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By request of the Foundation: “Archaeological Park: Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun”.
Nov. 2012, by UNI.DIPL.CONS. dr. Riccardo L. Brett.
Introduction, page 3 1. The Excavation program, page 4 2. Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun, page 7 3. Underground Prehistoric Labyrinth Complex “Ravne”, page 28. 4. Bosnian Pyramid of the Moon, page 42. 5. Pyramid of the Bosnian Dragon, page 48. 6. Tumulus Vratnica, page 52. 7. Temple of Mother Earth, page 53. 8. Pyramid of Love, page 62. 9. Survey of additional sites of interest: Vis and Ginje, page 66. 10. Organic Dating Report and Reconstruction Hypothesis, page 71. 11. Conclusions, page 73. 12. Special Thanks and Credits, page 79.
INTRODUCTION. The aim of the following report is to give a detailed description of the work conducted during this Summer 2012 on the archaeological sites supervisioned by the “Archaeological Park: Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun” Foundation. The report will be divided in chapters giving a time line for each site examined during the excavations and the surveys of these areas. Following there will be a chapter taking in exam possible new hypothesis that have arose during the past months concerning both the anthropological and the archaeological aspects of the project. The work conducted interested all the sites of the Bosnian Valley of the Pyramids, continuing work on sites from previous years and opening new trenches on both well examined structures and on other structures never explored before. Also additional survey of areas nearby the main sites have given us the chance to disclose new information and widen our understanding of the history of this mysterious and still much unexplored valley. The main objectives of this Summer were to: 1- Understand and discover more about these structures functionality and history. 2- Research the traces and the legacy of the civilization that lived here. 3- Widen existing trenches and open new ones, in order to expand our knowledge of these areas. 4- Continue the work inside the site of the Ravne tunnels, working our way towards the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun and discovering more about the unknown origin of this underground labyrinth. 5- Collect new data from artifacts and organic material to date and frame an idea of where in time are the roots of this wisdom we are confronting ourselves with and where does, can and should this new awareness arrive to. As many questions remain unanswered and many puzzles are still unsolved, I feel we have accomplished a lot during these months and my personal thanks go to dr. Semir Osmanagić, the Foundation, its workers and guest researchers, and to all the MRAV volunteers with whom I had both the opportunity and the honor to work during this summer.
(UNI.DIPL.CONS.) dr. Riccardo L. Brett.
1. THE EXCAVATION PROGRAMME. In May 2012 a detailed program of research had been handed out and approved: during the months of the MRAV Summer Camp 2012 the project proposal has been filled out completely and improved with additional probes and surveys. Following is a general monthly overview of the sites interested, afterward we will examine in detail every excavation area on which work and research has been conducted. JUNE (Total active sites: 20): 1. Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun: - touristic infrastructure repairing. - clearing of past years trenches: 4A, 4B, 5, 10, 12A, 12B, 13, NE.2. - expanding of trenches number: 4A, 4B, 12B, NE.2., SE.1 “Crvena Zemlja” 2. Bosnian Pyramid of the Moon: - touristic infrastructure repairing - clearing of past years trenches: 1, 12, 4, 19, 20. - new trench opened and completed: Sonda JUG (J1, J2, J3). 3. Pyramid of the Bosnian Dragon: - opening of new trench: D1. 4. Underground Labyrinth Ravne: - Opening of tunnel between Water tunnel left (WTL) and Water tunnel right (WTR). - Discovery of additional 150m in WTL. 5. Tumulus of Vratnica: - clearing and probe excavation of possible tunnel entrance. JULY (Total active sites: 15) 1. Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun: - expanding of trenches number: 5A, 10, 12B, SE.1 “Crvena Zemlja”. - new trench opening: NE.3A, NE.3B. 2. Pyramid of the Bosnian Dragon: - expanding of trench: D1. - opening new trenches: D2, D3. 3. Underground Labyrinth Ravne: - continuation of tunnel between Water tunnel left (WTL) and Water tunnel right (WTR). - work on possible structure beneath the Ravne floor. 4. Temple of Mother Earth: - opening of new trench: ME.1A. 5. Neolithic site of Vis: - survey and probe clearing of sites V1, V2, V3. 4
AUGUST (Total active sites: 15) 1. Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun: - expanding of trenches number: 5B, 12B, NE.3A, NE.3B, 13. - new trench opening number: NE.3C, NE.3D, 12C. 2. Pyramid of the Bosnian Dragon: - expanding of trenches number: D3. - new trench opening number: D4. 3. Underground Labyrinth Ravne: - continuation of tunnel between Water tunnel left (WTL) and Water tunnel right (WTR). - discovery of new small empty side tunnel. 4. Temple of Mother Earth: - new trench opening: ME.2 “Neolithic Settlement”. 5. Neolithic site of Vis: - survey and probe clearing of sites V1, V2. - discovery of tunnel named Vis - tunnel 1. 6. Tumulus of Ginje: - survey and measurements of alignments SEPTEMBER (Total active sites: 10): 1. Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun: - expanding of trenches number: 5, 12B, 12C, NE.3C, NE.3D. 2. Temple of Mother Earth: - clearing of trench number: ME.2 - additional survey and location of ME.3 “Tower”. 3. Underground Labyrinth Ravne: - continuation of tunnel between Water tunnel left (WTL) and Water tunnel right (WTR). 4. Pyramid of Love: - survey and opening of trench 1-Love. - excavation of site named: “Crack”. Total sites on which excavation and / or survey has been carried on during summer 2012: 40 sites. We will now take in exam every step for each of the above mentioned sites, completed with photos and additional information about the artifacts and the organic samples found. Hypothetical theories will also be taken note of and examined in detail in Chapter 10. Final hypothesis conclusions will be discussed in Chapter 11. For all bibliography and credits, see chapter 12.
MAP OF THE EXCAVATIONS.
MAP 1: General overview of the locations where excavations have been conducted. 6
2. BOSNIAN PYRAMID OF THE SUN. MAP OF EXCAVATION.
MAP 2: Location of the main sites on the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun.
2.1 BOSNIAN PYRAMID OF THE SUN: JUNE. After visiting all sites at the beginning of the month with dr. Semir Osmanagić (Principal Investigator), Admir Tatar (Field Supervisor) and Amir Suša (Foundation worker), we chose which areas to begin work with and where to start the summer activities from. The first work was to fix the stairs after the winter season and then focus on the cleaning of all archaeological sites on the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun. Afterward, the work concentrated on the enlarging of trenches number 4A and 4B, the deepening and widening of trench 12B and ultimately the re-opening of two older excavations: the North East corner above the pine trees line, renamed NE.2, and the site near the South-East corner, known with the name of “Crvena Zemljia” and renamed SE.1. 7
Trenches 4A and 4B (photo 1 and 2). After the cleaning process to remove debris and mud from the previous months' rain and snow, the team employed on 4A started widening this section towards West. During June, the site has been widen for a total of 2m in length The definition line and sediment followed has been that of the concrete blocks: exposure of which shows how they continue regularly in this section. Also, many crumbled blocks have been found above this level and in the clay layers, making us hypothesize the possibility of a major land slide (of which we will find trace on almost all areas at this height).
Photo 1: Trench 4A cleared and made wider on its right part.
Photo 2: Trench 4B enlarged in its higher section.
Photo 3, 3B: Two examples of cracks through the blocks radically different. The first series shows straight lines, the second one a missing match between the two blocks. During the excavation, at a depth of 75cm from the top layer and just above the concrete blocks, the 6th June, the team lead by dr. Niccolò Bisconti encountered a layer of organic material (photo 4). This material was therefore sampled and sent for testing at the radio carbon dating laboratory of Kiev. The results were made public the 7th of September during the Hidden History Conference in Visoko: the sample tested gave us a result datable around 24.000 years BP. The implications of these results will be discussed further in detail in chapter 11. Concerning trench 4B, no major work was possible because of the hazardous state of conservation of this site after it was used as quarry for building materials during the past deacay. Nevertheless, we manage to wide the top section of about 2 x 1,5m, exposing more areas of the concrete blocks.
Photo 4: The organic sample from trench 4A before being removed.
Trench 12B (photo 5, 6). This excavation was stared in august 2011, 5 meters below trench 12A. The reason this location was chosen is because of the possible existence, 7 meters from the top, of a tunnel passage way: the underground anomaly was found in 2007 and it is meant to extend for many meters towards the top. The plan is therefore to expand and continue going deeper in order to reach this alleged tunnel. At the beginning or June 2012, trench 12B was 3,5 deep. At the end of June, after removing some 0.50x2m big blocks and part of the clay layers beneath, the depth was then of 4metres (photo 7).
Photo 5: Trench 12B before work started.
Photo 6: Trench 12B after 3 days of excavation.
Photo 7: Trench 12B, the first block has been manually removed. 10
One thing that stands out at trench 12B is the lack of conglomerate, instead what one can see is a very deep wall of clay layers that ends on concrete-sandstone blocks, which are then followed again by hard clay layers and other blocks. Taken in consideration this strange occurrence, we decided to move briefly to trench 12A (where no clay covers the blocks) and open at the side a small probe, in order to see if and at what depth the conglomerate would appear. As expected, at only 15cm from the top forest ground, we found the first layers (photo 8).
