KENYATTA UNIVERSITY

SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTING AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

MOMBASA CAMPUS

PROJECT PROPOSAL ALLIDINA VISRAM HIGH SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM SUPERVISOR: MS.WINNIE WACHIRA

SUBMIITED ON: 05/04/2012

NAME:

SHADRACK MWANZIA NGUMBAU J17S/MSA/5244/2008

REGISTRATION NUMBER:

DEGREE PROGRAMME: BACHELOR OF SCIENCE (COMPUTER SCIENCE) COPYRIGHT © 2012.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
COVER PAGE ……………………………………………………… I II 1 1 1 2 2 3 4 4 6 8 10 12 13 15 15 16 16 17 17 18 19

TABLE OF CONTENTS……………………………………………………
1.0 INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………………...

1.1 Background …………………………………………………………. 1.2 Problem Statement…………………………………………………... 1.3 Objectives………………………………..…………………………. 1.4 Scope…… …………………………………………………………. 1.5 Justification…………………………………………………………. 2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW…….………………………………………… 2.1 Library Science…………………………………………………... 2.2 Automated Library Systems…………………………………….. 2.3 System development approaches………………………………… 3.0 METHODOLOGY…………..………………………………………….. 3.1 Collection of facts and data……………………………………… 3.2 Analysis of data………………………………………………….. 3.3 Tools……………………..………………………………………. 3.4 Testing …………..……………………………………………….. 3.5 Time Schedule……………..……………………………………… 3.6 Tasks……………………………………………………………..... 3.7 Deliverables………………………………………………………... 3.8 Milestones………………………………………………………….. 3.9 Budget……………………………………………………………… 4.0 REFERENCES…………………………………………………………….. II

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1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background

Allidina Visram High School offers secondary education to students and is located at Mombasa in the Coast province of Kenya. It offered advanced level studies (Form 5 & 6) in the past but is now a district school offering ordinary level studies (Form 1 - 4) under the 8-4-4 education system. It has a library which is used by both students and teachers.

Previously, the library had a well organised catalogue. The books were classified using a classification scheme but when the education system was changed, most of the books in the library were no longer in use and hence the catalogue was no longer used. There is no classification scheme that is currently used to classify the books. Various textbooks are available and are shelved according to the subjects covered to make the access of books by the students easier.

Newspapers, periodicals, and other materials are available in the library. The library is especially used by the students during library lessons. The teachers go to the library when they need to read newspapers and to use any other useful resource in it. There are storybooks and novels available to those who need them. Students are able to borrow books and return them after some days. It is necessary to develop a good system in order to offer efficient services to the respective users.

1.2 Problem Statement The library is operated manually where students have borrowing tickets with which they borrow and return books. The books are not uniquely labelled. Some challenges such as, books getting lost and no trace or record is found concerning who had it or what happened to the book, are encountered. In order to avoid this and to improve the services offered in the library, a library management system has

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to be developed. The main aim of this project is to develop a system which will computerise main operations within the library. 1.3 Objectives

To develop a system that will offer the core services in the library such as checking in and checking out of books.

To produce a system that will prevent the loss of books.

To develop a user-friendly system that will simplify some of the stressful tasks such as continuous searching of misplaced records.

To design and create a database that will enable organisation, retrieval, and safe storage of data concerning the library’s resources e.g. books.

To provide a system that will enable continuous updating of students records residing in their accounts.

To develop a system that will facilitate and streamline the process of processing, cataloguing, and acquisition of books.

To produce a system that will be able to account for and give a record of the increasing number of books, resources, and students in the school.

To produce a system that will enable registration and deregistration of cleared students in the shortest period of time.

1.4 Scope

The scope covers the main activities that take place within the library. Some of the components that make up the scope are listed as follows:2

The librarian should be able to check in and check out books and other relevant resources using the management system.

The system should be able to generate various reports such as reports on the books available in the library at a particular time, books acquired, donated or purchased during a particular period, books or resources borrowed by a student or teacher, amongst others.

The system should be able to show what fine should be paid by a patron in case the resource is overdue.

It should be able to identify uniquely the number of books available that are either written by a certain author, published by a particular publisher, recognised by a particular title or International Standard Book Number.

