for some aftermarket systems, they are in danger of mechanical damage, aggressive fluids and other substances as well as theft. If they are mounted on the inside of the rim, they are no longer easily accessible for service like battery change and additionally, the RF communication has to overcome the damping effects of the tire which additionally increases the need for energy. A direct TPMS sensor consists of following main functions requiring only a few external components e.g., battery, housing, PCB to get the sensor module that is mounted to the valve stem inside the tire: pressure sensor; analog-digital converter; microcontroller; system controller; oscillator; radio frequency transmitter; low frequency receiver, and voltage regulator (battery management).

Most originally fitted dTPMS have the sensors mounted on the inside of the rims and the batteries are not exchangeable. With a battery change then meaning that the whole sensor will have to be replaced and the exchange being possible only with the tires dismounted, the lifetime of the battery becomes a crucial parameter. To save energy and prolong battery life, many dTPMS sensors hence do not transmit information during standstill at all or apply a complex and expensive two-way communication which enables an active wake-up of the sensor by the vehicle. For dTPMS to work properly, they need to recognize the sensor positions and have to ignore the signals from other vehicles' sensors. There are hence numerous tools and procedures to make the dTPMS "learn" or "re-learn" this information, some of them can be carried out by the driver, others need to be done by the workshops or even require special electronic tools. The

cost and variety of spare parts, procedures and tools has led to much trouble and confusion both for customers and workshops.

Indirect TPMS Indirect TPMS do not use physical pressure sensors but measure air pressures by monitoring individual wheel rotational speeds and other signals available outside of the tire itself. First generation iTPMS systems utilize the effect that an under-inflated tire has a slightly smaller diameter (and hence higher angular velocity) than a correctly inflated one. These differences are measurable through the wheel speed sensors of ABS/ESC systems. Second generation iTPMS can also detect simultaneous under-inflation in up to all four tires using spectrum analysis of individual wheels, which can be realized in software using advanced signal processing techniques. The spectrum analysis is based on the principle that certain eigenforms and frequencies of the tire/wheel assembly are highly sensitive to the inflation pressure. These oscillations can hence be monitored through advanced signal processing of the wheel speed signals. Current iTPMS consist of software modules being integrated into the ABS/ESC units. iTPMS cannot measure or display absolute pressure values, they are relative by nature and have to be reset by the driver once the tires are checked and all pressures adjusted correctly. The reset is normally done either by a physical button or in a menu of the on-board computer. iTPMS are, compared to dTPMS, more sensitive to the influences of different tires and external influences like road surfaces and driving speed or style. The reset procedure, followed by an automatic learning phase of typically 20 to 60 minutes of driving under which the iTPMS learns and stores the reference parameters before it becomes fully active, cancels out many, but not all of these. As iTPMS do not involve any additional hardware, spare parts, electronic or toxic waste as well as service whatsoever (beyond the regular reset), they are regarded as easy to handle and very customer friendly. According to Nira, based on their request to TV SD to do a pre-test according to similar requirements of the EU legislation, the iTPMS system passed that pre-test. However, the full test procedure as required by the EU regulation, completed by the regulatory body assigned to make the homologation, has not yet been done. Manufacturers like Dunlop Tech also claim their products to fulfill the regulations.

Basic Operation Of Anti-Theft System An anti-theft system is any device or method used to prevent or deter the unauthorized appropriation of items considered valuable.Theft is one of the most common and oldest criminal behaviours. From the invention of the first lock and key to the introduction of RFIDtags and biometric identification, anti-theft systems have evolved to match the introduction of new inventions to society and the resulting theft of them by others.

Theft: Motive and Opportunity Under normal circumstances, theft is prevented simply through the application and social acceptance of property law. Ownership is often indicated by means of visual marking (license plates, name tags). When clear owner identification is not possible and when there is a lack of social observance, people may be inclined to take possession of items to their own benefit at the expense of the original owner. Motive and opportunity are two enabling factors for theft. Given that motives for theft are varied and complex and are generally speaking not within the control of the victim, most methods of theft prevention rely on reducing opportunities for theft.