Photo 8: Trench 12A, the layers of concrete exposed. This tells us 3 things: – – – that at some time from the height line of the area of trench 12A there had been a landslide. that this land slide interested all areas beneath this line, as it is visible on trenches 4A, 4B, 5, 10 and 12B. that for some reason (water/weight?) the land slide that effected 12B was so strong to literally “brushed away” the conglomerate blocks: in fact the clay layer wall we find here is much deeper and therefore heavier.
The conclusions will be drawn during chapter 11 while discussing the building theories and the water erosion and earthquakes in the area. Work on trench 12B continued with constant progress for all summer arriving to a total depth of 4.5m. Unfortunately the presence of other massive sandstone blocks is slowing down the work: at the present moment all we can do is widen beneath the first blocks encountered, digging trough the clay, hoping to eventually removed the first blocks by “cutting them off”. This will allow us to have a wider space to work in and consequentially we will be able to continue breaking through the blocks: 1,5/2m below we should then hit into the ceiling of the tunnel.
Trench NE.2 (photo 9). This area was excavated back in 2007, then eventually abandoned. But the site, although 5 years later its conditions are quite bad, still exposes a very interesting example of a quite precise and preserved section of the North - East corner.
Photo 9: Trench NE2 at its first excavation. We decided therefore to expand the area to see if more of it could be exposed. Not much work was needed: after realizing it was almost impossible to continue downwards the trench because of the pine tree roots, we decided to expand upwards and towards East. The small 1,5x1,5m area revealed, after one week of work, that there is a presence of conglomerate material, although very ruined by the vegetation and thousands of years of atmospheric exposure (photo 10).
Photo 10: The concrete material found while digging on the higher section of NE2.
Anyways, it was worth excavating as it proves that the conglomerate reaches all the way also at this height. If work will resume, it would be interesting to analyze an area 5m above on the same line, searching for a spot without too much vegetation. 12
Trench SE.1 “Crvena Zemlja” (photo 11). This is a very particular site as we do not find any evidence of conglomerate and this could confirm once again that the reason why the South side of the structure is not regular is that either it has been effected by major landslides, or it was actually intended to have the sort of round shape that is nowadays visible. It is very difficult to have a clear idea here and also because of the unusual presence of granitic rock (part of the building material?) which is not found anywhere else and because of the clay layers and the massive sandstone blocks which are laid like nowhere else on the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun. After clearing the vegetation and excavating downwards revealing what appears to be a major collapsed area, we concentrated in digging horizontally trying to reach what the reading gave us to be a water passage and therefore a possible tunnel. Work was eventually halted after one month in this site as progress was good but the depth of this excavation (2,5 meters) requires safekeeping protections and reinforcements to avoid land slides before excavation can resume.
Photo 11: Work in progress on trench SE1 “Crvena Zemlja”.
2.2 BOSNIAN PYRAMID OF THE SUN: JULY. Trench NE.3A and NE.3B. Area NE.3 is located at about 50m from the top of the Visočica, on the North East corner facing the valley of Visoko. The features of this site that attracted our attention were the evident line of walls on the Eastern side and the shape of an U that the corner had in this area. The initial hypothesis was that of a drainage system from the Stari Grad above built over a much more ancient corner structure made of concrete. Our hypothesis was to be both confirmed and surprisingly developed during the 2 months of excavation that followed. After clearing all the vegetation for a total area spreading on 30x7m going upwards towards the top, we chose two main areas to start with (Photo 12).
Photo 12: View of entire section NE.3. NE.3A is the lower site, a few meters above where the wall structure seems to end, in order to avoid possible collapsed material and manage anyway to investigate the loWest section. After removing the first 20/30cm of soil and humus for a total of a trench 2x3.5m, we encountered the first filling and collapsed material. This is to say an enormous quantity of stones, ceramics and bones spread chaotically in the entire section (Photo 13). After the first month of excavation, we reached a depth of 1,80m and we finally encountered the first presence of concrete material which gave us a matrix limit to follow. We assumed that the same level would appear also in the higher section (Photo 14). 14
Photo 13: Example of one of the many fragments found during excvation of NE.3.
Photo 14: NE.3B after the first 2 weeks of work, size: 2x3.5m, depth: 1.50m.
NE.3B was excavated at the same time by a second team. This site expands underneath one of the recent walls. The wall on the Eastern side evidently mixes with concrete-sandstone layers after just some 40/50 cm from the top: it becomes clear that some earlier phase re-used a structure unfortunately not datable that pre-existed beneath (Photo 15).
Photo 15: The wall on the Eastern side, the stone building mixes with the concrete material below. The work carried on mainly on the Eastern wall and in the internal part of the trench, until we reached a depth of about 1.50m. The filling material was mainly made of stone, ceramics and parts of animal bones just like on NE.3A, but in a higher concentration. At the lower level we retrieved also possibly Butmir culture related black ceramics (of which we will speak in detail further on). At this depth, as we had previously presumed, we also encountered again the concrete material which appeared to be in better conditions than the site below and where the corner shape was much more evident. The final shape we obtained, after removing the ruble, was that of a U, whose center came slightly upwards showing us the corner (Photo 16).
The preliminary conclusions were that: 1- The site had at least 3 periods of occupation: a. Prehistoric / Neolithic: period in which the corner was built, followed by occupation by local settlers after the first ones had abandoned the site (the Butmir ceramics is present on a layer that, by following the deposit pattern, does not seem to be in direct connection with the concrete slaps below it. Therefore we assume it is later). b. Possibly Roman: during the III century AD it is well documented the presence of roman settlements and the strategical point this corner represents could justify the presence of a military occupation (see also about this Chapter 7, Temple of Mother Earth). c. Medieval: following the fire that destroyed the Stari Grad after the Turkish invasion of the XV century, most of the building collapsed and this could explain the enormous amount of red pottery and brick found on the upper layers.
Photo 16: Inside trench NE.3B, once removed the material above, the original blocks forming the corner become visible. 2- The deposition of more than 7-9000 years of material in just 1,50m is due to the high elevation of the site and the less vegetation surrounding it. This also tells us, by comparison, that those last 20/30cm between the Prehistoric layer and the concrete could give us a gap of thousands of years (Photo 17).
Photo 17: NE.3B at the end of July, the structure on the Eastern side is finally made visible. The black material on the right handside of the picture is the filling-up material we have extracted. Trench 5A (Photo 18). After leaving trenches 4A and 4B, in July we moved to trench 5A. The same procedure was followed as the main intention was to expose more evidence of the concrete blocks. During this month, 5A was expanded in its top section for a total of 2x7 meters Another trunk was also dug around, showing once again how the roots were unable to dig through this extremely hard material.
Photo 18: work in progress on trench 5.
Trench 10 (Photo 19). Same process as on trenches 4 and 5: after removing the vegetation we uncovered a new area, doubling the original size of this trench from 3x8 meters to 6x8 meters The concrete exposed is in very good conditions and does not seem to have been effected by landslides. It would be interesting to connect trench 10 and trench 12B, as they are at a similar height (trench 10 is just about 2 meters lower) and this would enable us to see how, in a matter of 10 to 15metres distance, the landslide has effected the original conglomerate covering of the structure.
Photo 19: clearing trench 10. Trench 12B and trench SE.1. During July work continued as described before, no major change or major finding (Photo 20). On 12B all energies were spent on removing the massive blocks (some of them in the size of about 160x50x60cm for a weight of about 200Kg).
Photo 20: One of the blocks removed, it is 1,5m long for about 200kg of weight.
On SE.1 instead, after clearing the surrounding area and organizing a disposal area for the material, we concentrated on the excavation of a horizontal tunnel. 19
2.3 BOSNIAN PYRAMID OF THE SUN: AUGUST AND SEPTEMBER. During this period (from 1st August to the 7th of September) some of the sites were abandoned in order to concentrate the work on the sites that appeared to be the most interesting. SE.1 “Crvenza Zemlja” was left and closed for the winter season and, after completing the area of 5A, we carried on the Western part of the same area 5B. Also NE.3 A and B, after securing the area, were closed in advance for the winter season, moving the team to two higher sites: NE.C and D in the same area. NE.3C and NE.3D. These two sites develop at 10 meters and then at 20 meters higher from NE.3B: this finally allowed us to have a clear view of the structure and its features at every 10 meters for a general size of each trench of about 5 meters in length. NE.3C was excavated up to a depth of about 1,5/1,7m at which we found again the concrete material with the same corner shape that we were looking for. At this stage we can conclude that a man-made corner is there, it is visible and further investigations should begin from this area (Photo 21).
Photo 21: NE.3C confirming for the 3rd time the presence of conglomerate blocks beneath the debris. 20
As NE.3C was closed for winter we only started to survey NE.3D, which feature less presence of side walls and could possibly allow us to widen the sides of the corner and expose, during further excavations, all the area of the corner. One more very important detail was also noticed at the first site, NE.3A, which once again confirms the theory of a man-made structure pre-dating even the Neolithic settlement. On the Western side (Photo 22), in fact, the concrete layers are so evidently cut and precisely laid out that only two possibilities are available at this point of research: 1- The concrete layers were placed down after the channel was made on the corner. 2- The layers were cut through which is evidently impossible with Neolithic tools, as we have experimented ourselves that the material is so strong that we could not even scratch its surface. Therefore, whoever built this structure originally was able, thanks to some other currently unknown technique to cut, shape and organize a channel more than 50 meters long made entirely at both sides of hard concrete and stone. Both solutions are possible and should be kept open for discussion as further investigation is necessary, also to discover which were the intentions and the practical advantages that whoever built this structure wanted to achieve through this major work of architecture and engineering.