The librarian should be able to update, retrieve, insert, and delete records concerning the resources that are in and outside the library (borrowed).

The system should only be able to allow the librarian and the assistant to log into it via an authentication procedure. This shall prevent the patrons from accessing and tampering with the records within the system.

The system should be able to provide the accession number and call number of each and every book within the library.

The system should be able to alert the librarian of an overdue book in case the borrower has not returned it by the required date hence informing the borrower if he/she has forgotten to return the book.

It should store details concerning any borrower such as their cell phone numbers or parents’ cell phone numbers, postal addresses, unique identification numbers amongst other relevant details. It should be able to 3

generate a report on this in the event that this information is required to help in tracking of lost/overdue/stolen books.

The system should perform the above tasks for a solution, to the challenges faced, to be found.

1.5 Justification

This project is indeed timely for it comes at a time when the Administration of the school supports the idea of introducing a system for the library. The system is important and comes with various benefits one of them being effective and efficient management of the library’s resources. The benefits of the project outweigh the costs that will be incurred in the course of its development and operation.

This is because it will be able to prevent stealing and loss of books whose circulation is easily managed using the system hence improving the provision of services to the patrons. This project has to be completed because it will enable the librarian monitor and control the issuing and returning of books without worrying that someone may have tempered with the borrowers’ records.

The project presents an opportunity for application of the knowledge gained and attainment of more skills with an aim of satisfying the users. It enables the appreciation of the theory behind software development and exhibits the challenges encountered in the development of a system.

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
In order to determine the technical and academic context of the project and to increase knowledge on the areas relevant to the project, a literature review has been conducted so far on the system development methods and library science.

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This helps improve the understanding of the user requirements and a better choice of the techniques to be employed is made.

2.1 Library Science

For a working system to be developed, the system’s environment has to be understood clearly, and this has been done by conducting a literature review on this field. From the research conducted, the following was learnt.

A library constitutes of a collection of books which have been organised in a systematic way. The Ministry of health in Kenya in conjunction with African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF) defines a library as;

An organisation established to acquire, organize, preserve and facilitate the use and access to information that is recorded in books, journals and non-book materials.

The books in a library have to be recorded in a book or ledger known as an Accessions Register. This record shows the last book which was acquired together with its number and this number suggests how many books are in the library up to a certain date and in any year. The register is used when more stock is acquired. The books are then ready for cataloguing. Periodicals are usually noted in cards and each card has a periodical title. The cards are then organised in an alphabetical manner.

A display rack is used to exhibit new periodicals and magazines. The periodicals, journals, and magazines are usually bound once all complete volumes have been attained. They are then treated as books by cataloguing, classifying, and assigning to them an accession number. Library materials are made available to the readers through cataloguing, classifying and indexing.

A catalogue entails a list of books and other relevant resources in the library which have been arranged using a recognised order. An individual is able to find a 5

book in the library using the catalogue as a tool so long as he/she knows either the name of the author, the title of the book or the subject of the book. Cataloguing is a procedure that involves preparation and consistent maintenance of a catalogue.

Library classification is the art of placing a book in its proper place in the classification scheme (MOH, Kenya & AMREF, 1994). This process determines the subject of a book in correspondence with a position in the classification scheme. A book is classified by assigning a classification number to it according to the scheme used in the library. Classification facilitates the arrangement of books on the shelves. Examples of classification schemes are Dewey Decimal Classification Scheme, Universal Decimal Classification Scheme, and Library of Congress Classification Scheme.

The class number (which is derived from the classification scheme), and the author mark (which is derived from the author’s title), constitute the call number of a book. This call number is written on a label which is attached to the spine of a book and it (i.e. the call number) also appears on the catalogue cards. Every book has a book pocket, slip, and date label. Pamphlets are grouped by subject while periodicals are arranged alphabetically and displayed on racks.

A catalogue has to be maintained by revising the filing of catalogue cards, editing in order to correct any errors, and withdrawing or replacing worn out cards. Audio-visual materials are usually cleaned and kept in safe cabinets. All classified resources within the library are arranged in a numerical order according to classification numbers in the classification scheme, followed by the author marks.

