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PC ENGINEERING

(PCE-514)

PC ENGINEERING
Copyright CMS INSTITUTE, 2012 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior permission of Programme Director, CMS COMPUTER INSTITUTE. This book has been authored by the CMS INSTITUTE faculty group, solely for the purpose of using its contents as course material for workshops conducted by and at the CMS COMPUTER INSTITUTE education centre.

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CONTENTS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. Electrical and Electronic Concepts Basic Numbering Systems Introduction to PC Introduction to Operating System Disk Operating System & Commands Microsoft Windows Vista Getting Familiar with the PC Booting Sequence Serial, Parallel, PS/2 & USB Interface Memory Processor Motherboard Floppy Disk Drive Hard Disk Drive Optical Storage Devices SMPS UPS Computer Mouse Keyboard Scanner Printer Display Interfaces & Monitor Multimedia Modem Backup Devices Viruses Laptop & Palmtop Computers Installation of Windows 98 SE Managing Application on Windows 98 SE PC Assembling Troubleshooting 1 5 13 17 21 35 79 89 95 105 119 129 157 165 199 227 239 247 253 261 269 291 309 325 337 349 369 381 401 409 425

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LAB EXERCISES 2.1 5.1 6.1 7.1 9.1 Conversion between Different Number Systems Basic DOS Commands Microsoft Windows Vista Operation Identification of Backpanel Connectors Identification of Serial Parallel & SCSI Ports 11 34 78 88 104 118 156 194 196 196 196 196 226 238 252 260 267 289 323 347 360 400 408

10.1 Identification of different types of Memory Modules 12.1 Motherboard Slot Identification and CMOS Settings 14.1 Identification of HDD Parts 14.2 Partitioning using Disk Part and Formatting the Hard disk 14.3 Using PQ Magic on a Hard Disk 14.4 Backing Up and Restoring the MBR of the Hard disk 14.5 Using Norton Ghost for Imaging of a Hard disk 15.1 Identification of Optical Storage Device Parts 16.1 SMPS Connector Identification 18.1 Mouse Button Options and Parts Identification 19.1 Keyboard Shortcuts 20.1 Scanning through Flatbed Scanner 21.1 Printing with Different Printers 23.1 Using Multimedia with Media Player 25.1 Backup Data on Backup Devices 26.1 Virus Scanning Using Anti-Virus Software 28.1 Windows VISTA Installation 29.1 Installing Different Application in Windows VISTA

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Electrical and Electronic Concepts

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Electrical and Electronic Concepts

Power The energy or power to drive a computer is derived from electricity. Whether it uses 110 volts alternating current (AC), the U.S. standard; 220 volts AC, the European standard; or direct current (DC) from a battery, a computer is useless without a steady, reliable source of power. When we encounter problems with a computer, it is crucial to be able to test the entire power system. This lesson covers the basics of power and electricity. Understanding Electricity and Electrical Energy What is electricity? The meaning of the word varies with the user. Electricity to physicists is the primal property of nature, and they call the power delivered at the wall socket and stored in batteries electrical energy. Most people, including computer technicians, are less fussy, often using the term electricity to refer to both: The form of energy associated with moving electrons and protons The energy made available by the flow of electric charge through a conductor

Some Definitions Electricity: The form of energy associated with charged particles, usually electrons. Electric charge: When charged particles move in tandem, they generate fields, producing energy. Electrical circuit: The path taken by an electrical charge. Electric current: When an electric charge is carried, or flows through a conductor (like wires), it is known as a current. A current-carrying wire is a form of electromagnet. Electric current is also known as electron flow. Power: The rate at which an amount of energy is used to accomplish work. Electrical power is measured in watts, which is determined by multiplying voltage by current.
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Electrical and Electronic Concepts

Conductors: Materials that can carry an electrical current. Most conductors are metals. Resistance: A quality of some materials that allows them to slow the speed of an electrical current, producing heat, and sometimes light, in the process. Insulators: Materials that prevent or retard the electrical current of electrons. Ampere: A measurement of current strength, equal to 1 coulomb per sec. Ohm: A unit of electrical resistance. Ohm's law states that voltage is equal to the product of the current times the resistance, or voltage = current resistance. Volt: The unit of electromotive force, or potential energy, that, when steadily applied against a resistance of 1 ohm, produces a current of 1 ampere. Voltage: The potential energy of a circuit.

Personal Computers and Electrical Power That personal computers (PCs) use electrical power to operate is no surprise, even to the casual user. The technician must understand the different types of electrical energy and how they work inside the PC. A PC's electrical power can come from a wall outlet, in the form of AC, or from a battery in the form of DC. AC Power AC power is what most people think of as electricity. It comes from the wall and powers most of our lights and household appliances. AC power is man-made, using generators. As the wire coil inside the generator rotates, it passes by each pole of unit magnet(s) producing an electric current. When it passes the opposite pole, the current reverses, or alternates, the direction of flow (see Fig. 1.1). The number of revolutions made by the generator per minute is called its frequency. In the United States, power companies run their systems at 60 turns per second to produce a high-voltage, 60 Hz (cycles per second) AC as they rotate, while in India it is 50Hz. The power system drops the voltage in stages before it is connected to the consumer's home or business. The power company delivers AC power to our homes or businesses with three wires. Two of the wires are hot, meaning that they carry a charge. One, the bare wire that runs from the breaker box to the power pole, is neutral. The measured voltage
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Fig. 1.1 Flow of electrons

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Electrical and Electronic Concepts

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between the two hot wires is between 220 and 240 volts AC (VAC), and the measured voltage between either of the hot wires and the neutral wire is between 110 and 120 VAC. These voltages, which are called nominal voltages, can vary by plus or minus () 10 percent (see Fig. 1.2). Typical electrical outlets are connected between one of the hot wires and the neutral wire. These outlets are usually three-prong connections. The smaller rectangular hole is the hot, the larger rectangular hole is the neutral, and the small round hole is called the ground. The ground wire is used as a safety wire. In the event of a short circuit, a large flow of current (amps) is discharged all at one time. This short, strong flow of current will burn out circuits unless it can be safely sent somewhere else. Electricity will always seek the path of least resistance to ground. By providing this wire, a short circuit will cause less damage by providing a path for safe dissipation of the current. To provide a safe working environment for the computer and yourself, make sure that the ground wire is properly installed. Older structures might have two-wire electrical outlets without the ground wire. An electrical outlet without grounded plugs and the third ground wire is unacceptable for use with a computer (see Fig. 1.3). An extension cord without a ground wire is also unacceptable. CAUTION: A short circuit can cause physical damage to equipment and personnel. It can cause a fire, component damage, permanent disability, or even death. The ground plug provides a direct connection to ground, giving the electricity an alternate path away from equipment and people. DC Power AC is used for transporting low-cost power to end users. However, a computer's electronic components won't run on AC powerthey need a steady stream of DC. The PC's power supply performs several tasks, but the main function is to convert AC into DC. A computer's power supply combines two components to handle this job: a step-down transformer and an AC/ DC converter. The AC adapters used for laptop computers, many low-cost ink-jet

Fig. 1.2 AC Volts

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Fig. 1.3 The proper type of outlet includes a ground

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Fig. 1.4 DC power

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Electrical and Electronic Concepts

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printers, and many other consumer electronics do the same thingturn AC into lower voltage DC. As we have seen, DC is electrical energy that travels in a single direction within a circuit. DC current flows from one pole to another, hence it is said to have polarity (see Fig. 1.4). The polarity indicates the direction of the flow of the current and is signified by the + and signs (see Fig. 1.5).

Fig. 1.5 DC Voltage

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Basic Numbering Systems

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Basic Numbering Systems

Basic Number Systems Use of digital technique started in 1940 military applications. Digital computer was developed in 1960. Due to the development of semiconductor devices digital computer started becoming small in size. Digital technique is used in all areas of consumer electronic products, communication systems and industrial controls.
t

Digital technique has many advantages over analog system, such as 1) Reduce the cost 2) Improves the performance. There are two basic types of electronic signals known as analog and digital. Analog signals are of the most familiar type. It is AC or DC voltage that varies continuously. It does not change abruptly or suddenly or in steps. Most commonly used analog signal is the sine wave as shown in fig 2.1. As you know radio signals & audio tones are sinusoidal waves. Electronic circuits which processes the analog signals are known as linear circuits. Digital signals are a series of pulses. These signals are voltages which varies fast between two fixed levels. As shown in fig 2.2. Number Systems : Most of our thinking involves trying to find answer to two valued questions. The answer may be true or false, it may be right or wrong, good or bad, etc. In electronic circuits also we say that a switch is open or closed, as bulb is on or off. This two valued nature of thinking or logic is the basic principle of Digital electronics. We can indicate anyone of the state by zero and the other by one. The electronic circuits designed for two-state operation are known as digital circuits. There digital circuits are able to sense only one electrical quantity, the voltage. A digital circuit can distinguish between two distinct voltage levels and not intermediate value. Hence it becomes necessary to evolve a number system which will have only two digits, instead of our normal decimal system having ten digits. This new system is called as binary system. A number system is nothing more than a code. For each distinct quantity, there is an assigned symbol. This section describes the
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2 Fig. 2.1 Analog Signal

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Fig. 2.2 Digital Signal

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Basic Numbering Systems

binary number system and other new number system like octal and hexadecimal systems used. Before studying these new number systems, let us study few basic facts about the decimal number system. Decimal number system : The base or radix of a number system refers to the number of digits used. In decimal system 10 is used as base or radix because digits from 0 to 9 are used. Each digit in the number has certain positions and that position determines its weight. Positions, weights are from right to left, units, tens, hundreds, thousands
Eg. 1993. This can be represented as 1993 = = = = = Thousand 1 x 1000 1 x 103 + 1000 + 1993 Hundred 9 x 100 9 x 102 + 900 + Tens 9 x 10 9 x 10 + 90 + Units 3 x 1 3 x 1 3

Note : 1) The number of digits used in the system is equal to the radix or base. 2) The largest digit is one less than the base i.e. 9 3) In the sum represented by a number each digit is multiplied by the base raised to the appropriate power for digit position.

Binary number system : In the binary system the base is two and only two numbers 0 and 1 are used. In binary system, only two signal levels are needed. Reason of using binary number systems in the digital equipment is that representing decimal number by electronic circuit becomes complicated, costly and impractical for most applications. While the electronic circuits required to represent binary systems is simple & inexpensive as an electronic component or ckts with only 2 states is required for it is a binary system. Group of four bits make a nibble. eg. 1111, 1100, 1101 A string of 8 bits make a byte. eg. 10001111, 11111111, 00011111 A byte is a basic unit of data in computers. Most computers process data in strings of 8 bits or 16, 24, 32 & so on. As there are two number systems existing, there should be a procedure for converting a number from one system into other. We now see the methods of conversions. [A] Binary to Decimal This conversion is accomplished in a very simple way. The procedure is as follows : (1) (2) (3) (4) Write the binary number Multiply each bit with the weight of each digit, (bit) 20, 21, 22, 23, etc 1,2,4,8, 16... from right to left. Cancel the weights, where the bit is zero. Add the remaining digits to get a decimal number.
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Basic Numbering Systems eg. Convert 1010 into decimal Step : 1 & 2 Step : 3 Step : 4 1010 = = = 1 x 23 + (1 x 8) + 8 + 10 Therefore (1010)2 = (10)10 eg. (1111)2 Step : 1 & 2 Step : 3 Step : 4 1111 = = = = 1 x 23 + (1 x 8) + 8 + 15 1 x 22 + (1 x 4) + 4 + 1 x 21 + (1 x 2) + 2 +1 1 x 20 (1 x 1) 0 x 22 + (0 x 4) + 0 + 1 x 21 + (1 x 2) + 2 + 0 x 20 (0 x 1) 0

Therefore (1111)2 = (15)10

The method for conversion of decimal fractions in binary form is same. The weights of the numbers on the left hand side of decimal point increase from 20, 21, 22... etc. If this continues from the decimal point to the right side, the weights are 2-1, 2-2, 2-3 ........etc.
eg. Convert (0.0101) in decimal. Step 1. 2. 3. 4. 0.0101 0.[0 x 2-1 + 1 x 2-2 + 0 x 2-3 + 1 x 2-4] 0. [2-2 + 2-4] 0. [1/4 + 1/16] Ans. (0.0101)2 = (0.3125)10 = [0.3125]10

Naturally, for mixed numbers i.e. the numbers with integer as well as fraction, each part is solved separately and then joined. The weight for a mixed number are : ..... 24 23 22 21 20 . 2-1 2-2 2-3 Binary Point Decimal to Binary : This conversion is done in several ways. One way to convert the given decimal number into binary is the reverse of the process seen above. The number is expressed as a sum of powers of two, and then 1's and 0's are written at appropriate positions.
eg. Convert 6 into binary (6)10 = = = Ans, (6)10 (27)10 = = = = Ans. (27)10 = 8 4 2 1 0 + 4 + 2 + 0 (0 1 1 0)2 (0 1 1 0)2 16 8 4 2 1 16 + 8 + 0 + 2 + 1 1 1 0 1 1 (1 1 01 1)2

eg. Convert 27 into binary

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Basic Numbering Systems

The second method called as Double-Dabble method is easy and more frequently used. The procedure is as follows. 1 Divide the given number sucessively by 2. 2 Write down the quotients directly below the given number. 3 Write down the remainders on the right side. 4 The remainders taken in reverse order from bottom to top, form the number.
eg. (1) 13 Remainder L.S.B.

Successive division 2 13 2 6 1 2 3 0 2 1 1 0 = 11012 1 (2) 24

M.S.B

Successive division 2 2 2 2 2 24 12 6 3 1 0 = 110002 0 0 0 1 1

Remainder

L.S.B

M.S.B

The last quotient obtained by dividing 2 by 2 is 1. This 1 is not divisible by 2. Hence the next quotient is 0 and 1 is transferred to remainders.
eg. Convert 11 into binary 2 11 5 2 1 0 Ans. (11)10 = (1011)2 1 1 0 1

For the conversion of decimal fractions into binary fractions, the procedure is as follows : 1 Multiply the fraction by 2. 2 3 4 5 The integer from the multiplication is kept aside. The remaining fraction is again multiplied. The integers obtained by this procedure form the binary number. As the process is unending, it can be continued till the answer is sufficiently accurate.
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Basic Numbering Systems eg. Convert 0.65 into binary. 0.65 0.30 0.60 0.20 0.40 0.80 Ans. (0.65)10 x x x x x x 2 2 2 2 2 2 = = = = = = = 1.30 0.60 1.20 0.40 0.80 1.60 1 0 1 0 0 1

(101001)2

Note that, here the integers are taken in the same order as they are obtained.
eg. Convert 23.4 into binary. First split 23.4 in two parts, 23.0 and 0.4 Convert 23.0 using double-dabble method. Then convert 0.4 in binary. 2 23 11 1 5 1 (23)10 = (10111)2 2 1 1 0 0 1 0.4 0.8 0.6 0.2 0.4 0.8 (0.4)10 (23.4)10 x x x x x x = 2 = 0.8 2 = 1.6 2 = 1.2 2 = 0.4 2 = 0.8 2 = 1.6 = (011001)2 (10111.011001)2 0 1 1 0 0 1

Ans.

Following table shows the binary numbers upto 15 Decimal 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Binary 0 1 10 11 100 101 110 111 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111

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Basic Numbering Systems

Hexadecimal number system : Hexadecimal numbers are extensively used in microprocessor work. To begin with they are much shorter than binary numbers. Hexadecimal means 16. The hexadecimal number system has a base or radix of 16. This means that it uses 16 digits to represent all numbers. The digits are 0 through 9, and A through F as follows: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E and F. Hexadecimal numbers are strings of these digits like 8A5, 4CF7 and EC58. If used in a car, a hexadecimal odometer would count as follows. When the car is new, the odometer shows all 0s : 0000 (zero) The next 9 miles produce readings of 0001 (one) 0002 (two) 0003 (three) 0004 (four) 0005 (five) 0006 (six) 0007 (seven) 0008 (eight) 0009 (nine) The next 6 miles give 000A (ten) 000B (eleven) 000C (twelve) 000D (thirteen) 000E (fourteen) 000F (fifteen) At this point the least significant wheel has run out of digits. Therefore, the next mile forces a reset-and-carry to get 0010 (sixteen)

The next 15 miles produce these readings: 0011, 0012, 0013, 0014, 0015, 0016, 0017, 0018, 0019, 001A, 001B, 001C, 001D, 001E and 001F. Once again, the least significant wheel has run out of digits. So, the next mile results in a reset-and-carry: 0020 (thirty-two) Subsequent readings are 0021, 0022, 0023, 0024, 0025, 0026, 0027, 0028, 0029, 002A, 002B, 002C, 002D, 002E and 002F.
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Basic Numbering Systems

Table below shows the equivalences between hexadecimal, binary and decimal digits.
Hexadecimal 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F Binary 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 Decimal 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Lab Exercise 2.1: Conversion between Different Number Systems. Objective: To be able to do the basic conversion of numbers between the different numbering systems. Tasks: 1. Convert (1001) into decimal 2. Convert (56.75) into binary. 3. Convert (101111.00111) into decimal 4. Convert (1100) into Hexadecimal

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Basic Numbering Systems

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Introduction to PC

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Introduction to PC

GENERAL A computer is a complex machine that incorporates diverse conceptual scientific, mathematical and engineering details. It can be defined as a device that automatically performs arithmetic or logical operations on information input to it and provides an output according to the performed set of instructions stored within it.
USER APP PROG OS FIRMWARE
OUTPUT INPUT

Hardware, Firmware and Software together make up a computer system. Hardware is a general term that describes all physical components used in the assembly of the computer. It covers all physical structure that uses binary state to move, or hold computer data. Software is the intangible element that constitutes the instructions on which the computer acts. This mostly consists of programs meant to control and direct the performance of the Computer. Hardware makes computing power available. Software makes it usable.

HARDWARE

Fig. 3.1 Conceptual layers in a Computing environment

Firmware are those programs that are permanently written and stored in computer memory and are necessary for the control of startup, switch off and input/output procedure in computer these are introduced at the time of manufacture and cannot be normally altered. Data is handled in the computer by electrical components such as transistors, integrated circuits, semi-conductors and wires, all of which can only indicate two states or conditions. Transistors are either conducting or non-conducting; magnetic materials are either magnetized or non-magnetised in one direction or in the opposite direction; pulse or voltage is present or not. TERMINOLOGIES All data is represented within the computer by the presence or absence of these two states. The binary number system, which has only two digits, zero (0) and one (1) is, therefore, conveniently used to express the two possible states. One
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Introduction to PC

binary digit is called BIT; the smallest unit of representing data in a computer. All the familiar symbols which we use in writing are represented in the computer by a combination of bits. This combination forms a unique pattern that represents each symbol. A set of such binary patterns include the letters (A Z), decimal digits (0 - 9), and certain special characters such as punctuation marks. A set containing all these characters is known as an alphanumeric character set. The commonly used combination of bit to form the alphanumeric character set is 8, because this gives us 256 unique permutations thus allowing for letters, numbers, punctuation marks, scientific symbols and other characters. One combination of 8 bits is known as a BYTE. Computers also express information in the form of words. A computer's WORD is a group of bits, the length of which varies from machine to machine, but it is normally pre-determined for each machine. The word may be as long as 64 bits or as short as 4 bits. The word length determines the number of bits that the CPU moves externally (between memory and devices) and internally (between memory and processor) at a time. FUNCTIONAL UNITS The basic structure of a computer (refer fig. 3.2) can be divided into four fundamental units. (1) Central Processing Unit (3) Output devices (2) Input devices (4) Storage section

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Fig. 3.2 Input-Output Process flow in a computer system

The CPU combines two major parts. a) Control Unit is responsible for regulating all activities which take place in the computer by reading and interpreting instructions and sending the relevant control signals to all other units which respond according to given instructions. b) The ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit) is responsible actually for processing the data using arithmetic functions like (ADD, SUB) and logical functions like (AND, EX-OR etc.). Some peripheral devices are only designed to input data and instructions into the computer, like the keyboard, mouse and digitizer which are Input Devices. There are some devices which can only be used for output of information, in the form of reports, images and documents, for eg., the Visual Display Unit (VDU), printer and plotter which are Output Devices.
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Introduction to PC

The storage section can also be divided into 2 major parts a) Internal or Primary Storage: consisting of RAM and ROM. RAM, also called main memory, is volatile memory, retaining data only when the computer is powered ON. During the operation of the computer, systems (ie. pertaining to the operations of the machine) and application (ie. pertaining to user requirements) level instructions are stored in the RAM along with data to be processed. ROM, on the other hand is relatively permanent memory in which the system level instructions are held. b) External or Secondary Storage: Floppy disks, Hard disks and Optical disks are essentially external or secondary storage media, storing data permanently, operated by devices that are capable of both Input as well as Output (hence referred to as I/O Devices). Devices that perform Input-Output tasks are also commonly called External Devices. SOFTWARE BASICS There will be no work done in the computer systems without an instruction which is the input given by the humans. This body of organised instructions is called software. Software is needed to instruct the hardware at various levels of its functions which includes fundamental startup procedures and goes on to tasks like data processing, word processing and image processing. Software is written by Programmers in one of the many Programming Languages available. Refer fig 3.3. The important thing is to remember that the computer itself can understand only one language, appropriately called the Machine Language; a set of instruction codes written as string or bits. The earliest computer programmers had the difficult task of writing their programs in this CMS INSTITUTE 2012 language. The inherent difficulty posed by machine language lead to the development of easier ways to write programs. PROGRAM MING LANGUAGES The first in this direction was the Assembler which translated 1st Generation MACHINE LANGUAGE Assembly Language code to machine language code.
2nd Generation ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE 3rd Generation HIGH LEVEL LANGUAGES BASIC-COBOL-FORTRAN-PASCAL-C 4th Generation DATABASE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT TOOLS also called 4GLs 5th G eneration ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (A I)

Fig. 3.3 Programming languages

The assembly language is a direct translation of the machine language code to easily understandable English type words, and after the program is written it is translated back by the assembler. Because of this, the cryptic element of the machine language is present in the assembly language. High-level Languages, like C, BASIC, were developed to make the writing of Application Software simpler. However it was not until the development and widespread use of C Language that system software was made in high level language. The fourth generation languages are result-oriented and include database query languages. These too have to be compiled
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Introduction to PC

or interpreted. The fifth generation languages are intended to enable users to communicate with computers using natural language - the kind of language humans use to communicate with each other. CLASSIFICATION OF SOFTWARE Software can be classified into two distinct groups: System Software and Application Software System Software The software that instruct the computer to control and manage its internal functions, like initialising the start-up, controlling external devices, organising the memory during operations and many such other activities is called System Software. The most important system software is the Operating System (OS), which truly is the soul of the system. eg. Windows 98, Windows XP . Application Software The software which performs a specific data processing job is called Application Software. It consists of programs which carry out the specific processing required for user's application such as Word Processor, Spread Sheets, and Financial Accounting or a computer-aided package. eg., MS Office, Tally, ACAD etc.

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Introduction to Operating System

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Introduction to Operating System

GENERAL Computer Hardware provides us with the means of processing and storing information. However, the 'bare' machine on its own is virtually useless. In order to make the computer perform useful work for us, it is has to be 'driven' by means of programs - software - which specify the tasks to be done. The combination of hardware and software provide a total usable system. An operating system is a program that acts as an intermediary between a user of a computer and the computer hardware. The purpose of an operating system is to provide an environment in which a user can execute programs. The primary goal of an operating system is thus to make the computer system convenient to use. A secondary goal is to use the computer hardware in an efficient manner. An operating system is an important part of almost every computer system. A computer system can be divided roughly into four components: the hardware, the operating system, the applications programs, and the users (Refer fig. 4.1).
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Us er 1

Us er 2

Us er 3

...

Us er 4

compiler

as s embler

text editor

...

databas e s ys t em

application programs OPERATING SYSTEM

c omputer h a r d wa r e

Fig. 4.1 Abstract view of the components of a computer system. 17

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Introduction to Operating System

The hardware - the central processing unit (CPU), the memory, and the input/ output (I/O) devices - provides the basic computing resources. The applications programs - such as compilers, database system, games, and business programs - define the ways in which these resources are used to solve the computing problems of the users. There may be many different users (people, machines, other computers) trying to solve different problems. Accordingly, there may be many different applications programs. The operating system controls and coordinates the use of the hardware among the various applications programs for the various users. We can view an operating system as a resource allocator. A computer system has many resources (hardware and software) that may be required to solve a problem; CPU time, memory space, file storage space, I/O devices, and so on. The operating system acts as the manager of these resources and allocates them to specific programs and users as necessary for tasks. Since there may be manypossibly conflictingrequests for resources, the operating system must decide which requests are allocated resources to operate the computer system efficiently and fairly. A slightly different view of an operating system focuses on the need to control the various I/O devices and user programs. An operating system is a control program. A control program controls the execution of user programs to prevent errors and improper use of the computer. It is especially concerned with the operation and control of I/O devices. Operating systems exist because they are a reasonable way to solve the problem of creating a usable computing system. The fundamental goal of computer systems is to execute user programs and to make solving user problems easier. Since bare hardware alone is not particularly easy to use, application programs are developed. These programs require certain common operations, such as controlling the I/O devices. The common functions of controlling and allocating resources are then brought together into one piece of software i.e.: the operating system. A more common definition of the operating system is the one program running at all times on the computer (usually called the kernel), with all the other programs, being application programs. The primary goal of an operating system is convenience for the user. Operating systems exist because they are supposed to make it easier to compute with them than without them. This view is particularly clear when you look at operating systems for small personal computers.
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Introduction to Operating System

A secondary goal is efficient operation of the computer system. This goal is particularly important for large, shared multiuser systems. These systems are typically expensive, so it is desirable to make them as efficient as possible. OS and computer architecture have had a great deal of influence on each other. To facilitate the use of the hardware, operating systems were developed. As operating systems were designed and used, it became obvious that changes in the design of the hardware could simplify them. FUNCTIONS OF OS An OS is a program that performs four basic functions. 1. Communicate, or at least provide a method for other programs to communicate, with the hardware of the PC. It's upto the OS to access the hard drives, respond to the keyboard, and output data to the monitor. 2. OS must create a user interface - a visual representation of the computer on the monitor that makes sense to the people using the computer input devices, such as mice and keyboards, to enable users to manipulate the user interface and thereby make changes to the computer. 3. OS, via the user interface, must enable users to determine the available installed programs and run, use, and shut down the program of their choice. 4. OS should enable users to add, move, and delete the installed programs and data. OPERATING SYSTEMS AND BIOS The PC is used for a number of purposes. The hardware configuration varies to some extent to suit a specific application. Still the hardware organisation and principle of operation of the PC is common to all applications. Only the software differs from one application to another. In most of the applications, the system software used is the same. It is the application software which differs. The hardware in a PC does not know the software. The BIOS is the interface between hardware and software. It is also a software but is called firmware due to its integration with hardware. Without BIOS, the PC is a dead machine. On PC's, the BIOS contains all the code required to control the keyboard, display screen, disk drivers, serial communications and a number of miscellaneous functions. The BIOS is typically placed in a ROM chip that comes with the computer it is often called a ROM BIOS. This ensures that the BIOS will always be available and will not be damaged by disk failures. It also makes it possible for a computer to boot itself. It is the BIOS which controls the hardware according to the requirements of the OS.
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Introduction to Operating System

Applications Shell Kernel

Many modern PCs have a flash BIOS, which means that the BIOS has been recorded on a flash memory chip, which can be updated if necessary. CLASSIFICATION An operating system is conceptually broken into two components:A shell and a kernel. As the name implies the shell is an outer wrapper to the kernel which in turn talks directly to the hardware. (Refer fig. 4.2). In some operating systems the shell and the kernel are completely separate entities, allowing you to run varying combinations of shell kernel (eg Unix), in others their separation is only conceptual (eg. Windows). Kernel design ideologies include monolithic kernel, microkernel and exokernel. Among commercial systems, Unix and Windows use the monolithic approach. The microkernel approach is more popular among modern systems such as QNX, BeOS, Windows NT etc. Many embedded systems use ad-hoc exokernels. TYPES OF OPERATING SYSTEMS Within the broad family of operating systems, there are generally the following types as mentioned below, categorized based on the types of computers they control and the sort of applications they support. The broad categories are: Single-user, single task - As the name implies, this operating system is designed to manage the computer so that one user can effectively do one thing at a time. DOS is a good example of a single-user, single-task operating system. Single-user, multi-tasking - This is the type of operating system most people use on their desktop and laptop computers today. Windows 98 and the MacOS are both examples of an operating system that will let a single user have several programs in operation at the same time. For eg. it's entirely possible for a Windows user to be writing a note in a word processor while downloading a file from the Internet while printing the text of an e-mail message. Multi-user - A multi-user operating system allows many different users to take advantage of the computer's resources simultaneously. The operating system must make sure that the requirements of the various users are balanced, and that each of the programs they are using has sufficient and separate resources so that a problem with one user doesn't affect the entire community of users. Unix, Windows 2000, Linux and mainframe operating systems, are examples of multi-user operating systems.