Photo 22: The concrete slabs overlap until a depth of 1,5m before hitting into the blocks forming the corner. 21
Trench 5B. The work, as mentioned above, moved from 5A to section B. Here, after a massive clearing of the vegetation covering the interested site, we started enlarging the slope towards East, simply following the layer of concrete material. We expanded the site for a total of 7m in length and 3m in width, revealing the continuation of the blocks beneath the 1m of clay layers (Photo 23).
Photo 23: Trench 5B at the beginning of the 7th shift. 22
Trench 12B. The area, after removing another two massive blocks thanks to a pulley, gave us finally the possibility to investigate the following section in detail. Under the first section we found presence of clay and two samples of organic material were extracted (Photo 24).
Photo 24: A sample of the organic material found beneath the concrete blocks. The clay material was, as we have mentioned before, followed by additional concrete-sandstone blocks between which it was possible to see that the crack continued. We sent a sonda camera to inspect and the sides of the blocks appear to become extremely smooth and, after 1 / 1,5m of depth it was still impossible to see an end to the crack. We are now hoping to remove this layer by cutting it directly in smaller blocks so to remove them easily. The distance missing to the underground tunnel should be at this stage of just another meter (Photo 25).
Photo 25: Trench 12B at the end of August, the distance to the tunnel is of only 1 to 2m. Trench 12C. During the same period, towards the end of august, we also opened another site just 10 meters to the West of 12B. According to the readings, there is in fact the possibility of another tunnel, parallel to the one on 12B, running just 4 meters below the surface. The site was opened with minor necessity of clearing vegetation and soil and immediately we found the first clay layers. At the present moment the site features the following measures: 5x3 meters and 1.4m in depth. Trench 13. Another site on the North face where we worked is Trench 13. This area was also excavated during 2007, cleared again in 2010 and re-opened this year. It is very close to the median line of the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun, at an elevation some 20m higher than Trench 12A (from the path was also restored and widen). The interesting features of the site are many: 1- the regularity of the concrete blocks, some almost perfectly squared. 2- the low quantity of deposition, due maybe to a constant flow of water (some kind of water channel seems to spread above and below the site, possibly used also by local lumberjacks). This leads us again to think that the high quantity of clay layers on the sites below is, once again, due to some sort of landslide or water presence in the form, probably of a lake. 24
3- various measurements were conducted here and it appears that underneath the lower part of this section flows a water channel, as demonstrated also by the sudden and evident line of healthy pine trees to the East and to the West of Trench 13. On this site, after major clearing, we proceeded to try to excavate the lower section, but after one week of hard work we were forced to surrender: the material was way to compact and hard for us to possibly break through. This also means that the only solution for those pine trees to be there is that their roots found their way between the cracks that divide the blocks (Photo 26).
Photo 26:In this picture the area where the presence of water was been traced is evidenced in red. The concrete was unfortunately to hard to break through.
Ultimately, I would like to mention the discoveries made by SBRG group presented at the Hidden Conference in September. Quoting the article published on www.bosnian-pyramid.org: Dr. Slobodan Mizdrak, a physicist from Zagabria in Croatia, led a team of experts in April 2012 that carried out measurements of electromagnetic radiation at the top of the Pyramid of the Sun. The two-day experiment consisted of sending EM signals into the top of the pyramid. The results were processed in Vienna, Zagreb, and Belgrade, identifying the exact position of the energy source below the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun, the biggest pyramid in the world. It has been proven that the source of the energy beam which is amplified in the pyramid and exits the top of the pyramid, is situated at a depth of 2440 meters (1.86 miles), with a displacement of 440 meters (0.27 miles) from the central axis of the pyramid.
Analysis has shown that a metallic plate, in combination with negative ions and underground water flow, creates an electric power of more than 10 kilowatts. These results represent a pioneering step in the understanding of the world's oldest documented pyramid.
For further detail and info please visit: www.sbresearchgroup.eu/index.php/it/articoli-scientifici
3. UNDERGROUND PREHISTORIC LABYRINTH COMPLEX “RAVNE”. During the entire Summer season, work was focused on five major aspects or projects inside the Underground Labyrinth of Ravne. 1- The safekeeping of the structure and the clearance of its facilities. 2- The development of a tunnel towards the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun, by clearing out the debris and the filling in material. 3- The excavation of the possible structure discovered in 2011. 4- The investigation of the historical origins of the tunnel. 5- The creation of an exhibition area for the most interesting artifacts found during the excavations since 2006 and a long term storing facility for all other findings. MAP OF EXCAVATION.
MAP 3: Underground complex of the Ravne tunnels in its current length (map by Idriz Balihodzić).
3.1 “RAVNE”: JUNE. Work during the first half of June concentrated in clearing the older sections of the tunnels and starting work on the new section chosen: a filled up tunnel between the left and the right water tunnel discovered in 2010. The direction of this tunnel is towards South-East, so towards the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun. Work continued for all summer season in this area and during June we cleared, enlarged and safen the first 15metres ahead (Photo 27, 28, 29, 30, 31).
Photo 27: The side tunnel where excavation began this year. The original structure and the filling-up material is clearly visible.
Photo 28: work in progress for securing the new area.
Photo 29: The right water tunnel entrance with its original arch shape.
Photo 30: Two strange artifacts found in this period in the new section. Both made of sandstone and very small (5x3cm circa), they fit perfectly one inside the other and were found beside each other near a dry-stone wall. One hypothesis is that of these two objects being a pigment grinding tool.
Photo 31: More traces of claws have been found in the water section. These definitively seem made by some small animal, which make us wonder if it entered from some other entrance ahead of us. 31
Meanwhile, a lot of historical research was conducted, both in local traditions and in bibliographical database. The results obtained and the new information is extremely interesting and, again, it confirms the theory that the Ravne complex leads to the center and beneath the pyramid. It appears that many side tunnels connected to the same system spread and reach out to other small entries, four of which have been found in the vicinity of the main entrance. Also, it seems that Saxon tribes were very active in the valley during roman times and that they were aware of the existence of these tunnels and entrances. The name that was formerly given in those times to the main entrance was “Trivunova Vrela”, which means the Water Spring of Tryphon. Now Tryphon is a common name in the Balkan region, but it is no coincidence, in our opinion, that Tryphon was also the Saint referable as the Orthodox assimilation of god Radgost, that in Slavic mythology can be connected with the Greek Dionysus. So the connection would be very interesting, being Dionysus a deity related to underground cults. Quite probably, but this is just a theory, the male god was therefore connected or it substituted a fertility goddess, a Great Mother, in ancient times and the name survived with its undeniable relation between this water spring and a prehistoric “fountain of life”. The 25th of June, also came a great discovery that changed much of our understanding of the Ravne tunnels and was a huge step ahead in our path towards the pyramid. It was since 2010 that we had noticed that in the left water tunnel section there was the possibility of a continuation free of debris behind the filling up material with which it ended. We took a torch and a camera and we attached them to a long iron support. We pushed through the small space between the material and the ceiling and, with our great surprise, when we looked back at the video we realized that after only 4 meters the tunnel was free and empty again. We immediately started removing the material, crawling in slowly until, after hours of work, we finally managed to break through the new section (Photo 32).
Photo 32: Inside the new section. 150m of tunnels free from debris. 32
This area, with its 150 meters of length, doubled the distance obtained so far. The entire section revealed many details of extreme importance, following is a schematic description with the main important features illustrated. 1- first 20 meters: water is present up to a depth of only 20/30cm so it allows to walk through very easily. Also the ceiling becomes suddenly much higher, to the point that one can almost stand. We did not notice it immediately, but soon after the section we were forced to crawl through, on the right side of the wall we found a small niche evidently dug by hands in which, quite probably, some sort of illumination was placed in. 2- after these first 20 meters with water, the elevation of the pavement is higher and dry and it continues like this, with the same height of about 1,50, for the entire rest of its length. The first thing one encounters after the water area, is a junction, one tunnel leading South and one North (Photo 33).
Photo 33: The opening to the North chamber. North there is a chamber with many dry walls, a side tunnel to the right that leads to another smaller chamber and one other tunnel further ahead to the left that ends after just a few meters with a wall. South direction, instead, is clear and walkable. 3- South tunnel is smaller and not as wide as before. The first thing we noticed was the presence on the floor of two tracks, as if a very small wheelbarrow had been pushed through there (Photo 3 4). The tracks are just 30cm distant one another and deep only a few centimeters (Photo 35). 33
The question that immediately arose was why there were no footprints: taken away the possibility that there were wooden planks to walk on (as the width of the track would not allow enough space), the only other possibility left is the following. Probably, the weight of the “wheelbarrow” was heavier than the people pulling or pushing it and, given the size of the tunnel and the width of the tracks, it must have weighted no more than 60kg. Therefore we can arrive to the conclusion that whoever was in there at the time, was lighter than 60kg. and this could easily fit with the possible height of a person working in a tunnel rarely higher than 1,60m. In other words, we now have a first image of what “they” possibly looked like: small (compared to us) and robust. After all, if we consider the height of doors even up to a century or two ago we can see that people were definitively much smaller than us once upon a time.
Photo 34: The two track lines, the wheelbarrow was very small and full-load we estimate it wouldn't weight more than 60kg.