An appropriate lending system has to show what each person has borrowed, how long he has been lent the resource, what has been checked in and out of the library, and the details of every resource. With the enhancement of technology most of these operations can be computerised and therefore the librarian must keep up with technology and should possess the relevant basic Information Communication Technology skills (Ahmad & Yaseen, 2009). 6

This will help him/her offer efficient library services and most of his/her work will be simplified. The library professional should be ready to learn new technologies and with this, he/she will be able to work in any location or library with an automated system without any difficulties.

2.2 Automated Library Systems

Integrated Library Systems (ILSs) are fully integrated computer systems with modules that are able to perform different tasks that are usually carried out in the library (Taylor, 2004). The systems use one database that is usually accessed using various database tools. The different tasks are such as management of acquisitions, cataloguing, circulation of library materials, and monitoring of interlibrary loans amongst others. The components of an ILS are a relational database, graphical user interfaces and software to interact with the database (Wikipedia, 2011)17.

The first automated systems were developed in the 1970s which were mostly turnkey systems (Taylor, 2004). They had specific functions such as cataloguing. With time, more modules were created which provided services more efficiently and effectively. Due to creativity, innovation, and changes in technology, this has progressed leading to the present day commercially developed packages and online library management systems.

Many of the systems now have Online Access Public Catalogues (OPACs) which enable users to search for books and other materials that are within the library. Some of the integrated/automated library systems stumbled upon in the course of the review includes LibLime Koha, PC Card Catalog, and OpenBiblio. The LibLime Koha system is an open source solution which used in most of the universities and colleges in the world.

It was originally implemented in 1999 and various improvements have been made on it with new versions being released to cope with the demand in the market. One of the universities that use it is Kenyatta University where students are able to 7

search for books from via an OPAC, and circulation of books is done automatically with fines being calculated by the system for any overdue books.

The system is also able to manage the patrons, acquisitions of library resources, and organise information concerning all the library resources. These are good systems which are able to manage the library’s resources together with their users in an easy and user-friendly manner through the use of interfaces. Allidina Visram High School should have a system that performs some of the functions or tasks provided by such systems because their advantages and benefits outweigh their disadvantages.

The systems may sometimes not work due to some hardware failures and network congestion leading to the students not being able to check in/check out resources via the system but this occurs only for a short/negligible period of time as compared to the time taken when the system is working.

2.3 System development approaches

There are various models that can be used to develop a system. These are:-

The waterfall model Spiral model Incremental model Hybrid models

The waterfall model

This presents the process activities as separate phases such as requirements specification, software design, testing, implementation, maintenance and so on (Sommerville, 2004). This model shows a breakdown of stages but each stage may have a different name as compared to a name of the same stage in another project (Weaver, 2004). The products of each stage are inspected and if acceptable, the next 8

stage begins. Errors in the course of the project are corrected and the development goes on.

The Spiral model

In this model, the requirements are not accurately known and therefore it is not easy to come up with a solution to a problem. The activities of specification, verification, validation, and implementation are interleaved. The customer then brings in his/her input by testing and either agreeing/disagreeing a prototype that is built. If the user disagrees, another prototype is built and tested hence the cycle continues until a solution is found. This model is illustrated in Figure 1.

Figure 1: The Spiral Model5 Incremental model

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In this, each phase is run as a mini-project but all phases are executed upon a common set of requirements and design. Later phases will lead to some work done in the earlier phases being repeated. The incremental model will perform in the best way if the requirements are clear and also to some extent stable. There will be a lot of work repeated in subsequent stages or at each increment if the requirements are unclear. This model can be used to meet large project development where development could take a long time.

Hybrid model

This is where both waterfall and spiral models are mixed to come up with a system. They both work well and involve demonstration of traditional and formal life cycle models and efficient system development (Weaver, 2004). Examples of hybrid models are the Spiral design model and the Spiral GUI (Graphical User Interface) model. In the Spiral design model requirements are gathered using the waterfall model at an earlier stage and this is followed by design and construction using the spiral model.

In the Spiral GUI model, the waterfall model is used throughout with an incorporation of the spiral model at the Graphical User Interface delivery stage only. A GUI prototype is created and tested by the user until the right GUI for the user is created. This GUI should be usable and attractive.

