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Prepared by : Karim Sami Mohamed Mahmoud
Supervisor: Professor Dr. Osama Mounir Date : October 2012
Helwan University – Faculty of Engineering – class 2012-2013 Master Degree preparation year
Contents 1.3 Electron Microscopy A.2 X-ray diffraction analysis 4. 2. 4. Transmission Electron Microscopes B. Compound microscope 4. 3. Scanning Electron Microscopes 2 . Single lens (simple) microscope B. Objective scope Introduction Types of microscopes: 4.1 Light microscopy A.
From here it is essential to start by the size of the crystal structure. The types used will be of the same order of magnitude of the structure to be studied. It will be of no great use to use unsuitable microscope . 3 . Scope This report will describe briefly few of the microscopes used in the field of metallurgy engineering and will describe only the limitation of use or the working range giving quick description of the theory ofoperation. Introduction As the microstructure of material is very important in determining the properties of a material and studying the behavior of material during processes and working . This report does not discuss in complex details of design of the types used but gives a brief over view of the theory of operation. and the electron microscope. 2.Objective The objective of this report is to provide some information on the types of microscopes used to investigate the structure of material. The method to be used should be suitable to the order of magnitude of the required view or display. which depends on the atom size. X-ray diffraction microscope. the atom size is determined by its radius. The report will discuss the light microscope. The start will be determining the order of magnitude of the atom. not providing clear image of the required part.1. Not all types of microscopes will be discussed but the most popular ones. then it is required to find a method to enable researcher and students to see and analyze the material structure in a clear resolution and magnification . 3.
also as we move down the table the atomic radius increases.Definition : The atomic radius of a chemical element is a measure of the size of its atoms. it can be seen that as we move to the left atomic radius increases. Fig 1-1 periodic table showing how atom size change Fig 1-2 shows a schematic drawing showing the size variation among the different element in the periodic table. usually the mean or typical distance from the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of electrons The arrangement of the materials in the periodic table shows us the variation in atomic size of element. see fig 1-1. 4 .
000. Pouring a molten metal into a metal mold with enhanced cooling produces finer grains. A molten metal is poured into a sand mold and allowed to air cool slowly will result in the production of coarse grains.000 picometre (pm) 1m = 1.000.000.000.Fig 1-2 atom size variation in periodic table The atomic radius of some elements are shown in table 1-1 Table 1-1 atomic radius for some elements in picometre Element Helium (He) Calcium (Ca) Silver (Ag) Sodium (Na) 1 m = 1.000.000 nanometer (nm) Atomic radius (picometre) 31 pm 197 pm 144 pm 190 pm Grains The microstructure of metals and many other solids consists of grains. Introducing forced circulation of water /oil in the metal mold produces even finer grain 5 .
In a given microscope. which can indicate that the method used to examine the atomic structure is different from that examining the grains . the human eye has a resolution of about 0. the modest magnification produced by a light stereomicroscope can be sufficient to solve a problem.structures. the microscopist attaches more importance to resolution than magnification – that is. The resolution is a function of wave length. The magnification of the image produced by an electron microscope can be extremely high. Is it more important the resolution or the magnification? The microscope. in its various forms. increasing the magnification beyond a certain limit will fail to reveal further structural detail. however. on occasion. about 200 and 0.5 nm. In practical terms. Unaided. Fig 1-3 schematic drawing showing atoms arranged in a crystal lattice inside the grain boundaries Fig 1-3 schematic drawing of grains The order of magnitude of atoms in a single grain is in the order of 1018 atoms. respectively. the ability of the microscope to distinguish fine detail. such magnification is said to be ‘empty’.1 mm: resolution of light microscopes and electron microscopes are. 6 . is the principal tool of the materials scientist.
a basic single lens microscope. A magnifying glass is. In general.Types of microscopes: 4.4. The vast majority of modern research microscopes are compound microscopes while some cheaper commercial digital microscopes are simple single lens microscopes.1 Light microscopy The light microscope provides two-dimensional representation of structure over a total magnification range of roughly ×40 to ×1250 Examination will reveal structural features such as shrinkage or gas porosity. to focus at different focal depths the lens to sample distance is adjusted. Most modern research microscopes also have a separate set of optics for illuminating the sample. cracks and inclusions of foreign matter Fig 1-4 light microscope There are two basic configurations of the conventional optical microscope: the simple (single lens) and the compound (many lenses). 7 . and to get a wider or narrower field of view a different magnification objective lens must be used. microscope optics are static. in essence.
such as the magnifying glass and the loupe. such as phase contrast Fig 1-5 Optical path in a typical microscope 8 . single converging lens mounted on a brass plate. The main advantages of multiple lenses are improved numerical aperture. Compound microscopes are heavier. Van Leeuwenhoek's microscopes consisted of a small. larger and more expensive than simple microscopes due to the increased number of lenses used in construction. A compound microscope also makes more advanced illumination setups. Compound microscope A compound microscope is a microscope which uses multiple lenses to collect light from the sample and then a separate set of lenses to focus the light into the eye or camera. Though now considered primitive. with a screw mechanism to hold the sample or specimen to be examined.A. Demonstrations by British microscopist have images from such basic instruments. reduced chromatic aberration and exchangeable objective lenses to adjust the magnification. Single lens (simple) microscope A simple microscope is a microscope that uses only one lens for magnification. the use of a single. and is the original design of light microscope. convex lens for viewing is still found in simple magnification devices. B.