Hardware

Fig. 4.2 Relationship between the different components of OS

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BRIEF HISTORY OF DOS The history of DOS is intimately associated with that of the IBM Personal Computer (and 'compatible' computers). Towards the end of the 1980s, a number of personal computers had appeared on the market, based on 8-bit microprocessor chips such as the Intel 8080. IBM made the decision to enter this market and wisely opted to base their computer on a 16-bit processor, the Intel 8088. IBM wanted to bring the PC to the market as quickly as possible and realised that it did not have time to develop its own operating system. At that time, the operating system CP/M from Digital Research dominated the market. CP/M was written by Gary Kildall of Digital Research with whom IBM had negotiations but the negotiations did not result in an agreement. IBM then had given the contract to write the new OS to Microsoft. In 1979, a small company called Seattle Computer Products, which manufactured memory boards, decided to write its own operating software to test some of its Intel based products. This software called as QDOS (Quick and Dirty Operating System) was made by Tim Patterson of Seattle Computer Products, for their prototype Intel 8086 based computer. QDOS was based on Gary Kildall's CP/M. Patterson had bought a CP/M manual and used it as the basic to write his OS in 6 weeks, QDOS was different enough from CP/M to be considered legal. Microsoft bought the rights to QDOS for a nominal amount keeping the IBM deal a secret from Seattle Computer Products. Microsoft made slight changes to QDOS and then presented "Microsoft Disk Operating System" or MS-DOS to IBM. Bill Gates, the president of Microsoft then talked IBM into letting Microsoft retain the rights, to market MS DOS separate from the IBM PC project. The IBM PC was announced in August 1981, with version 1.0 of MS-DOS,
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referred to by IBM as simply DOS and later as PC-DOS. After IBM selected MS-DOS, more than 50 other hardware manufacturers also used it. This resulted in Bill Gates making a fortune from the licensing of MSDOS which has now been updated several times. MICROSOFT DOS Microsoft designed DOS to run on an 8086 processor. Microsoft never truly upgraded DOS to take advantage of the more advanced Intel processors' protected mode. DOS remains as it began, a single-tasking OS. The interface of DOS was command line, meaning that there was no mouse, no menus, or any graphical components. Text commands were entered from the keyboard and the computer's response appeared as text on the monitor. DOS controlled some aspects of the computer hardware particularly disk access and basic CPU operations, but it was still common to configure the video display, sound card, printer etc. for each application that would use them. DOS uses the files and directories in the following ways. DOS manifests each program and piece of data as an individual file. Each file has a name, which is stored with the file on the drive. Names are broken down into two parts: the filename and the extension. The file name can be no longer than eight characters. The extension, which is optional, can be up to three characters long. No spaces or other illegal characters (/ \ [ ] | < > + = ; , * ?) can be used in the filename or extension. The file name and extension are separated by a period, or "dot." This naming system is known as the "eight dot three" (written as "8.3") system. Here are some examples of acceptable DOS filenames: WORD.EXE SYSTEM.INI AJAY.DOC DRIVER3.SYS DILIP TRISHAL.H Here are some unacceptable DOS filenames: AJAY.EXEC WAYTOOLONG.F DILIP>CHAR.BAT .NO The extension tells the computer the type or function of the file. Program files take the extension EXE (for "executable") or COM (for "command"). Anything that
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is not a program is some form of data to support a program. Different programs use different types of data files. The extension is used to indicate which program uses that particular data file. For eg. Microsoft Word for DOS (yes, there was a Microsoft Word for DOS) uses files with the extension DOC. Changing the extension of a data file does not affect its contents, but without the proper extension, it is difficult to know which program uses it. Drives and Directories DOS assigns a drive letter to each hard drive partition and to each floppy or other disk drive. The first floppy drive is called A:, and the second, if installed, is called B:, DOS cannot support more than two floppy drives, because it supports the original IBM PC, which was designed for only two drives. Hard drives start with the letter C: and can continue to Z: if necessary. DOS uses a hierarchical directory tree to organize the contents of these drives. All files are put into groups called directories. DOS STRUCTURE: THREE MAIN FILES The DOS operating system is composed of three main files, accompanied by roughly 80 support files. The three main files are IO.SYS, MSDOS.SYS and COMMAND.COM. These files must be on the C: drive or the computer will not boot. IO.SYS handles talking to the BIOS and hardware; MSDOS.SYS is the primary DOS code, often called the kernel; and COMMAND.COM actually interprets commands typed into the computer and passes that information to MSDOS.SYS. COMMAND.COM is also called the Shell or command interpreter. The command interpreter stores a number of commands that you may enter to get work done. DOS COMMANDS DOS has two types of commands. (1) Internal Commands (2) External Commands

INTERNAL DOS COMMANDS : These commands reside in computers memory and can be executed immediately. When the DOS prompt (:>) is displayed on the screen the user can use any of these internal DOS commands. Once the DOS is loaded into the computer's memory internal DOS commands is always available to the user. The internal command routines are loaded onto the memory as a part of the boot-sequence, while the external commands routines reside as files in the disk. Commands like TIME, DATE and CLS are internal, so we didn't have to worry about where they are present in the disk. In this unit some of the commands we will learn are external commands, and therefore we must ensure that they are present in the

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disk, drive and path that we are using. The essential DOS commands are those without the knowledge of which even the basic operations of the PC will not be possible. They fall under three categories: (1) Managing directories (2) Managing files (3) Disk management Some INTERNAL DOS commands are as follows : DIR to view the contents of a directory Syntax dir {drive:}{path}{filename}{.ext}{/P}{/W}{/A{{:}attribute}} {/O{{:}sortorder}}{/S}{/B}{/L}

If no parameters are given then the contents of the current directory is listed in continuous scroll. C:\> dir A valid drive designator as drive will list the active directory of the specified drive: C:\> dir a: Similarly a pathname will list the directory specified: C:\> dir \windows\temp A filename, an extension, with or without wild card characters can be used to narrow down the display list. C:\> dir a*.* C:\> dir a*.txt C:\> dir .exe The /p /w /a following are the DIR command switches: pauses between each screen-full display. displays the listing in wide format. displays only the names of directories and files with the specified attribute. When this not used, DIR displays all files except those with hidden or system attribute. If used without any attribute all files including the hidden and system files are displayed. The following list describes the values that are used for attribute. The colon (:) is optional. Any combination of values can be used; do not separate them with spaces. h hidden files -h not hidden files s system files -s not system files d directories only -d files only a changed since last backup -a unchanged since last backup r read-only files -r not read-only files /o controls the order in which DIR sorts and displays directory names and filenames. If omitted, DIR displays in the order of occurrence in the directory. If used without the sortorder, DIR displays first sorted directory names and
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/s /b

/l

then the sorted filenames. The colon (:) is optional. The following list describes the values used for sortorder. Any combination of values can be used; do not separate these with spaces. n by name (A to Z) -n by name (Z to A) e by extension (A to Z) -e by extension (Z to A) d by date-time (earliest first) -d by date-time (latest first) s by size (smallest to largest) -a by size (largest to smallest) g directories first -g files first lists all occurrence of filename in specified directory and its subdirectories. lists, one per line, each directory name or filename, (including the extension). Suppresses the heading and the summary information. The /B switch overrides the /W switch. displays unsorted directory contents in lowercase. Does not, however, convert extended characters into lower case.

CD to change from one directory to another Syntax cd {drive:}{path}{..}

The disk on each drive of the system has a current directory. If there are two floppy disks and a hard disk, there are three current directories. If a disk has no subdirectories then the root directory is always the current directory. If the disk has subdirectories the CD command is used to move from one directory to another. If drive is other than the current drive, CD changes the current directory in that drive to root directory or to the path directory specified as parameter, but does not move to that directory. A:\> cd c: A:\>cd c:\word Hence it should be clear that to actually move to another directory, it must be in the path on the current drive. To return to the root directory from any position in the tree, only the backslash parameter needs to be issued. Remember, the first backslash in the path refers to the root directory. C:\WORD> cd \ To return to the parent directory from the current child directory, use double dot (..) parameter. This will also return to root directory if the current directory is its child. Similarly, to move from parent directory to child directory, the backslash need not be specified, infact this allows omitting the full path designator: C:\WORD\LOOKUP> cd.. C:\WORD> cd.. C:\> cd word C:\WORD> cd lookup
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To move directly from any directory to another directory, irrespective of its position in the tree, the full path needs to be specified: MD to make a new directory Syntax md {drive:}{..}{path}{name}

To create a new subdirectory from the current directory the required parameter is the name: C:\> md data C:\PROGRAM> md data To make new subdirectory in any directory, other than the current directory, the path must be provided. If the subdirectory is to be created in another drive the drive must be specified: C:\> md \word\temp C:\> md ..\word\temp C:\WORD> md \temp C:\> md a:\temp The name of the new directory must be unique in the directory it is being created, however more than one directory with the same name can exist in different paths. RD to remove or delete a directory Syntax rd {drive:}{..}{path}{name}

To delete a directory which is the subdirectory of the current directory the required parameter is the name: C:\> rd data C:\PROGRAM> rd data To delete directory which is not a subdirectory of the current directory, the path must be provided. If the subdirectory in another drive is to be deleted the drive must be specified: C:\> rd \word\temp C:\> rd ..\word\temp C:\WORD> rd \temp C:\> rd a:\temp The most important aspect of the RD command is that the directory to be removed must be empty which means no files or directories must be present in it. The RD command will not act on the current directory. If after all the files and directories have been removed and the target directory is not active, and yet RD does not
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delete the directory then there would be some hidden or read-only file still present in it, which must be first removed. TYPE displays the contents of a text file Syntax type {drive:}{path}{filename} C:\> type autoexec.bat COPY copies one or more files to another location Syntax
copy {CON}{/A|/B}{{source {/A|/B}}{+source {/A|/B}}{+ ...}} {destination {/A|/B}}{/V}{printerport}

Specify the location and the name of the file or set of files to copy the as source parameter. The source can consist of drive designator and colon, a directory name, a filename, or combination. The destination correspondingly specifies the location and name of the file or set of files to which to copy. The destination can consist of a drive designator and a colon, a directory name, a filename or combination. A:\>copy thisfile.doc c:thatfile.txt A:\>copy thisfile.doc c: A:\>copy thisfile.doc c:\word\thatfile.txt A:\>copy *.* c: A:\>copy c:*.doc A:\>copy c:\thisfile.doc c:\word\thatfile.txt A:\>copy thisfile.txt c:thatfile.txt To copy a file directly from the keyboard or to create a file C:\>copy con runprog To copy a disk file onto a printer, the printer port name has to be provided, normally your printer would be connected to the port LPT1. Using CON and printer port name you can copy a file directly from the keyboard to the printer: C:\> copy thatfile.txt lpt1 A:\> copy con lpt1 REN changes the name of a file or files Syntax ren {drive:}{path}{ filename}{newname}

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If the files to rename are not in the current directory, the drive and path will need to be specified. The ren command changes the name of file(s) in place, and therefore renaming across directories is not possible. The filename is the existing name of the file(s) and newname is the changed name. Wild card characters can be used: C:\> ren thisfile.txt thatfile.txt C:\> ren a:thisfile.txt thatfile.txt C:\> ren *.txt *.bxt C:\> rename thisfile.txt thatfile.txt DEL deletes specified a file or a group of files Syntax del {drive:}{path}{ filename}{/p}

If the files to del are not in the current directory, the drive and path will need to be specified. The filename is the name of the file(s). Wild card characters can be used: C:\> del thisfile.txt C:\> del a:thisfile.txt C:\> del *.txt C:\> del a*.* C:\> del \word\lookup\*.txt C:\> erase thisfile.txt Use the /p to make del issue a prompt for confirmation before deleting the specified file(s). CLS Clears the screen Syntax cls The CLS command is invoked without parameters. It will erase all characters on the screen and display the operating system prompt, if any on the first line on the display. EXTERNAL DOS COMMANDS External DOS commands are executable programs with .COM or .EXE file name extension and to use any of the external DOS commands, the command must be available on the floppy disk or the hard disk drive. Some External DOS Commands

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EDIT Starts a full-screen text editor. Syntax edit drive:\path\file /d

EDIT is a menu-driven text editor. If you invoke EDIT without parameters the editor appears without a default open file. Alternatively, you may specify a file for EDIT to open when it loads. Eg. edit MY-TEXT.FIL starts the editor with MY-TEXT.FIL as the default. If the file doesn't already exist, the editor creates it. XCOPY copies files and directories, including sub-directories. Syntax xcopy source{destination}{/A|/M}{/D:date}{/P} {/S{/E}}{/V }{/W}

The source specifies the location and the names of the files you want to copy, it must include either a drive or a path. The destination specifies the target location of the files you want to copy. Destination can include a drive designator and colon, a directory name, or a combination: A:\> a: b: C:\> c:\program\database a: C:\> c: \backup If the destination directory does not exist XCOPY prompt for creation of a new directory in the specified path. If the prompt is to be avoided a backslash must be added at the end of the destination directory; XCOPY will go ahead and create a new directory. A:\> xcopy a: c:\word\temp A:\> xcopy a: c:\word\temp\ If no destination is given then XCOPY copies files from the source to the current drive and current directory, provided of course the source is not the current directory. A:\> xcopy c:\word\temp C:\PROGRAM\DATABASE> xcopy c:\word\temp XCOPY supports the following switches, that enhance the use of the command: /a copies those source files that have their archive file attributes set. This switch does not modify the archive file attribute of the source file. /m copies source files that have their archive file attributes set. Unlike /A, the /M switch turns off archive file attributes in the files specified in source.
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/p /s /e /v /w

prompts for user confirmation before creating each destination file. copies directories and sub-directories, but ignores if they are empty. If this switch is omitted, XCOPY works within a single directory. copies all sub-directories even if they are empty. This switch must be used along with the /S switch. verifies each file as it gets written to the destination file to make sure that the destination file is identical to the source files. displays the following message and waits for user response before starting to copy files: Press any key to begin copying file(s)

DELTREE This command removes a directory, file and subdirectories. Syntax deltree /switch drive: \path

Use the DELTREE command to quickly remove an unwanted directory plus all files on it, and all subdirectories nested below it, using a single command. deltree C: \XYZ prompts for confirmation and, if you enter Y, deletes the \XYZ directory and all files in this directory. ATTRIB displays or changes file attributes Syntax attrib {+R|-R}{+H|-H}{+A|-A}{+S|-S} {{drive:}{path}{filename}}{/ S } To display the file attributes, only the file location parameters are used, whereas to set or remove the file attribute switches are to be specified before file location parameters. C:\> attrib a:onefile.doc C:\> attrib a:*.* C:\> attrib The following are the ATTRIB command switches +resets the read-only file attribute. -r clears the read-only file attribute. +a sets the archive file attribute. -a clears the archive file attribute. +h sets the hidden file attribute. -h clears the hidden file attribute. +s sets the system file attribute. -s clears the system file attribute.
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/s

processes files in the current directory and all of its subdirectories. Wildcard characters can be used with the filename parameter to display or change the attributes of a group of files. If a file has a system of hidden attribute set, the attribute must first be cleared before the change can be made.

FORMAT prepares the disk to accept DOS files Syntax format {drive:}{/V{:label}{/Q}{/U}{/F:size}{/B}{/S} {/T:tracks}{/N:sectors}{/L}{/4}{/8}

The FORMAT command creates a new root directory and file allocation table for the disk. It can also check for bad areas on the disk, and it deletes all data on the disk. In order that DOS is able to use a new disk, it must first be FORMATTED. The drive parameter specifies the drive containing the disk to be formatted. C:\> format a: If the following switches are not mentioned, determine the default format for the disk.
FORMAT

uses the drive type to

/v:label specifies the volume label. A volume label identifies the disk and can be of maximum 11 characters. If you omit the switch, or use it without specifying a label. MS-DOS prompts you for the volume label after formatting is complete. If you FORMAT more than one disk using only one FORMAT command, all of the disks will be given the same volume label. The /V switch is not compatible with the /8 switch. /q deletes the file allocation table and the root directory of a previously formatted disk, but does not scan the disk for bad areas. You should use this switch to format only disks which have been previously formatted and which you know are in good condition. specifies an unconditional format operation for a floppy disk or a hard disk. Unconditional formatting destroys all the existing data on a disk and prevents it from later unformatting the disk. You should use /U if you have received read or write errors during use of the disk. copies the operating system files io.sys, ms-dos.sys and command.com from your systems startup drive to the newly formatted disk. If format cannot find the operating system files, it prompts you to insert a system disk.
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REDIRECTIONS MS-DOS receives input from your keyboard and sends output to your screen. Sometimes it is important to redirect the input or the output to a file or a printer. For example, you might want to redirect a directory listing from the screen to a file. The greater-than (>) sign sends the output to a file or a device, such as a printer. The less-than (<) sign takes the input needed for a command from a file rather than from the keyboard. The double greater-than (>>) sign adds the output from a command at the end of a file without deleting the information already in the file. The pipe (|) is used to redirect output from one command to another command. For example: C:\> dir > dirlist.txt C:\> dir > lpt1 C:\> sort < list.txt C:\> dir >> dirlist.txt Another command which uses the redirection symbol is given below. MORE displays one screen of output at a time. Syntax more < {drive:}{path}{filename} or {command} | more

The more command reads standard input from a pipe or redirected file and displays one screen of information. This command is commonly used to view long files. When using a redirection character (<), you must specify a filename as the source. When using the pipe (|), you can use such commands as dir, sort and type. FILES OF DOS DOS provides two special text files for adding control to new hardware: device drivers via CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT Device Drivers The most common way to add BIOS is through special files called device driver. A device driver is little more than a file containing all the programming necessary to talk to a new device. Device drivers usually come from the same company that makes the hardware. If you buy a sound card or network card, it will come with a diskette or CD-ROM containing the necessary file(s). Most DOS device driver files use the extension SYS. Some eg., of DOS device drivers are DRIVER.SYS, 3C509.SYS, and CLTV3.SYS.
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CONFIG.SYS When the computer is turned on, DOS checks for a CONFIG.SYS file and adjusts your computer's configuration according to commands contained in that file. The CONFIG.SYS file is always found on the main directory of the DOS boot disk. If you have a hard disk system, it is found on drive C, although you can boot from a floppy disk even when using a computer equipped with a hard disk. DOS is almost always on drive A when using a floppy disk-based microcomputer. Device drivers load through a special file called CONFIG.SYS, a text file that must be in the root directory of the C: drive. The most common way to add device drivers in DOS is first to copy the device driver onto the C: drive from the floppy drive or CD-ROM (either manually using the COPY command, or automatically by running an installation program that does the copying for you). Either way, the result is a device driver on the C: drive, usually in its own directory. Once the device driver is copies to the C: drive a line is added to the CONFIG.SYS file. This line starts with DEVICE= or DEVICE-HIGH=, followed by the path/name of the device driver. Config.sys is used for much purposes than simply loading device drivers. DOS uses a large number of configuration commands to set up such as defining the buffer space during disk I/O process, the size of stack memory, to define certain space for monitoring frequently accessible files and to define any other shell other than the "command.com". Batch File DOS lets you create and store a series of DOS commands that are acted upon (or "executed") automatically one line at a time in the order entered. The file containing the series of DOS commands is called a batch file. These files must have the extension .BAT and contain legitimate DOS commands on each line. If the batch file is given the special filename AUTOEXEC.BAT, it is executed automatically when you first start your computer. If the batch filename is given another name, like CMS.BAT, you must type CMS and press Enter for the commands in the batch file to run. AUTOEXEC.BAT This file automatically runs (or executes) the command lines included within the file when your system is turned on. Each command encountered in this file is run as if you typed it directly from your keyboard. Like CONFIG.SYS, DOS "looks" for the AUTOEXEC.BAT file during the boot process.

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LAB EXERCISE 5.1 : Basic DOS Commands Objective: To be familiar with the different Internal and External DOS Commands. Tasks: 1. Create the directory structure as shown in the fig. 5.1. 2. Check the data and time of your machine. 3. What is version of DOS that you are using. 4. Create a file "Intro95" into "W95" directory. 5. Create a file "biodata" into "network" directory. 6. View the contents of "Intro95" file. 7. Create a file "TCP/IP" into "network" directory. 8. Copy contents of "W95" to "PCE". 9. Copy all files with extension DLL from any other directory to "DBA". 10. Rename file "biodata" to "resume". 11. View all the files including subdirectories in "student" (widthwise and pagewise). 12. Check all hidden files at 'C' prompt. 13. Delete the directory "nettech". 14. Delete all the files starting with 'S' from directory "network". 15. Install doskey on your machine. 16. Copy contents of directory "student" to "student1" including all its subdirectories and empty directories. 17. Check attributes of all the files in root. 18. Hide the file "intro95". Can you reset the same attribute? 19. Format the given drive such a way that the previous data cannot be recovered (format a: /u). 20. How you will format the given floppy quickly? (format a: /q) 21. What is /q and /s option in format commands. 22. Make the given floppy bootable using sys command. (sys a:) 20. Delete the directory "student 1" with all its subdirectories. 21. Change the contents of resume file using MS-DOS editor. 22. a. Create a file "X.bat" with the given contents using DOS Editor.
date dir/p pause cls echo "your system is affected by virus, please reboot the machine".

Fig. 5.1 Directory Structure to be created

b. Executee C:\>x.bat on the machine.


Write the conclusion.
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Microsoft Windows Vista

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Microsoft Windows Vista

Windows Vista Client Operating systems control the functions performed by a computer. For eg, the operating system on your computer controls the input from the keyboard and mouse to your computer, the opening and closing of programs, the transfer of information to a printer, the organization of the files on your computer, and the screen display. To function, every computer must have an operating system. Windows Vista is an operating system. It was released by the Microsoft Corporation in late 2006. Windows Vista comes in several versions: Home Basic, Home Premium, Business, Ultimate, and Enterprise. The features available to you depend on the version of Windows Vista you have. Windows Vista Enterprise is for large global organizations and is only available to organizations with desktops covered by Software Assurance agreements or organizations with a Microsoft Enterprise Agreement that includes the Windows desktop component. Windows Vista Home Basic is the entry-level edition. Geared toward home computer users, Home Basic has features that allow you to search your computer, search the Web, browse the Internet, view photos, send and retrieve e-mail, and set parental controls. Windows Defender and Windows Firewall are included with Windows Vista Home Basic. Windows Defender helps protect your computer from spyware. Spyware is malicious software you install on your computer inadvertently or is put on your computer without your consent. Windows Firewall helps protect your computer from malicious software and unauthorized access to your computer. Windows Vista Home Premium has most of the features found in Windows Vista Home Basic plus additional features such as Aero, Windows Media Center, Windows Meeting Space, Windows Mobility Center, Windows SideShow, and Tablet PC support. Windows Aero features translucent windows and smooth animations, including the capability to do three-dimensional flips through open windows. It also provides a thumbnail preview of the contents of open
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windows when you pause your mouse pointer over the window's identifier on the taskbar or Alt-Tab through windows. With Windows Media Center, you can record and watch TV shows, listen to Internet and FM radio, view home movies, create slide shows, and burn CDs or DVDs. You can use Windows Meeting Space to set up meetings in which you can share documents, programs, or your desktop with others. Windows Mobility Center provides a convenient location for you to adjust the settings for your mobile PC. With Windows SideShow, you can send information from your computer to other devices such as mobile phones, hand-held computers, and TVs. A tablet PC is a mobile computer that you can interact with by writing on the screen or by using your finger or a pen. You can use Windows Vista Premium with a tablet PC. Windows Vista Business is designed for small businesses. It is simple to use and has mechanisms that protect your information from unauthorized viewing. Windows Ultimate includes all the features of Windows Vista Home Premium and Windows Vista Business and has extra features such as DreamScene, Language Packs, and BitLocker Drive Encryption. With DreamScene, you can use full-motion video as your wallpaper. Language packs allow you to install multiple languages on a single PC. BitLocker Drive Encryption encrypts your data to protect it from unauthorized viewing.
Windows Vist a Feat ur e Compar ison Featur es Windows Defender Windows Firewall Instant Search Network and Sharing Center Internet Explorer 7 Parental Controls Windows Aero Mobility Center Tablet PC Support Windows Meeting Space Windows Sideshow Windows Media Center Windows Complete Backup and Restore Windows Fax and Scan Scheduled Backup Remote Desktop Connection Window BitLocker Drive Encryption Windows DVD Maker Windows Movie Maker in High Definition X X X Basic X X X X X X Home Pr emium X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X B u s in e s s X X X X X Ultima te X X X X X

If you do not have Windows Vista or if the version of Windows Vista you have does not have the features you need, you can upgrade your operating system. 36

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Microsoft Windows Vista

What is a desktop? If you are using Windows Vista, after you start your computer the first thing you see is the desktop. The desktop is your work area. The following table explains the various features of the Windows Vista desktop.

Fig. 6.1 Windows Desktop

Feature Taskbar

Explanation By default, the taskbar is located on the bottom edge of the desktop. You can click the taskbar and drag it to other locations. The Start button, active program buttons, icons for quick access to programs, and the notification area are located on the taskbar.

Recycle Bin

When you delete an object, Windows Vista sends it to the Recycle Bin. You can restore objects from the Recycle Bin or you can permanently delete them.

Shortcut icon Icons with an arrow in the lower-left corner are shortcut icons. Click the icon for quick access to the object it represents (program, document, printer, and so on). Program, folder, and document icons Sidebar Program, folder, and document icons do not have an arrow in the lower-left corner. These icons represent the actual objects and provide direct access to the objects. Be careful: When you delete a program, folder, or document icon, you are deleting the actual program, folder, or document. The default placement for the Windows Vista sidebar is along the right side of your desktop. You can use the sidebar to display gadgets. Gadgets are small programs with which you can display a clock, post notes, track stocks, or perform other miscellaneous tasks.
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What is a taskbar? The taskbar is a long bar that by default runs along the bottom of your desktop. The Start button, Quick Launch toolbar, active program buttons, and the notification area are located on the taskbar. 1 Start 2 Quick Launch Toolbar 3 Active Program Buttons 4 Notification Area You click the Start button to display the Start menu. You use the Start menu to open programs and to perform other functions such as searching for files.

Fig. 6.2 taskbar properties

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On the taskbar, right next to the Start button is the Quick Launch toolbar. Using the Quick Launch toolbar, you can open a program or file simply by clicking its icon. To add an icon to the Quick Launch toolbar: 1. Locate the program you want to add. 2. Right-click. A context menu appears. 3. Click Add to Quick Launch. Vista adds the program to the Quick Launch toolbar. 1 Show Desktop 2 Switch Between Windows

Fig. 6.3 Quick Launch

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Two icons appear on the Quick Launch toolbar by default: the Show Desktop icon and the Switch between Windows icon. You can display the desktop by clicking the Show Desktop icon. You can use the Switch between Windows icon to display all open windows in 3D flip if your version of windows has Aero or you can use the Switch between Windows icon to tab through open windows if your version of Vista does not have Aero.
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Fig. 6.4 Active Program Button

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Fig. 6.5 Notification Area

When using Vista, each program, document, or other type of file opens in its own window. You can have multiple programs, documents, and files open at a given time. A button for each open program, file, or document window displays on the taskbar. You can quickly move from one open file to another open file by clicking the files button. If you have a large number of files open, Vista may group all files of a given type together. For example, if you have several Microsoft Word documents open, Vista may group them together. When you click the button for Microsoft Word, Vista displays a menu of open Word files. You can click the document you want to open. The notification area is located on the right side of the task bar. It displays several icons and the current time. The icons that display depend on the way in which your computer is configured. You can move your mouse pointer over an icon to see the current settings for the option the icon represents. In many cases, you can click the icon to change the settings. For example, the Volume icon is located in the notification area. When you pause your over the Volume icon the volume setting for the speakers on your computer appears. You can click the icon to adjust the volume. When I finish working with my computer, what should I do? When you finish working with your computer, you should put your computer in sleep mode: 1. Click the Start button. The Start menu appears. 2. Click the Power button. Vista puts your computer in the sleep mode.

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Fig. 6.6 Put your computer in Sleep Mode 39

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When you click the Power button, Vista saves all of your work, turns off the display screen, and puts your computer in sleep mode. To indicate that your computer is in sleep mode, some of the lights on your computer may blink and/or change color. What is sleep mode? In sleep mode, your computer consumes very little electricity. When you need to use your computer again, you can press your computer's power-on switch to resume work quickly. Instead of shutting your computer down when you are not using your computer, you should put your computer in sleep mode. I am using a laptop. Won't putting my computer in sleep mode drain my computer's battery? A sleeping computer uses very little energy. Microsoft, the maker of Windows Vista, recommends that you put your computer, whether a desktop or a laptop, in sleep mode when you are not using it. A sleeping computer should not drain your computer's battery. However, if your power becomes dangerously low, Vista saves your work to your hard drive and then shuts your computer down. How do I wake up my computer? To wake up your computer, press your computer's power-on switch. Do I ever need to shut down my computer? Generally, when you are not using your computer, you should put your computer in sleep mode. However, if you are making changes to your computer hardware, such as installing memory or adding a hard drive, you should shut your computer down. You may also need to shut your computer down when you add hardware to your system, such as a new printer.
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How do I shut down my computer? 1. Click the Start button. The Start menu appears. 2. Click the arrow in the lower-right corner of the start menu. A menu appears. 3. Click Shut Down. Your computer shuts down. When you need to restart your computer, press your computer's power-on switch.