3.0 METHODOLOGY
The waterfall model is to be used to develop the library management system. This is one of the earliest models of developing a system. It does not rush into satisfying the user’s needs immediately and this has been seen as one of its drawbacks (Center for Technology in Government University of Albany/SUNY, 1998). However, it is still used to date because it provides a good ground for project planning and control. Documentation is made or produced at each phase and quality

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assurance together with sign-offs are done. It is mostly used when the user requirements are clear and stable. The model comprises of the following steps:-

System Conceptualisation

This refers to the determination of all aspects of a business with an aim of getting to know how they relate to each other (Center for Technology in Government University of Albany/SUNY, 1998).

System Analysis

This is whereby requirements are gathered with a goal of accommodating them correctly and accurately in the system (Center for Technology in Government University of Albany/SUNY, 1998). The requirements have to be understood well by both the developer and the user. If new requirements are discovered later in the design stage, the reworking will be done at that stage (Yeates & Wakefield, 2004). The system’s services and constraints are identified and a requirements specification document is produced.

System Design

This involves structuring the system or coming up with a design of how the system is to be created. The flow of processes within the system is analysed together with the design of the GUI (Center for Technology in Government University of Albany/SUNY, 1998). The critical and important software system abstractions are identified and written down. Developers and designers plan for the solution with the requirements in hand (Wikipedia, 2011.)8 Issues such as reliability, reusability, compatibility, maintainability, robustness, security and others are looked into keenly in this stage.

Coding

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The products from the design stage such as the physical design document are now translated to machine readable code. The creation of the system software is now implemented. This is also known as the programming or implementation stage.

Testing

Testing is performed to ensure that the system meets the customer’s requirements. The modules are integrated together to form one complete system which is then handed to the user after proper testing has been done.

Figure 2 represents a typical waterfall model.

Figure 2: The Waterfall Model13 3.1 Collection of facts and data

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The requirements for the library management system will be collected using the following methods:-

Interviews

These will be open ended interviews where a range of issues will be discussed with the end user. The questions to be used will be open questions to help in soliciting for all information required. Probing questions will also be used to obtain more details concerning the system where necessary.

Use cases

This is whereby diagrams will be used to explain to the user how processes will be done using the system. They will show the different types of interaction and the actors involved in the system.

Observation

This is a technique that shall provide clues as to why errors and mistakes are made which lead to the system failing to meet the required functioning. These observations are made during the visits made to the client when working (Yeates & Wakefield, 2004).

Document analysis

This is whereby various documents are checked or scanned through to identify their importance and contribution to the current system. It also enables the developer 13

to identify any faults with the documents, establish whether the documents are usually used or bypassed, and the reasons behind that (Yeates & Wakefield, 2004).

3.2 Analysis of data

Several methods will be used in analysis of the collected data. These are entity relationship diagrams, data flow diagrams, and context diagrams. Entity relationship diagrams are used to produce abstract representations of data. This will help in creating a conceptual schema of the relational database that will be used by the library (Wikipedia, 2011)9. They are diagrams that show the entities and their relationships to each other. Data flow diagrams are a pictorial way of documenting the processing that takes place in current and old systems (Yeates & Wakefield, 2004).

They show how data flows within and out of the system. They are usually understood by the user in a better way as compared to text that has been written down to describe data flow in the system. Data flows from external entities, enters the system, moves from one process to another and may be stored within the system (Webopedia, 2011)7. The squares in a data flow diagram represent external entities which represent where the data originates and the final destination of the data.

The rectangles represent processes which receive data, process it and give an output. Arrows represent the flow of data while open ended rectangles represent the repositories of data. An example of a data flow diagram is shown in the figure 3.

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Figure 3: Data Flow Diagram12

3.3 Tools

The following tools are to be used in the implementation and testing of the system.