Photo 35: A close up on one of the tracks (10m ahead from Photo 34). No sign of footprints.
Another important feature we discovered is that of other small niches in the wall which with no doubt held candles or oil-lamps as the top of them still bear the mark of smoke (Photo 36). Possibly connected to this, is the presence near the tracks of small round holes which could either be candle holders too or markings from possible external parts of the wheels of the wheelbarrow (Photo 37).
Photo 36: Traces of smoke from the burning of possible candles or oil-lamps.
Photo 37: Signs possibly left from candles stuck into the clay of the pavement. 35
3- The tunnel, after another 30m, becomes tighter again and there is a very small section, just 3m long, that resembles identically the shape of the U structure we see in the Right Water Tunnel. Here the water is very shallow and muddy, but the sides have been clearly cut into 90° corners. The reason why this area is the only one left to feature this structure is totally unknown. On both sides we can see other dry walls and, after these few meters, we found, covered with sand from a collapse of the ceiling, a monolith. What we have uncovered so far is 50cm long, 40cm wide and 30cm high and it bears on it 8 parallel horizontal line markings and 1 line on the top which is oblique. No explanation yet can be given: maybe it was a measurement or the indication of some point, maybe it is in relation with the U structure just before it. 4- Following we find a room, with one tunnel going to the right and downwards just 2 meters long and one to the left which continues South-East. The air quality and the ventilation starts becoming scarcer here as we have already reached more than 50m deep. Continuing in this direction for another 40/50m we arrive at another junction. One tunnel going North, which opens in a small chamber with 5 sealed tunnels, and the other one going East for 10m, then bending 90° towards South. At this point is where we found the most evident traces of tool carving in the clay strata of the tunnel: groups of 4/5 marks at the time as if a pickaxe had been used. Compering with our modern tools and the carvings that these would leave in clay, we can state that these “pickaxes” were small, fact that again confirms the theory regarding the physical aspect of who was in these tunnels complex in the past (Photo 38, 39).
Photo 38: The marking of tools. Each one is about 5cm long.
Photo 39: More markings on the clay on the sides of the tunnel.
5- The next 10m, down towards South, is were we then worked for a week trying to empty the filling up material that blocked our way and pushing it behind us. Unfortunately, the working conditions were extremely hard and we decided, after managing to move ahead of another 5m, to give up until this entire section is secured and widen (Photo 40).
Photo 40: Where the new section ends with a lot of material sealing the path ahead. After one week of hard work we surrender to wait before resuming, in order to secure the 150m before. One more very important aspect of this entire complex is that it is becoming more and more evident, in my personal opinion, that these tunnels were actually dug and then filled up from the inside and not from the external. This is even more evident when the tool markings are taken in exam: they clearly come from the opposite direction from which we are going. This could also be connected to a local legend which tells of a second opening, far up in the hills, which is half way between Ravne/Trivunova Vrela and the inside of the pyramid, all the way to the top and out of the Stari Grad. This second opening is recorded with the name of “Vilindo”. The etymology of the place again comes in hand as “Vilin” is generally referred to spirits, ferries or nymphs and “Do” refering to a “valley”. Again a connection with mythology, with Paleo-Pagan or even Mithraic cults and again with sacred landscape. Unfortunately, none of the people we have asked about this place seems to know about this location, although some locals told us about possible connections with the area of Banja Ruša, West of the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun. My personal theory is that somebody might have entered from Vilindo and went down towards the main Ravne entrance in the past and then, for reasons unknown, sealed the tunnel on his way back. 37
3.2 “RAVNE”: JULY. During July we had abandoned work in the new section described above and we focused our attention on the tunnel that was been dug meanwhile. After the first 15m, around halfway through the month, we encountered a junction: to our right the tunnel suddenly broke into the Right Water section (creating an interesting “window” for tourists to see the amazing walls that there are in this part of Ravne) and to our left it curved drastically South, bending therefore parallel to the Right Water section (Photo 41). Safekeeping and widening was then the main job undertaken before moving ahead in this direction.
Photo 41: These beautiful sections of the Right water tunnel are know visible thanks to a small “window” made out of a side tunnel. Meanwhile, during the third shift, we decided to work on the supposed “structure” found with a georadar in 2011 under the pavement of the tunnels near the “egg” monolith. The team worked nonstop for more than a week, creating a hole 2x2m at the side of the structure and arriving at a depth of 1,80m. This work also allowed us to discover how the sediments evolve into clay as soon as we go beneath the pavement: no more natural conglomerate therefore, but a completely different and very hard material made mainly of clay. At this point a professional miner was called to come to help with a motor hammer to dig slowly through the hard clay layers. The work was conducted for an entire day and we reached very close to the area where the structure was supposed to be. We tried to go with small probe drillings but we found nothing. Then, just a few days later, while enlarging the section, the entire hole that had been dug got suddenly flooded and we were forced to cover everything up quickly before the water could dangerously invade all the area. The excavation was then abandoned and the common feeling is that the structure was in reality just a mistaken reading of the georadar. 38
3.3 “RAVNE”: AUGUST. In August work continued only in the tunnel between the two water sections, continuing towards South. After another 10m we literally “crushed into” one of the partially empty side tunnels of the Right water tunnel: this in fact runs perpendicular to the direction we were taking. This is also where we found a very interesting 30x40x30cm sandstone monolith which features a clearly manmade vertical carving (Photo 42). Now, in front of us we had two possibilities: the first one to break through the wall in the side tunnel and continue South, the other to follow this same side tunnel, leading us back towards the Left water tunnel.
Photo 42: The above mentioned monolith appears to be actually identical in size and markings to another stone plate found inside the chamber discovered in 2011. It is common opinion by now that this type of samples must be some kind of marking for distances or areas in the tunnel of some unknown particular importance.
We decided at first to try with the wall: once through it, with great surprise, we found a previously unknown parallel side tunnel, filled with little water, which stretched perpendicular to the Right water tunnel. We entered and tried clearing but it was definitively impossible. Then, we found something really incredible: under the water a small rusty oil-lamp was retrieved. We tried investigating and, by method of comparison, it looks like a oil-lamp from the XVII century, but it could easily be much much older. The level of corrosion and the handwork does not suggest to us that it is millenias old, but it could easily also be medieval (Photo 43).
Photo 40: The oil-lamp found inside the partially empty side tunnel. All in all considered, anyway, doesn't the most famous local legend tell us that during the Turkish invasion Queen Katherina escaped through tunnels underneath Stari Grad, went deep through the pyramid and exited 5km away in the Coronation temple of Mile? So maybe the tunnels were known also back then and perhaps some curious local went to explore for treasures inside this caves... maybe, again, entering through Vilindo and, once arrived where we are working now, he abandoned his search finding out that his way was obstructed by tons of filling up material. But this is just theories and the only certainty is that we have no scientific explanation yet, only more and more riddles to solve. 40
Afterward, our work continued following towards East the side tunnel we had previously encountered on our way, in the hope of reaching soon the Left water section in order to create an escape route in the event of a collapse in 150m long empty section. By the end of August we had arrived to empty another 10m towards East, encountering also the continuation of the other side tunnel where we had found the oil-lamp. This is the direction we are now keeping, trying slowly to reach the Left water tunnel. Always in this period, another major finding was retrieved in the filling up material: a very bizarre stone, in the shape of a skull, covered with deposited heavy lime-stone but still filled inside with organic material (Photo 44). Our enthusiasm obviously lead us to call it “stone-skull”, but many further analysis are necessary in order to confirm it is actually a skull and, if it were to turn out to be so, what animal does it belong to and how old it is by Radiocarbon dating. At the present state of research, a sample of the material has been extracted and this is going to be sent to the laboratory for deeper investigation.
Photo 44: The “Stone-skull”, in the possible eye socket the organic material is especially evident.
3.4 “RAVNE”: SEPTEMBER AND OCTOBER. In the last two months, work continued regularly in the direction of the Left water tunnel, reaching the length of 20m and leaving us, therefore, another 15/20m to go before breakthrough. One major work conducted was also the creation of an empty area for exhibition of artifacts. We chose the best site out of many, cleared it and prepared it. A team of carpenters from the volunteers made wooden supports and assembled the shelves for the presentation. As soon as light will be installed in this chamber, the small underground museum will be put together and opened to the public, featuring all the main types and some of the best artifacts found in the last years excavations. Parallel to this, a safe storage area was cleared for all other artifacts to be kept and another small selection of items has been brought to the Foundation Office in Visoko to be visible in glass exposition boxes. The season in Ravne concluded with main infrastructural work of clearing and safening all areas previously excavated. As far it is concern for safety, new underground shelters will be created soon together with new panels indicating exit routes as a new detailed map of the entire complex has already been placed outside the tunnels.
Photo 45: The entrance to the left water tunnel, the answers are finally starting to come. The evidence of the technological and architectural knowledge of the builders of these tunnels is every year more and more undeniable.
4. BOSNIAN PYRAMID OF THE MOON. On the Bosnian Pyramid of the Moon work was conducted only during June, as we then focus our attention on other sites. The first two weeks were used to clean all sites, repair stairs and handrails and improve the conditions of the path. MAP OF EXCAVATION.