Fig. 6.7 Shut down your Computer 40

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What is a program? You use programs, also referred to as software, to perform tasks when using a computer. For example, if you want to use your computer to write a letter, you can use a word-processing program such as Microsoft Word. If you want to keep accounting records, you can use an accounting program such as QuickBooks. Program? To start a program: 1. Click the Start button, located in the lowerleft corner of your screen. A menu showing the programs you use most frequently appears on the left, and commonly performed tasks appear on the right. 2. Click the program you want to open. Vista starts the program. I do not see the program I want to open. What should I do? After you click the Start button, a search box appears just above it. You can use the search box to locate programs or anything else that is located on your computer, including documents that contain the word you type. Type the name of the program, e-mail, file, or whatever you are looking for in the Search box. Vista searches your computer. The results of the search appear on the Start menu. When you see the program you are looking for, you can click the program name to open the program. Is there a menu that lists all my programs? 1. Click the Start button. The Start menu appears. 2. Click All Programs. A listing of programs and program folders appears. 3. Click a program to open a program, or click a folder to open a folder and then click the program name. Vista starts the program.
Note: You may not be able to view all of your programs on the screen at one time. Click and drag the scrollbar up or down to change which programs are

Fig. 6.8 Menu showing the program


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Fig. 6.9 The Search Box

in view
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Fig. 6.10 Customize Start Menu


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Can I customize the Start menu? You can customize the Start menu to suit your personal style. If you right-click the Start menu, a context menu appears (a context menu performs an action related specifically to the object you click). You can click an option on the context menu to perform all of the actions discussed in the next several questions. How do I add a program to the first page of the Start menu? 1. Find the program name in the All Programs list. 2. Right-click the program name. A context menu appears. 3. Click Pin To Start Menu. The program appears on the first page of the Start menu above the horizontal line.

Fig. 6.11 42

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How do I remove a program from the first page of the Start menu? 1. Right-click the program name. A context menu appears. 2. Click Unpin From Start Menu. Vista removes the program from the first page of the Start menu. If the program is located below the horizontal line, right-click the program name and then click Remove from This List. How do I copy an item that is located on the Start menu or the Program menu? 1. Right-click the item. A context menu appears. 2. Click Copy. Vista copies the program. You can paste the copy to your desktop to create a desktop shortcut. 1. Right-click your desktop. 2. Click Paste. Vista creates a desktop shortcut. How do I rename an item on the Start menu or the Program menu? 1. Right-click the item. A context menu appears. 2. Click Rename. Vista highlights the name. 3. Type the new name. 4. Press Enter. Vista changes the name.
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How can I quickly locate files and folders? You can use the Vista Search feature to locate documents, folders, pictures, music, and emails that are located on your computer. You can also use the Vista Search feature to locate a document that includes a particular word or phrase. When you click Search on the Start menu, the Search window appears. A search field is located in the upper-right corner of the window. In the search field, type the name of the file or folder you are looking
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Fig. 6.12 Locate files and folders

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for, the date it was last modified, or even the author of the file. As you type, Vista searches for the file. Vista also provides you with a several options to narrow your search. You can click All to search everything, E-mail to search e-mail, Document to search documents, and so on. 1. Click the Start button. 2. Click Search. The Search dialog box appears. 3. Type the filename, the folder name, the date the file was last modified, or the author of the file in the Search field. As you type, Vista attempts to locate the file. The results of the search appear in the window. You can click the filename to open the file. By default, vista searches indexed locations. Indexed locations are locations that are stored in your Personal folder. To close the Search window, click the X in the upper-right corner.
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What does the Advanced Search option do?

Fig. 6.13 Advance Search option


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In the Search Explorer window, you can click the button next to the words Advanced Search to display several options with which you can refine your search. The advanced search option enables you to search by date, location, file size, or property.

Fig. 6.14 44

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Field Date Location Size Property

Entry Type Find any file that was created or modified on, before, or after a specified date. Specify where you want to look. Indexed locations are locations that are stored in your Personal folder. Specify that you want to look for files that are above or below a certain size. Limit your search to files that have a specific name, tag, or author.

To close the Search window, click the X in the upper-right corner. What is the Most Recently Used Document list? As you work, Windows Vista tracks the files and programs you have used. It lists these files and programs on the Most Recently Used Document list. To view the list: 1. Click the Start button. 2. Click Recent Items on the right side of the Start menu. A list of recent files and programs appears. To open a file listed on the Most Recently Used Document list, click the filename. How do I set the number of files that display on my Most Recently Used Document list? 1. Right-click the Start button. A context menu appears. 2. Click Properties. The Taskbar and Start Menu Properties dialog box appears. 3. Click the Start Menu tab. 4. Click Customize. The Customize Start Menu dialog box appears. 5. Type the number of files you want Vista to display in the Number of Recent Programs to Display field. You can enter any number between 0 and 30. 6. Click OK. The Customize Start Menu dialog box closes. 7. Click Apply. 8. Click OK. Taskbar and Start Menu Properties dialog box closes and Vista resets the number of files that display on the Most Recently Used Document list. How do I disable my Most Recently Used Document list? 1. Right-click the Start button. A context menu appears. 2. Click Properties. The Taskbar and Start Menu Properties dialog box appears. 3. Click the Start Menu tab. 4. Deselect Store and Display a List of Recently Opened Files.
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5. Deselect Store and Display a List of Recently Opened Programs. 6. Click Apply. 7. Click OK. Vista clears and stops maintaining your most recently used document list. Where are the games? Several games are included with Windows Vista. To access the games: 1. Click the Start button, which is located in the lower-left corner of the screen. The Start menu appears. 2. Click Games. The Games Explorer window appears. 3. Double-click the game you want to play. The game starts. How do I change the date and/or time that displays on my computer? You can use the Date and Time dialog box to change both the date and the time your computer displays. 1. Click the Start button. The Start menu appears. 2. Click Control panel. The Control Panel appears. 3. Click Clock, Language, and Region. The Clock, Language, and Region pane appears. 4. Click Set Time and Date. The Time and Date dialog box appears. 5. Click Change Date and Time. The User Account Control dialog box may appear, if so click Continue. The Date and Time Settings dialog box appears.
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Fig. 6.15

To change the day of the month: Click the day of the month you want. To change the month:

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1. Click the month and year. All of the months of the year display. 2. Click the month you want. Vista changes the month. To change the year:
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Fig. 6.16

1. Click the month and year. All the months of the year appear. 2. Click the year. A list of years appears. 3. Click the year you want. If you do not see the year you want, use the arrow keys on your keyboard to scroll forward or backward through the list. 4. Click OK. How do I change my Time Zone? 1. Click the Start button. The Start menu appears. 2. Click Control Panel. The Control Panel window appears. 3. Click Clock, Language, and Region. The Clock, Language, and Region dialog box appears. 4. Click Change the Time Zone. The Date and Time dialog box appears. 5. Click Change Time Zone. 6. Click the down-arrow on the Time Zone field and then select the correct time zone. 7. Click OK. The Time Zone Settings dialog box closes. 8. Click OK. The Date and Time dialog box closes. Vista changes the time zone on your computer. If you want your computer to automatically adjust for daylight savings time, click the Automatically Adjust Clock for Daylight Savings Time checkbox. How do I install a new printer? A USB port is a socket on your computer that allows you to plug devices such as a printer, digital camera, or scanner into your computer. If your printer can

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be connected to your computer via a USB port, Vista may be able to automatically install your printer. To add a network, Bluetooth, or wireless printer: 1. Click the Start button. The Start menu appears. 2. Click Control Panel. The Control Panel window appears. 3. Click Hardware and Sound. The Hardware and Sound window appears. 4. Click Add a Printer. The Add Printer Wizard appears. 5. Click Add a Network, Wireless, or Bluetooth. The Add Printer Wizard finds all available printers. 6. Select the printer you want to install. 7. Follow the steps outlined by the wizard to complete the installation. How do I cancel a print job? 1. Click the Start button. The Start menu appears. 2. Click Control Panel. The Control Panel window appears. 3. Click Hardware and Sound. The Hardware and Sound window appears. 4. Click Printers. The Printers window appears. 5. Double-click the printer you are using. The printer's dialog box appears. 6. Click the job you want to stop. If you want to stop more than one job, hold down the Ctrl key while you click the additional jobs. 7. Click Document, which is located on the menu bar. A drop-down menu appears. 8. Click Cancel. You asked if you are sure you want to cancel the print job. 9. Click Yes. Vista cancels the print job. When you start a print job, a print icon may appear on the taskbar in the notification area. You can click the icon to open the printer's dialog box mention in step 5. How do I cancel every print job? 1. Click the Start button. The Start menu appears. 2. Click Control Panel. The Control Panel window appears. 3. Click Hardware and Sound. The Hardware and Sound window appears. 4. Click Printers. The Printers window appears. 5. Double-click the printer you are using. The printer's window appears. 6. Click Printer, which is located on the menu bar. 7. Click Cancel All Documents. The document you are printing may finish, but Windows Vista cancels all other documents.
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How do I temporarily stop selected jobs from printing? 1. Click the Start button. The Start menu appears. 2. Click Control Panel. The Control Panel window appears. 3. Click Hardware and Sound. The Hardware and Sound window appears. 4. Click Printers. The Printers window appears. 5. Double-click the printer you are using. The printer's window appears. 6. Right-click the document you want to pause. A menu appears. 7. Click Pause Printing. Vista pauses the printing of your document. How do I restart print jobs I temporarily stopped? 1. Click the Start button. The Start menu appears. 2. Click Control Panel. The Control Panel window appears. 3. Click Hardware and Sound. The Hardware and Sound window appears. 4. Click Printer. The Printers window appears. 5. Double-click the printer you are using. The Printer window appears. 6. Right-click the document that you want to resume printing. A menu appears. 7. Click Resume. The document starts printing again. What is a desktop shortcut? A desktop shortcut, usually represented by an icon, is a small file that points to a program, folder, document, or Internet location. Clicking on a shortcut icon takes you directly to the object to which the shortcut points. Shortcut icons contain a small arrow in their lower-left corner. Shortcuts are merely pointers; deleting a shortcut does not delete the item to which the shortcut points. How do I create a desktop shortcut? If the item is located on the Start menu: 1. Click Start. The Start menu appears. 2. Locate the item to which you want to create a shortcut. If the item is located on a submenu, go to the submenu. 3. Right-click the item. A context menu appears. 4. Click Send To. A submenu appears. 5. Click Desktop (Create Shortcut). Vista creates a shortcut to the item. If the item is visible in the Windows Explorer: 1. Open Windows Explorer. 2. Locate the item for which you want to create a shortcut. 3. Right-click the item. A context menu appears. 4. Click Send To. A submenu appears. 5. Click Desktop (Create Shortcut). Vista creates a shortcut to the item
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How do I create a desktop shortcut to a Web page? If you are using Internet explorer: 1. Click the icon that precedes the URL on the address bar. 2. Drag the icon to your desk top. Vista creates the shortcut. Now, when you click on the shortcut, the Web page will open. How do I turn a Web link into a desktop shortcut? 1. Click the link in your browser window (usually underlined text) and drag it to the desktop. An icon appears on your desktop. 2. Click the icon to go directly to the link's destination. If your browser is not open, clicking the icon starts the browser. How does the Create Shortcut Wizard work?

Fig. 6.17
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Fig. 6.17 Create a desktop shortcut to a Web page 50

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You can use the Create Shortcut Wizard to add a shortcut to your desktop. 1. Right-click the desktop. A context menu appears. 2. Click New. A submenu appears. 3. Click Shortcut. The Create Shortcut dialog box appears. 4. Type in the location of the item to which you want to create a shortcut. Alternatively, browse to find the item. 5. Click Next. The next Create Shortcut dialog box appears. 6. Accept the default name or type in a new name. 7. Click Finish. Vista creates the shortcut. How do I rename a desktop shortcut? The name of the desktop shortcut displays below its icon. For example, if you create a shortcut to the program Microsoft Word, the name Microsoft Word displays below the icon. To rename a shortcut: 1. Right-click the shortcut. A context menu appears. 2. Click Rename. 3. Type a new name. 4. Press Enter. Vista renames the icon. I have a shortcut that opens a program on my desktop. How do I add it to the Start menu? 1. Right-click the shortcut icon. A menu appears. 2. Click Pin To Start menu. The program appears on the Start menu, above the horizontal line. How do I change the icon associated with an object on the desktop? 1. Right-click the icon. The context menu appears. 2. Click Properties. The Properties dialog box appears. 3. Click the Change Icon button. The Change Icon dialog box appears. 4. Click the icon of your choice. 5. Click OK. The Change Icon dialog box closes. 6. Click Apply. 7. Click OK. Vista closes the Properties dialog box. Vista changes the icon. Note: Not all icons can be changed. If you do not see the Change Icon button or if the change icon button is dimmed, the icon cannot be changed. How do I delete a desktop shortcut? 1. Click the shortcut. 2. Press the Delete key. Vista asks if you are sure you want to delete the
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shortcut. 3. Click Yes. Remember, shortcuts have an arrow in the lower-left corner. If the icon you delete does not have an arrow in the lower-left corner, it is not a shortcut and deleting the icon deletes the object. What is wallpaper?
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Wallpaper is the background that displays on your desktop. How do I change my wallpaper? 1. Click the Start button. 2. Click Control Panel, which is located on the right side of the Start menu. The Control panel appears. 3. Click Change the Desktop Background. It is listed under Appearance and Personalization. 4. Select the wallpaper you want from the ones that

Fig. 6.19 Change my Wallpaper

appear or click the down-arrow in the picture location field to select another wallpaper category. Note: If you would like to display an image you created, you can click Browse to find the image. 5. Click to select how you want your image to appear on the screen. Choose from the following:

Option Center Tile Stretch

Explanation Place the image in the center of the screen. Have the image display as tiles across and down the screen. Stretch the image so the image covers the entire screen.
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What is a font? A font is a set of characters represented in a single typeface. Each character within a font is created by using the same basic style. Can you explain font size? Fonts are measured in points. There are 72 points to an inch. The number of points assigned to a font is based on the distance from the top to the bottom of its longest character. How do I install a new font? You must purchase or otherwise obtain the font you want to install. Then: 1. Click the Start button. 2. Click Control Panel. 3. Click Appearance and Personalization. 4. Click Install or Remove a Font, which is located under Fonts. The Fonts window appears. 5. Click File, which is located on the menu bar of the Fonts window. Press the Alt key if you do not see the menu bar. 6. Click Install New Font. 7. Specify the drive and folder where the font you want to install is currently located. The fonts appear in the List of Fonts box. 8. Highlight the font you want to install. 9. Select Copy Fonts To Fonts Folder (this puts a copy of the font you are installing in the Fonts folder). 10. Click Install. If you are prompted for permission to continue, click Continue. Vista installs the font. 11. Click Close. The Add Fonts dialog box closes. What is the Character Map? The Character Map displays the characters available in a selected font. To view the Character Map dialog box: 1. Click the Start button. 2. Click All Programs. The All Programs menu appears. 3. Click Accessories. A submenu appears. 4. Click System Tools. A submenu appears. 5. Click Character Map

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The dialog box shown here appears

Fig. 6.20 The Character Map

6. Select a font from the Font field drop-down menu. The characters of the font appear in the boxes in the center of the window. 7. Click a character box to display an enlarged version of the character. 8. Double-click a character to send the character to the Characters To Copy field. 9. Click Copy. Vista places the character on the Clipboard. You can paste it into other programs. Note: You can send multiple characters to the Characters to Copy field. Click the Copy button to move the Characters To Copy field contents to the Clipboard.

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What are drives? Drives are hardware components used to store data. Almost all computers come with at least two drives: a hard drive (for storing large volumes of data) and a CD or CD/DVD drive (for storing smaller volumes of data that you can easily transport from one computer to another). The hard drive is typically designated the C:\ drive, and the CD drive is typically designated the D:\ drive. If you have an additional internal drive, it may be designated the A:\ drive. If your hard drive is partitioned (divided into several parts) or if you have additional drives, the letters E:\, F:\, G:\, and so on are assigned. What are folders and files? Folders are used to organize the data stored on your drives. A file is a collection of related information or a computerized document. The files that make up a program are stored together in their own set of folders. When you create files, a good idea is to organize them in folders and to store files of a like kind in a single folder. Microsoft recommends that you store your documents under the Documents folder, your pictures under the Pictures folder, and your Music under the Music folder. How does Vista organize files and folders on drives? Vista organizes folders and files in a hierarchical system. The drive is the highest level of the hierarchy. You can put all of your files on a drive without creating any folders, but that is like putting all of your papers in a file cabinet without organizing them into folders. It works fine if you have only a few files, but as the number of files increases, there comes a point at which things are difficult to find. To avoid this, create folders and put related material together in folders. A diagram of typical drives and how they are organized is shown here. At the highest level, you have some folders and perhaps some files. You can open any of the folders and put additional files and folders into them. This creates a hierarchy. Will you explain Explorer windows? You use Explorer windows to search for and manage the files on your computer. When you open your Personal folder or click Documents, Pictures, Music, Games, Computer, or Network on the Start menu, an Explorer window appears. Explorer windows consist of several parts: the Forward and Back buttons, the Address bar, the Instant Search box, the Command bar, the Menu bar, the Navigation pane, the File List, the Headings, the Preview pane, and the Details pane.
Fig. 6.21

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Fig. 6.22 The Windows Explorer

No Area 1 3 5 7 9 Forward and Back buttons Instant Search box Menu bar File List Preview pane De scri pti on

No Area 2 4 6 8 Address bar Command bar Navigation pane Headings

10 Details pane

Ar ea Forward & Back buttons Address Bar

You can use the Forward and Back buttons to move forward and backward through your searches. The Address bar provides drop-down menus for the current navigation path. A navigation path is the sequence of folders on a drive that you must open to get to the file for which you are looking. The folders are ordered from the highest to lowest point in the hierarchy. You can use the Address bar to move up or down the navigation path. You can also use the Address bar to find recently visited Web sites and prior searches.
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Ar ea Instant Search Box

De scri pti on In the Instant Search box, you can search for folders and files on your computer by typing the folder or filename. You can also use the Search box to find all documents that contain a particular word or phrase or have a specific property. By using the Command bar, you can perform a variety of tasks related to managing and organizing the files on your computer. For example, you can use the Command bar to cut, copy, and paste files. For the most part, the Menu bar has the same features as the Command bar. By using the Menu bar, you can perform a variety of tasks that relate to managing and organizing the files on your computer. Because the Command bar and the Menu bar perform many of the same functions, by default the Menu bar does not display. To display the Menu bar, press the Alt key. You can use the Navigation pane to open a folder. For easy access, commonly used folders are listed at the top of the Navigation pane. When you open a folder, Vista lists the contents of the folder in the File List. Headings appear at the top of the File List. Headings identify the file properties. For programs that support this feature, the Preview pane shows you the contents of a document without opening the document. You can use the Details pane to view, add, and/or change a document's properties. Properties are characteristics that are either automatically assigned to a file or assigned to a file by you. Properties include such things as the date the file was last modified, the author, and the document category.

Command Bar

Menu Bar

Navigation Pane

File List Headings Preview Pane

Details Pane

How do I tell Explorer which parts of the Explorer window to display? Start by opening an Explorer window: 1. Click the Start button. 2. Click the name of your Personal folder, Documents, Pictures, Music, Games, or Computer. 3. An Explorer window opens. Select the parts you want to display:

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1. Click Organize on the Command bar. A menu appears. 2. Click Layout. A submenu appears. 3. Click to select all the options you want to appear in the Explorer window. Choose from Menu Bar, Details Pane, Preview Pane, and Navigation Pane. Note: Choosing Menu Bar causes the menu to permanently display. What is a Personal folder? When you log on to Windows Vista for the first time, you must create an account. Thereafter, you log on to your computer by clicking the account name. After you create an account, Vista creates a Personal folder for you. Vista stores the folders you will use most often, such as the Documents, Pictures, and Music folders, under your Personal folder. Vista gives your Personal folder the same name as your account name. For example, my account name is Denise Etheridge; Vista named my Personal folder Denise Etheridge. Clicking your Personal folder name opens an Explorer window. I will use the Personal folder to illustrate how to use an Explorer window How do I open my Personal folder? 1. Click the Start button. 2. Click the name you entered when you created your account. The name is located at the top of the Start menu's right column. When you open the Personal folder, an Explorer window similar to the one shown here appears. How do I open a folder? To open a folder that is located under the Favorite Links area of the Navigation pane, click the folder name. The contents of the folder appear in the File List. If the folder you are looking for does not appear under Favorite Links: 1. Click Folders, which is located in the lower-left corner of
Fig. 6.23 Open My Personal Folder

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the Navigation pane. Additional folders appear. The folders are structured in a hierarchy as they were in Windows XP which is the , previous version of the Windows operating system. 2. Click the folder you want to open. To close the Folders area, click the word Folders again. It may have moved to the top of the Navigation pane. How do I open a file or a folder that is located in the File List? When you open a folder, the folders

Fig. 6.24 Navigation Pane

and files contained in the folder appear in the File List. To open a file, double click the filename. You can also open the folders that appear in the File List by double-clicking them. How do I create a new folder? To create a new folder: 1. Locate the folder in which you want to create the new folder. 2. Click Organize on the Command bar. 3. Click New Folder. Vista creates a new folder. 4. Type a name for the folder. 5. Press Enter. Vista changes the name of the folder. Can I search for files and folders? To search for a file or even for a word that is contained in a file, use the Instant Search box located in the upper-right corner of your Personal folder: 1. Type what you are searching for in the Instant Search box. As you type, Vista displays the results of the search in the File List. 2. Double-click a filename to open the file. Can I save a search? You can save a search so you can use it again. 1. Create your search. 2. Click Save Search. The Save As dialog box appears.

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3. Type the name you want to give your search. 4. Click Save. Vista saves the search in the Searches folder. To run your search again: 1. Click Searches in the Navigation pane. The Searches folder appears. 2. Double-click the search you want to run. Vista runs the search. How does the Address bar work? The Address bar is located in the upper-left corner of an Explorer window. You can use the Address bar to navigate through your folders. To open a folder
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1. Click the arrow next to the folder name. A list of the folders in that folder appears. 2. Click the folder you want to open. You can move up and down the folder hierarchy (path) by clicking folder names. Can I add folders and saved searches to the Navigation pane? You can open the folders and execute the searches on the Navigation pane simply by
Fig. 6.24 The Address Bar

clicking them. If you have a folder or search you access frequently, you may want to add it to the Navigation pane. 1. Locate the folder or search you want to add. 2. Click and drag the folder or search to the Navigation pane. You can now click the folder name or the search to open the folder. If you use a saved search frequently, you can also add the search to the Navigation pane by clicking and dragging. How do I display the Menu bar? By default, the Menu bar does not appear. To temporarily display the Menu bar, press the Alt key. To hide the Menu bar, press the Alt key again. You can also choose to display the Menu bar permanently. 1. Click Organize. A menu appears. 2. Click Layout. A submenu appears. 3. Click Menu Bar. A check mark appears next to Menu Bar. The check mark
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indicates Menu Bar is selected. When Menu bar is selected, the menu bar permanently displays. Will you explain Explorer views? Views control how Explorer windows display information in the File List. The Views option on the Explorer Command bar provides the following choices: Extra Large Icons, Large Icons, Medium Icons, Small Icons, List, Details, and Tiles. " Tiles view and Icon views display icons to represent drives, folders, and the contents of folders. You can choose from icons that are large, small, or medium in size. List view displays all of the files and folders without displaying the properties. Details view displays the filename and associated properties you have selected to display

" "

To change the view 1. Click the down-arrow next to Views on the Command bar. A menu appears. 2. Drag the slider to select the view you want. What are file properties? File properties are pieces of information that are associated with a file. For example, Vista automatically saves the date and time each time you modify a file. You can also associate properties with a file. For example, you can place all files associated with sales in a category called sales.

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Fig. 6.25 Explorer Command Bar 61

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To see a list of the properties you can assign to a file: 1. Right-click a Heading. A list of properties appears. 2. Click More if you do not see the property for which you are looking. The Choose Details dialog box appears. 3. Click to select the properties you want to use. A check mark appears next to selected properties.
Fig. 6.27 The Properties you can assign to a file

You can search for files by entering the property in the Instant Search box. When you click a filename, the file properties display at the bottom of the Explorer window in the Details pane. To change a property listed in the Details pane:

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1. Click in the property's field. 2. Type the property you want to assign. What is filtering? When you filter a folder, you see only the files that have the property for which you are looking. You can filter by any file property. For example, by using a filter, you can view all the files by selected authors. You can apply multiple filters to a single folder. To filter:
Fig. 6.28 The Properties you can assign to a file 62

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1. Click the down-arrow next to a Heading. A context menu appears. 2. Click the property by which you want to filter. For example, if you want to filter by author, click the author's name. A check mark next to the filter indicates that the property is selected. Vista only displays the files that have the selected properties. 3. Click the down-arrow next to another Heading to filter by that Heading and then repeat step 2.

Fig. 6.29 Filtering

To remove a filter: 1. Click the down-arrow next to the filtered Heading. 2. Click to remove the check mark next to each filtered property. What is stacking? To show all the files with a particular property together, you use stacking. For example, you can group all the files by a particular author together.
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1. Click the down-arrow next to the property by which you want to stack files. A context menu appears. 2. Click the Stack option at the bottom of the menu. Vista stacks together all the files that have the same property. 3. Click the Stack icon. Vista expands the stack so you can see the files. What is the purpose of the Computer option on the Start menu?
Fig. 6.30 Stackig 63

The Computer option enables you

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to open the Explorer Computer window to view the drives on your computer and manipulate folders and files. The Explorer Computer window works much like the Personal folder. You can cut, copy, paste, rename, and delete folders and files. By selecting the Computer option, you can perform many of the functions you performed by using Windows Explorer in previous versions of the Windows operating system, such as Windows XP . To access the Explorer Computer window: 1. Click the Start button. The Start menu appears. 2. Click Computer. Computer is located on the right side of the menu. Information about your computer becomes available to you. Alternatively, you can open the Explorer Computer Window by holding down the Windows Logo key while typing e (Windows-e). How does the Preview pane work? If you have a file that was created in a program that supports Preview mode, in Explorer windows you can see the contents of the file without opening the file. To see a preview, click the filename. A preview appears in the Preview pane. How do I delete a file or folder? To delete a file or folder: 1. Right-click the file or folder you want to delete. A context menu appears. 2. Click Delete. Vista asks, "Are sure you want to move this file to the Recycle Bin?" 3. Click Yes. Vista places the file or folder in the Recycle Bin.
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How do I copy a file or folder? You can make a copy of a file or folder and place the copy in another location. Placing a file or folder in another location is a two-step process. First you make the copy and then you paste the copy in the new location. When you execute a Copy command, Vista stores the information you copied in a storage area called the Clipboard. Refer to the question "How do I paste a file or folder?" to learn how to paste. 1. Right-click the file or folder
Fig. 6.31 Preview Pane 64

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you want to copy. A context menu appears. 2. Click Copy. The file or folder is now on the Clipboard. How do I cut a file or folder? Cutting enables you to move a file to a new location. Moving a file to a new location is a two-step process. First you remove the file from its current location by cutting it. Then you paste it in the new location. When you execute a Cut command, Vista stores the information you cut in a storage area called the Clipboard. Refer to the question "How do I paste a file or folder?" to learn how to paste. 1. Right-click the file or folder you want to cut. A context menu appears. 2. Click Cut. The file or folder is now on the Clipboard. Note: Cutting differs from deleting. When you cut a file, the file is placed on the Clipboard. When you delete a file, the file is sent to the Recycle Bin. How do I paste a file or folder? Pasting places information on the Clipboard in the location you specify. To paste a file or folder: 1. After copying or cutting the file, right-click in the File list to which you want to paste. A context menu appears. 2. Click Paste. Vista pastes the file in the new location. How do I rename a file or folder? 1. Right-click the file or folder. A context menu appears. 2. Click Rename. 3. Type the new name. 4. Press Enter. Vista changes the name of the file or folder. What is a screen saver? Computer monitors display images by firing electron beams at a phosphorcoated screen. If the same image stays on the screen too long, the image may leave a permanent imprint on the screen. Screen savers help prevent this by providing a constantly changing image. How do I select a screen saver? 1. Right-click anywhere on the Windows desktop. A context menu appears. 2. Click Personalize. The Personalize window appears. 3. Click Screen Saver. The Screen Saver Settings dialog box appears. 4. Click the down-arrow in the Screen Saver field. A list of screen savers appears. 5. Click to select the screen saver you want to use. A preview of the screen saver appears in the Screen Saver Setting dialog box.
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6. In the Wait field, set the number of minutes of inactivity before the screen saver starts. 7. Click Apply. 8. Click OK. Vista sets your screen saver. What is a window? A window is an area on your desktop within which a Windows-based program runs. Will you explain the parts of a window? I will use WordPad as an example. WordPad is a word-processing program that comes with Windows Vista. To access WordPad: 1. Click the Start button. The Start menu appears. 2. Click All Programs. The All Programs menu appears. 3. Click Accessories. The Accessories submenu appears.
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4. Click WordPad. WordPad starts

No Area 1 3 5 7 9 Control box Title bar Maximize Command bar Status bar

No Area 2 4 6 8 Menu bar Minimize Close button Border

10 Work area

Fig. 6.32 Application Window 66

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Part Control box Menu bar Title bar Toolbar

Description Provides a menu that enables you to restore, move, size, minimize, maximize, or close a window. Displays the program's menu. You can use the menu to send commands to the program. Displays the name of the current file and the name of the current program. Displays icons you can click to send commands to the program. Toolbars generally appear directly below the menu, but you can drag them and display them along any of the window borders.

Minimize button Click to temporarily decrease the size of a window or remove a window from view. While a window is minimized, its title appears on the taskbar. Maximize button Click to make the window fill the screen. Close button Command bar Border Status bar Restore button Click to exit a window or close a program. Displays icons you can click to send commands to the program. Separates the window from the desktop. Drag a window's borders outward to expand it and inward to contract it. Provides information about the status of your program. Click to restore a minimized window to its former size.