Motives for actively preventing theft Items may require an anti-theft system for a variety of reasons, which may occur in combination depending on the type of item and its use: The item is expensive and/or has sentimental value (prestigious car, family heirloom, birthday gift, war medals, coin collection) The item is difficult/impossible to replace if lost (produced in low numbers, antiques, unique works of art) The item is easy to steal (retail/supermarket products, office stationery) The item may be left unattended in an unsafe environment (laptops in a library, cars in a carpark) Inappropriate use of the item may cause considerable damage or may enable further unauthorized acts (theft of car keys, stolen building access keys, identity theft) The item is desirable to others (jewelry, mobile phones, rare collectibles, auto parts, industrial designs) The item is otherwise un-obtainable: (Alcohol, Tobacco products, age related substances) Use of Theft Prevention

Equally varied are the methods developed for theft prevention. Anti-theft systems have evolved to counter new theft techniques as they have appeared in society. The choice for a particular anti-theft system is dependent on several factors:

Financial Cost In addition to the initial acquisition cost of an item, the cost of replacement or recovery from its theft is usually considered when considering the cost of installing an anti-theft system. This cost estimation usually determines the maximum cost of the anti-theft system and the need to secure it. Expensive items will generally be secured with higher-cost anti-theft systems, while low-cost items will generally be secured at low cost. Insurance companies will often mandate a minimum type of anti-theft system as part of the conditions for insurance.

Threshold for Theft Anti-theft systems are designed to raise the difficulty of theft to an infeasible (but not necessarily impossible) level. The kind of system implemented often depends on the acceptable threshold for theft. For example, keeping money in an inside shirt pocket raises the difficulty of theft above that necessary if the pocket were on a backpack, since unauthorized access is made sufficiently more difficult. Methods of theft evolve to decrease the difficulty of theft, increased by newer antitheft systems. Because of evolution on both sides and the social aspect of theft, the threshold for theft is very dynamic and heavily dependent on the environment. Doors in quiet suburban neighbourhoods are often left unlocked, as the perceived thresholds for theft are very high.

Ease of Use Security is often compromised through the lax application of theft-prevention practices and human nature in general. The ideal anti-theft device requires no additional effort while using the secured item, without reducing the level of security. In practice, users of security systems may intentionally reduce the effectiveness of an anti-theft system to increase its usability (see passwords). For example, home security systems will often be enabled and disabled using easy-to-remember codes such as "1111" or "123", instead of more secure combinations.

Methods of Theft Prevention There are a number of general categories of anti-theft systems:

Sequestering of valuable items A very common method of preventing theft is the placement of valuables in a safe location. The definition of safe depends on the minimum threshold for theft as determined by the owner. Desk stationery is often considered secured if placed in an unlocked drawer away from view, while expensive jewelry might be placed in a safe behind a picture in a home.

Raising the awareness of theft Another common method is the alerting of other individuals to the act of theft. This is commonly seen in department stores, where security systems at exits alert store employees of the removal of unpaid items. Older car alarms also fall into this category; newer systems also prevent the car from starting. The revolution of mobile applications and wireless communication make possible to get notified by your phone, when your properties are stolen. Probably the first solution of mobile application based theft detection is BluCop, which was published in December 2010.

Preventing Removal of items Yet another method is the attachment of items to a larger immobile object, usually furniture or walls.

Disabling the stolen item Items with specific functionality can often be disabled to prevent the use of the item if it should be stolen. The anti-theft system can require disabling on every use, or enabling when the item needs to be secured. Disabling the anti-theft system is usually done by requiring identification of the owner at some stage of use. Identification can occur through physical or other means (physical keys, numerical codes, complex passwords, biometric identification). This can work even retrospectively: as a stolen credit card can easily be invalidated with a phone call to the issuing bank, the motivation to steal one is reduced. In the case of vehicle theft, the best deterrent to theft is in the installation of an approved vehicle anti theft passive immobilizer. Many vehicles have OEM (factory installed) units and afford protection through the ignition system. OEM immobilizers function through the ECM/PCM (computer) under the hood of the vehicle. In general terms, the RFID tag attached to the key must be read by the ECM in order to allow ignition to occur. Unfortunately, organized crime is able to bypass these systems and steal any vehicle at will. An approved immobilizer uses a 3 circuit isolation system which thwarts even the most experienced thief.[1]

Security Tags Security tags are devices that are attached to products to prevent shoplifting. Often used in conjunction with an Electronic article surveillance system. Selecta DNA or Smart water are such security tags - a forensic fluid which contains millions of tiny fragments which have a unique number called "SIN" ("Selecta DNA identification number"), and registered in a national police database together with the owner's details, is etched into each of those particles.

Tracking Software Electronic items such as laptops, cell phones and even gadgets such as iPods now have software that enable them to "phone home" with information regarding their whereabouts and other information that can aid law enforcement to track the devices down.

Forensic Marking Assets can be marked with various forensic marking materials for law enforcement traceability of the item. An example of this type of marking is Selecta DNA and Smart water.