MAP 4: Location of the main sites on the Bosnian Pyramid of the Moon. We then chose to open one new excavation site on the South-West corner near trench 8, in the area known as “Zbilje”, not far from the village that nowadays is there. The site was first individuated in 2011: under a isolated patch of deep vegetation, we had noticed some curious crumbled stone walls. Taken in hand the map, it struck us the fact that this site was also perfectly standing on one of the main lines described in the report “Earthlines in the Valley of Visoko” (dr. R.L.Brett, 2012), the line that from the tumulus of Ginje runs North towards the site of the medieval fortress of Čajangrad. Not only: one more feature that convinced us of the importance of this site was it's symmetrical placing with the tomb excavated from 2007 until 2011 on the North-West corner of the pyramid. Excavation on what has been named Trench JUG started on the 21st June (as solstice was probably a good a propitious moment to start!). Firstly, the vegetation was cleared: by removing all ground 43
vegetation but keeping the trees and their higher branches we managed to create a natural covering in order to have shade during the excavation. After only one day, a total area of 40m2 was ready to be investigated: the crumbled walls were now even more evident, stretching East-West for more than 10meters and forming like this some kind of step. By removing the vegetation another line of walls was discovered, forming like this some kind of terrace formation. Undergoing bibliographical research, we discovered that the site was believed to be a roman fortress, although a previous Neolithic site was also taken as a second possibility by local historians and it was this last one to be soon confirmed (Photo 46, 47).
Photo 46: The site before the opening of the JUG trench.
Photo 47: One of the visible dry-stone walls before excavation started. 44
We selected 3 parallel areas measuring 2.5x2.5m each in which begin our excavations:
HIGHER TERRACE – JUG 3 HIGHER WALL SECTION MIDDLE TERRACE – JUG 2 LOWER WALL SECTION LOWER TERRACE – JUG 1 Basic scheme of the divisions of the trenches in the site chosen. JUG 1: the lower section, beneath the first crumbled walls. JUG 2: above the first wall and just below the higher one. JUG 3: the higher section, at the very limit of the trees patch. JUG 1. After the first 20cm it became clear that the crumbled stones from the wall had been covered by more soil deposition and that it was impossible without extensive work, to reach the foundation of these walls. We then limited the site to its central part and after some other 20 to 30cm we also retrieved an iron horse shoe fragment. This tells us that the original walking level could be very close and that some form of iron-industry was present at the time, unless this finding is an intrusion due to some later landslide. Up to this moment we were almost convinced by the only available evidence that it really was a roman fortress (Photo 48, 49).
Photo 48: JUG 1 after the first 2 days of clearing.
Photo 49: The iron horse-shoe fragment in its location of discovery. JUG 2. In this section we found more traces of what really looked like a massive landslide that interested all the area: the way the stones from the upper walls were scattered suggested clearly a water wash off effected rather than destruction carried out by invaders (Photo 50).
Photo 50: A landslide might have knocked down the higher wall onto JUG 2.
JUG 3. This finally was the section that confirmed the Neolithic theory: after only 30cm 7 typical Butmir decorated ceramic fragments were found (Photo 51A, 52B ).
Photo 51A and 51B: Some of the samples of the Butmir ceramic fragments founds. Discarded the roman settlement/fortress we had to decide if and how to continue our work on this very interesting site (Photo 52). We started surveying more the surroundings and, when we discovered that the site developed for an entire 100m2, with other stone terraces and also a possible megalithic landmark, we were forced to take a tough direction. The site was way to wide and the work that was to be conducted would have taken away all the summer excavation, leaving us no time for the other sites. So, back on trench JUG, we focused on clearing the area, securing it, creating a touristic route through it and placing also a bench in the shade to rest and admire the valley below .
Photo 52: The JUG 3 trench after clearing.
What we learned from this excavation is that yet again, the sites were the dwellings were chosen was neither random nor only connected with their strategic placement. The fact that one more site was discovered standing on one of the lines convinced me to follow the pattern in order to retrieve other areas of interest. Moreover, we now know that sites were likely to be reused many times over the century as other excavations in the surroundings of Visoko had already confirmed and new ones were also about to confirm during the season. If any work will be conducted here further on, my personal suggestion is to investigate principally all the terrain and the trench 5m above JUG: the Neolithic settlers have clearly left the mark of their presence as the terrace created is still very visible and it opens up towards all the valley as a strategic lookout post. I think the logic of research should focus on what could have been the connections between these early settlers and who built the pyramids in earlier times: were they the same people? Or were these tribes from the East around 5000 BC encountering surviving members of an older civilization in this area? What was the knowledge and what was the legacy they transmitted to their descendents through this millennia long history?
Photo 53: The JUG Team.
5. PYRAMID OF THE BOSNIAN DRAGON. At the end of June and for all the period of July, for the first time since its discovery, extensive work was conducted on the Pyramid of the Bosnian Dragon. This site is the furthest South pyramid. It features a flat top with evident concrete material spreading on the entire surface. It is the smallest structure, with just 140m of height and it is was made out of the continuation of the hill formation known as Bučki Gaj measuring more than 150m at its Northern and most regular base (Photo 54).
MAP 5: Location of the main sites on the Pyramid of the Bosnian Dragon. Previous initial survey of the entire area, we selected an area 20m below the top, next to the NorthEast corner: we called this trench D1 (Photo 55). D1 was excavated up to the total size of 5x5m and 1,5m deep: our main goal was that of finding evidence of concrete blocks or strata. Theoretically, the presence of such material, as it appears on the top of the pyramid, should also be evident at a lower altitude. The presence of blocks would confirm once again the man-made structure. We dug all June and reached interesting small layers of sandstone. We retrieved some clay flints that could also possibly be fragments of pottery (depth: 5060cm, Photo 56).We started on the Northern slope and gradually moved to the East corner. The layers clearly bent in a almost 90° angle. 49
Photo 54: Aerial photo of the Pyramid of the Bosnian Dragon. At this point we decided to move location and try opening another area, named D2, directly on the Western slope. We found an area without much vegetation some 20m away from D1 and opened a section 3x3m wide. Very similar layers were found with the difference that they bent downwards, although no collapse or landslide seemed to have occurred .
Photo 55: Trench D1 at work. 50
After the first week of excavation we simultaneously opened also a third section, D3, closer to the base of the Pyramid of the Bosnian Dragon, on the very edge of the same corner. The spot was chosen as we noticed it was at the height where one climbing can see the top of the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun appearing over the plateau of the Pyramid of Love. Moreover, what looked like a concrete block stuck out of the ground for a few centimeters.
Photo 56: Photo registering data for possible ceramic fragments on D1. By the end of July we had 3 trenches open and operative with teams shifting through the locations according to where work was more necessary. In August, D1 and D2 were cleaned and closed. Work on D3 was instead carried on and the site revealed very interesting features. The site reached a total size of 5x3 m by the end of the month, under just 20 to 50cm of soil, we found 5 different layers of similar material 3 of which were concrete based stones, some quite squared and anyhow all aligned regularly (Photo 57). Ultimately, we moved even more downwards near the very base of the North face, in a site indicate by the owner of the land who granted us permission to dig. This excavation, D4, has only been started. We delimited the trench and intention is to dig vertically as according to the locals, this site features a potential tunnel connecting to the Temple of Mother Earth. Georadar analysis is required to confirm this legend and meanwhile the site has been trenched and partially excavated.
Season ended on the Pyramid of the Bosnian Dragon with the final clearing of all sites, their remapping and closing for the winter season. Results lead us to believe that there is an extreme difference between the upper layers and the sections at the base. The latter seem to be more possibly man-made and some kind of structure is plausible. There is a possibility that this hill was only shaped and modeled to transform its Northern, Western and Eastern sides, whilst the South side still connected to the line of hills behind. On this hills we also pinpointed some areas where most possibly Neolithic or even Mesolithic settlements existed: evidently cut blocks, placed in 4 parallel lines at different heights have retrieved by local farmers on the South side near the top of the Pyramid of the Bosnian Dragon. Further survey and excavation could be very useful in order to discover more about what really looks like some kind of terrace walls abandoned in the forest.
Photo 57: D3, the last trench entirely excavated . 52
6. TUMULUS VRATNICA. Two weeks were dedicated in June at the site of the Tumulus hill in the locality of Vratnica, 5km from the center of Visoko. The first week was dedicated to cleaning and clearing the existing sites: the section in worse conditions is where one of the massive blocks has collapsed and any restoration seems totally impossible at the moment. All other trenches are in good conditions and rain and snow don't seem to have effected the blocks so far (Photo 58).
Photo 58: View from the first platform of the higher trenches on South side of Vratnica. During the second week our attention was focused on the site indicated by dowser L. Bird as a possible tunnel on the South side of Vratnica. We excavated for a week downwards and then inwards for a total of 2,5m deep and 1,5m in length but the clay layers are now extremely hard and stronger tools are required to continue (Photo 59). The trench is still open and can be continued next year.
Photo 59: Excavation on site for possible side tunnel. 53
7. TEMPLE OF MOTHER EARTH. Work on Temple of Mother Earth was probably the one giving most satisfactions in work procedures, findings and results this summer.