Can I have more than one window open at a time? You can have as many windows as you want open at the same time. How do I switch between windows? If you have several windows open at the same time, the window on top is the window with focus. You can only interact with the window with focus. To change windows, do any one of the following: " " Click anywhere on a window to change the focus to that window. Hold down the Alt key and press the Tab key (Alt-Tab). A preview of all open windows appears. While holding down the Alt key, click the Tab key until you have selected the window to which you want to change. All active files display on the taskbar. Click the taskbar button for the window you want to have focus.

"

How do I move a window around on my desktop? Left-click the window's title bar and drag the window. What does it mean to "cascade your windows"? What does it mean to "show windows side by side"? Showing your windows side by side is another way of organizing your windows on your desktop. When you show your windows side by side, Windows Vista
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places each window on the desktop in such a way that no window overlaps any other window. The windows display side by side. How do I show my windows side by side? 1. Right-click the taskbar. A menu appears. 2. Click Show Windows Side by Side. Vista displays your windows side-byside. What are scrollbars? In many programs, if the contents of the work area do not fit in the window, scrollbars appear. A vertical scrollbar appears at the right side of the window and a horizontal scrollbar at the bottom of the window. The vertical scrollbar provides a way to move up and down. The horizontal scrollbar provides a way to move from left to right and from right to left. The scroll box indicates where you are in your document. If the scroll box is at the top of the scrollbar, you are at the top of the document. If the scroll box is in the center of the scrollbar, you are in the center of the document. How do the scrollbars work? To move up and down one line at a time: " " " " " " Click the arrow at either end of the vertical scrollbar. Click the arrow at either end of the horizontal scrollbar. Click above the scroll box to move up. Click below the scroll box to move down. Click the appropriate arrow and hold down the mouse button. Left-click the scrollbar and hold down the left mouse button until you arrive at the location. For example, if you want to go to the center of the document, click the center of the scrollbar and hold down the left mouse button. Or, drag the scroll box until you arrive at the desired location. To move from side to side: To move approximately one window at a time:

To scroll continuously: To move to a specific location:

"

What is an icon? An icon is a small image. Icons help you execute commands quickly. Commands tell the computer what you want the computer to do. To execute a command by using an icon, click the icon. What is a menu? Menus provide a way for you to send commands to the computer (tell the computer what you want the computer to do). When you open a window, menu
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options are listed from left to right on the menu bar, just below the title bar. When you click a menu item, a drop-down menu appears. Select the command you want to execute from the drop-down menu. An ellipsis after a drop-down menu item signifies that there are additional options; if you select that option, a dialog box appears. What is a shortcut key? You can use shortcut keys to execute a command quickly by pressing key combinations instead of selecting the commands directly from the menu or clicking on an icon. When you look at a menu, most of the options have one letter underlined. You can select a menu option by holding down the Alt key and pressing the underlined letter. You can also make Alt-key selections from drop-down menus and dialog boxes. In this tutorial and on this Web site, we use the following notation: a key name followed by a hyphen and a letter means to hold down the key while pressing the letter. For example, "Alt-f" means to hold down the Alt key while pressing "f" (this opens the File menu in many programs). As another example, holding down the Ctrl key while pressing "b" (Ctrl-b) bolds selected text in many programs. In some programs, you can assign your own shortcut keys. What is a selection? A selection is a highlighted area on which you can perform a command. For example, if you are using a word-processing program, you can highlight a word and then execute the Underline command to underline the highlighted word. How do I make a selection? 1. Left-click where you want to start your selection. 2. Hold down your left mouse button and drag the mouse until you have highlighted the area you want. Or 1. Left-click where you want to start your selection. 2. Hold down the Shift key while you use the arrow keys to highlight the area you want.
Note: Typing over highlighted text replaces the old text with the new text you type.

Can you explain cut, copy, and paste? The Cut, Copy, and Paste commands are used by almost every Windows program and perform more or less the same function in each of them. You can cut, copy, and paste programs, disks, and text, to name just a few things. Cut: When you cut something, you delete it from its current location and save it to the Clipboard. Information saved to the Clipboard stays there until new information is either cut or copied. Each time you execute Cut or Copy, you
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replace the old information on the Clipboard with whatever you just cut or copied. While information is on the Clipboard you can paste it as often as you like. Copy: Copy is similar to Cut except you do not delete the original item. When you copy something, a copy of the item is saved to the Clipboard. Information stored on the Clipboard stays there until new information is either cut or copied. Each time you execute Cut or Copy, you replace the old information on the Clipboard with whatever you just cut or copied. While information is on the Clipboard you can paste it as often as you like.. Paste: You can place Clipboard information wherever you like. When you execute the Paste command, you place the information you have cut or copied wherever your cursor is located. Clipboard: The Clipboard is the storage area for items you have cut or copied. Each time you execute Cut or Copy, you replace the old information on the Clipboard with whatever you just cut or copied. You can paste Clipboard information as often as you like, until you replace it with something else. There are three major methods of cutting, copying, and pasting: using the menu, using keyboard shortcuts, and using icons. In most programs, they work exactly as described here. Using the Menu: Cut 1. Select what you want to cut. 2. Click Edit, which is located on the menu bar. A drop-down menu appears. 3. Click Cut. Paste 1. Place the cursor at the point where you want to place the information that is currently on the Clipboard. 2. Click Edit. A drop-down menu appears. 3. Click Paste. Copy 1. Select what you want to copy. 2. Click Edit, which is located on the menu bar. A drop-down menu appears. 3. Click Copy. Using Keyboard Shortcuts: Cut 1. Select what you want to cut. 2. Press Ctrl-x.
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Paste 1. Place the cursor at the point where you want to place the information that is currently on the Clipboard & Press Ctrl-v. Copy 1. Select what you want to copy, and Press Ctrl-c. Using Icons: Cut 1. Select what you want to cut and Click the Cut icon. Paste 1. Place the cursor at the point where you want to place the information that is currently on the Clipboard. 2. Click the Paste icon. Copy 1. Select what you want to copy. 2. Click the Copy icon. Are there any universals that apply to almost all programs? Following is a list of commands that appear in many, but not all programs. Check each program's documentation for information specific to the program. Note: I use the following convention to indicate a menu path: View > Toolbars. When you see View > Toolbars, it means choose View from the menu bar and select Toolbars from the drop-down menu. Cascading is a way of organizing windows on your desktop. Cascading windows fan out across your desktop, with the title bar of each window showing. How do I cascade my windows? 1. Right-click the taskbar. A menu appears. 2. Click Cascade Windows. 3. Vista cascades the open windows. What does it mean to "stack your windows"? Stacking is a way of organizing your windows on your desktop. When you stack your windows, Windows Vista places each window on the desktop in such a way that no window overlaps any other window. The windows are stacked one on top of the other. How do I stack my windows? 1. Right-click the taskbar. A menu appears. 2. Click Show Windows Stacked. Vista stacks your windows.

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Microsoft Windows Vista Icon Shortcut Key Ctrl-n Ctrl-o Ctrl-s Ctrl-p Ctrl-f Ctrl-x Menu Path File > New File > Open File > Save File > Print Edit > Find Edit > Cut Command Description Create a new file. Open an existing file. Save the current file. Print the current file. Find text in the current document. Cut (delete and place on Clipboard) the current selection. Ctrl-v Edit > Paste Place the material currently on the Clipboard at the current location of your cursor. Ctrl-c Ctrl-z Edit > Copy Edit > Undo Copy the current selection to the Clipboard. Reverse the most recent command. Place the program in the state it was in before executing the last command. Ctrl-y Edit > Redo Reverse the last undo. Place the program in the state it was in before executing Undo. Format > Font Format > Font Ctrl-b Format > Font Apply a font to the current selection. Set the size of the font for the current selection. Bold the current selection.

Ctrl-i

Format > Font

Italicize the current selection.

Ctrl-u

Format > Font

Underline the current selection.

Ctrl-l

Left-align the selection.

Ctrl-r

Right-align the selection.

Ctrl-e

Center the selection.

Ctrl-j View > Toolbars

Justify the selection. Select the toolbars you want to display.

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Will you explain how to save a file? I will use WordPad as an example. 1. Click File, which is located on the menu bar. A drop-down menu appears. 2. Click Save. If you have never saved the file before, the Save

Fig. 6.33 Save as Dialog Box

As dialog box appears. 3. Click the down-arrow in the Save As Type field and then select the file type you want your file to have. 4. Type the name you want to give your file in the File Name field. 5. Click the Browse button and then use the Explorer window to change folders if needed. 6. Click the Save button.

Field/Icon Address bar Instant Search box File Name field Save As Type field

Entry Select the folder to which you want to save the file. Search for folders and files on your computer by typing the filename here. Name your file by typing the name in this field. Click to open the drop-down box and select a file type.

Browse Folders button Click to open an Explorer window in which you can perform all of the Explorer functions. Save button Cancel button Click to save your file. Click if you change your mind and do not wish to save your file.

What is a dialog box? Whenever you see an ellipsis () after a menu option, selecting that option causes a dialog box to appear. You use dialog boxes to send commands to the computer. Most dialog boxes provide an OK button and a Cancel button. Click the OK button if you are satisfied with your entries and you want to send the commands to the computer. Click the Cancel button if you change your mind and do not want to send the commands to the computer.

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What are tabs? Some programs provide dialog boxes with several pages of options. You move to a page by clicking on its tab or by using Ctrl-Tab (hold down the Ctrl key while pressing the Tab key to flip through the pages).

Fig. 6.34 Tabs

What are fields? You type entries into fields (also referred to as text boxes). For example, in the Save As dialog box, you type the name you want your file to have in the File Name field.
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Fig. 6.35 Fields 74

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What are list boxes?

Fig. 6.36 List Box

List boxes provide multiple options from which you can choose. To make your selection, simply click the option you want. In some list boxes, you can choose more than one item. To choose multiple items, hold down the Ctrl key while you make your selections. If there are more options than can be displayed in the box, a scrollbar appears on the list box. Use the scrollbar to view the additional choices.

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What is a drop-down or pull-down menu? Fields with a dropdown menu have a small downwarFig. 6.37 Dropdown Menu

pointing arrow next to them. You click the arrow and a list of options appears. You select the option you want from the list. You can also open the drop-down menu by holding down the Alt key and pressing the down-arrow. You can use the arrow keys to move up and down in a drop-down menu. You can also move to an item by typing the first few letters of the option.
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What are radio buttons? Windows Vista and programs that run under Windows Vista use radio buttons to present a list of mutually exclusive options. You can select only one of the options presented. Radio buttons are usually round. A dot in the middle indicates that the option is selected.

Fig. 6.38 Radio Buttons


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What are checkboxes? Checkboxes are another method for selecting options. You click the checkbox to select the item. An X or a check mark appears in a selected box. You toggle checkboxes on and off by clicking in the box.

Fig. 6.39 Check Boxes


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What is a slider? You use a slider to increase or decrease a value. In the illustration, you increase a value by moving the slider toward the right; you decrease a value by moving the slider toward the left.

Fig. 6.40 Slider 76

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Fig. 6.41 Spinner


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What is a spinner? A spinner is a set of arrows located on the side of a text box. You use the up-arrow to increment a value and the down-arrow to decrement a value. You can also type the value you want directly into the text box.

Will you explain the Windows Vista color box? Some programs allow you to adjust colors; for example, you can adjust the color of text in some programs. The Windows color box provides 48 basic colors. You select a color by clicking
Fig. 6.42 Windows Vista Colour Box

on that color's square. You can save 16 custom colors. To create a custom color, expand the window by clicking on the Define Custom Color button. A color matrix box and a luminosity slider appear. Move the pointer in the color matrix box horizontally to adjust the hue. Move the pointer vertically to adjust the saturation. Use the luminosity slider to adjust the luminosity. The Hue, Saturation, Luminosity (HSL) values and Red, Green, Blue (RGB) values display at the bottom of the window. After you select a color, you can add the color to a Custom Color square by clicking the Add To Custom Colors button. The Color|Solid box may display two colors. The left side of the box displays the dithered color and the right side of the box displays a closely related nondithered color. There are 256 non-dithering colors. Non-dithering colors should display the same on all computer monitors; consequently, Web

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LAB EXERCISE 6.1 : Getting Familiar with Windows Operating System Objective: To be familiar with the windows operating system Tasks: 1. know different flavours of Windows Vista 2. working with files, folders, and windows explorer 3. working with different applications and resources

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Getting Familiar with the PC

INSTITUTE

7
PC ENGINEERING

Getting Familiar with the PC

BASICS A personal computer is made up of many separate items. From the users point of view, there is the system unit, the keyboard and the monitor. The present day front view of the system unit is as shown in the fig. 7.1. It shows the different bays or slots which are present and for what purpose they are used. The 5.25 inch bays are normally used for devices like CD-ROM's, CD Writers etc. whereas the 3.5 inch bay is normally used for the floppy drive. Nowadays there a few cabinet manufacturers which do provide a small window for the USB connector from the front side along with the connectors for the microphone and the earphone as shown in fig. 7.1. The present day backpanel of the system unit along with all the connectors is as shown in the fig. 7.2. Although there are around 50 different connectors all the connectors fit into one of the seven major types: DB, DIN, Centronics, RJ, BNC, audio, and USB. In the back panel shown in the fig. 7.2, at the top right is a socket for the power cord as well as a voltage selector switch which is used to select the voltage standard followed. Towards the left are the different connectors, out of which the first 2 connectors are the mini DIN connectors. The mini-DIN connector or the PS/2 connector as it is commonly referred to, is used for connecting the mouse. Below it are the two USB ports used to connect the USB devices. The connectors below it are the DB
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51/4" bay f or CD ROM's etc.

31/2" bay Floppy Drive

USB, Microphone & Earphone connectors Fig. 7.1 Personal Computer System

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Getting Familiar with the PC

Power Cord Socket Voltage Selector Switch

PS/2 Keyboard Port USB Ports Serial Port VG A Port USB Ports Microphone Line-out Line-in Phone Modem PS/2 Mouse Port

Parallel Port RJ45 (LAN) Port

connectors. The first DB connector is for the serial port which is a 9-pin male connector used to connect devices like mouse, modem etc. Then below it, there is a 15-pin female VGA connector used to connect to the monitor. Beside the two DB connectors is a parallel port or the centronics port used to connect to the printer. Then there are the additional USB ports and the RJ-45 connectors used to connect the patched cord to the LAN card. Below these are the three audio connectors which include one microphone jack used to connect the microphone, then there is the line out jack used to connect the speaker and finally there is the line-in jack used to connect any other input or MIDI devices. In the illustration of the fig. 7.2 there is also an internal modem which has two RJ-11 sockets one for the phone jack i.e. for the phone instrument and the other for the line-in jack used to connect to the phone line coming in. The other extra slots are nothing but the expandability slots reserved for future use. The front and the back panel of the system unit referred above are just one of the commonly used ones which may differ according to the cabinet as well as motherboard manufacturers.

Expandability Slots Fig. 7.2 Back Panel of Personal Computer

Once the covers off, though, several more parts become visible. In most PC compatibles the power supply is positioned at the rear right hand side of the system unit. Its a metal-encased box, with cooling slots punched out of the casing. There are usually stickers on it to warn you about the high voltages found inside. The job of the power supply is to convert the raw AC mains to the stabilised DC voltages at plus and minus 5 and 12 volts needed by the electronics of the PC. The diskette drives are of course readily identifiable. The hard disk, often is hidden away inside the machine. All that can usually be seen of it is a diecast metal casing, attached to which is a small circuit board, with two or three cables leading from it. Sitting at the bottom of the case is a large circuit board which holds the expansion slots into which other circuit boards fit. This is known as the system board or the motherboard. On most PCs the motherboard contains the CPU, the main memory, and other circuits described later in this chapter. Many motherboards on the latest PCs contain serial and parallel I/
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Getting Familiar with the PC

Lithium Battery BIOS ISA

Keyboard Connector

Expansion Slot SMPS Connector

PCI

O ports, and even the disk controller and video display adapter circuitry. The advantage of this is that the motherboard can then have fewer expansion slots, since add-in circuit boards are not needed for these things. This allows the manufacturer to build a smaller computer.

Supporting chipset

Intel X86 PCI chipset

Front Panel Connectors Memory Bank

Fig. 7.3 Motherboard with major components

Some PC designs have a passive backplane, which is essentially just a board containing expansion slots. The system board proper Cache the CPU, memory and logic - are on a Memory separate board which plugs into one of the slots. The advantage of this approach is that the manufacturer can make one basic design. He can then offer a range of different CPUs for different levels of performance, simply by plugging in a different system board.
CPU

BOARD COMPONENTS The black, square or rectangular components mounted on the motherboard and expansion cards are integrated circuits (ICs). Each IC is made up of thousands - often hundreds of thousands - of transistors, all etched on to a single wafer or chip of silicon. The small, oblong ICs with seven or eight metal legs along each of the long sides, are known as dual-inline (DIL) or dual-inlinepackage (DIP) ICs. These are the basic building blocks of a computer. Advances in technology have made it possible to build larger, more complex circuits on a single chip. This technique is called large-scale integration (LSI). The microprocessor used in the latest high-performance PC compatibles is the VLSI technology and Pentium III and Pentium IV are all state-of-the-art examples of VLSI technology. It is now possible to build all the logic of the original PC, which used several dozen discrete ICs, onto a couple of VLSI chips. This gives many advantages. The system board can be made smaller, reducing the overall size of the computer itself. Since the board requires fewer components it is quicker and cheaper to manufacture. Power consumption and heat dissipation are lower. This, together with the reduced component count, gives better reliability. On the latest board designs you will probably see many small components soldered directly to the board. These are known as surface-mounted devices (SMDs). SMDs have become popular in the last couple of years. They lend themselves extremely well to automated production lines, and therefore reduce the cost of board manufacture. The disadvantage is that they are difficult to
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un-solder and replace by hand. This just rules out attempts at repairing faulty boards. PROCESSORS The CPU as described in the first unit of this module, is the part that makes a computer useful. Its the bit that does most of the work. It reads the bytes of program instructions held in memory and obeys them, faithfully and very, very fast. The term central processing unit originated in the days of mainframes, when it described a very large box containing a lot of complex circuitry. In a microcomputer like the PC, the CPU is a single integrated circuit chip containing a lot of complex circuitry. This chip is called a microprocessor. In the original PC and XT, and the cheapest, slowest compatibles, the microprocessor used is an Intel 8088 or 8086. In later, faster models, more powerful microprocessors from the same INTEL family are used. These are, in order of power, the 80286, 80386sx, 80386dx, 80486sx, 80486dx, 80486PCI chipset, Pentium, Pentium II and further. Each of these chips runs all the instructions of its less powerful predecessors, but is faster, and adds new features of its own. MEMORY STORAGE The two most important components in a microcomputer are the CPU and the memory. The CPU does the work. The memory is its scratch pad or work area. Every other part of the computer is there simply to get information to and from these two main components, the non-volatile storage such as disk drives, and the outside world. Memory is arranged as a linear array of 8-bit bytes, which may be used to hold either machine code instructions for the microprocessor or data. Each byte of memory has a unique address by which it may be accessed at random, and it is consequently known as random access memory, or RAM. Each byte of RAM can hold a positive integer value in the range 0 to 255, a signed value in the range -128 to +127, or a single character in the extended ASCII character set. In the PC family the character set includes the digits 0 to 9, all the letters of the alphabet (in both upper and lower case), punctuation, 32 control characters, and 128 special characters which include fractions, foreign alphabet symbols, and line graphics for box drawing. Two bytes together - known as a word - can be used to hold a positive integer in the range 0 to 65535, or a signed integer in the range -32768 to +32767. Larger groups of bytes may be used to represent larger numbers, including fractional numbers or floating-point numbers. Machine code instructions for an INTEL microprocessor may be one or more bytes in length. The instruction type is usually one or two bytes. This may be followed by up to four bytes which are the data, or operand, for the instruction.
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This might be a constant value for use in a calculation or comparison, or the address of a location in memory from which data is to be read or written. In the PC architecture, there is no differentiation between memory used for storing program instructions and that used to hold data. Data and program can be freely mixed in the same area of memory. It is up to the programmer to ensure that a program does not overwrite parts of itself with data, and that the CPU will never find itself trying to interpret bytes of data as program instructions. A common program error occurs when a block of data that is larger than expected overflows the area reserved for it and writes over adjoining program instructions. When the processor comes to execute these instructions, the result is usually disastrous. More sophisticated computer architectures separate the data from the instructions, so that this sort of problem cant occur. Early microprocessors such as the Intel 8080 and Zilog Z80 used a 16-bit address bus, which allowed them to access up to 64k (65,536) bytes of memory. One of the original uses of microprocessor chips was in process control applications such as automated machine tools, washing machine controllers and the like. The control software for this type of job was typically only a few kilobytes in size. So 64k seemed like plenty of memory at the time. The Intel 8086 was designed to be upwardly compatible with the 8080 and Z80, so that any computer that used it could make use of existing software. Also, the 8086 introduced 16-bit instructions and access to more memory, for the benefit of more sophisticated software which would be developed later. The 8086 can access upto 1Mb of memory, which again seemed like more than anyone would ever need, and would have in itself cost as much as a complete PC at the time the chip was introduced. Sixteen bits can be stored in two bytes, and can be manipulated readily in the 8086s 16-bit registers. Therefore the 8086 handles addresses internally as 16bit values. While programmers need to know the precise function of each of these registers, it isnt essential knowledge for support and maintenance people. However, it is useful to be able to understand the addressing notation used, since the configuration instructions for many add-on cards may refer to memory addresses using this notation. GENERAL TYPES OF MEMORY The random access memory most commonly used in PCs and compatibles, and in almost all modern computers, is Dynamic RAM (DRAM). Refer fig. 7.4. This is because DRAM is the cheapest types of memory, consumes the least power, and has the greatest capacity per chip. If you were asked to design a memory chip, youd probably make it so that, once the binary pattern of 0s
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Getting Familiar with the PC

MEMORY TYPE DRAM

Some applications DYNAMIC RAM Main primary storage device for mainframes, minicomputers, and personal computers STATIC RAM Microcomputers requiring a small storage capacity; high speed versions minicomputer buffer storage; low power versions for portable computers. READ ONLY MEMORY Programme storage for personal computers; character set storage for visual displays and printers. PROGRAMMABLE ROM Microprogram control instructions for minicomputers; military and automobile uses. ERASABLE PROM Same as for ROM. Ability to reprogram makes it easier to correct errors during software development. ROM and EPROM applications needing occasional program or data modifications.

SRAM

and 1s that represented your data was stored, it would be retained for as long as power was applied to the chip. Memory which is made like this is called Static RAM (SRAM). It is very fast, but requires several transistors for each bit, so the chips are relatively large for their capacity, consume more power and are expensive. Dynamic RAM uses a simpler design in which each bit needs just a single transistor. Data is stored in capacitors. After reaching the peak value capacitor discharges and then recharges. This is called refreshing hence each bit is periodically refreshed to retain the correct value. This and other factors, mean that DRAM is not as fast SRAM. However, DRAM lends itself to the incorporation of massive numbers of memory cells on a single chip. Another type of memory you will encounter is ROM, this type of chip has program instructions built into it during manufacture, so that they are not lost when power is removed. It is never possible to overwrite these instructions they may only be read.

ROM

PROM

EPROM

EEPROM

Fig. 7.4 Types of RAM & ROM.

ROM chips are used to hold program instructions that are a permanent part of the computers design, such as the Basic Input Output System (BIOS) code. We will look at the BIOS later. Dynamic RAM is used for main memory in PC because of its high capacity and low cost. However, it has one disadvantage: Its slow. A period has to be allowed after each access for the memory cells to recharge, before they can be accessed again. This restricts the speed at which the processor can transfer information to and from memory. Memory chips are rated by their manufacturers in terms of their access time. For a read access, this is the length of time it takes for the data to appear on the data bus, after the address has been specified on the address bus. The access time is measured in nanoseconds (ns). For a particular memory chip, it can be determined from a number that appears as a suffix to the part number printed on the chip. This gives the access time in units of 10 nanoseconds. To slow the processor down to the speed of the memory, a wait state must be inserted, that is, an extra processor cycle during which the CPU does nothing but wait for data it has requested. Wait states waste time- and hence powerso they should be avoided. Thats why faster machines need faster memory and even use techniques like caching memory in SRAM, to keep the processor waiting as little as possible.

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CONTROL BUSES System bus is the PC's main transportation system, that connects its main components - CPU, Memory, Control logic and Input-Output (I/O ports). Like its road-going name-sake, the bus is simply the means of conveying something - in this case digital information - from one place to another. Fig. 7.5, shows a simplified block diagram of a PC. The system bus can be view as three distinct parts: The address bus, the data bus and the control bus, which convey address, data and control signals between the CPU, memory and other devices. The most common type of memory access is to transfer data to and from the CPU. The microprocessor obtain a byte of data from memory as follows. First, the address of the memory location required is placed on the address bus and a signal is then sent on the MEMR line of the control bus. This tells the hardware to copy the contents of that memory location onto the data bus so that it can read into one of the processors registers. Refer fig. 7.5.

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Fig. 7.5 Microcomputer architecture showing different buses.

A byte is written to memory in a similar way. The address is placed on the address bus and the byte of data is placed on the data bus. A MEMW signal is sent, and the hardware then stores the data value in the memory location specified, overwriting the previous contents. Each read or write is known as a memory cycle. I/O ports are a little like memory addresses. However they can be read from or written to not only by the CPU, but also by devices which interface with the outside world. They are used to communicate with things like the keyboard, or the serial port. I/O ports arent just used to get data into or out of the system, though, they are also used to set up and control parts of the hardware, and get information about its status. For example a serial port has one I/O address which is used to read and write data, and another that is used to set up the speed, word length, parity and other characteristics. Others are used to obtain information about things like whether there is a device on the other end of the cable, or whether a character has been received. Normally, this is all taken care of by the low level software85

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Getting Familiar with the PC

I/O PORT ASSIGNMENTS Port addr ess range 000h-01Fh 020h-03Fh 040h-05Fh 060h-06Fh 070h-07Fh 080h-09Fh 0A0h-0BFh 0C0h-0BFh 0E0h-0EFh 0F0h-0FFh 1F0h-1F8h 200h-20Fh 210h-217h 270h-27Fh 2B0h-2DFh 2E8h-2EFh 2F8h-2FFh 320h-32Fh 360h-36Fh 378h-37Fh 3B0h-3BFh Device

such as that contained in the system BIOS-which handles the serial port. All the user has to do is to read from or write to the device. I/O ports are read from and written to in much the same as memory. For output, the address is placed on the address bus, and then the byte of data to be written is placed on the data bus the microprocessor then sets the IOW status line to show that it is writing to an I/O port rather than a memory location. A similar process is followed for Input. A common support problem occurs when two expansion cards in a PC are configured to use the same I/O port addresses. Usually the result is that neither expansion card works. The standard devices like serial ports and disk controllers have standard I/O addresses reserved for them. Refer fig. 7.6. However, devices like tapes, streamers and SCSI adapters were not envisaged when the PC was designed. If the system has one of these devices then you must set it up to use addresses which are not reserved or are reserved for another device not present.

DMA Controller 1 Interrupt Controller 1 Timer Keyboard Controller CMOS Real-time Clock (AT) DMA Page Registers (AT) Interrupt Controller 2 (AT) DMA Controller 2 (AT) Real-time Clock (PS/2 Model 30) Math Co-processor Hard-disk Controller (AT) Game Port Expansion Box (PC,XT) Parallel Port 2 (PC, XT), 3 (AT) EGA Adaptor (Alternate) Serial Port 4 Serial Port 2 Hard disk Controller (XT) PC Network Parallel Port 1 (PC,XT), 2 (AT) Monochrome Adaptor/Parallel Port

Memory is basically an array of 8 bit wide location each of which can be uniquely addressed. The 8086 and 8088 3BCh-3BFh Parallel Port 1 (AT) microprocessors used in the basic PC can address upto 1Mb of 3C0h-3CFh EGA Adaptor memory. 20 bits are needed to represent a million unique 3D0h-3DFh CGA, EGA, VGA Adaptor 3E8h-3EFh Serial Port 3 addresses, so these computers have an address bus 20 bits 3F0h-3F7h Diskette Driver Controller wide. The control bus is a collection of signals, each of which 3F8h-3FFh Serial Port 1 is a message from one part of the hardware to another. One Fig. 7.6 I/O Port Assignments. example as weve already seen is the way the microprocessor tells the memory whether it wants to read from or write to the location specified on the address bus. Two signal lines are used. One, called MEMR, is used when the processor wants to read from memory. When it wishes to write to memory it uses the signal MEMW. Other signals on the control bus include, interrupt request (IRQs) signals to the microprocessor from external devices - and the system clock. INTERRUPTS Interrupt requests (IRQs) are signals generated by devices on the bus to request service. An example would be the serial port that has received a character from an attached input device. The serial port has no buffering so can receive only one character at a time. The processor must read the character, and place it in a buffer in memory, otherwise it will be overwritten by the next on to be received. As in this example, interrupts need to be dealt with quickly, or data is lost.
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In the PC architecture, interrupts are handled by a chip called the programmable interrupt controller (PIC). This receives interrupt signals from devices, and issues interrupts to the CPU, dependent upon the priority that has been assigned to each device. When the CPU receives an interrupt, it responds by saving information about what it is currently doing, and jumping to a special interrupt service routine (ISR). Each device has its own ISR. This may be provided by the BIOS, as in the case of the keyboard or by an application such as a tape backup program, which would provide its own routine to service the tape streamer. After the ISR has been completed, the CPU uses the saved information to resume what it was doing before the interrupt occurred. An interrupt request from one device can be received while an ISR for another is being processed. If this occurs, the PIC holds on to it until the CPU informs it that the earlier interrupt has been dealt with. The interrupt controller was programmed at start-up with priorities for the different interrupt requests, which affects the order in which it deals with them. If a program incorrectly modifies these priorities, then it is likely that the system will malfunction. The INTEL 80x86 series CPUs can deal with up to 256 different interrupt types, numbered from 0 to 255. The start addresses for each ISR - called interrupt vectors, and each occupying four bytes - are stored in the first 1024 bytes of system memory. The circuitry of a microprocessor is very complex. It contains millions of individual transistors, each of which has a specific function to perform. The clock is needed, essentially, to beat time and ensure the microprocessor, the memory and other parts of the computers logic work together harmoniously. Each doing its job at the appropriate moment. The performance of the computer is related to the speed of the clock. The clock speeds are measured in millions of cycles (or ticks) per second. The unit of cycles per second is the hertz (Hz); a million cycles per second is one Megahertz (MHz).