• • • •

Net Beans Integrated Development Environment Version 7.0.1 Java, jdk-7-windows-i586.exe (Java Development Kit Version 7) MySQL 5.5.8 MySQL Workbench 5.2 Notepad editor 15

Software Ideas Modeler Version 4.103

3.4 Testing The following types of testing shall be carried out. Unit testing/Component testing This is whereby specific sections of code are tested to check their functionality. The programs or modules have functions which are supplied with test data and called to produce a required feedback (Wikipedia, 2012)16. Integration testing This happens by testing the interaction between the different modules that are dependent on each other and whether it takes place within the allocated or estimated time. It also checks whether feedbacks between the modules are executed correctly after inputs or test data is exchanged (Yeates & Wakefield, 2004). System testing This involves testing of the whole system. The developer does this before he/she receives an acceptance from the client. Test data is input by the client and the results examined to check whether they have met the expectations (Yeates & Wakefield, 2004). 3.5 Time schedule The following Gantt chart shows the schedule OOCT N 217-21 18 N M 18-23 D M 2-23

MAR MAR 26 28

TASKS ID WORK 10 A 1 DAYS 20 B 2 DAYS 110 C 3 DAYS 80 D 4 DAYS E 5 1 DAY

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F G H 3.6 Tasks

6 1 DAY 7 1 DAY 8 1 DAY Figure 4: Gantt Chart/Time Schedule

A. Inception and Planning

B. Requirements and Analysis

C. Design

D. Coding

E. Testing

F. Training

G. Documentation

H. Installation

The days in the time schedule/Gantt chart are working days. Weekends are excluded.

3.7 Deliverables

Project Proposal

Requirements Specification

Executable Code 17

User Manual

3.8 Milestones

Requirements Specification Complete

18th November 2011

Working System

26th March 2012

Final Report

5th April 2012

3.9 Budget

It is estimated that the following costs will be incurred.

a. 1 Desktop Personal Computer

Ksh.30000

b. Labelling of Books

Ksh.500

c. Telephone charges

Ksh.1400

d. Printing Costs

Ksh.600

e. Binding

Ksh.100 18

f. Photocopying Costs

Ksh.200

g. Miscellaneous

Ksh.500

4.0 REFERENCES

1. MOH, Kenya and AMREF (1994). BASIC HEALTH LIBRARIES: An Information Management Handbook. Nairobi: AMREF.

Ahmad, P & Yaseen, M (2009). The Role of the Library and Information Science Professionals As Managers: A Comparative Analysis. Electronic Journal of Academic and Special Librarianship, 10, (3). Retrieved from http://flash1r.apa.org/apastyle/basics/index.htm

2. Sommerville, I (2004). Software Engineering 7. England: Pearson Education Limited.

3. Weaver, P (2004). Success in your project: A guide to student system development projects. England: Pearson Education Limited. 19

4. Retrieved October 18,2011 from http://users.dickinson.edu/~wahlst/491/lectures/process/spiral.jpg

5. Center for Technology in Government University of Albany/SUNY (1998). A Survey of System Development Process Models, Models for Action Project: Developing Practical Approaches to Electronic Records Management and Preservation. Retrieved from http://www.ctg.albany.edu/publications/reports/survey_of_sysdev/survey_of _sysdev.pdf

6. Yeates, D & Wakefield, T (2004). Systems Analysis and Design (2nd Edition). England: Pearson Education Limited.

7. Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia (2011). Retrieved October 18, 2011 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waterfall_model

8. Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia (2011). Retrieved October 21, 2011 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Entity-relationship_model

9. WebopediaTM (2011), Retrieved October 21,2011 from http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/E/entity_relationship_diagram.html

10.

Ambler, S (2009). Data Flow Diagrams (DFDs) Retrieved October

21, 2011 from http://www.agilemodeling.com/artifacts/dataFlowDiagram.htm

11.

Retrieved October 21, 2011 from

http://wc1.smartdraw.com/resources/tutorials/images/ssadmdfdexample.gif

12.

Retrieved October 18, 2011 from http://www.waterfall-

model.com/waterfall-model/

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13.

Taylor, A.G (2004). The Organisation of Information (2nd Edition).

Westport, Connecticut: Libraries Unlimited.

14.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia (2011). Retrieved January 9, 2012

from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Integrated_library_system

15.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia (2011). Retrieved January 27,

2012 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Software_testing#Testing_methods

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