MAP 6: Location of the main sites on the Temple of Mother Earth. In July, we carefully analyzed the topography of the Krstac hill / Temple of Mother Earth. It appears to have 4 very steep sides. The North side faces the valley of Visoko, connecting to the Bosnian Pyramid of the Moon and ending with a point near the Fonjica river. It shape is that of a inward curve almost symmetrical if we consider a North-South line dividing the hill in two passing through its top, which measures 650m on the sea level (Photo 60). It is interesting to remind the translation of the topographic name of this hill means “cross”. We then have the West and the South-West side: these are the most geometrically similar to a pyramid. The interesting aspect is that the Western face is aligned with great precision N-S, while the South-West face is also very close to a perfect N-W / S-E alignment Finally we have the South-East side, that curving re-joins near the Bosnian Pyramid of the Moon. Three major works have been carried out, divided in the months of June, July and August.
7.1 TEMPLE OF MOTHER EARTH: JUNE – S-W SIDE SURVEY.
Photo 60: Aerial photo of the Krstac Hill/Temple of Mother Earth. The 90° corner the river Fonjica takes combines with the granite “wall” on the right bank. One of the most interesting and puzzling theories I have been confronting myself with during the past three years and I finally had a chance to take into deeper examination is that of the possibility that in remote times there was a lake in the basin of the valley of Visoko. Geologically speaking this is evident and confirmed already from the layers relating to the Miocene Era (7million years ago). On the other hand, local legends often talk about this lake as it being artificial and in no way the acknowledgment of a lake in this area could relate to such a distant past. Actually, it looks like that occasional flooding interested this part of Bosnia very often in a more relatively close past and it is to the last 20.000 years that my attention was driven to. I believe that the evidence of a semiartificial lake can be seen on the South-West side of the Krstac hill / Temple of Mother Earth. This face I have already mentioned to be very precisely aligned NW-SE and it features many suspicious aspects which have drawn my attention since 2010. During June of this year, together with researcher Mark C. Bennet we went on excursion to survey this area and many interesting particularities were noticed (Photo 61,62).
Here are some of the ones that lead us to a very particular theory. 1- The presence of a vast, vertical wall of black granite which has been polished for millenias by a constant water flow coming out of the rocks. It is the only area to look like this on the hill and it is just above where the Fonjica river flows in the valley ahead: our question is if it was it maybe cut off artificially for mining purposes. 2- The river Fonjica at the base turns suddenly with an almost 90° corner and as it passes under the Temple of Mother Earth, suddenly massive squared or broken blocks scattered appear out of the water. Definitively we could assume that this was simply due to some earthquake cracking the stones and creating a landslide or eventually this blocks just fell from above, but the following point gives us another possible story. 3- The presence of: A. Massive 40 to 50m high ridges (at lEast 3 of them) made of conglomerate material; B. A small island of accumulated gravel and blocks in the middle of the river; C. Some sort of elevated land area blocking the water from flowing directly into the valley; D. Ultimately the same ridges appearing symmetrically, not on the opposite riverbank, but on the most South East corner of the Četnica, the hill facing the Temple of Mother Earth;
Photo 61:The black and smooth granite wall extends for about 70m in length and 30m in height.
Photo 62: Another photo taken from the side, but it doesn't even closely give the understanding of how gigantic this “wall” really is. 57
It is no science-fiction theory as evidence of this technology level is traceable up to pre-greek communities all over the Mediterranean basin: if we imagine some sort of structure, about 40m high, made out of wood and stone blocks, where the water would have flowed beside the Temple of Mother Earth into the Northern Valley it is easy to then detect the remains of its features all over this area. Practical applications of this structure would have been many, from agriculture to the use of water for the functioning of water mills and similar buildings. Moreover, this could finally lead us to explain many aspects of the landslides found all over the valley, especially the sides of the hills facing the Temple of Mother Earth: it is my personal theory (not yet supported by any data if not local legends and the way the blocks are scattered in the river), that at some point in the history of the people that had built this dam, the structure might have collapsed causing a tremendous flood that could have eventually “washed away” this civilization from the hills leaving trace of the dam only in folk-tales (Img. 3). Talking about folk-tales, we can not forget to mention the legend of the famous “Alka”: iron rings which are said to have been found all over Bosnia and the Balkans on the top of hills and where, according to local tales, boats where attached to in ancient times. This again is just one more legend, but it reflects one more time the same common acknowledgment of lakes with ports where now we can only see valleys and river streams.
Img. 3: Sketch for the theory of the Dam. Memories go to historical tragedies like the Vajont disaster in 1963 (in the area of Longarone, Italy). In that occasion, a massive quantity of soil slid into the artificial water basin of the Vajont dam and the water was pushed up the walls (which remain intact) falling down into the valley below. 25 million cubic meters of water came down onto the villages below and it is said that it had the same power at impact of the Hiroshima atomic bomb. We can not obviously compare these two events for the completely different proportions taken in consideration, but still a quick calculation tells us the following cubic mass that would have invested the valley if a theoretical dam had existed. The surface of the dam would have been, given the 300m length for about (as we have postulated from the height of the ridges) 30-40m height, of 9/10.000m2. This number multiplied for an area of about 200 hectares (which is not even a fifth of the real size of the combined valleys of Grajani and Kralupi) give us a total of 20.000.000 cubic meters of water. As one can see, the difference between the two quantities of water, 20million for Visoko and 25million cubic meters for the Vajont, is not that much. Surely the most devastating aspect of the Vajont would have been the more than 200m “waterfall” effect, but still the above given proportions let us imagine what could have happened in this valley if such a theory was to be 100% confirmed. Many pieces of this puzzle would also finally start to come together for our the reconstruction of our story. 58
7.2 TEMPLE OF MOTHER EARTH: JULY – West SIDE, M.1 EXCAVATION. Following this theory we continued researching the topography of the West side, looking for more evidence. We could not detect any other ridges, which again tells us about the uniqueness of the above mentioned site, and moreover it looked like that the Western side featured some sort of bulge in its center. The first thought was that this could have been caused by a smaller landslide, again we considered water to be possibly connected, if not even a possible cave in the area made out of water erosion. We went on survey and, located the site from the map, we found something totally unexpected: the area was in fact a collapsed section and a modern water reservoir was collecting the stream coming out of the side of the hill. Looking at the site, it really looked like a collapse had occurred: water started flowing out and then in recent times somebody moved the rocks and placed them so that any access to the spring would have been covered and the water could go directly to the reservoir which is still functioning. Acquired permission, we started clearing the area and the path that leads to the site. Excavation M1 was very complicated and it slowly revealed how the stones were placed one on top of another: the evidence of the landslides was below us and the spring was clearly sealed by somebody, as only the rocks covered it and there was no other material in between them. Soon we reached also the tube that lead the water into the reservoir: we tried to follow it, hoping to eventually find a wider cave, just like it happens at Ravne Tunnels. After ten days, we located the area of the spring but, unfortunately, we were forced to surrender: the danger of rocks collapsing over us was more and more worrying and we decided we had already done enough with the tools we had at hand (Photo 63).
Photo 63: Trench M1, the spot where the pickaxe is, is where the spring of water flows out. More work should be done on this site: it is necessary to study a strategy and a safety system to remove without danger these rocks. The eventuality of a cave under the rubble could give us information of great historical and geological importance for the area. 59
7.3 TEMPLE OF MOTHER EARTH AUGUST – CREST, M.2 NEOLITHIC SITES. The final research I intended to take was the following: if the water level due to the dam would have invested the valley, where would have these people lived and built their villages? This question was somehow a continuation of the anthropological research started with Sonda JUG on the Bosnian Pyramid of the Moon: one of the main goals was in fact to have a better understanding of who could have built these structures and what was their culture. Again, by using the Earthlines, we spotted out two possible locations, one on the very summit of the Krstac and one more to the East. At the time being, our dear colleague archaeologist dr. Timothy Moon from New Zeland had recently arrived in Visoko. Moreover, on historical records, it appears that this area should have featured some sort of undated settlement, possibly Neolithic, with two rows of circular walls extending for over 200m2. We planned therefore a survey mission of these most interesting possible locations. The following sites were soon recognized after initial survey and probe excavation: M.2A: Neolithic house (see further on) M.2B Neolithic defense wall with clear corners developing for a total of 20m in length M.2C Possible Roman wall and lookout post on the very top of the formation. Findings of roman coins datable to the III AD have been confirmed around this spot. Nevertheless, the site suggests to have been in use much before as Earthlines connect the Ginje tumulus, this site and other Neolithic cemeteries in the Visoko North basin. M.2D Neolithic walls and steps (see further on). After clearing the path and the ground level vegetation on all the site, the two trenches chosen for excavation were M.2A and D, both followed by teams of 5/6 volunteers coordinated by dr. T. Moon. M.2A. The site offered immediate evidence of drystone walls and a possible continuation of the structure below the surface. The team work followed precise excavation patterns clearing the first forest level and then expanding the possible surrounding of the walls in order to retrieve its limits. Soon after reaching 50cm of depth, the “house” started to reveal its features. It is a small 2x2 shelter which once possibly had a wooden roof as the positioning of the walls suggest. Continuing the stratigraphic step-trenching, the team arrived to a total of 1,5m which is possibly the ground level. A sort of side wall with a carved niche with traces of smoke and burnt suggested a possible domestic fire: in the same level several ceramics referable by confrontation to the Butmir culture were retrieved scattered irregularly. Many fragments of animal bones confirmed that this site was most probably a small house. Excavation continued until complete clearing and can be used as sample for further excavation of other possible houses located in this site (Photo 64, 65, 66).
Photo 64: M.2A, the Neolithic settlement. The volunteers at work uncovering the site.