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LAB EXERCISE 7.1 : Identification of Backpanel Connectors Objective: To be familiar with the different components of the PC and the different connectors on the backpanel of the PC. Tasks: 1. Identify the different external components such as monitor, keyboard, mouse, CD-Rom, Floppy Drive and the additional bays provided and for what purpose? 2. Identify the connector which is used by the keyboard to connect to the motherboard and what is called? 3. Identify the connector which is used by the modem to connect to the motherboard and what is called? 4. Identify the connector which is used by the printer to connect to the motherboard and what is called? 5. Identify the socket for USB devices? 6. Identify the socket for mike on the backpanel of the cabinet?

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Booting Sequence

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PC ENGINEERING

Booting Sequence

A personal computer is not capable doing anything without an OS. There are some terms such as Bootstrapping, BIOS and Post which play a part in successful running of an OS. Let us get familiar with these terms. Bootstrapping: When a PC is turned on, nothing seems to happen for several seconds. This is the time when your computer is going through a complex set of operations to make sure that all of its components are working. Bootstrap is a small amount of code which lets the PC do something entirely on its own. It actually brings all its components to life so that they can accomplish the goal of loading on OS. In other words it performs two major functions ie. POST and Searching drives for an OS (in HDD, FDD). When these functions are complete, the boot operation launches the process of reading the OS's files and loading them into RAM. The second term involved is BIOS BIOS: Every Motherboard carries a BIOS (Basic Input Output System) that exists on ROM chip. This chip is programmed with Software that controls the flow of information among the various components of the computer and it also handles information regarding the various hardware present in the system. The recent advancements made in BIOS are the Advanced Power Management, Plug and Play support and Automatic Processor Speed detection. At present there are jumperless motherboards, where all parameters ranging from the processor's core voltage to the configuration and control of integrated peripherals can all be automatically detected and configured. Features like Wake on Lan allows the computer to be remotely powered on, enabling unsupervised uploading of data on a computer system in a LAN environment. Likewise another feature called Wake on Modem ring allow the computer to automatically power itself on for receiving information over telephone lines like faxes using the necessary software. POST: (Power on Self Test) is the first thing your PC does when you turn it on. There are some testing routings that are stored in your ROM BIOS which bring
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about the PC initialization. These routines are POST programs. Because most tests are internal you may not be aware that POST is checking the Video board, Keyboard and memory all prior to booting the computer from a floppy disk or a hard disk. When the POST detects an error either from the Keyboard, display or memory or other various components it produces an error Warning in the form of a message or in form of beeps. Booting Sequence: The system BIOS is what starts the computer running when you turn it on. The following are the steps that a typical boot sequence involves. Of course this will vary by the manufacturer of your hardware, BIOS, etc., and especially by what peripherals you have in the PC. 1. The internal power supply turns on and initializes. The power supply takes some time until it can generate reliable power for the rest of the computer, and having it turn on prematurely could potentially lead to damage. Therefore, the chipset will generate a reset signal to the processor (the same as if you held the reset button down for a while on your case) until it receives the Power Good signal from the power supply. When the reset button is released, the processor will be ready to start executing. When the processor first starts up, it is suffering from amnesia; there is nothing at all in the memory to execute. Of course processor makers know this will happen, so they pre-program the processor to always look at the same place in the system BIOS ROM for the start of the BIOS boot program. This is normally location FFFF0h, right at the end of the system memory (End of BIOS). They put it there so that the size of the ROM can be changed without creating compatibility problems. Since there are only 16 bytes left from there to the end of conventional memory, this location just contains a "jump" instruction telling the processor where to go to find the real BIOS startup program. The BIOS performs the power-on self test (POST). If there are any fatal errors, the boot process stops. The BIOS looks for the video card. In particular, it looks for the video card's built in BIOS program and runs it. This BIOS is normally found at location C000h in memory. The system BIOS executes the video card BIOS, which initializes the video card. Most modern cards will display information on the screen about the video card. (This is why on a modern PC you usually see something on the screen about the video card before you see the messages from the system BIOS itself). The BIOS then looks for other devices' ROMs to see if any of them have BIOSes. Normally, the IDE/ATA hard disk BIOS will be found at C8000h
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2.

3. 4.

5.

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Booting Sequence

and executed. If any other device BIOSes are found, they are executed as well. 6. 7. The BIOS displays its startup screen. The BIOS does more tests on the system, including the memory count-up test, which you see on the screen. The processor writes data to each chip, then reads it and compares what it reads with the data it sent to the chips in the first place. A running account of the memory that's been checked is displayed on the monitor during this test. The BIOS will generally display a text error message on the screen if it encounters an error at this point. The BIOS performs a "system inventory" of sorts, doing more tests to determine what sort of hardware is in the system. Modern BIOSes have many automatic settings and will determine memory timing (for example) based on what kind of memory it finds. Many BIOSes can also dynamically set hard drive parameters and access modes, and will determine these at roughly this time. Some will display a message on the screen for each drive they detect and configure this way. The BIOS will also now search for and label logical devices (COM and LPT ports). If the BIOS supports the Plug and Play standard, it will detect and configure Plug and Play devices at this time and display a message on the screen for each one it finds.

8.

9.

10. The BIOS will display a summary screen about your system's configuration. Checking this page of data can be helpful in diagnosing setup problems, although it can be hard to see because sometimes it flashes on the screen very quickly before scrolling off the top. 11. The BIOS begins the search for a drive to boot from. Most modern BIOSes contain a setting that controls if the system should first try to boot from the floppy disk (A:) or first try the hard disk (C:). Some BIOSes will even let you boot from your CD-ROM drive or other devices, depending on the boot sequence BIOS setting. 12. Having identified its target boot drive, the BIOS looks for boot information to start the operating system boot process. If it is searching a hard disk, it looks for a master boot record at cylinder 0, head 0, sector 1 (the first sector on the disk); if it is searching a floppy disk, it looks at the same address on the floppy disk for a volume boot sector. 13. If it finds what it is looking for, the BIOS starts the process of booting the operating system, using the information in the boot sector. At this point, the code in the boot sector takes over from the BIOS. If the first device that the system tries (floppy, hard disk, etc.) is not found, the BIOS will then try the next device in the boot sequence, and continue until it finds a bootable device.
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14. If no boot device at all can be found, the system will normally display an error message and then freeze up the system. What the error message is depends entirely on the BIOS, and can be anything from the rather clear "No boot device available" to the very cryptic "NO ROM BASIC - SYSTEM HALTED". This process is called a "cold boot" (since the machine was off, or cold, when it started). A "warm boot" is the same thing except it occurs when the machine is rebooted using {Ctrl}+{Alt}+{Delete} or similar in which case the POST is skipped and the boot process continues roughly at step 8 above. Booting to DOS The following booting steps are explained with reference to MSDOS O.S. (Operating System). After the Post, the boot program contained on the Computer's ROM BIOS chips checks the floppy drive to see if it contains a formatted floppy disk. If the disk is mounted in drive the program searches specific locations on the disk for the system files of an 0.S. The system files which are hidden in MS DOS systems are named IO.SYS, MSDOS.SYS. If floppy drive is empty, boot program checks the hard drive C for the system files. If boot disk does not contain the files, the boot program generates an error message. After System files have been located, the boot program reads the data stored on the disk's first sector and copies that data to specific locations in RAM. This formation constitutes the DOS boot record. The boot record is only about 512 bytes. After the BIOS boot program has loaded the boot record into memory, the BIOS passes control to the boot record by branching to that address. Boot Record then takes control of the PC and loads IO.SYS into RAM. The IO.SYS file contains extensions to the ROM BIOS and includes a routine called SYSINIT that manages the rest of the boot up. After loading IO.SYS, the boot record is no longer needed and is replaced in RAM by other code. SYS INIT assumes control of the start up process and loads MS DOS.SYS into RAM. The MSDOS.SYS file works with the BIOS to manage files, execute programs and respond to signals from hardware. Under DOS, SYSINIT searches the root directory of the boot disk for a file named CONFIG.SYS. If CONFIG.SYS exists, SYSINST tells MSDOS.SYS to execute the commands in the file CONFIG.SYS created by the user.

The commands in CONFIG.SYS instruct the OS to handle certain operations such as how many files may be opened at one time. CONFIG.SYS also contain instructions to load device drivers. Device drivers are files containing code that
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extends the capabilities of the BIOS to control memory or hardware devices. SYSINIT tells MS DOS.SYS to load the file command.com which is divided into following separate parts in memory. Resident portion : Resides in memory immediately after MSDOS.SYS and its data area. This portion contains the routines to process interrupts of critical error handling, control break handling and terminating addresses. This includes displaying error messages and interpreting the reply Abort, Retry or Ignore. All error handling is done over here. Transient portion : It contains internal DOS commands such as DIR, COPY etc. It is loaded at the high end of conventional RAM where it can be overwritten by application programs if they need the memory. Initialization Portion : Is used only once and then discarded. This part searches the root directory for a file named Autoexec.bat. This file is created by the computer's user and contains a series of DOS batch file commands and names of programs that the user wants to run each time the computer is turned on.

Once the command.com is loaded, PC is now fully booted and ready to be used.

BIOS Startup Screen When the system BIOS starts up, you will see its familiar screen display, normally after the video adapter displays its information. These are the contents of a typical BIOS start up screen. The BIOS Manufacturer and Version Number. The BIOS Date: The date of the BIOS can be important in helping you determine its capabilities, since the "magic dates" of some features are fairly well known. Setup Program Key: The key or keys to press to enter the BIOS setup program. (This is usually {Del}, sometimes {F2}, and sometimes another key combination. System Logo: The logo of the BIOS company, or in some cases the PC maker or motherboard manufacturer. The "Energy Star" Logo: This distinctive logo is displayed if the BIOS supports the Energy Star standard, which almost all newer ones do. The BIOS Serial Number: This is normally located at the bottom of the screen. Since BIOSes are highly customized to the particular motherboard, this serial number can be used in many cases to determine the specific motherboard and BIOS version you are using.

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Serial, Parallel, PS/2, SCSI USB Interface

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PC ENGINEERING
CMS INSTITUTE 2012 1

Serial, Parallel, PS/2, SCSI & USB Interface

The various ports on the computer allow it to communicate with the many different devices and peripherals attached. The connectors on the back of your computer may also be called as input/output ports (i/o ports) or communication ports. (Refer fig. 9.1) The first thing to know is the difference between a male and female connector. The male connector fits inside the female connector. If the connector has pins protruding from it, its a male connector. If the 4 connector has holes for the pins to fit into, then its a female connector. When you hook 5 something up to your computer, the male and female connectors are hooked together. 6
4. parallel port controller 5. serial port connector (COM1) 6. serial port connector (COM2)

2 3

1. USB port connectors 2. PS/2 mouse port connector 3. PS/2 keyboard port controller Fig. 9.1 Different ports in a PC

The second thing you should remember is that when you join a connector to a port, they must have the same shape and the same

number of pins or holes. The various I/O ports are Serial, Parallel, PS/2, USB & Firewire ports. Out of the I/O ports mentioned except the USB & Firewire port, the other ports are not hot swappable. USB and Firewire ports are the only ports that should be considered hotswappable (this means they can be plugged in or unplugged while the machine is on). External ports (which are linked to the motherboard) allow users to connect devices such as scanners, printers, mice and keyboards. Serial: A serial port can be used to connect many types of devices. Data is transferred to and from the device one bit at a time. Parallel: A parallel port usually has a 25-pin connector and is most often used to connect local printers. Devices attached to a parallel port are capable of receiving more than one bit of data at a time. PS/2: PS/2 ports are used to connect the mouse and the keyboard.
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Serial, Parallel, PS/2, SCSI USB Interface

Serial and parallel ports are currently considered to be "legacy ports," since they use old technology for data transfer. Newer technology includes the following: USB 1.1 - USB Basic Speed USB (Universal Serial Bus) is an external bus standard that supports data transfer rates of 12 Mbps (12 million bits per second). A single USB port can be used to connect up to 127 peripheral devices, such as mice, modems, and keyboards. USB also supports Plug and Play installation and "hot plugging," meaning you do not have to shut down the computer in order to attach or detach a device from the machine. USB 2.0 - USB Hi-Speed USB 2.0 is a new version of the USB specification. This new port is backwards-compatible, allowing older USB 1.1 devices to connect and operate without trouble. However, the new USB Hi-Speed ports support data transfer rates of 480 Mbps, even faster than FireWire ports. FireWire FireWire is a very fast external bus standard that supports data transfer rates of up to 400 Mbps (400 million bits per second). The name FireWire has actually been trademarked by Apple; FireWire is also known as IEEE 1394. (IEEE stands for the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.) A single 1394 port can be used to connect up to 63 external devices and is much faster than USB 1.1. It supports both Plug and Play and hot plugging and also provides power to peripheral devices. When IBM designed the PC, they wanted to simplify the installation, programming, and operation of devices. Because virtually every peripheral needs both an IRQ and I/O address, IBM created standard preset combination of IRQs and I/O addresses. For serial devices, the preset combinations are called COM ports. For parallel devices, they are called LPT ports. The word "port" is used to describe a "portal" or two-way access. Following table lists the preset combinations of I/O addresses and IRQs. COM and LPT Assignments
Port COM 1 COM2 LPT1 LPT2 I/O Address 3F8 2F8 378 278 IRQ 4 3 7 5

Ports do make installation easier. Consider modems; many do not have a setting for IRQs or I/O addresses. Instead, you set their COM port. When one selects a COM port, they actually assign the IRQ and I/O address. If you set
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a modem to COM1, that means you are setting modem's IRQ to 4 and the modem's I/O address to 3F8. ASYNCHRONOUS AND SYNCHRONOUS COMMUNICATION There are two schemes of transmitting data to the ports. Asynchronous Synchronous In the asynchronous scheme, each character is transmitted with the start bit and the stop bit as the synchronization bits. In the synchronous scheme, a bit pattern called sync is transmitted after a fixed number of data bytes. Asynchronous communication is generally used with slow peripherals, whereas very high speed transmission is possible with the synchronous communication scheme. SERIAL INTERFACE : PC supports two serial interfaces Each is an RS-232 standard interface. The PC supports asynchronous and synchronous communication. Synchronous communication is rarely used, it is used only for high speed communications between PCs. Asynchronous is widely used in PCs. The serial interface takes care of converting the parallel data from the CPU into serial data. It also adds the parity bits and start and stop bits to the data stream. The parity bit is used for error detection. The start and the stop bits are used in achieving synchronization between sending end and the receiving end. In this method there can be time gaps between one byte and the next. When the data bits are received from the other end, the serial interface controller converts them into parallel data bytes. It also removes the start-stop bits and check for parity error. It can be operated both in interrupt mode and in the program mode for data transfer. The two serial interfaces are referred to as COM1 and COM2. THE RS232 SERIAL INTERFACE : The RS-232 interface is a standard interface specified by the Electronic Industries Association (EIA) and is followed by the manufacturers of computers and data communications products (RS stands for Recommended Standard). The RS-232C is the latest version of the RS-232 interface. RS-232 was basically designed to allow computing devices called data terminal equipment (DTE) to talk to communications devices called data circuit-terminatting equipment (DCE). So there's a DTE-type RS-232 interface and a DCE-type RS-232 interface. RS-232 is designed to allow DTEs to talk only to DCEs. RS-232 uses DB25 and DB9 connectors. Male connectors go on the DTEs; female connectors go on the DCEs. DTE-type interfaces are most commonly found on PCs. Devices with DCE with DCE-type interfaces include modems, mice, and scanners.
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The RS-232 interface expects a Modem to be connected to both the receiving and the transmitting end. The DTE and the DCE are linked via a cable whose length should not exceed 50 ft. In practice the manufacturers extend this length to 100 ft. or more. The DTE has a 25 pin D type male connector and the DCE has 25-pin D-type female connector. However some of the manufacturers use 9-pin connectors. SIGNAL LEVELS : The RS-232 standard follows a negative logic. A logical 1 is represented by a negative voltage and a logical 0 is represented by a positive voltage. The level 1 (High) varies from -3 to -15V and the level 0 (low) varies from +3 to +15V. In practice the hardware circuits used for the RS-232 interface maintain the signal level at +12V (logical 0) and at -12V (logical1). Parallel (Centronics) Interfaces/IEEE 1284 The most common method of attaching a printer to a computer is through a simple interface called the Centronics interface. The interface was named after Centronics, the company that invented it in 1976. It's more commonly known today as the parallel port. The IBM PC's parallel port was originally a proprietary interface, but it's become so widely used that there is now an "official" standard describing it, IEEE 1284. The original PC's parallel port had eight outputs, five inputs, and four bidirectional lines. A parallel port transfers multiple bits at once, while a serial port transfers a bit at a time. These are enough for communi-cating with many types of peripherals. On many newer PCs, the eight outputs can also serve as inputs, for faster communications with scanners, drives, and other devices that send data to PC. The parallel port was designed as a printer port, but these days, one can find all kinds of things besides printers connected to the port. PCs can support up to three parallel ports. They are named LPT1, LPT2, and LPT3; the name refers to Line Printer 1, 2 or 3. CENTRONICS INTERFACE: The CENTRONICS INTERFACE provides a handshake protocol between a computer and a printer and supports a maximum data transfer speed of about 100 Kb/s. The printer side of the interface is a 36 pin connector and the PC side is a 25 pin D type connector. The PC uses 36 pin flat cable in which every alternative wire is for the ground. Most of the signals should have twisted pair wiring in the cable. The signals are TTL level signals and the twisted pair return ground wire for each signal is connected to the signal ground level. To prevent noise effects the twisted pair
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wires are shielded and the shield is connected to the chassis ground in the system box. Port Types As the design of the PC evolved, several manufacturers introduced improved versions of the parallel port. The new port types are compatible with the original design, but add new abilities, mainly for increased speed. The original parallel port was pretty fast enough for sending bytes representing ASCII text characters to a dot-matrix or daisy-wheel printer. But modern printers need to receive much more information to print a page with multiple fonts and detailed graphics, often in color. The faster the computer can transmit the information, the faster the printer can begin processing and printing the result. Here is a summary of the available types: Original Standard Parallel Port (SPP) The parallel port in the original IBM PC, and any port that emulates the original port's design, is sometimes called the SPP for standard parallel port. The port , in the original PC was based on an existing Centronics printer interface. SPPs can transfer eight bits at once to a peripheral, using a protocol similar to that used by the original Centronics interface. The SPP doesn't have a bytewide input port, but for PC-to-peripheral transfers, SPPs can use a Nibble mode that transfers each byte 4 bits at a time. Nibble mode is slow, but has become popular as a way to use the parallel port for input. Enhanced Parallel Port (EPP) The EPP (enhanced parallel port) was originally developed by chip maker Intel, PC manufacturer Zenith, and Xircom, a maker of parallel-port networking products. An EPP can read or write a byte of data in one cycle of the ISA expansion bus, or about 1 microsecond, including handshaking, compared to four cycles for an SPP An EPP can switch directions quickly, so it's very efficient when used . with disk and tape drives and other devices that transfer data in both directions. Enhanced Capabilities Port (ECP) The ECP (extended capabilities port) was first proposed by Hewlett Packard and Microsoft. Like the EPP the ECP is bidirectional and can transfer data at , ISA-bus speeds. ECPs have buffers and support for DMA (direct memory access) transfers and data compression. ECP transfers are useful for printers, scanners, and other peripherals that transfer large blocks of data. An ECP can also emulate an SPP and many ECPs can emulate an EPP as well.

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Cables Compatible with Direct Cable Connection We can use the Direct Cable Connection tool of Microsoft Windows to establish a direct serial or parallel cable connection between two computers. Windows supports serial null-modem standard (RS-232) cables and the following parallel cables for use with Direct Cable Connection: Standard or basic 4-bit cables Enhanced Capabilities Port (ECP) cables Universal Cable Module (UCM) cables

Parallel cable connections are faster than serial cable connections. Use a serial cable with Direct Cable Connection only if a parallel port or cable is unavailable. ECP cables work on computers with ECP-enabled parallel ports. ECP must be enabled in both computers CMOS settings for parallel ports that support this feature. ECP cables allow data to be transferred more quickly than standard cables. Note that both computers must support ECP in order to use ECP cables. UCM cables support connecting different types of parallel ports. Using UCM cable between two ECP-enabled ports allows the fastest possible data transfer between two computers. PS/2 port This port was designed by IBM for their Personal System/2 computers. The PS/ 2 port has lived on in other computers as the standard for keyboards and mice. Most computers come with two PS/2 ports. This helps to free valuable serial ports for modems and other serial devices. This port is essentially a serial port but it uses different addresses and interrupts than serial ports, so moving the mouse to a PS/2 port frees the serial port for use. Not all mice are PS/2 compatible so even if you have a PS/2 mouse port, you might still have an expense for a new mouse. If you don't have a PS/2 mouse port, you'll either need an adapter card that provides one or a new motherboard that includes one. The pin configuration for the PS/2 port is as shown the Fig. 9.6
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Pin 1 2 3 4 5 6

Description Mouse Data Not Connected Ground Power +5V Mouse Clock Not Connected

Fig. 9.6 PS/2 Port

PS/2 ports use synchronous serial signals to communicate between the keyboard
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or mouse to the computer. The signals are all TTL logic level voltages (0 volts for logical 0 and +5 volts for logical 1). Bi-directional communications are supported on all PS2 ports (mostly for keyboards but may be implemented in mouse only ports), all bi-directional transmissions are controlled by the clock and data lines. This feature is controlled by an open collector architecture which lets both lines to be forced to logical 0 by the device (mouse or keyboard) or the host computer. This means that at any point in time the host can force the clock line to 0 and inhibit the mouse to transmit. If the host inhibits while the mouse is transmitting the transmitted data must be retransmitted. Although this may seem odd, both ports are usually controlled by an INTEL 8042 keyboard controller (yes the keyboard controller also controls the PS/2 mouse port on it's second channel). USB (Universal Serial Bus) USB is peripheral bus standard developed by PC and telecom industry leaders -Compaq, DEC, IBM, Intel, Microsoft, NEC and Northern Telecom-that brings plug and play of computer peripherals outside the box, eliminating the need to install cards into dedicated computer slots and reconfigure the system. Personal computers equipped with USB allows computer periperals to be automatically configured as soon as they are physically attached - without the need to reboot or run setup. USB also allow multiple devices - up to 127 to run simultaneously on a computer, with peripherals such as monitors and keyboards acting as additional plug-in sites, or hubs. This connection is simpler than a 9 pin serial port, since it has only four pins. USB is designed to be faster than serial ports. The standards 1.0 & 1.1 described an interface that can transmit up to 5 Mb/s and 12 Mb/s respectively as opposed to the 100 + Kb/s of a serial interface. The speed is meant to keep up with telephony applications, such as low resolution video conferencing. The first shot in the arm the standard received was when Microsoft released Microsoft's Windows 95 Service Release 2.1 patch, otherwise known as the USB Supplementary patch.
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VBus DD+ GND USB Cable


Fig. 9.7 USB Cable 101

This patch, which updated your version of Windows to OSR 2.1, slowly became a requirement for many Video card installation processes among other things, for no reason other than to promote the USB standard. While OSR 2.0 was necessary to enable full AGP

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support under Windows 95, OSR 2.1 had nothing to do with the video support at all, supporting the fact that the only reason OSR 2.1 was forced upon us was to promote the USB standard. Even in spite of Microsoft's attempt to integrate the standard into their Operating system, the USB did'nt make that big impression in the market. The primary reason for this being lack of USB peripherals. The next step in the nudging process from the software end was, to completely integrate the USB support into the software which in this case happened to be the Microsoft's newest Operating system : Windows 98, Windows ME, Windows XP These operating systems has full support for the Universal Serial Bus. With . this evident, hardware manufacturers and most importantly, hardware vendors began to announce and stock USB peripherals more readily. USB devices are released, since USB Cameras, Keyboards, and Mice have been available. USB Cable For even simpler connectivity, the USB cable consists of only four wires: Vbus, D+, D-, and GND. A single standardized upstream connector type further increases the ease-of use of USB peripherals. The data is differentially driven over D+ and D- at a bit rate of 12 Mb/s for full-speed signalling, or a rate of 1.5 Mb/s for the USB low-speed signalling mode. The USB-compliant 8x930 and 8x931 peripheral controller families have implemented the signalling transceiver on-chip, eliminating the need for all external circuitry, except for the pull-up terminating resistor on either the D+ or D- line to determine whether the device is full- or low-speed.
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SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) Basics SCSI (pronounced SKUH-zee and sometimes colloquially known as "scuzzy"), the Small Computer System Interface, is a set of ANSI standard electronic interfaces that allow personal computers to communicate with peripheral hardware such as disk drives, tape drives, CDROM drives, printers, and scanners faster and more flexibly than previous interfaces. Developed at Apple Computer and still used in the Macintosh, the present set of SCSIs are parallel interfaces. SCSI ports continue to be built into many personal computers today and are supported by all major operating systems.

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In addition to faster data rates, SCSI is more flexible than earlier parallel data transfer interfaces. The latest SCSI standard, Ultra-2 SCSI for a 16-bit bus can transfer data at up to 80 megabytes per second (MBps).SCSI allows up to 7 or 15 devices (depending on the bus width) to be connected to a single SCSI port in daisy-chain fashion. This allows one circuit board or card to accommodate all the peripherals, rather than having a separate card for each device, making it an ideal interface for use with portable and notebook computers. A single host adapter, in the form of a PC Card, can serve as a SCSI interface for a laptop, freeing up the parallel and serial ports for use with an external modem and printer while allowing other devices to be used in addition. Although not all devices support all levels of SCSI, the evolving SCSI standards are generally backwards-compatible. That is, if you attach an older device to a newer computer with support for a later standard, the older device will work at the older and slower data rate. The original SCSI, now known as SCSI-1, evolved into SCSI-2, known as "plain SCSI." as it became widely supported. SCSI-3 consists of a set of primary commands and additional specialized command sets to meet the needs of specific device types. The collection of SCSI-3 command sets is used not only for the SCSI-3 parallel interface but for additional parallel and serial protocols, including Fibre Channel, Serial Bus Protocol (used with the IEEE 1394 Firewire physical protocol), and the Serial Storage Protocol (SSP). A widely implemented SCSI standard is Ultra-2 (sometimes spelled "Ultra2") which uses a 40 MHz clock rate to get maximum data transfer rates up to 80 MBps. It provides a longer possible cabling distance (up to 12 meters) by using low voltage differential (LVD) signaling. Earlier forms of SCSIs use a single wire that ends in a terminator with a ground. Ultra-2 SCSI sends the signal over two wires with the data represented as the difference in voltage between the two wires. This allows support for longer cables. A low voltage differential reduces power requirements and manufacturing costs. The latest SCSI standard is Ultra-3 (sometimes spelled "Ultra3")which increases the maximum burst rate from 80 Mbps to 160 Mbps by being able to operate at the full clock rate rather than the half-clock rate of Ultra-2. The standard is also sometimes referred to as Ultra160/m. New disk drives supporting Ultra160/m will offer much faster data transfer rates. Ultra160/m also includes cyclical redundancy checking (CRC) for ensuring the integrity of transferred data and domain validation for testing the SCSI network. Currently existing SCSI standards are summarized in the table below.

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Technology Name SCSI-1 SCSI-2 Fast SCSI-2 Wide SCSI-2 Fast Wide SCSI-2 Ultra SCSI-3, 8-bit Ultra SCSI-3, 16-bit Ultra-2 SCSI Wide Ultra-2 SCSI Ultra-3 (Ultra160/m) SCSI

Max. Cable (meters) 6 6 3 3 3 1.5 1.5 12 12 12

Max. Speed (MBps) 5 5-10 10-20 20 20 20 40 40 80 160

Max. Number of Devices 8 8 or 16 8 16 16 8 16 8 16 16

LAB EXERCISE 9.1 : Serial and Parallel Port Objective: To be familiar with the different ports which are present on the PC Tasks: 1. What are the port addresses and IRQ's settings for serial and parallel ports? Observation: Port
Serial COM1 COM2 COM3 COM4 LPT1 LPT2

Address

Interface

Parallel

2. Identify different type of SCSI Interfaces their speed, distance covered and no devices it can support?

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INSTITUTE

1 0
PC ENGINEERING
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Memory as shown in the fig. 10.1 is classified primarily into two parts i.e. primary storage and secondary storage . Primary Storage is further classified into two types i.e. ROM and RAM.