but also other details such as the arrangement of different kinds of atoms in crystals. These rays are produced when a metal target is bombarded with fast electrons in a vacuum tube. the size and density of precipitates. the lattice parameter and type of structure. a continuous spectrum which is spread over a wide range of wavelengths and a superimposed line spectrum characteristic of the metal being bombarded. The use of diffraction methods is of great importance in the analysis of crystalline solids. especially minerals and alloys. as the continuous spectrum is called. From this electron density. the orientation. The characteristic radiation is produced 9 . in which a beam of X-rays strikes a crystal and causes the beam of light to spread into many specific directions. increases as the atomic number of the target and approximately as the square of the applied voltage. the mean positions of the atoms in the crystal can be determined. i. the presence of imperfections. Not only can they reveal the main features of the structure. From the angles and intensities of these diffracted beams. the lengths and types of chemical bonds. a crystallographer can produce a three-dimensional picture of the density of electrons within the crystal. as well as their chemical bonds.4. The radiation emitted can be separated into two components. while the characteristic radiation is excited only when a certain critical voltage is exceeded. and the atomic-scale differences among various materials. X-rays are a form of electromagnetic radiation differing from light waves (λ=400–800 nm) in that they have a shorter wavelength (λ≈0. sub-grain and grain size. X-ray crystallography has been fundamental in the development of many scientific fields.2 X-ray diffraction analysis X-ray crystallography is a method of determining the arrangement of atoms within a crystal. their disorder and various other information.1 nm). This method determined the size of atoms.e. The energy of the ‘white’ radiation.
which consist of a coil of wire wrapped around the outside of a tube. but rather than photons or particles of light. for example) from its shell. and during the transition an emission of X-radiation takes place. the use of coiled electromagnets instead of glass lenses. Fig 1-6 Workflow for solving the structure of a molecule by X-ray crystallography. The vacant 1s-level is then occupied by one of the other electrons from a higher energy level. commonly referred to as a solenoid. charged particles located on the outside of atoms.3 Electron Microscopy An EM is a microscope that focuses beams of energetic electrons to examine objects up to nano-scales. the use of a thermionic gun as an electron source and the image or electron micrograph is viewed on a screen rather than an eyepiece. All EMs use electromagnetic and/or electrostatic lenses.when the accelerated electrons have sufficient energy to eject one of the inner electrons (1s-level. 4. onto an object. concentrate electrons. They utilize the same principles behind an optical microscope. Additional differences include preparation of specimens before being placed in the vacuum chamber. 10 .
the coils in an EM bend the electron beams to create an image. 11 . the first type of EM. The following gives you a description of two types of EMs. the image is magnified and focused onto an imaging device. capable of producing images 1 nanometer in size. is directed down the column and onto the sample. The 2-d. interacting with the specimen as it passes through.the Transmission (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscope(SEM). once they pass through the sample (transmission). has many commonalities with the optical microscope and is a powerful microscope. with the aid of the thermionic electron gun. They require high voltages to increase the acceleration speed of electrons. A. black and white images produced by TEMs can be seen on a screen or printed onto a photographic plate. EMs use digital displays. on a layer of photographic film. software for image analysis and a low vacuum or variable pressure chamber. computer interfaces. which upholds the pressure differential between the high vacuum levels essential to the gun and column area and the low pressure required in the chamber. In this microscope. images are produced from the interaction between the prepared samples in the vacuum chamber and energetic electrons. The electron beam passes through one or more solenoids and. TEM technique : a beam of electrons is transmitted through an ultra thin specimen.In addition. which. or to be detected by a sensor such as a CCD camera. Transmission Electron Microscopes The transmission electron microscope (TEM). increase the image resolution. An image is formed from the interaction of the electrons transmitted through the specimen. Equivalent to the magnification that occurs from light refraction in an optical microscope. such as a fluorescent screen.
owing to the small de Broglie wavelength of electrons. 12 . and semiconductor research. virology. This enables the instrument's user to examine fine detail—even as small as a single column of atoms. TEM forms a major analysis method in a range of scientific fields. TEMs find application in cancer research. illustrating electron extraction B. which is tens of thousands times smaller than the smallest resolvable object in a light microscope. SEMs are primarily used to obtain topographical information.TEMs are capable of imaging at a significantly higher resolution than light microscopes. black and white 3D images. they produce high-resolution. materials science as well as pollution. nanotechnology. Although SEMs are approximately 10 times less powerful than TEMs. Scanning Electron Microscopes Reflecting light microscopes are the optical counterpart to scanning electron microscopes (SEM) and produce similar data. systematically scanning the surface. sharp. in both physical and biological sciences. a series of solenoids pulls the beam back and forth across the sample. Fig 1-7 Cross sectional diagram of an electron gun assembly. In this type of EM. it detects secondary electrons emitted from the surface and produces an image.
Controlled via computer. increasing/decreasing the speed in which the electrons come in contact with the specimen surface. SEM begins with an electron gun generating a beam of energetic electrons down the column and onto a series of electromagnetic lenses. The coils are adjusted to focus the incident electron beam onto the sample. the SEM operator can adjust the beam to control magnification as well as determine the surface area to be scanned. these adjustments cause fluctuations in the voltage. These lenses are tubes. 13 .The primary advantage of Electron Microscopy is its powerful magnification. wrapped in coil and referred to as solenoids.
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