Photo 65: Inside M.2A we can see what has been recognized as a fireplace by the great amount of ceramics and the deep ash and burnt layers. 61
Photo 66: Example of pottery fragment from M.2A. M.2D. An extensive and think wall of conglomerate protected the village on the West side, as the North face is defended by the steepness of the Krstac. This wall resembles something similar to other megalithic European structures and seems to develop much deeper than what has been excavated so far. On its Southern most revealed side, some sort of stone steps seem to have been placed: they lead to the path that continues down to the Fonjica river (Photo 67).
Photo 67: Taken at the end of winter from the site of M.2D, the look out post was controlling all the valley of Visoko.
Both sites confirm anthropological presence and can give us a preliminary reconstruction image of what the village could have looked like. Moreover, it is suggested by the fact that no walls have been retrieved so far on the less steep South side of the area, that this section was reserved for some kind of agricultural use. The pottery retrieved also tells us a very interesting story. As Butmir culture is normally reported to be in this area around 2500BC, the artifacts found suggest an even older formation (mainly because of its granulation). It could be related to some inter phase, possibly closer to the Starčevo examples we have North-East from here. We could date back easily up to anywhere near the V century. This examination also brings us to question how did such a settlement possibly relate to the Okolište culture of the Visoko North basin? If we want to follow the Dam-theory then this settlement clearly must have been in the area much before the people from the Okolište site, which would have been flooded at 420msl and therefore the limit age is given at around 4500 BC also for the dam's existence If instead we decide not to follow the above mentioned theory then we could have possibly encountered here on the Krstac the neighbors that lived on top of the hill. As far as my personal interpretation goes, the first choice is the most relevant: taken into consideration the terrain, the elevation and the alignments we are facing here, I think we can say we have encountered a small local village which developed on top of the hills because of some primary reason: the valley was flooded.
8. PYRAMID OF LOVE. At the beginning of September, one last excavation was opened. For the first time we started a probe trench on the Četnica hill, now known with the name of Pyramid of Love. This area is connected to the South side of the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun, it has a flat top and it is symmetrically aligned to the East with the Bosnian Pyramid of the Moon, both formations measuring about 190m in height (660msl.). MAP OF EXCAVATION.
MAP 7: Location of Trench 1-L on the Pyramid of Love / Cemorac Hill. The site was chosen again by following the Earthlines: in these case the line that interests the area is that one that from Ginje crosses the plateau of the Pyramid of Love, passes over the top of the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun and finally arrives at the very entrance of the Ravne tunnels. The precise location is just 5m from the very top, as the surface becomes a very steep slope. The reason for its height is similar to the one given for the Pyramid of the Bosnian Dragon, as presence of conglomerate on the top is not as suspicious as the same material appearing in block formations on a steep hill side. Work lasted on what was called 1-Love for only a few days. Cleaning and safekeeping of the path and the area was followed by the creation of a few steps and the delimitation of the selected trench. Third day of work gave immediately very interesting results as some sort of small conglomerate blocks started to appear in a line after just 20cm from the surface (Photo 68, 69, 70).
Photo 68: Opening of Trench 1-L. 64
Photo 69: The first stones beneath the soil of 1-L.
Photo 70: After clearing the vegetation, we started working on a staircase to reach the site more easily. The site was closed due to the end of the shift, but work is possible and amplification both in depth and size is the principal option. 65
Some 200m away, nearby where the Pyramid of Love and the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun join, another very interesting location was discovered. During a survey mission, we met with locals who gladly brought us to visit a site in their land property hidden in the forest. The site is a crack in conglomerate material with two circular “man made-like” holes, wide enough for somebody to crawl inside. According to our guide, this opening appeared suddenly one evening after a violent storm. When we arrived it was filled with soil as for three years nobody had ever since came to inspect this site, but when it first appeared, the local told us that air was clearly coming out of the crack and that a branch 3m long wouldn't hit any surface if stuck inside. Amazed by the finding we started clearing the site and we chose the higher and more definite circular hole to start extracting the soil that had sunken in. After 3 days of work, the depth reached is of about 2m and the sides of this hole continue descending regularly (Photo 71).
Photo 71: The crack and the hole, one can stand in there and still according to the land owner the hole was at lEast two more meters deep. This is definitively a site that must be continued, not to mention the fact that the crack follows a line pointing straight to the top of the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun. 66
One last noticeable thing to write about is a finding of last year: a stone which weights about 30kg., made of granite and in the shape of a horn or a hook (Photo 72).
Photo 72: The “stone-horn”. This stone, found near the plateau of the Pyramid of Love, is incredibly smooth and it really seems hand carved and broken off at its base. Talking with the locals, they all agreed that this could easily be something similar to the iron-rings, the Alka, mentioned before. The only way to confirm this theory is to find and present one of these rings and finally confirm this legend about boats attached on the top of hills thousands of years ago. 67
9. SURVEY OF ADDICTIONAL SITES OF INTEREST: VIS AND GINJE. MAP OF EXCAVATION AND SURVEY.
MAP 8: Location of the hill of Vis (bottom left) and Ginje (top right). VIS The hill known with the name of Vis (high) and the nearby hill of Gradac (town) are located 9km South of Visoko (Photo 73). We were first drawn to the place by the particular and outstanding shape of the first location, which recalls that of a cone. After researching the maps we went to look for the historical data from the books: it appears that the top of both hills featured walls of unspecified (probably roman) origin. Recalling the experience on Sonda JUG, we decided to survey the area. The results were over our expectations: on the West side of the hill (which was carved by bunkers of the last war) we found, just near the top, above the remains of a bunker, the presence of settlements and possible tombs. The entire area was literally covered by ceramics of Butmir type similar to the fragments found on the Temple of Mother Earth, bones and also one outstanding bronze artifact, possibly a necklace, made out of two spirals and a chain (Photo 74, 75, 76).
Photo 73: The hill of Vis seen from the South side.
Photo 74, 75: Black pottery fragments from the hills of Gradac and Vis.
Taken in consideration the symbology of the spyrals the first thing that comes in mind is the very occurent presence of the identical symbol on stećak found all over Bosnia. We could then widen our search and link with the ancient greek world: ultimately, as explored in N. Djurdjević's works we can find a common background origin of most of these symbols and iconography in the Vedic culture and history. The evidence speaks by itself and is of great significance for the development of the understanding of this region's and Europe's history.
Photo 76: (Above) The beautiful chain found on Vis, all around we found scattered fragments of black-Butmir pottery similar to the one uncovered on the Temple of Mother Earth / Krstac Hill. (Below right) Stećak, Bakići, Olovo region, Bosnia, decorated with two opposing spirals. (Below left) Gold bead from Anavyssos. (Athens, National Archaeological Museum, XP 1520, 6435). 8th century BCE.
Nearby, a local guide showed us the way to a cave that was closed a few years before, after that a dog had gone in and came out only many days later. The site had been probably considered dangerous and therefore sealed, but after clearing some top soil we soon found the presence of a cavity going horizontally into the ground. Further research is suggested and possible excavation and clearing of this entrance. All around Vis and on the hill of Gradac similar sites have been noticed: another example of caves is on the site of Bedem, where the remains of a medieval fortress are still visible. This cave presents interesting features as it bends at 90° downwards and descends for about 3 meters. All around it inside, it is made of bricks and, at the bottom of it the tunnel is sealed with soil and stones.
Photo 77: The entrance to the cave of Bedem, underneath the castle walls.
GINJE I have been talking about the importance of this sacred tumulus hill during the “Earthlines” report and during summer 2012 I often went to continue research on the site. The latest discoveries, thanks to free softwares like Stellarium and Skyview, lead us to confirm that the most perfect star alignment we can find is that of the star of Deneb setting above the top of the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun on winter solstice. At the moment of the setting, the star of Syrius would have been instead seen rising from the top of Ginje. Vega is to be confirmed instead to be the most probable alignment available up to 7000 BC. with Syrius always rising on the same line (Photo 73, Img.4). A detailed report about the star alignments and the possible dating traceable from them will soon be published.
Photo 78: The view of the Bosnian pyramid of the Sun from the tumulus of Ginje. The top of the Bosnian pyramid of the Sun stands perfect aligned upon the Pyramid of Love / Cemorac hill.
Img. 4: A sky map from Stellarium showing the alignment of Deneb in 10340 b.C., 333° is the line orientation from Ginje to the Bosnian pyramid of the Sun. 72
Another very important finding was that of three petrified bones that had just recently “slipped out” from beneath one of the 13 stećak that are placed on top of Ginje. Radio Carbon dating results are now been expected, but the simple fact that these bones were fossilized is a tough challenge for who considers this type of monuments to be exclusively part of the medieval heritage (Photo 79).
Photo 79: The three fossilized bones found at Ginje, just beside one of the stećak. 73
10. ORGANIC DATING REPORT AND RECONSTRUCTION HYPOTHESIS. The organic material found on trench 4A, as mentioned before during chapter 2.1, has given us a radio carbon dating result that leads the first sedimentation of clay on the concrete blocks to be datable around 24.000 years before present day (Img. 5). The following image is the official paper sent us by the laboratory in Kiev. This latest results also predate last year's results from the material found on the Bosnian Pyramid of the Moon, were organic material was dated around 12000 years ago.