MEMORY

PRIMARY STORAGE

SECONDARY STORAGE

ROM

RAM

FLOPPY DISK

HARD DISK

ZIP DISK

DAT CARTRIDGE

PROM

EPROM

EEPROM

SRAM

DRAM

FPM

EDO

SDRAM

ECC DRAM

DDR SDRAM

SGRAM

VRAM

RDRAM

Fig. 10.1 Types of Storage

Secondary storage contains the different devices as mentioned in the fig. 10.1 the Floppy disk, Hard disk, Zip disk and DAT cartridge. Memory is that part of your computer that is used to store information. Memory chips are integrated circuit made of various components (transistors, resistors and capacitors) formed on the same chip. The leading companies which are the memory supplies are Micron, Siemens etc. Memory is referred to as primary storage device ie, the contents of storage system are in a form that your PC's Microprocessor can immediately access, and are ready to be used. In fact, some direct instructions used by Microprocessor can alter the values held in primary storage without the need to transfer the data into the chip's registers. For this reason primary storage is referred to as working memory.
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Now going to the primary storage devices types available are. ROM (Read Only Memory) ROM is where data is stored permanently. Hence it is also called as Non Volatile Memory. This means data is hard-wired into the ROM chip. The way a ROM chip works necessitates the programming of complete data when the chip is created. You cannot reprogram or rewrite a standard ROM chip. If it is incorrect, or the data needs to be updated then you have to throw it away and start over again. They use very little power, are extremely reliable and, in the case of most small electronic devices, contain all the necessary programming to control the device. Hence BIOS is stored on ROM because the user cannot disrupt the information. There are different types of ROM as mentioned below. PROM (Programmable Read only Memory). This is basically a blank ROM chip that can be written to, but only once. They are more fragile than ROMs. A jolt of static electricity can easily cause fuses in the PROM to burn out, changing essential bits from 1 to 0. It is much like a CD-R drive that burns the data into the CD. EPROM (Erasable Programmable Read only Memory). This is just like PROM, except that you can erase the ROM by shining a special ultra-violet light into a sensor on top of the ROM chip for a certain amount of time. Doing this wipes the data out, allowing it to be rewritten. The ultra-violet light used is at a particular frequency that will not penetrate most plastics or glasses, and thus at each EPROM chip has a quartz window on top of it. An EPROM eraser is not selective, it will erase the entire EPROM. EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory). EEPROM chips remove the drawbacks of EPROMs. In EEPROMs: The chip does not have to removed to be rewritten. The entire chip does not have to be completely erased to change a specific portion of it. Changing the contents does not require additional dedicated equipment. Instead of using UV light, you can return the electrons in the cells of an EEPROM to normal with the localized application of an electric field to each cell. This erases the targeted cells of the EEPROM, which can then be rewritten. Any byte within an EEPROM may be erased and rewritten.

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Flash Memory Flash memory is actually a variation of electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM). EEPROM chips are too slow to use in many products that make quick changes to the data stored on the chip. Flash memory devices are high density, low cost, nonvolatile, fast (to read, but not to write), and electrically reprogrammable. These advantages are overwhelming and, as a direct result, the use of flash memory has increased dramatically in embedded systems. From a software viewpoint, flash and EEPROM technologies are very similar. The big difference between the two is that EEPROM can be erased and rewritten at the byte level; flash memory can erase or reprogram blocks of bytes, not individual bytes, hence it is faster. There are several different types of storage media that utilize flash memory technology. Most of these flash memory devices connect to your computer add-on card reader. One can also access the data on a card by connecting the host digital device to the PC. Some e.g.'s of flash memory devices are BIOS chip, SmartMedia, Memory stick, Flash USB Drive etc. The next primary storage device is the RAM (Random Access Memory) RAM (Random Access Memory) RAM is the best known form of computer memory. RAM is considered "random access" because one can access any memory cell, which is the basic unit of data storage, in the same amount of time. The opposite of RAM is serial access memory (SAM). SAM stores data as a series of memory cells that can only be accessed sequentially. If the data is not in the current location, each memory cell is checked until the needed data is found. SAM works very well for memory buffers, where the data is normally stored in the order in which it will be used. RAM data, on the other hand, can be accessed in any order. RAM is a volatile memory, meaning all data is lost when power is turned off. RAM is used for temporary storage of program data, allowing performance to be optimum. It is this region into which programs are loaded before the CPU processes the information. RAM Basics In the most common form of computer memory, dynamic random access memory (DRAM), a transistor and a capacitor are paired to create a memory cell, which represents a single bit of data. The capacitor holds the bit of information - a 0 or a 1. The transistor acts as a switch that lets the control circuitry on the memory chip read the capacitor or change its state. Capacitors have two non conducting plates. When an electric voltage difference is applied between the two plates, a charge gets stored within this components.
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This charge remains on it, so long as there is an electric potential applied between plates. Otherwise it gets discharged over a period of time. To counter this problem, the charge on the capacitors used in RAM is constantly refreshed so as to keep the information within it and hence the name Dynamic RAM. Writing Operation The initial phase of writing data to a particular cell in RAM consists of first activating the address line that is connected to cell through an electrical pulse. It is this line that identifies the cell in which the unit of information is stored. The transistor within it is used as electronic switch. When the transistor is turned on, the operating system sends bursts of signals along the consecutive data line that represent 0 or one which is found in cells sequentially, hence writing data into RAM is faster as the same address line is already activated for that particular row of cell. When an electrical pulse from the data reaches a transistor that is activated by an address line, the transistor switches on and allows current to pass through, thus charging the capacitor connected to it. Since capacitor has the tendency of discharging it has to be refreshed. This is done by applying strobes of charges on the data line so as to keep charge on the capacitor. It is the capacitor which stores information or data. RAM memory is classified in the following ways: Package type, which refers to the plastic coating containing the actual silicon. With today's memory modules, the package type is a term rarely used, but in case you are working on a very old system, packaging for RAM can be any of the following.

Fig. 10.2 Diagram of 1-Bit DRAM Storage Cell.

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Fig. 10.3 DIP Memory chip

Dual Inline Package (DIP) is the original memory chip used back in the days when individual memory chips were inserted in sockets on the motherboard. They are little, black, plastic bricks with two rows of metal legs, one on each of their long sides, hence the name dual inline. ZIP (Zigzag Inline Package) briefly replaced DIP; all of the connectors were on one side, allowing the memory package to rest on its side rather than lying flat so that it took up less room on the motherboard. The Zip package departed with the appearance of memory modules.

Form factor, which refers to the module that contains one or more of the following packages: Single Inline Pin Package (SIPP) was the first attempt at a memory
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Fig. 10.4 SIPP Memory module chip

module. The SIPP is a small circuit board containing several memory chips and has a single row of pins across the bottom. You will find SIPP memory on older personal computers and workstations. The SIPP memory resembles SIMMs except that it has tiny pins instead of an edge connector. SIMMs eventually replaced SIPPs because the SIPP pins tended to bend or break easily. Single Inline Memory Module (SIMM) is a modular circuit board with memory chips soldered on it. The SIMM has an edge connector that allows the entire SIMM module to be inserted into a socket on the motherboard. The early SIMMs had 30 pins and were 3.5 inches in length; the 72-pin SIMMs that later replaced them were 0.75 inches longer.

30 Pin SIMM

Fig. 10.5 Different types of SIMM Chips

Double Inline Memory Module (DIMM) looks almost identical to the SIMM; however, the SIMM has memory chips on one side while the DIMM has memory mounted on both sides. To accommodate the extra memory, the DIMM has connectors on both sides of the module, giving it 168 pins. Another difference between the SIMM and the DIMM is the way that the modules are installed. The 72-pin SIMM installs at a slight angle, whereas the 168pin DIMM installs straight down into the memory socket on the motherboard. Small Outline DIMM (SO-DIMM) is the module that is now in common use in notebook computers. It is much smaller than the 168pin DIMM and is available in either 72 or 144-pin configurations. Rambus Inline memory Module (RIMM) is a 184-pin module that looks a little like a DIMM. RIMMs offer faster access and transfer speed, and thus generate more heat. An aluminium sheath, called a heat spreader, covers the module to protect the chips from overheating. The RIMM is also available in a small outline form factor (SO-RIMM). PC Car ds ( also kno wn as P CMCI A ca rds) , SmartMedia, CompactFlash, and memory sticks are small, thin modules that plug into a special socket found mostly on notebook computers, digital cameras, and Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs).
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72 Pin SIMM

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Access speed (how quickly the chip fetches data), which is measured in nanoseconds. Common access times are 40-, 50-, 60-, 70-, and 80ns for normal memories, and as low as 8ns for expensive, high-speed memories. Lower numbers are faster. Memory capacity: modern DIMM/RIMM capacity ranges from 32MB to 1024 MB for memory modules.

Different Types of RAM RAM's are also classified according to their working . There are many different types of RAMs, which include the many flavors of Dynamic RAM (DRAM) and Static RAM (SRAM). Dynamic RAM (DRAM) Dynamic RAM is a type of RAM that only holds its data if it is continuously accessed by special logic called a refresh circuit. Many hundreds of times each second, this circuitry reads the contents of each memory cell, whether the memory cell is being used at that time by the computer or not. Due to the way in which the cells are constructed, the reading action itself refreshes the contents of the memory. If this is not done regularly, then the DRAM will lose its contents, even if it continues to have power supplied to it. This refreshing action is why the memory is called dynamic.
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The reason that DRAMs are used is simple: they are much cheaper and take up much less space. The overhead of the refresh circuit is tolerated in order to allow the use of large amounts of inexpensive, compact memory. DRAMs are smaller and less expensive. DRAMs are made using only one transistor and a capacitor. The capacitor, when energized, holds an electrical charge if the bit contains a "1" or no charge if it contains a "0". The transistor is used to read the contents of the capacitor. The problem with capacitors is that they only hold a charge for a short period of time, and then it fades away. These capacitors are tiny, so their charges fade particularly quickly. This is why the refresh circuitry is needed: to read the contents of every cell and refresh them with a fresh "charge" before the contents fade away and are lost. The different types of DRAM which are used are as follows:

SDRAM

DDR SDRAM

RDRAM Fig. 10.6 Types of RAM

FPM (Fast Page Mode) RAM A type of RAM that allows faster access if the data being called is in the same row as the data previously requested.
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Also called page mode memory. These were the first memory chips to use the burst mode timing, wherein data is read 32 bytes at a time one after the other. These are typical of processors from 8088/86 - 486. EDO (Extended Data Out) RAM EDO DRAM was nothing more than a moderate improvement on old-style FPM DRAM. EDO needed to be refreshed much less often, thereby providing an extended period where data could be taken out of RAM. EDO DRAM enabled a system to access data more quickly than FPM RAM. EDO RAM was on either a 72-pin SIMM or a DIMM (168 or SO), and looked exactly like regular DRAM. To take advantage of EDO, one needed a chipset designed to handle EDO. The majority of the early Pentium systems used EDO RAM, but that was not true of the 486s with 72-pin SIMM slots. One had to refer to the motherboard book to see if the system could use EDO RAM. EDO RAM enjoyed wide acceptance through most of the 1990s until the advent of a new, extremely powerful type of DRAM called SDRAM. FPM and EDO RAM are now considered obsolete. SDRAM (Synchronous Dynamic RAM) SDRAM is still DRAM, but it is synchronous-tied to the system clock. As mentioned earlier, regular DRAM (EDO or FPM) was not tied to any clock. If the CPU wanted some data from RAM, the chipset sent the necessary signals to the DRAM, waited a certain number of clock ticks, and then accessed the RAM again to get the data. The number of clicks of the clock was either set through CMOS or determined by the chipset every time the system booted up. The number of clicks was not exact, but rather rounded up to ensure that the chipset wouldn't access DRAM before the necessary data was ready. This rounding up wasted system time, but until recently DRAM was too slow to be handled any other way. SDRAM is tied to the system clock, just like the CPU and chipset, so the chipset knows when data is ready to be grabbed from SDRAM, resulting in little wasted time. SDRAM is quite a bit faster than DRAM. SDRAM pipelines instructions from the chipset that enable commands to be ready as soon as the previous one is taken by the chipset. Collectively, these improvements make SDRAM four to six times faster than regular DRAM. SDRAM is available only on DIMMs which have 168 pin. SDRAM ties to the system clock, it doesn't have an access speed; it has a clock speed just like a CPU. Five clock speeds are commonly used 66, 75, 83, 100, and 133 MHz.

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DDR (Double Data Rate) SDRAM Types of DDR Memories There are presently three generations of DDR memories: 1. DDR1 memory, with a maximum rated clock of 400 MHz and a 64-bit (8 bytes) data bus is now becoming obsolete and is not being produced in massive quantities. Technology is adopting new ways to achieve faster speeds/data rates for RAM memories. 2. DDR2 technology is replacing DDR with data rates from 400 MHz to 800 MHz and a data bus of 64 bits (8 bytes). Widely produced by RAM manufacturers, DDR2 memory is physically incompatible with the previous generation of DDR memories. 3. DDR3 technology picks up where DDR2 left off (800 Mbps bandwidth) and brings the speed up to 1.6 Gbps. One of the chips already announced by ELPIDA contains up to 512 megabits of DDR3 SDRAM, with a column access time of 8.75 ns (CL7 latency) and data transfer rate of 1.6 Gbps at 1.6 GHz. The 1.5V DDR3 voltage level also saves some power compared to DDR2 memory. What is more interesting is that at an even lower 1.36V, the DDR3 RAM runs fine at 1.333 GHz (DDR3-1333) with a CL6 latency (8.4 ns total CAS time), which matches the CAS time of the fastest current DDR2 memory. DDR2 versus DDR3 The primary differences between the DDR2 and DDR3 modules are: " DDR2 memories include 400 MHz, 533 MHz, 667 MHz and 800 MHz versions, while DDR3 memories include 800 MHz, 1066 MHz, 1333 MHz and 1600 MHz versions. Both types double the data rate for a given clock frequency. Therefore, the listed clocks are nominal clocks, not real ones. To get the real clock divide the nominal clock by two. For example, DDR2667 memory in fact works at 333 MHz. Besides the enhanced bandwidth, DDR3 also uses less power than DDR2 by operating on 1.5V-a 16.3 percent reduction compared to DDR2 (1.8V). Both DDR2 and DDR3 memories have power saving features, such as smaller page sizes and an active power down mode. These power consumption advantages make DDR3 memory especially suitable for notebook computers, servers and low power mobile applications. A newly introduced automatic calibration feature for the output data buffer enhances the ability to control the system timing budget during variations in voltage and temperature. This feature helps enable robust, highperformance operation, one of the key benefits of the DDR3 architecture.
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"

DDR3 devices introduce an interrupt reset for system flexibility In DDR2 memories, the CL parameter, which is the time the memory delays delivering requested data, can be three to five clock cycles, while on DDR3 memories CL can be of five to ten clock cycles. In DDR2 memories, depending on the chip, there is an additional latency (AL) of zero to five clock cycles. So in a DDR2 memory with CL4 the AL1 latency is five. DDR2 memories have a write latency equal to the read latency (CL + AL) minus one. Internally, the controller in DDR2 memories works by preloading 4 data bits from the storage area (a task known as prefetch) while the controller inside DDR3 memories works by loading 8 bits in advance.
SDRAM Devices Comparison

Items Clock frequency Transfer data rate I/O width Prefetch bit width Clock input Burst length Data strobe Supply voltage Interface /CAS latency (CL) On die termination (ODT) Component package

DDR3 SDRAM 400/533/667/ 800 MHz 800/1066/1333/ 1600 Mbps x4/x8/x16 8-bit Differential clock 8, 4 (Burst chop) Differential data strobe 1.5V SSTL_15 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 clock Supported FBGA

DDR2 SDRAM 200/266/333/ 400 MHz 400/533/667/ 800 Mbps x4/x8/x16 4-bit Differential clock 4, 8 Differential data strobe 1.8V SSTL_18 3, 4, 5 clock Supported FBGA

DDR SDRAM 100/133/166/ 200 MHz 200/266/333/ 400 Mbps x4/x8/x16/x32 2-bit Differential clock 2, 4, 8 Single data strobe 2.5V SSTL_2 2, 2.5, 3 clock Unsupported TSOP(II) / FBGA / LQFP

ECC (Error Correction Code) DRAM: Many higher-end systems use a special type of RAM called error correction code (ECC) DRAM, ECC is a major advance in error checking on DRAM. Parity is virtually useless for these types of occasional problems, but ECC detects problems in RAM quite well and can fix most of them on the fly. Any size RAM stick can use ECC DRAM, but it is most common as 168-pin DIMMs.
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To take advantage of ECC RAM one needs a motherboard that is designed to use ECC. DDR (Double Data Rate) SDRAM DDR maximizes output by using both the leading and falling edge of the clock tick to perform operations. This means that DDR can locate and pass an address in one tick as opposed to two. The DDR module has 184 pins compared to the 168 pins on the standard SDRAM DIMM module. This means that a SDRAM cannot fit into a socket designed for a DDR module. The logical speeds for DDR modules available are PC200, PC-266, and PC333, which is a reference to their doubled bus speed. SGRAM (Synchronous Graphic RAM) It operates in similar fashion to SD RAM but it is streamlined to work with graphic cards. This RAM enables fast read and write operation for the graphics processor when working with the information in the Video frame buffer. VRAM (Video RAM) It is memory that is optimised for Video Cards where each memory cell is dual ported. Therefore video data can be written to the RAM while the graphics adapter simultaneously reads from it to refresh the display. RDRAM (Rambus DRAM) Intel wanted faster RAM not just for higher-end performance machines including servers, but standard desktops. Its choice was a new type of DRAM called Rambus DRAM (RDRAM). The three versions of it are intended: PC 600 (clock speed: 300MHz), PC700 (actually 711 or 356MHz), and PC 800 (400MHz). Rambus comes in RIMMs, or Rambus Inline Memory Modules A RIMM differs from a SIMM or a DIMM in more than cost. Because these RIMMs can develop hot spots apparently related to their speed of operation, each RIMM has a heat spreader cover plate to try to diffuse the heat. RDRAM RIMMs comes in 2 sizes: 184 pin for desktops and 160 pins SO RIMM for laptops. RIMMs can't be used on motherboards not designed with Rambus sockets in place. The Pentium 4 with the Intel 850 chipset and above support Rambus memory. Static RAM (SRAM) Static RAM is a type of RAM that holds its data without external refresh, for as long as power is supplied to the circuit. This is contrast to dynamic RAM (DRAM), which must be refreshed many times per second in order to hold its data contents. SRAMs are used for specific applications within the PC, where their strengths outweigh their weaknesses compared to DRAM:
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Simplicity: SRAMs don't require external refresh circuitry or other work in order for them to keep their data intact. Speed: SRAM is faster than DRAM. Cost: SRAM is, byte for byte, several times more expensive than DRAM. Size: SRAMs take up much more space than DRAMs (which is part of why the cost is higher).

In contrast, SRAMs have the following weaknesses, compared to DRAMs:

These advantages and disadvantages taken together obviously show that performance-wise, SRAM is superior to DRAM, and we would use it exclusively if only we could do so economically. Unfortunately, 32 MB of SRAM would be prohibitively large and costly, which is why DRAM is used for system memory. SRAMs are used for level 1 cache and level 2 cache memory, for which it is perfectly suited; cache memory needs to be very fast, and not very large. SRAM is manufactured in a way rather similar to how processors are: highlyintegrated transistor patterns photo-etched into silicon. Each SRAM bit is comprised of between four and six transistors, which is why SRAM takes up much more space compared to DRAM, which uses only one (plus a capacitor). Because an SRAM chip is comprised of thousands or millions of identical cells, it is much easier to make than a CPU, which is a large die with a non-repetitive structure. This is one reason why RAM chips cost much less than processors do. Cache Memory In general, a processor is much more likely to need information again it has recently used, compared to a random piece of information in memory. This is the principle behind caching. It's an small amount of fast memory placed between the processor and slower main memory. Nowadays it is integrated within the CPU. Cache are used in various forms to reduce the effective time required by a processor to access addresses, instructions or data that are normally stored in main memory. Hit Rate Whenever the CPU finds the data it needs in the cache then it is called a cache hit. When the CPU fails to find the data it needs in the cache that is called a cache miss. The ratio of cache hits to cache misses is called that is called a cache hit ratio. The cache hit ratio is a measure of the relative effectiveness of a cache. The better the cache design or the larger the cache the higher the cache hit ratio. A well-designed RAM cache normally will have a hit ratio of greater than 90 percent. If a relatively small amount of fast static random access memory (SRAM), say
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32KB to 64KB, is enough for the CPU to find what it needs in this memory 90 percent of the time, the effect is almost as if the computer were equipped only with fast SRAM even though a vast majority of its memory is much slower RAM by using a cache with a high hit rate, you can get the performance of a computer with a large amount of fast memory and no RAM cache or the much lower overall cost of a small amount of fast memory and a cache controller. Layers of Cache There are in fact many layers of cache in a modern PC. Each layer is closer to the processor and faster than the layer below it. Each layer also caches the layers below it, due to its increased speed relative to the lower levels:
Level Level 1 Cache Level 2 Cache System RAM Hard Disk / CD-ROM Devices Cached Level 2 Cache, System RAM, Hard Disk / CD-ROM System RAM, Hard Disk / CD-ROM Hard Disk / CD-ROM --

The processor requests a piece of information. The first place it looks is in the level 1 cache, since it is the fastest. If it finds it there (called a hit on the cache), great; it uses it with no performance delay. If not, it's a miss and the level 2 cache is searched. If it finds it there (level 2 "hit"), it is able to carry on with relatively little delay. Otherwise, it must issue a request to read it from the system RAM. The system RAM may in turn either have the information available or have to get it from the still slower hard disk or CD-ROM. It is important to realize just how slow some of these devices are compared to the processor. Even the fastest hard disks have an access time measuring around 10 milliseconds. If it has to wait 10 milliseconds, a 200 MHz processor will waste 2 million clock cycles! And CD-ROMs are generally at least 10 times slower. This is why using caches to avoid accesses to these slow devices is so crucial. Level 1 (Primary) Cache Level 1 or primary cache is the fastest memory on the PC. It is in fact, built directly into the processor itself. This cache is very small, generally from 8 KB to 64 KB, but it is extremely fast; it runs at the same speed as the processor. If the processor requests information and can find it in the level 1 cache, that is the best case, because the information is there immediately and the system does not have to wait. Level 2 (Secondary) Cache The level 2 cache is a secondary cache to the level 1 cache, and is larger
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and slightly slower. It is used to catch recent accesses that are not caught by the level 1 cache, and is usually 64 KB to 2 MB in size. Level 2 cache is usually found either on the same package as the processor itself (though it isn't in the same circuit where the processor and level 1 cache are) or on the motherboard or as a daughterboard that inserts into the motherboard. As more and more processors begin to include L2 cache into their architectures, Level 3 cache is now the name for the extra cache built into motherboards between the microprocessor and the main memory. L3 cache is not found nowadays as its function is replaced by L2 cache. L3 caches are found on the motherboard rather than the processor. It is kept between RAM and L2 cache. Quite simply, what was once L2 cache on motherboards now becomes L3 cache when used with microprocessors containing built-in L2 caches. So if your system has L1,L2 and L3 cache data fetching will be L1->L2->L3>RAM ie. If data is not there in L1 it will check L2 then L3 then RAM... L3 cache has come into vogue with the advent of multi-core CPUs. Whereas these chips will have both L1 and L2 caches for each separate core; there is a common fairly large L3 shared by all cores. It is usually the size of all other caches combined or a few multiples of all other caches combined. It is also implemented in DRAM. One unusual thing is that a multi-core chip that is running software that may not be capable of or need all cores will have a core flush its caches into the L3 before that core goes dormant Write Through and Write Back : There are also other Factors besides the hit rate that affect the efficiency of the cache. When the CPU writes new data to the cache, the cache controller must update main memory with the new data. By making sure that the information in the cache is the same as that in main memory the cache controller is said to maintain cache coherency. If the cache controller allows the data in the cache to differ from data in main memory, the data is said to be stale. The simplest way to avoid having stale data is to make sure that every time the CPU updates the cache, the data is automatically written through to the main memory. This is called a "write through cache". To prevent the CPU from accessing any data until the main memory has been updated, the cache controller must lock the CPU out of both the cache and the main memory until the write through has been completed. If the CPU needs to access the cache or main memory before the write through is completed, the CPU must wait. This will slow the overall performance of the CPU. One way to prevent this problem is for the cache controller to update a small
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but fast buffer instead of directly updating the main memory. Because the buffer can be faster than the main memory, the cache controller can make the cache available to the CPU sooner. This method of updating the main memory is called a "buffered or posted write through". Another way to avoid the problem of making the CPU wait while the main memory is updated is for the cache controller to keep track of which data is stale and only update the memory when it must, not immediately after every memory write. This technique, which is called write back or copy back, is more difficult to implement but is faster than a posted wire through. The concept of buffering, or posting, the writes can also be applied to the write back cache to further increase its performance as well. This is the most complicated of all techniques to implement, but it results in the fastest cache.

LAB EXERCISE 10.1 : Memory Identification Objective : To differentiate between the different memory modules. Tasks: 1. Identify the different memory modules which are present by the number of slots in the module. 2. Identify L1, L2, and L3, cache 3. Identify the difference between DDR2 and DDR3 RAM

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INSTITUTE

1 1
PC ENGINEERING
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Processors

Central Processing Unit The Central Processing Unit (Normally called a processor or CPU) is the brain of the PC. It executes instructions, allowing a computer to perform all kinds of tasks. From burning CDs or DVDs to something as simple as a mouse click, the CPU is always at work. Processors consist of two parts: The Arithmetic Unit, which performs math and logical operations, & the Control Unit, which decodes instructions. Over the years, processors have become extremely fast. AMD and Intel are the two primary manufacturers, although other makers with names such as Motorola, Via, and Cyrix and IDT have come and gone. CPU technology constantly changes, probably faster than any other type of hardware. This page will highlight what I consider are the main specifications. When looking at a CPU, you don't really see the processor itself. The little piece of silicon that contains the circuitry is very small. What you actually see is the package that it's in. Both AMD and Intel have had many types over the years. Packages are usually square with pins underneath that fit into holes on the CPU's slot. This arrangement is known as Pin Grid Array (PGA) and is now only used by AMD.

Fig. 11.1 Pin Grid Array CMS INSTITUTE 2012

Fig. 11.2 PGA Slot

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Intel abandoned PGA years ago and now have the pins located on the slots themselves, called Land Grid Array (LGA).
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Fig. 11.3 Land Grid Array

Types Processors are designed to fit into a certain type of socket on the motherboard. Every socket has a name, indicating whether it's for an AMD or Intel CPU. Keep in mind that AMD and Intel have different socket designs, so their processors are not interchangeable. But regardless of manufacturer, CPUs usually differ in the number of pins used and are often named accordingly.

Socket Type LGA 771 (Socket J) LGA 775 (Socket T) LGA 1156 (Socket H) LGA 1166 (Socket B) AM2 AM2+ AM3

Manufacturer Intel (Xeon Server) Intel Intel Intel AMD AMD AMD

AM2+ and AM3 mainly differ in terms of the memory each supports. AM2+ supports DDR2 while AM3 supports DDR2 and DDR3, making it backwardcompatible with the AM2+ motherboard. Rates & Data Transfer What characterizes a computer processor is its speed or rate - how fast it can execute instructions. As of now, speed is measured in gigahertz (GHz), or

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billions of cycles a second. Some CPU rates are 2.0 GHz, 2.40 GHz, and 3.20 GHz. These rates and others are obtained by using the motherboard's bus speed. CPUs contain a multiplier that when multiplied by the bus speed, yields the appropriate CPU speed for a given motherboard. For example, if the speed of a motherboard is 800 MHz, and the CPU multiplier is 4, then the processor's speed is 800 x 4 = 3200 MHz or 3.2 GHz. Because the CPU greatly determines the overall performance of a PC, the type of processor and its speed are two of the main factors to look for when deciding to buy a computer. But keep in mind there are other important things, such as the amount of memory. CPUs are either 32-bit or 64-bit. This means how much data that can be processed in terms of bits. In computers data is composed of 1's and 0's (e.g. 01110010). Each individual 1 or 0 is called a bit. A 32-bit CPU can process a max of 2^32 (2 raised to 32nd power) or about 4.3 billion bits per cycle. A 64-bit processor 2^64 or about 18,400,000,000,000,000,000 of data per cycle. The more data a computer can handle means improved performance. The amount of memory supported by a processor is also determined by the number of bits. Using the same math above, a 32-bit processor supports 2^32 or approximately 4 GB of memory. Cache: In addition to CPU speed, another important processor feature that influences performance is the amount of cache (pronounced cash) it has. CPU cache is memory set aside for the most frequently used data. There's Level 1, Level 2, and Level 3 (commonly just called L1, L2, and L3). L1 uses extremely fast and expensive SRAM (Static RAM) and is the smallest in size. L2 is slightly larger in size. Both L1 and L2 are located on the processor. L3 is the largest and is usually located outside the CPU and shared by all the cores. When data is requested, the CPU first checks the L1 to see if it's there. If not it checks L2 and so on. Accessing data in the cache is far more faster and efficient than fetching it from RAM Dual-processor, Dual Core & Multicore Processors: Keeping it straight Dual-processor (DP) systems are those that contains two separate physical computer processors in the same chassis. In dual-processor systems, the two processors can either be located on the same motherboard or on separate boards. In a dual-core configuration, an integrated circuit (IC)
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contains two complete computer processors. Usually, the two identical processors are manufactured so they reside side-by-side on the same die, each with its own path to the system front-side bus. Multi-core is somewhat of an expansion to dual-core technology and allows for more than two separate processors. Most computer processors today are dual core or multicore. Both terms are generic for any processor that literally contains two or more CPUs in one package. Both Intel and AMD produce versions of these processors. AMD's Athlon x2, Turion x2, and Intel's Core 2 Duo and Core 2 Extreme are examples of dual core CPUs. Multicore examples are the AMD Phenom x3 and x4 and Intel's Core 2 Quad and the Core i7. These powerful CPUs allow users to run several applications simultaneously as well as play the latest games. HyperTransport: AMD's HyperTransport Technology has been around since 2003. All of their processors based on AMD64 architecture use HypertTransport. It eliminated the front side bus (FSB) and took the memory controller, which was previously on the chipset, and placed it on the processor. The old front side bus used one data path from the CPU for memory and I/O (Input/Output). HTT implements two separate data paths for memory and I/O. Also, unlike the FSB, data flow between the CPU and the chipset can be sent and received at the same time. In late 2012, Intel released the quad-core Core i7 CPU with its own version of HyperTransport called QuickPath Interconnect (QPI). It basically does the same thing as HTT but only uses DDR3 memory, and depending on which model some support three memory channels. They also had to develop a new chipset which includes PCI Express enhancements. In addition supporting QPI, the Core i7 includes 64K L1 and 256K L2 cache for each core, 8MB L3 shared cache, turbo boost, and HD boost for improved high definition. It brings back the old hyper-threading. Before dual cores came on the scene, hype-rthreading was used to make the operating system think there were two processors. Since the i7 is quad-core hyper-threading makes it seem as if there are eight cores. All these combined make for an extremely fast system for multitasking, gaming and multimedia needs. The Core i7 computer processor comes in several variations, and it can get confusing. There is also the Core i5 and Core i3. Below are tables showing the Intel processors recently released in each class.

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i7 Series Processor (All Quad Core & Use Hyperthreading) i7-930

Released

Speed

Transfers/ Sec & Number

Max. Amount of Memory & Number of Channels Supported 24 GB, 3 Channels

Integrated HD Graphics

Cache Size

Q1 2010

2.8 GHZ; 3.46 GHz w/Turbo Boost 3.2 GHz; 3.46 GHz w/Turbo Boost 2.8 GHz; 3.46 GHz w/Turbo Boost 2.93GHz; 3.6 GHz w/Turbo Boost

4.8 GT/s

8 MB

i7-960

Q4 2009

4.8 GT/s

24 GB, 3 Channels

8 MB

i7-860

Q3 2009

2.5 GT/s

16 GB, 2 Channels

8 MB

i7-870

Q3 2009

2.5 GT/s

16 GB, 2 Channels

8 MB

i7-950

Q2 2009

3.06 GHz; 4.8 GT/s 3.33 GHz w/ Turbo Boost 2.66 GHz; 4.8 GT/s 2.93 GHz w/Turbo Boost 2.93 GHz; 4.8 GT/s 3.2 GHz w/Turbo Boost

24 GB, 3 Channels

8 MB

i7-920

Q4 2012

24 GB, 3 Channels

8 MB

i7-940

Q4 2012

24 GB, 3 Channels

8 MB

i7 Series Processor (All Quad Core & Use Hyperthreading) i7-980X (6 Cores)

Released

Speed

Transfers/ Sec & Number

Max. Amount of Memory & Number of Channels Supported 24 GB, 3 Channels

Integrated HD Graphics

Cache Size

Q1 2010

3.33 GHz; 6.4 GT/s 3.6 GHz w/Turbo Boost 3.33 GHz; 6.4 GT/s 3.6 GHz w/Turbo Boost 3.32 GHz; 6.4 GT/s 3.46 GHz w/Turbo Boost

12 MB

i7-975 (4 Cores)

Q2 2009

24 GB, 3 Channels

8 MB

i7-965 (4 Cores)

Q4 2012

24 GB, 3 Channels

8 MB

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i7 Extreme Edition

Released

Speed

Transfers/ Sec & Number

Max. Amount of Memory & Number of Channels Supported 16 GB, 2 Channels 16 GB, 2 Channels 16 GB, 2 Channels

Integrated HD Graphics

Cache Size

i3-350 (Dual Core) i3-540 (Dual Core) i5-670 (Dual Core)

Q1 2010

2.93 GHz; 6.4 GT/s

12 MB

Q2 2010

3.06 GHz; 6.4 GT/s

8 MB

Q4 2010

3.46 GHz; 6.4 GT/s 3.73 GHz w/Turbo Boost Transfers/ Sec & Number

8 MB

Mobile Processor

Released

Speed

Max. Amount of Memory & Number of Channels Supported 8 GB, 2 Channels

Integrated HD Graphics

Cache Size

i3-350M (Dual Core)

Q1 2010

2.26GHz; 2.5 GT/s (No Turbo Boost) 2.53 GHz; 2.5 GT/s 3.066 w/Turbo Boost 1.2 GHz; 2.266GHz w/Turbo Boost 2 GHz; 3.2 GHz w/Turbo Boost 2.5 GT/s

12 MB

i5-540 (Dual Core)

Q1 2010

8 GB, 2 Channels

8 MB

i7-670 (Dual Core)

Q1 2010

8 GB, 2 Channels

8 MB

i7-670 (Dual Core)

Q3 2009

2.5 GT/s

8 GB, 2 Channels

8 MB

Believe or not, this is not the full list. To see others you can go to Intel's CPU page(http://www.intel.com/ products/processor/index.htm?iid=subhdr +prod_proc). Below are tables

CPU Athlon II x3 (Three Core) Athlon II x4 (Quad Core) Phenom II x2 (Dual Core) Phenom II x3 (Three Core) Phenom II x4 (Quad Core)

Speed

Transfers/Sec L1 Cache

L2 Cache

Type of Memory Supported

3 GHz

4.4GT/s

128 KB

512 KB

DDR2 & DDR3

2.9 GHz

4.4 GT/s

128 KB

512 KB

DDR2 & DDR3

3.2 Ghz

4.0 GT/s

128 KB

512 KB

DDR 2 & DDR3

2.8 GHz

4.0 GT/s

128 KB

512 KB

DDR2 & DDR3

3.4 GHz

4.0 GT/s

128 KB

512 KB

DDR2 or DDR3 (Depends on the type of socket)

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Mobile CPUs Turion x2 Ultra Turion Neo x2

Speed Max 2.4 GHz 1.6 GHz

L1 Cache

L2 Cache 2 MB

Type of Memory Supported DDR2 DDR 2

128 KB

1 MB

This is also not a complete list! For a full list check out AMD's desktop processors (http://products.amd.com/en-us/comparison/DesktopCPU.aspx) and laptop processors (http://www.amd.com/us/products/notebook/platforms/ Pages/notebook-platforms.aspx). RISC AND CISC The dominant architecture in the PC market, the Intel IA-32, belongs to the Complex Instruction Set Computing (CISC) design. The obvious reason for this classification is the "complex" nature of its Instruction Set Architecture (ISA). The motivation for designing such complex instruction sets is to provide an instruction set that closely supports the operations and data structures used by HigherLevel Languages (HLLs). Addressing Modes in CISC The decision of CISC processor designers to provide a variety of addressing modes leads to variable-length instructions. For example, instruction length increases if an operand is in memory as opposed to in a register. a. This is because we have to specify the memory address as part of instruction encoding, which takes many more bits. b. This complicates instruction decoding and scheduling. The side effect of providing a wide range of instruction types is that the number of clocks required to execute instructions varies widely. c. This again leads to problems in instruction scheduling and pipelining. Evolution of RISC For these and other reasons, in the early 1980s designers started looking at simple ISAs. Because these ISAs tend to produce instruction sets with far fewer instructions, they coined the term Reduced Instruction Set Computing (RISC). Even though the main goal was not to reduce the number of instructions, but the complexity. Reduced Instruction Set Computing is a type of microprocessor architecture that utilizes a small, highly-optimized set of instructions, rather than a more specialized set of instructions often found in other types of architectures. RISC VS CISC - An Example The simplest way to examine the advantages and disadvantages of RISC
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architecture is by contrasting it with its predecessor, CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computing) architecture. Multiplying Two Numbers in Memory. The main memory is divided into locations numbered from (row) 1: (column) 1 to (row) 6: (column) 4. The execution unit is responsible for carrying out all computations. However, the execution unit can only operate on data that has been loaded into one of the six registers (A, B, C, D, E, or F). Let's say we want to find the product of two numbers - one stored in location 2:3 and another stored in location 5:2 - and then store the product back in the location 2:3. The CISC Approach. The primary goal of CISC architecture is to complete a task in as few lines of assembly as possible. This is achieved by building processor hardware that is capable of understanding and executing a series of operations. For this particular task, a CISC processor would come prepared with a specific instruction (say "MUL"). a. When executed, this instruction loads the two values into separate registers, multiplies the operands in the execution unit, and then stores the product in the appropriate register. b. Thus, the entire task of multiplying two numbers can be completed with one instruction:
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MUL 2:3, 5:2 c. MUL is what is known as a "complex instruction." d. It operates directly on the computer's memory banks and does not require the programmer to explicitly call any loading or storing functions. e. It closely resembles a command in a higher level language. For instance, if we let "a" represent the value of 2:3 and "b" represent the value of 5:2, then this command is identical to the C statement "a = a x b." Advantage. One of the primary advantages of this system is that the compiler has to do very little work to translate a high-level language statement into assembly. Because the length of the code is relatively short, very little RAM is required to store instructions. The emphasis is put on building complex instructions directly into the hardware.
Fig. 11.4 Representation of Storage Scheme for a Generic Computer

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The RISC Approach. RISC processors only use simple instructions that can be executed within one clock cycle. Thus, the "MUL" command described above could be divided into three separate commands: a. "LOAD," which moves data from the memory bank to a register, b. "PROD," which finds the product of two operands located within the registers, and c. "STORE," which moves data from a register to the memory banks. d. In order to perform the exact series of steps described in the CISC approach, a programmer would need to code four lines of assembly: LOAD A, 2:3 LOAD B, 5:2 PROD A, B STORE 2:3, A Analysis. At first, this may seem like a much less efficient way of completing the operation. Because there are more lines of code, more RAM is needed to store the assembly level instructions. The compiler must also perform more work to convert a high-level language statement into code of this form. a. Advantage of RISC. However, the RISC strategy also brings some very important advantages. Because each instruction requires only one clock cycle to execute, the entire program will execute in approximately the same amount of time as the multi-cycle "MUL" command. These RISC "reduced instructions" require less transistors of hardware space than the complex instructions, leaving more room for general purpose registers. Because all of the instructions execute in a uniform amount of time (i.e. one clock), pipelining is possible. (1) Separating the "LOAD" and "STORE" instructions actually reduces the amount of work that the computer must perform. (2) After a CISC-style "MUL" command is executed, the processor automatically erases the registers. If one of the operands needs to be used for another computation, the processor must re-load the data from the memory bank into a register. In RISC, the operand will remain in the register until another value is loaded in its place. b. The following table will differentiate both the architectures and based on the analysis the overall advantage will be discussed.

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CISC Emphasis on hardware Includes multi-clock complex instruction Memory-to-memory: "LOAD" and "STORE" incorporated in instructions Small code sizes, high cycles per second Transistors used for storing complex instructions

RISC Emphasis on software Single-clock, reduced instruction only Register to register: "LOAD" and "STORE" are independent instructions Low cycles per second, large code sizes Spends more transistors on memory registers

Table Comparison of CISC and RISC Architectures The Performance Equation. The following equation is commonly used for expressing a computer's performance ability:

a. CISC Approach. The CISC approach attempts to minimize the number of instructions per program, sacrificing the number of cycles per instruction. b. RISC Approach. RISC does the opposite, reducing the cycles per instruction at the cost of the number of instructions per program

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PC ENGINEERING
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Motherboards and their Components

The motherboard represents the logical foundation of the computer. In other words, everything that makes a computer a computer must be attached to the motherboard. From the CPU to storage devices, from RAM to printer ports, the motherboard provides the connections that help them work together

Figure 12-1 A typical ATX motherboard with support for Nvidia's scalable link interface (SLI) technology.

The motherboard is essential to computer operation in large part because of the two major buses it contains: the system bus and the I/O bus. Together, these buses carry all the information between the different parts of the computer.

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The System Bus and I/O Bus The system bus carries four different types of signals throughout the computer: * Data * Power * Control * Address The Bus The CPU has to be able to send various data values, instructions, and information to all the devices and components inside your computer as well as the different peripherals and devices attached. If you look at the bottom of a motherboard you'll see a whole network of lines or electronic pathways that join the different components together. These electronic pathways are nothing more than tiny wires that carry information, data and different signals throughout the computer between the different components. This network of wires or electronic pathways is called the 'Bus'. That's not that difficult to comprehend, but you've probably heard mention of the internal bus, the external bus, expansion bus, data bus, memory bus, PCI bus, ISA bus, address bus, control bus, it really can get quite confusing. A computer's bus can be divided into two different types, Internal and External. The Internal Bus connects the different components inside the case: The CPU, system memory, and all other components on the motherboard. It's also referred to as the System Bus. The External Bus connects the different external devices, peripherals, expansion slots, I/O ports and drive connections to the rest of the computer. In other words, the External Bus allows various devices to be added to the computer. It allows for the expansion of the computer's capabilities. It is generally slower than the system bus. Another name for the External Bus, is the Expansion Bus. So now we know the bus is just a bunch of tiny wires (traces and electronic pathways). One bunch carries info around to the different components on the motherboard, and another bunch of wires connects these components to the various devices attached to the computer. What kind of stuff travels on the bus? For one thing, data. Data has to be exchanged between devices. Some of the electronic pathways or wires of the Internal Bus or the External Bus are dedicated to moving data. These dedicated pathways are called the Data Bus. Data is stored, manipulated and processed in system memory. System memory is like a vast sea of information full of fish (data). Your computer has to move information in and out of memory, and it has to keep track of which data is

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stored where. The computer knows where all the fishes are, but it has to transmit that information to the CPU and other devices. It has to keep a map of the different address locations in memory, and it has to be able to transmit and describe those memory locations to the other components so that they can access the data stored there. The info used to describe the memory locations travels along the address bus. The size, or width of the address bus directly corresponds to the number of address locations that can be accessed. This simply means that the more memory address locations that a processor can address, the more RAM it has the capability of using. It makes sense, right? A 286 with a 16 bit address bus can access over 16 million locations, or 16 Mb of RAM. A 386 CPU with a 32 bit address bus can access up to 4 GB of RAM. Of course, at the present time, due to space and cost limitations associated with the average home computer, 4GB of RAM is not practical. But, the address bus could handle it if it wanted to! Another name for the address bus is the memory bus. Form Factors Although all motherboards have some features in common, their layout and size varies a great deal. The most common motherboard designs in current use include ATX, Micro ATX, BTX, and NLX. Some of these designs feature riser cards and daughterboards. The following sections cover the details of these designs. ATX and Micro ATX The ATX family of motherboards has dominated desktop computer designs since the late 1990s. ATX stands for "Advanced Technology Extended," and it replaced the AT and Baby-AT form factors developed in the mid 1980s for the IBM PC AT and its rivals. ATX motherboards have the following characteristics: A rear port cluster for I/O ports Expansion slots that run parallel to the short side of the motherboard Left side case opening (as viewed from the front of a tower PC) There are four members of the ATX family, listed in Table 11-1. In practice, though, the Mini-ATX design is not widely used.
Table 12-1 ATX Motherboard Family Compariso

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BTX One problem with the ATX design has been the issue of system cooling. Because ATX was designed more than a decade ago, well before the development of today's faster components, it's been difficult to properly cool the hottest-running componentsin a typical system: the processor, memory modules, and the processor's voltage regulator circuits. To enable better cooling for these devices, and to promote better system stability, the BTX family of motherboard designs was introduced in 2004. Compared to ATX motherboards, BTX motherboards have the following: " Heat-producing components such as the process, memory, chipset, and voltage regulator are relocated to provide straight-through airflow from front to back for better cooling. The processor socket is mounted at a 45-degree angle to the front of the motherboard to improve cooling. A thermal module with a horizontal fan fits over the processor for cooling. The port cluster is moved to the rear left corner of the motherboard. BTX cases include multiple rear and side air vents for better cooling. Because of the standardization of processor and memory locations, it's easy to use the same basic design for various sizes of BTX motherboards; the designer can just add slots. BTX tower cases use a right-opening design as viewed from the front. Although BTX designs are easier to cool than ATX designs, the development of cooler-running processors has enabled system designers to continue to favor ATX. There are relatively few BTX-based motherboards and systems currently on the market.

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Fig. 12-2 compares typical ATX and BTX motherboard layouts to each other.

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Figure 12-2 The ATX motherboard family includes ATX (largest), microATX, and flexATX (smallest). The BTX motherboard family includes BTX, microBTX, nanoBTX, and picoBTX (smallest). NLX NLX motherboards are designed for quick replacement in corporate environments. They use a riser card that provides power and expansion slots that connect to the right edge of the motherboard (as viewed from the front). NLX motherboards have a two-row cluster of ports along the rear edge of the motherboard. Most systems that use NLX motherboards are considered obsolete. Figure 123 illustrates a typical NLX motherboard and riser card.
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Fig. 12-3 A typical NLX motherboard and riser card.

Riser Cards and Daughterboards Riser cards and daughterboards provide two different methods for providing access to motherboard-based resources. In current slimline or rackmounted systems based on ATX or BTX technologies, riser cards are used to make expansion slots usable that would otherwise not be available because of clearances inside the case. Riser card designs can include one or more expansion slots, and are available in PCI, PCI-X (used primarily in workstation and server designs), and PCI-Express designs. Figure 12-4 shows two typical implementations of riser card designs.

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The term daughterboard is sometimes used to refer to riser cards, but daughterboard can also refer to a circuit board that plugs into another board to provide extra functionality. For example, some small form factor motherboards support daughterboards that add additional serial or Ethernet ports, and some standardsize motherboards use daughterboards for their voltage regulators.

Fig. 12-4 Examples of single-slot and multi-slot riser cards.

Integrated I/O Ports Motherboards in both the ATX and BTX families feature a variety of integrated I/O ports. These are found in as many as three locations: all motherboards feature a rear port cluster (see Figure 12-5 for a typical example), and many motherboards also have additional ports on the top of the motherboard that are routed to header cables accessible from the front and rear of the system

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Fig. 12-5 A port cluster on a late-model ATX system.

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Most recent motherboards include the following ports in their port cluster: Serial (COM) Parallel (LPT) PS/2 mouse PS/2 keyboard USB 2.0 (Hi-Speed USB) 10/100 or 10/100/1000 Ethernet (RJ-45) Audio

So-called "legacy-free" motherboards might omit some or all of the legacy ports (serial, parallel, PS/2 mouse and keyboard), a trend that will continue as devices using these ports have been replaced by devices that plug into USB ports. Some high-end systems might also include one or more FireWire (IEEE-1394a) ports, and systems with integrated video include a VGA or DVII video port and an S-Video or HDMI port for TV and home theater use. Figure 12-5 illustrates a port cluster from a typical ATX system, but note that BTX systems use similar designs. Some integrated ports use header cables to provide output. Figure 12-6 shows an example of 5.1 surround audio ports on a header cable. The header cable plugs into the motherboard and occupies an empty expansion slot.
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Memory Slots Modern motherboards include two or more memory slots, as seen in Figures 12-1 and 12-2. At least one memory slot must contain a memory module, or the system cannot start or function. Memory slots vary in design according to the type of memory the system supports. Older systems that use SDRAM use three-section memory slots designed for 168-pin memory modules. Systems that use DDR SDRAM use two-section memory slots designed for 184-pin modules. Systems that use DDR2 SDRAM use two section memory slots designed for 240-pin modules.

Fig. 12-6 This header cable provides support for 5.1 surround analog audio and digital audio.

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Each memory slot includes locking levers that secure memory in place. When memory is properly installed, the levers automatically swivel into place Expansion Slots Motherboards use expansion slots to provide support for additional I/O devices and high-speed video/graphics cards. The most common expansion slots on recent systems include peripheral component interconnect (PCI), advanced graphics port (AGP), and PCI-Express (also known as PCIe). Some systems also feature audio modem riser (AMR) or communications network riser (CNR) slots for specific purposes
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Fig. 12-7 Installing memory modules.

PCI Slots The PCI slot can be used for many types of add-on cards, including network, video, audio, I/O and storage host adapters for SCSI, PATA, and SATA drives. There are several types of PCI slots, but the one found in desktop computers is the 32-bit slot running at 33MHz (refer to Figure 12-8 in the next section). AGP The AGP slot was introduced as a dedicated slot for high-speed video (3D graphics display) in 1996. Since 2005, the PCI Express x16 slot (described in the next section) has replaced it in most new systems. There have been several versions of the AGP slot, reflecting changes in the AGP standard, as shown in Figure 12-8. Note that all types of AGP slots can temporarily "borrow" system memory when creating 3D textures. Note that the AGP 1x/2x and AGP 4x/8x slots have their keys in different positions. This prevents installing the wrong type of AGP card into the slot. AGP
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1x/2x cards use 3.3V, whereas most AGP 4x cards use 1.5V. AGP 8x cards use 0.8 or 1.5V. The AGP Pro/Universal slot is longer than a normal AGP slot to support the greater electrical requirements of AGP Pro cards (which are used in technical workstations). The protective cover over a part of the slot is intended to prevent normal AGP cards from being inserted into the wrong part of the slot. The slot is referred to as a universal slot because it supports both 3.3V and 1.5V AGP cards.

Fig. 12-8 PCI slots compared to an AGP 1x/2x slot (top), an AGP 4x/8x slot (middle), and an AGP Pro/Universal slot (bottom). 137

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PCIe (PCI-Express) Slots PCI Express (often abbreviated as PCIe or PCIE) began to replace both PCI and AGP slots in new system designs starting in 2005. PCI Express slots are available in four types: x1 x4 x8 x16 The most common versions include the x1, x4, and x16 designs, as shown in Figure 12-9
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Fig. 12-9 PCI Express slots compared to a PCI slot.

PCI Express x1 and x4 slots are designed to replace the PCI slot, and x8 and x16 are designed to replace the AGP slot. Table 12-2 compares the performance of PCI, AGP and PCI Express slots. , Table 12-2 Technical Information About Expansion Slot Types
Slot Type PCI AGP 1x AGP 2x AGP 4x AGP 8x PCIe x1 PCIe x2 PCIe x8 PCIe x16 Performance 133MBps 266MBps 533MBps 1,066MBps 2,133MBps 500MBps* 1,000MBps* 4,000MBps* 8,000MBps* Suggested Uses Video, network, SCSI, sound card Video Video Video Video Network, I/O Network SLI video Video (including SLI, CrossFire)

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AMR and CNR Slots Some motherboards have one of two specialized expansion slots in addition to the standard PCI, PCI Express, or AGP slots. The audio modem riser (AMR) slot (see Figure 12-10) enables motherboard designers to place analog modem and audio connectors and the codec chip used to translate between analog and digital signals on a small riser card. AMR slots are frequently found on older systems with chipsets that integrate software modems (see Figure 12-11) and audio functions

Fig. 12-10 An AMR slot and PCI slot (left) compared to a CNR slot and PCI slot (right). Very few AMR riser cards were ever sold, but some motherboard vendors have bundled CNR riser cards with their motherboards to provide six-channel audio output and other features. CMS INSTITUTE 2012

Fig. 12-11 An AMR riser card used for soft modem support (left) and a CNR riser card used for six-channel (5.1) analog and digital audio support (right).

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The AMR was replaced by the communications network riser (CNR) slot (see Figure 12-10), a longer design that can support up to six-channel audio, S/ PDIF digital audio, and home networking functions. Some vendors have used the CNR slot to implement high-quality integrated audio as shown in Figure 12-11. The AMR or CNR slot, when present, is usually located on the edge of the motherboard.The AMR slot was often found on Pentium III or AMD Athlonbased systems, while the CNR slot was used by some Pentium 4-based systems. Current systems integrate network and audio features directly into the motherboard and its port cluster, making both types of slots obsolete. Mass Storage Interfaces Motherboards also include mass storage interfaces such as EIDE/PATA, SATA, and SCSI. The following sections compare and contrast the appearance and functionality of these interfaces. Table 12-3 provides a quick overview of technical information about these interfaces. Table 12-3 Technical Information About Mass Storage Interfaces
Interface SATA 1st generation SATA 2nd generation PATA/IDE SCSI Performance 1.5Gbps 3.0Gbps 1.0-1.3Gbps 1.6-3.2Gbps* Suggested Uses Hard disk, rewritable DVD Hard disk, rewritable DVD Rewritable DVD, rewritable CD, Zip, JAZ, REV, tape Hard disk, tape backup

Note: *Current Ultra 160 and Ultra 320 SCSI standards; older standards are much slower.

EIDE/PATA Until recently, most motherboards included two or more EIDE/PATA (also known as ATA/IDE) host adapters for PATA devices such as hard disks, CD or DVD drives, tape backups, and removable-media drives. Each host adapter uses a 40-pin interface similar to the one shown in Figure 12-12, and can control up to two drives.

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Fig. 12-12 PATA and SATA host adapters on a typical motherboard.

Most recent systems use a plastic skirt around the PATA connector with a notch on one side. This prevents improper insertion of a keyed PATA (ATA/IDE) cable. However, keep in mind that some older systems have unskirted connectors and some older ATA/IDE cables are not keyed. To avoid incorrect cable connections, be sure to match pin 1 on the PATA host adapter to the red-striped edge of the PATA ribbon cable. On systems with a third EIDE/PATA host adapter, the additional host adapter is typically used for a RAID 0 or RAID 1 drive array. See your system or motherboard documentation for details. Most current systems now have only one EIDE/PATA host adapter, as the industry is transitioning away from EIDE/PATA to SATA interfaces for both hard disk and DVD drives. SATA Most recent systems have anywhere from two to as many as eight Serial ATA (SATA) host adapters. Each host adapter controls a single SATA drive, such as a hard disk or rewritable DVD drive. The original SATA host adapter design did not have a skirt around the connector, making it easy for the cable to become loose. Many late-model systems now use a skirted design for the host adapter (see Figure 12-13).

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Fig. 12-13 Most late model systems include multiple SATA host adapters with skirted connectors.

SCSI SCSI (Small Computer Systems Interface) is a more flexible drive interface than PATA (ATA/IDE) because it can accommodate many devices that are not hard disk drives. The following have been common uses for SCSI: " " " " " High-performance and high-capacity hard drives Image scanners Removable-media drives such as Zip, Jaz, and Castlewood Orb High-performance laser printers High-performance optical drives, including CD-ROM, CD-R, CD-RW, DVDROM, and others

So-called Narrow SCSI host adapters (which use an 8-bit data channel) can accommodate up to seven devices of different varieties on a single connector on the host adapter through daisy-chaining. Wide SCSI host adapters use a 16-bit data channel and accommodate up to 15 devices on a single connector on the host adapter through daisy-chaining. Narrow SCSI devices and host adapters use a 50-pin or (rarely) a 25-pin cable and connector, while Wide SCSI devices use a 68-pin cable and connector.
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Several years ago, SCSI host adapters were found on some high-end desktop and workstation motherboards. However, most recent systems use SATA in place of SCSI, and SCSI host adapters and devices are now primarily used by servers. Currently, SCSI is used primarily for high-performance hard disks and tape backups. Systems with onboard SCSI host adapters might have one or more 50-pin or 68- pin female connectors similar to those shown in Figure 12-14
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Plug and Play Plug and Play (PnP) means that you can connect a device or insert a card into your computer and it is automatically recognized and configured to work in your system. PnP is a simple concept, but it took a concerted effort on the part of the computer industry to make it happen. Intel created the PnP standard and incorporated it into the design for PCI. But it wasn't until several years later that a mainstream operating system, Windows 95, provided system-level support for PnP The introduction of PnP accelerated the demand for computers . with PCI, very quickly supplanting ISA as the bus of choice. PnP requires three things: " PnP BIOS - The core utility that enables PnP and detects PnP devices. The BIOS also reads the ESCD for configuration information on existing PnP devices. Extended System Configuration Data (ECSD) - A file that contains information about installed PnP devices. PnP operating system - Any operating system, such as Windows 95/98/ME, that supports PnP PnP handlers in the operating system complete the . configuration process started by the BIOS for each PnP device.

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PnP automates several key tasks that were typically done either manually or with an installation utility provided by the hardware manufacturer. These tasks include the setting of:
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Interrupt requests (IRQ) - An IRQ, also known as a hardware interrupt, is used by the various parts of a computer to get the attention of the CPU. For example, the mouse sends an IRQ every time it is moved to let the CPU know that it's doing something. Before PCI, every hardware component needed a separate IRQ setting. But PCI manages hardware interrupts at the bus bridge, allowing it to use a single system IRQ for multiple PCI devices. Direct memory access (DMA) - This simply means that the device is configured to access system memory without consulting the CPU first. Memory addresses - Many devices are assigned a section of system memory for exclusive use by that device. This ensures that the hardware will have the needed resources to operate properly. Input/Output (I/O) configuration - This setting defines the ports used by the device for receiving and sending information.