Img. 5: The organic radio carbon dating results at 24.800+/-800 BP. The implications of this discovery are hugely important in the understanding of the origin of this Valley and the true history that still lays uncovered. Moreover, these results combine with the theories that we have been following so far. Let us start by saying that between 25-20 thousand years ago, in the Balkans we are in what is normally referred to as the Gravettian period: the ultimate phase of the paleolithic when especially South of Europe and the areas surrounding the Mediterranean Sea had become what is known with the name of “Last Glacial Shelter” (Map. 9).
MAP 9: Europe during the Gravettian age (25-20.000 b.C.) was exiting the Ice Age. The purple area is what is known with the name “Last Glacial Shelter”, including the Balkans. 74
The terminology itself tells us the situation people were facing at that time in history: the entire surface of the continent was covered with Ice, which was gradually retreating but still the only areas where communities could survive were under the “Glacial line”. Visoko and its basin definitively was beneath this line and, map at hand, it would have been an extremely strategic position: at the center of the peninsula, protected North by the snow of the Ice Age, with the sea to the West and South East the only land from which attacks could come. Trade and communication would have had an obligatory way through these territories and the similarities between cultures becomes more and more evident as we confront other findings of the same time from Europe with the later findings we have which seem to have maintained those same ancient traditions alive. The best example of one of these is in my opinion that of the Venus of Laussel (Photo 80) which carries symbols that again lead us to the same pagan tradition investigated in the Ravne tunnels. The spiral symbolism on the horn the Venus holds in her hand (see about Vis in chapter 9) leads us to the same frame of common cults and traditions that unlike any other culture known in Europe, has survived its characteristics for over 20000 years, all the way to the medieval times, when the same symbolism was still in use by the Bogumil church in this area.
Photo 80: The Venus of Laussel, an example of the cult to Mother Earth.
11. CONLUSIONS. At the beginning of this year, main targets were decided and a initial track to follow was sketched in order to have a initial framework for research. When telling any story, the introduction always answers the following questions: When? Where? Who? What/How? Why? In my personal opinion, during the past months we have managed to gather data that helped us answer these same questions posed to the history of the Valley of Visoko concerning the Bosnian Pyramids and the hidden traces of a lost civilization. When: As demonstrated by the latest Radiocarbon Dating, the first layer covering the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun dates back to 24000 years ago: this has given us a new framework to start research with and we now have a limit age we can move from in order to understand the landscape and the anthropological issues concerning this civilization. Surely this limit does not tell us that this is also the age of the structure, which could be even older, but maybe it could give us an idea for the period when the structure was abandoned. Where: Thanks to the excavations on the Temple of Mother Earth and on the N-E corner of the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun, we now know that research must concentrate higher up and on the top of these hills and pyramidal structures if we want to discover more historical data. The possibility that this was due to the presence of an alluvial or artificial lake where now the valley of Visoko lays is still being questioned, but more and more evidence to support this thesis is being uncovered. Neolithic settlement have been found together with small fortress and traces of man-made features that are slowly creating an image of an highly anthropogenic prehistoric land (MAP 10 A, B, C). Who: Concerning the problematic of who these people were, what was their culture, their believes and what they looked like, we are now discovering answers that provide us new perspectives. Thanks to the artifact found and to the features of the structures we have acknowledged the fact that their culture was highly close to Nature, with an understanding of its deeper rules and energies in a way that has been re-discovered only during the recent 50 years of our society's history. Nature was part of their universe not as something to survive on but rather as a caring Mother to respect. Hellenistic ideas like “as above so below” find their origin in this distant past and so do the symbols that still nowadays represent them, like crosses and spirals to speak about the rules of the cosmos. Their physical aspect could have been similar to that of people from the Near East, small but robust and therefore their tools and the structures would have been built according to their sizes. This in a way, forces us to ask ourselves how could have they have risen blocks 100 times heavier than them. Surely legends about “giants” and “titans” could come in handy and seemingly also theories 76
involving the capacity of levitation through vibration techniques, but focusing on basic down to earth evidence we must look for solutions simple, critical and even based on skepticism if at some point necessary. To consider this land part of Atlantis, is not to be interpreted as mythology as it is time to accept the idea that sometime before 10 to 20.000 years ago one common culture existed worldwide, highly advanced in the understanding of the universe and capable to evolve in total harmony with Nature's laws and forces. What/How We are definitively working on the idea of structures that were meant to create and concentrate energy to then be used for the community’s needs. I believe we must look at this valley trying to find the clues in a simple way in order to start solving the puzzle from its basics. Putting together all the info we have so far, I would like to propose 3 main points to answer the question “what are these structures in Visoko and how were they built?”. 1- We originally have hills, which have been chosen for their particular position on a world energetic grid and for their particular unique features (underground lakes, water made channels). These hills were then firstly shaped, terraced or made into slopes, and then like in the case of the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun, man-made conglomerate was created on site thanks to molds. The exiting channels were probably then closed where not necessary and on the other hand expanded to become tunnels when useful for their mechanical and/or spiritual purposes. 2- The people that built these structures had a wide community strategy of subsistence based on cooperation with Nature's laws and not on abuse of resources. This is why energy was must probably drawn in a very simple way, by using hydromechanics, ion and Earth vibration technology. 3- The proper use of these structures and the anthropological aspects of this civilization can not be define yet, but clues are many and research must be based on multidisciplinary confrontation: both conventional and traditional fields and non-conventional science must be put in practice as the effects and the seeds of this civilization are still alive and visible in our culture. Archetypical features in the nature of these prehistorical world can not be understood other ways. We must look with our eyes at them and let the traces of their knowledge look at us. Why. Finally, why these structures were built can be answered by the above mentioned points but we must also uncover the reasons that brought to the abandoning of this valley and the fall of their culture. Was it because of some Universal flooding, because of invasions of new barbarian tribes or because of the self-collapsing of this culture we still do not know and we do not have enough evidence to postulate any theory. I do believe, therefore, that one of the aspect that should be researched in the following years is the reasons that brought their world to an end. Firstly because by understanding what destroyed them, we could discover the causes within their history that lead to their end and therefore more about who they were. Secondly, because they could have a great lesson to teach us for our future and for our survival on this planet. Many ideas are constantly been placed on the table everyday and should all be welcomed. Critical research has to be followed and so far I think the results obtained prove us that we have made great step forwards. Looking at this years results, I believe that the must interesting result obtained by most of the researchers involved in this project is the following: during the past years we had finally taken the first steps into the discovery of an unknown region of history, now we have turned on the light on this staircase and we are looking upwards to a dark and mysterious universe. But we now have the tools to start understanding and to begin climbing up these steps towards the unknown. 77
MAP 10 A, B, C: (Above) The three maps presented above gives us: A: The Visoko Valley as it is today. B: The valley with the lake, the Temple of Mother Earth / Krstac Hill is in the middle of the map. Water level has been chosen to have reached a theoretical 500 m.s.l. limit. C: The same map but with all locations pinpointed. 1- Bosnian pyramid of the Sun. 2- Bosnian pyramid of the Moon. 3- Temple of Mother Earth, to its left is where the theoretical dam would have once stood. 4- Pyramid of the Bosnian Dragon. 5- Pyramid of Love. 6- Ravne Tunnels. 7- KTK Tunnels. 8- Vratnica Tumulus. 9- Ginje Tumulus. 10- Bedem fortress. 11- Vis. 12- Čajangrad fortress.
12. SPECIAL THANKS AND CREDITS. My very personal thanks and regards go to Semir and Sabina Osmanagić, Admir Tatar, Amir Suša, Alfredo Bertan and all the workers, tourist guides and Board of Directors and members of the “Archaeological Park: Bosnian Pyramid of Sun” Foundation. Thank you all for giving me the opportunity to work during this Summer Camp and in the past years, for your help, constant support and friendship. Thanks to all the fellow colleagues that have been on site and present at the Hidden History Conference this year: my regards and thanks to Nenad Djurdjević for his support and photos. Thanks also to Paolo Debertolis and all members of SB research group. All my colleagues from Archaetypes International Research and friends who came to visit and help. Thank you also to the workers at the Motel Piramida Sunca for their daily efforts. All the beautiful people I have met in Bosnia and in the Balkans so far. A great hug and much love to Ajdin Ahmetspahić and all volunteers who have participated, worked and enjoyed this experience with me in these past 3 years: I would like to mention you all but so far you are already more than 900 people from all over the world! Finally my love to my family for understanding and support in my personal journey in one of the greatest archaeological projects of the planet.
Credits for info and photos to: www.piramidasunca.ba www.bosnian-pyramid.org www.sbresearchgroup.eu www.archaetypes.jimdo.com www.facebook.com/mrav-bosanskepiramide Also thanks for the many photos by: Daniel Boas, Fabian Ledo Fernandez, Matko Bednjanec, Sanel Silajdzić. Main historical reference bibliography: . Visoko i okolica kroz istoriju et al. Publications, P. Anđelić. . ICBP 2008, printed by “Archaeological Park: Bosnian Pyramid of Sun” Foundation. . Evidence of Vedic Cosmology and Harmonic Science in the Pyramid Civilization of Ancient Bosnia, N. Djurdjević. . History of Bosnia, M.A.Hoare. . Mile i Moštre : Ilirsko-Gotski korijeni Bosanske vladarske dinastije, stećaka i crkve bosanske, Ibrahim Pašić. . Google Earth and Sarajevo-x for all maps and locals interviewed for toponomy information.
November 2012, dr. Riccardo L. Brett – Archaeological report for 2012 season.