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The overall effect of PnP has been to greatly simplify the process of upgrading your computer to add new devices or replace existing ones. PnP Working Let's say that you have just added a new PCI-based sound card to your Windows 98 computer. The different steps are as follows 1. You open up your computer's case and plug the sound card into an empty PCI slot on the motherboard. 2. You close the computer's case and power up the computer. 3. The system BIOS initiates the PnP BIOS. 4. The PnP BIOS scans the PCI bus for hardware. It does this by sending out a signal to any device connected to the bus, asking the device who it is. 5. The sound card responds by identifying itself. The device ID is sent back across the bus to the BIOS. 6. The PnP BIOS checks the ESCD to see if the configuration data for the sound card is already present. Since the sound card was just installed, there is no existing ESCD record for it. 7. The PnP BIOS assigns IRQ, DMA, memory address and I/O settings to the sound card and saves the data in the ESCD. 8. Windows 98 boots up. It checks the ESCD and the PCI bus. The operating system detects that the sound card is a new device and displays a small window telling you that Windows has found new hardware and is determining what it is. 9. If it is able to determine what the device is, it displays the name of the device
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and attempts to install the driver (the software that enables the device to communicate with the operating system). You may be asked to insert a disk with the driver on it or tell Windows where to find the driver software. If Windows cannot determine what the device is, it provides a dialog window so that you can specify what type of device it is and load a driver to run it. 10. Once the driver is installed, the device should be ready for use. Some devices may require that you restart the computer before you can use them. Choosing the Best Motherboard for the Job So, how do you go about choosing the best motherboard for the job? Follow this process: Step 1. Decide what you want the motherboard (system) to do. Because most of a computer's capabilities and features are based on the motherboard, you need to decide this first. Some examples: If you need high CPU performance, you must choose a motherboard that supports the fastest dual-core or multi-core processors available. If you want to run a 64-bit (x64) operating system, you need a motherboard that supports 64-bit processors and more than 4GB of RAM. If you want to run fast 3D gaming graphics, you need a motherboard that supports NVIDIA's SLI or ATI's CrossFire multi-GPU technologies. If you want to support multimedia uses such as video editing, you'll prefer a motherboard with onboard IEEE-1394a (FireWire 400). If you are building a system for use as a home theater, a system with HDMI graphics might be your preferred choice. Step 2. Decide what form factor you need to use. If you are replacing an existing motherboard, the new motherboard must fit into the case (chassis) being vacated by the old motherboard and (ideally) be powered by the existing power supply. If you are building a new system, though, you can choose the form factor needed. Some examples: Full-size ATX or BTX motherboards provide the most room for expansion but require mid-size or full-size tower cases. If no more than three expansion slots are needed, micro ATX or micro BTX systems fit into mini-tower cases that require less space and can use smaller, lessexpensive power supplies. If only one slot (or no slots) are needed, picoATX or picoBTX systems that fit into small form factor cases require very little space.

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Troubleshooting Motherboards When you're troubleshooting a computer, there is no shortage of places to look for problems. However, because the motherboard is the "home" for the most essential system resources, it's often the source of many problems. If you see the following problems, consider the motherboard as a likely place to look for the cause: " System will not start- When you push the power button on an ATX or BTX system, the computer should start immediately. If it doesn't, the problem could be motherboard-related. Devices connected to the port cluster don't work- If ports in the port cluster are damaged or disabled in the system BIOS configuration (CMOS setup), any devices connected to the port cluster will not work. Devices connected to header cables don't work- If ports connected to the header are not plugged into the motherboard, are damaged, or are disabled in the system BIOS configuration (CMOS setup), any devices connected to these ports will not work. Mass storage drives are not recognized or do not work- If mass storage ports on the motherboard are not properly connected to devices, are disabled, or are not configured properly, drives connected to these ports will not work. Memory failures- Memory failures could be caused by the modules themselves, or they could be caused by the motherboard. Problems installing aftermarket processor heat sinks or replacement cardsYou cannot assume that every device fits every system.

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The following sections help you deal with these common problems. System Will Not Start If the computer will not start, check the following: Incorrect front panel wiring connections to the motherboard Loose or missing power leads from power supply Loose or missing memory modules Loose BIOS chips Incorrect connection of PATA/IDE cables to onboard host adapter Dead short in system Incorrect positioning of a standoff Loose screws or slot covers The following sections describe each of these possible problems.

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Incorrect Front Panel Wiring Connections to the Motherboard The power switch is wired to the motherboard, which in turn signals the power supply to start. If the power lead is plugged into the wrong pins on the motherboard, or has been disconnected from the motherboard, the system will not start and you will not see an error message. Check the markings on the front panel connectors, the motherboard, or the motherboard/system manual to determine the correct pinouts and installation. Figure 12-15 shows typical motherboard markings for front panel connectors.
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Fig. 12-15 A typical tworow front panel connector on a motherboard.

Loose or Missing Power Leads from Power Supply Modern power supplies often have both a 20- or 24-pin connection and a four- or eight-pin connection to the motherboard. If either or both connections are loose or not present, the system cannot start and you will not see an error message. Loose or Missing Memory Modules If the motherboard is unable to recognize any system memory, it will not start properly. Unlike the other problems, you will see a memory error message. Make sure memory modules are properly locked into place, and that there is no corrosion on the memory contacts on the motherboard or on the memory modules themselves. To remove corrosion from memory module contacts, remove the memory modules from the motherboard and gently wipe the contacts off to remove any built-up film or corrosion. An Artgum eraser (but not the conventional rubber or highly abrasive ink eraser) can be used for stubborn cases. Be sure to rub in a direction away from the memory chips to avoid damage. Reinsert
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the modules and lock them into place. Loose BIOS Chips Socketed motherboard chips that don't have retaining mechanisms, such as BIOS chips, can cause system failures if the chips work loose from their sockets. The motherboard BIOS chip (see Figure 12-16) is responsible for displaying boot errors, and if it is not properly mounted in its socket, the system cannot start and no error messages will be produced (note that many recent systems have surface-mounted BIOS chips). The cycle of heating (during operation) and cooling (after the power is shut down) can lead to chip creep, in which socketed chips gradually loosen in the sockets. To cure chip creep, push the chips back into their sockets. Use even force to press a square BIOS chip into place. On older systems that use rectangular BIOS chips, alternately push on each end of the chip until the chip is securely mounted. Incorrect Connection of PATA/IDE Cables to Onboard Host Adapter Many systems are designed to wait for a response from a device connected to a PATA/ IDE host adapter on the motherboard before continuing to boot. If the PATA/ IDE cable is plugged in incorrectly, the system will never get the needed response, and some systems will not display an error message.
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Fig. 12-19 If a socketed BIOS chip like this one becomes loose, the system will not boot.

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Make sure pin 1 on the cable is connected to pin 1 on the PATA/IDE device and the corresponding host adapter on the system. Check the motherboard manual for the position of pin 1 on the motherboard's host adapter if the host adapter is not marked properly. Dead Short (Short Circuit) in System A dead short (short circuit) in your system will prevent a computer from showing any signs of life when you turn it on. Some of the main causes for dead shorts that involve motherboards include " " Incorrect positioning of a standoff Loose screws or slot covers

The following sections describe both possible causes. Incorrect positioning of a standoff Brass standoffs should be lined up with the mounting holes in the motherboard (refer to Figure 12-17 for typical locations). Some motherboards have two types of holes: plain holes that are not intended for use with brass standoffs (they might be used for heat sink mounting or for plastic standoffs) and reinforced holes used for brass standoffs. Figure 12.17 compares these hole types. If a brass standoff is under a part of the motherboard not meant for mounting, such as under a plain hole or under the solder connections, the standoff could cause a dead short that prevents the system from starting

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Fig. 12-17 Mounting holes compared to other holes on a typical motherboard.

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Loose screws or slot covers Leaving a loose screw inside the system and failing to fasten a slot cover or card in place are two common causes for dead shorts, because if these metal parts touch live components on the motherboard, your system will short out and stop working. The solution is to open the case and remove or secure any loose metal parts inside the system. Dead shorts also can be caused by power supply-related problems. Devices Connected to the Port Cluster Don't Work The port cluster (refer to Figure 12-5) provides a "one-stop shop" for most I/ O devices, but if devices plugged into these ports fail, check the disabled ports and possible damage to a port in the port cluster, as described in the following sections. Disabled Port If a port hasn't been used before, and a device connected to it doesn't work, be sure to check the system's BIOS configuration to determine if the port is disabled. This is a particularly good idea if the port is a legacy port (serial/COM, parallel/LPT) or is the second network port. Ports can also be disabled using Windows Device Manager. Damage to a Port in the Port Cluster If a port in the port cluster has missing or bent pins, it's obvious that the port is damaged, but don't expect all types of damage to be obvious. The easiest way to see if a port in the port cluster is damaged is to follow these steps: Step 1. Verify that the port is enabled in the system BIOS and Windows Device Manager. Step 2. Make sure the device cable is connected tightly to the appropriate port. Use the thumbscrews provided with serial/COM, parallel/LPT, and VGA or DVI video cables to assure a proper connection. Step 11. If the device fails, try the device on another port or another system. If the device works, the port is defective. If the device doesn't work, the device or the device's cable is defective. To solve the problem of a defective port, use one of these solutions: " Replace the motherboard with an identical model- This is the best solution for long-term use. Note that if you replace the motherboard with a different model you might need to reinstall Windows, or, at a minimum, reinstall drivers and reactivate Windows and some applications. " Install an add-on card to replace the damaged port- This is quicker than
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replacing the motherboard, but if you are replacing a legacy port such as serial/COM or parallel/LPT, it can be expensive. If the device that plugged into a legacy port can also use a USB port, use a USB port instead. " Use a USB/legacy port adapter- Port adapters can be used to convert serial/COM or parallel/LPT devices to work on USB ports. However, note that some limitations might be present. Generally, this is the least desirable solution. Devices Connected to Header Cables Don't Work Before assuming that a port that uses a header cable is defective or disabled, make sure the header cable is properly connected to the motherboard. If the system has just been assembled, or if the system has recently undergone internal upgrades or servicing, it's possible the header cable is loose or disconnected. If the header cable is properly connected to the motherboard, follow the steps in the previous section to determine the problem and solution. Devices Connected to Header Cables Don't Work Before assuming that a port that uses a header cable is defective or disabled, make sure the header cable is properly connected to the motherboard. If the system has just been assembled, or if the system has recently undergone internal upgrades or servicing, it's possible the header cable is loose or disconnected. If the header cable is properly connected to the motherboard, follow the steps in the previous section to determine the problem and solution. Mass Storage Devices Do Not Work Properly Mass storage devices that connect to SATA, PATA/IDE, or SCSI host adapters on the motherboard will not work if either of the following are true, as described in the next sections: " " Mass storage ports are disabled in system BIOS or Windows Data cables are not properly connected to the motherboard or drives

Mass Storage Ports Disabled in System BIOS or Windows Before assuming a mass storage device is defective, be sure to verify whether the port has been disabled in the system BIOS configuration (CMOS setup or in Windows Device

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Manager). If you cannot connect the device to another port, enable the port and retry the device. To learn how to manage integrated ports using the system BIOS setup. Data or Power Cables Are Not Properly Connected to the Motherboard or Drives If internal upgrades or servicing has taken place recently, it's possible that data or power cables have become loose or disconnected from the mass storage host adapters on the motherboard or the drives themselves. Before reconnecting the cables, shut down the computer and disconnect it from AC power. Memory Failures Memory failures could be caused by the modules themselves, or they could be caused by the motherboard. For more information on memory problems and motherboards, see the section "Loose or Missing Memory Modules," earlier in this chapter. Card, Memory, or Heat Sink Blocked by Motherboard Layout Internal clearances in late-model systems are very tight, and if you attempt to install some types of hardware in some systems, such as an oversized processor heat sink or a very large video card, it might not be possible because of the motherboard's layout. Before purchasing an aftermarket heat sink, check the clearances around the processor. Be especially aware of the location of capacitors and the voltage regulator; if the heat sink is too large, it could damage these components during installation. To help verify that an aftermarket heat sink will fit properly, remove the original heat sink from the processor and take it with you to compare its size to the aftermarket models you are considering. Before purchasing an expansion card, check the slot clearance to be sure the card will fit into the desired expansion slot. In some cases, you might need to move a card from a neighboring slot to make room for the cooling fan shroud on some high-performance graphics cards.

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A Quick Tour Through a Typical CMOS Setup Every maker of BIOS has a different CMOS setup program. They all say basically the same thing; you just have to be comfortable "poking around". To avoid doing something foolish, do not save anything unless you have it set correctly. When you boot a machine with Award BIOS you will see something similar to Fig. 12.17 and at the bottom of the screen it shows the way to enter the CMOS Setup. Press DEL and the screen in Fig. 12.18 will appear. you are now in the Main menu of the Award CMOS setup program! This program is stored on the ROM chip, but

Fig. 12.18 Press DEL to enter SETUP

it solely edits the data on the CMOS chip. The first BIOS was nothing more than a standard CMOS setup. Today, virtually all computers have many extra CMOS settings. They control items such as memory management, password and booting options, diagnostic and error handling, and power management. The following section takes a quick tour of a fairly typical Award CMOS setup program. Remember that your CMOS setup will almost certainly look at least a little different from the one seen here in the Fig. 12.18 unless you happen to have the same BIOS. Motherboard makers buy a basic BIOS from Award and can add or remove options (Award calls them "modules") based on the needs of the motherboard. This can cause problems, as seemingly identical CMOS setups can be extremely different. Options that show up on one computer might be missing from

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another.

Fig. 12.19 Main Menu

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Standard CMOS Features Select Standard CMOS Features, and the standard CMOS screen will appear (see Fig. 12.20) On the Standard CMOS Features screen you can change floppy drive, hard drive, and date/time settings. At this point, the only goal is to introduce you to CMOS and to make sure you can access the CMOS setup on your PC.
Fig. 12.20 Standard CMOS features Screen
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Fig. 12.20 shows the same standard CMOS screen with a Phoenix BIOS. note that Phoenix calls it "Main". Advanced BIOS Features Advanced BIOS Features is the dumping ground for all the settings that aren't covered in the Standard menu but don't fit nicely under any other screen. This screen varies wildly from one system to the next. We use this screen most often to select the boot options (Fig. 12.21). Advanced Chipset Features This screen strikes fear into everyone because it deals with extremely lowlevel chipset functions. Avoid this screen unless a high-level tech (like a motherboard maker's tech support) explicitly tells you to do something in here Integrated Peripherals It allows to configure, enable, or disable the onboard ports, such as the serial and parallel ports. Power Management Setup The power management settings control how and when devices turn off and back on to conserve power. PnP/PCI Configurations The commonly used PnP/PCI Confi-gurations are used for setting certain
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Fig. 12.21 Phoenix BIOS Main Screen

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resources called "IRQs" to prevent the system from taking that resource away from a device that needs it. And the Rest of the CMOS Settings... The other options on the main menu of our Award CMOS do not have their own screens. Rather, these simply have small dialog boxes that pop up, usually with "are you sure?" type messages.

Fig. 12.22 Advanced BIOS

Load Fail-Safe/Optimized defaults keeps us from having to memorise all of those weird settings. Fail-Safe sets everything to very simple settings-we occasionally use this setting when very low-level problems like freeze ups occur, and we have checked more obvious areas first. Optimized sets the CMOS to the best possible speed/stability for our system. We often use this one when we have tampered with the CMOS too much and need to "put it back like it was!" Many CMOS setup programs enable you to set a password in CMOS to force the user to enter a password every time the system boots. This CMOS password shows up at boot, long before Windows even starts to load. Some CMOS setups enable you to create two passwords: one for boot and another for accessing the CMOS setup program. This extra password just for entering CMOS setup. All CMOS setups provide some method to Save and Exit and to Exit Without Saving. Use these as needed for your situation. Exit without Saving is particularly nice for those people who want to poke around the CMOS but don't want to mess anything up.

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LAB EXERCISE 12.1 : Motherboard slot Identification and CMOS Settings Objective: To be able identify the chipset and the form factor of the motherboard as well as be familiar with the different slots which are present on it and be familiar with the different CMOS settings. Tasks: 1. Identify the motherboard form factor for the motherboards given. 2. Identify the socket no. of the processor, if the motherboard has a socket or else identify the slot and what are the processors which are supported by the socket or slot. Buses/Slots Identification Devices that can be Connected

3. Check out the different expansion slots which are present on the motherboard and how they can be identified with the help of the foll reference table below. 4. Identify the chipset of your machine, which normally appears on the lower left side of the screen. when you initially switch on the machine. 5. Check out the BIOS manufacturer and Enter the setup program depending upon the function key to pressed. 6. Once inside the Setup, try changing the boot order sequencing i.e.if it is set to floppy earlier, then set it to hard disk or vice versa. 7. Set a system password to "cms" & while rebooting verify whether it is applied or not. 8. Find out the latest mother board chip sets available in the Market during the conduction of this chapter.

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Floppy drives are used primarily for backups of small amounts of data, for bootable diagnostic disks, and for the creation of bootable emergency disks with some versions of Windows. The 1.44MB floppy drive shown in Figure 131 and Figure 13-2 is found in some recent and virtually all older desktop and laptop computers, although many recent computers no longer use floppy drives. The 1.44MB drive uses 3.5-inch double-sided high-density (DSHD) media, and also supports the 720KB 3.5-inch double-sided double-density (DSDD) media used by 3.5-inch drives produced in the 1980s. Some older IBM systems used a 2.88MB DSED floppy drive, but were also compatible with 1.44MB and 720KB floppy disks.
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Figure 13-1 A typical 3.5-inch floppy disk drive.

Figure 13-1 shows the front and sides of a typical 3.5-inch floppy drive, and Figure 13-2 shows the data and power connectors used by 3.5-inch floppy drives. In the following sections, you will learn about the different types of floppy disk drives and media, and how drives are installed, configured in the BIOS, and maintained
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Figure 13-2 The rear of a typical 3.5-inch drive before (left) and after (right) data and power cables are attached

Floppy Disk Types Floppy drives use flexible magnetic media protected by a rigid plastic case and a retractable shutter. There have been three different types of 3.5-inch floppy disk media used over time, although only the 1.44MB floppy disk is used currently. Figure 13-3 compares the capacities and distinguishing marks of each disk type. Note that all 3.5-inch disks use the write-enable slider shown in Figure 13-3. Table 13-2 helps you distinguish between different disk types in use today.
Disk Type Capacity Jacket Reinforced Hub N/A Write-Protect Media Sensor

3.5-inch DSDD 3.5-inch DSHD 3.5-inch DSED

720KB

Rigid with metal shutter

Open writeprotect slider

N/A

1.44MB

Rigid with metal shutter Rigid with metal shutter

N/A

Open writeprotect slider Open writeprotect slider

Opposite writeprotect slider Offset from protect slider

2.88MB

N/A

Of the disks pictured in Figure 13-3, only the 3.5-inch DSHD disk is commonly used today. 1.44MB disks are often marked HD on their front and always have a media-sensing hole in the opposite corner from the write-enable/protect slider.
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Figure 13-3 A 3.5-inch 720KB floppy disk (left) compared to a 1.44MB floppy disk (right), and a 2.88MB floppy disk (center).

3.5-inch media. The LS-120 SuperDisk uses 120MB media, and the LS-240 SuperDisk can use 120MB or 240MB media. These drives usually plug into the ATA/IDE (PATA) interface if internal, or the parallel or USB port if external. 5.25-inch floppy drives were used before 3.5-inch drives became commonplace, but they have been obsolete for some years and are seldom used. Floppy Disk Drive Hardware Configuration Floppy disk drive hardware configuration depends on several factors, including Correct CMOS configuration- The system's BIOS configuration screen must have the correct drive selected for A: and B:. Correct cable positioning and attachment- The position of the drive(s) on the cable determine which is A: and which is B:. If the cable is not oriented properly, the drive will spin continuously and the LED on the front of the drive will stay on.

The standard floppy disk drive interface uses a single IRQ and single I/O port address range, whether the interface is built in or on an expansion card: Floppy Drive IRQ: 6 Floppy Drive I/O Port Address: 3F0-3F7h
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The standard floppy disk drive interface can support two drives: drive A: and drive B:. However, some recent systems support only one floppy drive (A:). The 34-pin floppy disk drive data cable has wires numbered 10 to 16 twisted in reverse between the connectors for drive A: and drive B:. The drive beyond the twist is automatically designated as drive A:; the drive connected between the twisted and the untwisted end of the cable (which connects to the floppy controller) is automatically designated as drive B:. Figure 13-4 compares five-connector universal (3.5-inch/5.25-inch) and threeconnector 3.5-inch floppy cables. (The cable connector to the floppy controller is not visible in this photo.)

Figure 13-4 Two types of floppy drive cables compared. On the left, a cable designed for 3.5-inch drives only; on the right, a cable designed for 3.5-inch and 5.25-inch drives.

Floppy Disk Drive Physical Installation and Removal To install a 3.5-inch 1.44MB floppy disk drive as drive A:, follow these steps: Step 1. Select an empty 3.5-inch external drive bay; an external drive bay is a drive bay with a corresponding opening in the case. Step 2. Remove the dummy face plate from the case front. Step 3. For an ATX tower system, remove the left side panel (as seen from the front). For a BTX tower system, remove the right side panel (as seen from the front). For a desktop system, remove the top. Step 4. If the 3.5-inch drive bay is a removable "cage," remove it from the system. This might involve pushing on a spring-loaded tab or removing a screw. Some

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drive bays pull straight out (as here), whereas others swing to one side. Step 5. Remove the floppy disk drive from its protective packaging. Test the screws you intend to use to secure the drive and ensure they're properly threaded and the correct length. Step 6. Check the bottom or rear panel of the drive for markings indicating pin 1; if no markings are found, assume pin 1 is the pin closest to the power supply connector. Step 7. Secure the drive to the drive bay with the screws supplied with the drive or with the computer (see Figure 13-5). Step 8. Replace the drive bay into the computer. Step 9. Attach the 34-pin connector at the end of the floppy disk drive data cable with the twist to the data connector on the drive. Step 10. Run the other end of the floppy disk drive data cable through the drive bay into the interior of the computer. Then, connect it to the floppy disk drive interface on the motherboard or add-on card. Step 11. Attach the correct type of four-wire power cable to the drive. You might need to slide the drive part way into the drive bay to make the connection. Step 12. Double check power and data cable keying before starting the computer. Step 13. Follow these steps in reverse to remove the drive from the system.
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Floppy Drive BIOS Configuration Floppy disk drives cannot be detected by the system; you must manually configure the floppy disk drive or floppy disk drives you add to the system.

Figure 13-5 A removable drive cage with the attachment screws for the floppy disk drive and hard drive. The opposite side of each drive is also secured with screws (not shown).

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To configure the floppy disk drive in the ROM BIOS, follow these steps: Step 1. Verify the correct physical installation as listed previously. Step 2. Turn on the monitor and the computer. Step 3. Press the appropriate key(s) to start the BIOS configuration program. Step 4. Open the standard configuration menu. Step 5. Select Drive A: or the first floppy disk drive. Step 6. Use the appropriate keys to scroll through the choices; 3.5-inch 1.44MB is the correct choice for virtually all systems with an onboard floppy drive (see Figure 13-6). Step 7. No other changes are necessary, so save your changes and exit to reboot the system. If you only need a floppy drive for occasional use, you can connect an external floppy drive to the USB port. If you need to boot from an external floppy drive or need to load drivers from it during the installation of Windows, check the system BIOS setup program to verify that the drive is listed as a bootable device
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Figure 13-6 Viewing floppy drive type options in the BIOS setup program of a typical system.

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Maintaining Floppy Disks, Data, and Drives You can protect the data on your floppy disks by following these recommendations; most of these suggestions also apply to higher-capacity magnetic removable media such as Zip, REV, and tape backups: Do not open the protective metal shutter on 3.5-inch disks or tape backups. Do not touch the magnetic media itself. Store disks away from sources of magnetism (CRT monitors, magnetized tools, unshielded speakers, and unshielded cables) or heat.

Open the sliding write-protect hole on 3.5-inch disks to prevent the contents of the disk from being changed. Floppy disk drives are a type of magnetic storage in which the read/write heads make direct contact with the media. This is similar to the way that tape drives work, and just like tape backup, music cassette, or VCR heads, a floppy disk drive's read/write heads can become contaminated by dust, dirt, smoke, or magnetic particles flaking off the disk's media surfaces. For this reason, periodic maintenance of floppy disk drives will help to avoid the need to troubleshoot drives that cannot reliably read or write data. The following are some guidelines for cleaning a floppy disk drive: Approximately every six months, or more often in dirty or smoke-filled conditions, use a wet-type head-cleaning disk on the drive. These cleaning kits use a special cleaning floppy disk that contains cleaning media in place of magnetic media, along with an alcohol-based cleaner. Add a few drops to the media inside the cleaning disk, slide it into the drive, and activate the drive with a command such as DIR or by using Windows Explorer; as the read/write heads move across the cleaning media, they are cleaned. Allow the heads to dry for about an hour before using the drive. Whenever you open a system for any type of maintenance or checkup, review the condition of the floppy disk drive(s). Use compressed air to remove fuzz or hair from the drive heads and check the mechanism for smooth operation

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Hard Disk Drive

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Hard Disk A hard disk drive is a sealed unit that a PC uses for nonvolatile data storage. Nonvolatile, or semi-permanent, storage means that the storage device retains the data even when no power is supplied to the computer. Hard disks are used as a repository in which vast amounts of information can be stored and unlike RAM, this information is permanent in that it is retained even after the computer is powered down. This is done using the principles of magnetic storage, which is similar in principle to that used in retrieving and storing information on conventional tapes. Hard disks allow data to be stored at far denser levels and can be accessed very quickly. Understanding the working of a hard disk can be simplified by drawing a parallel to the conventional audio or videotape. Because the hard disk drive is expected to retain data until deliberately erased or overwritten, the hard drive is used to store crucial programming and data. As a result, when the hard disk fails, the consequences are usually very serious. A hard disk drive contains rigid, disk-shaped platters, usually constructed of aluminIum or glass. In the hard disk, the magnetic material is layered on to an aluminium or glass platter which is polished to mirror smoothness. In hard disk the head actually 'flies' microns above the surface of the platter and is never really allowed to touch the surface of the hard disk. The platters of the hard disk can spin under the head at rates of up to 3,000 inches per second translating into a speed of 225 Km/hr! The information on a hard disk is stored in extremely small regions or magnetic domains that is made possible through the use of very precise control mechanisms that arrange the magnetic particles in platters that electronically correspond to 0s and 1s. In hard disks available today, the drive platters spin at 5,400 RPM, 7,200 RPM, 10,000 RPM or, in the new generation drives, upto 15,000 RPM. Considering the speeds at which the platters spin, if the heads come into contact with the platters, there would be severe damage to the disk surface and consequently
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CMS INSTITUTE 2012 Headac tuator Head Bezel

Fig. 14.1 Inside of the Hard disk drive.

to the data stored. The arm that controls the head is responsible for moving the head to the correct location on the disk and is fabarm Read/wr ite h ead ricated so as to be extremely light and manoeuvrable. The arm on a typical drive can move the head from the hub to the perimeter of the drive and back at rates of up to 50 times per second. Nearly all of today's hard disks contain more than one platter, and a corresponding number of readwrite heads that together decide the capacity of the hard disk. Many hard disks today can store 80GB per platter. This implies that each platter holds 40GB per side and if it is to be used in an 80GB hard disk, then two read-write heads are used - one for each side of the platter. The same hard disk with one read-write head would go into the making of a 40GB hard disk. Similarly, if two platters were used, depending upon the number of readwrite heads that are used, the hard disk could be fabricated as a 120GB (with three read-write heads) or a 160GB hard disk (with 4 read-write heads).
Platter

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SIDE 0

INSIDE THE HARD DISK DRIVE : The Platter : The media is the hard metallic disk made of Aluminium and coated with iron oxide which gives a typical rust brown look. Unlike the floppy disk drive, the media in the hard disk drive is permanently fixed to the drive mechanism, hence it is also called Fixed disk drive. Depending on the capacity of storing data, there could be more than one platter (disk). Usually 2,3,4, etc. are provided. Since both the sides of the disk platter is coated with the magnetic material, it provides additional storage space. This warranties the provision for two R/W heads per platter to enable the storage of information on both the surfaces. Thus, it can be presumed that for every platter in the drive, two heads are required. Eg : If there are 2 platters, 4 heads are provided and for 3 platters, 6 heads and so on.
HEAD 0 HEAD 1 HEAD 2 HEAD 3

P L AT T T E R S PL AT T T E RS

SIDE 1 SIDE 2

SIDE 3

SP IND LE MOTOR

Similar to FDDs, hard disk surface is also formed with concentric circular paths of data storage called tracks and each track is subdivided into sectors. The density of tracks on a hard disk is of the order of 300 - 1024 tracks (maximum) on one surface, where as a floppy disk can have typically 40/80 tracks on one surface. The number of sectors/track is also higher than the floppy disk, i.e., 63 sectors/tracks against 9 or 15 sectors/tracks. Read/Write Head : Just as in the case of floppy disk drives,
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Fig. 14.2 The platters and head arrrangement in the hard disk drive.

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IRON CORE

GAP

or for that matter, any magnetic recording device viz., audio tape, video tape, data recording devices etc. The HDDs too use a coil of winding to electrically induce magnetic flux on the recording surface or medium. Similar coil is also used to detect the existence of the magnetic flux on the medium. These coils form the Write and the Read mechanisms. The assembly consisting of the R/W coils is called a head. One head assembly is provided for every recording surface.

It is noted that the recording media or the disk is divided into tracks and sectors. Also the fact remains that the disk is PLATTER SURFACE rotating at a constant speed of 7200/10,000 rpm. Considering Fig. 14.3 The read/write this, the R/W head assembly is mounted on a carriage device so that it can head arrangement in the hard disk drive. move linearly to access any of the track spread over the entire disk surface. All the heads are mounted on one carriage assembly. This assumes the access of same numbered tracks on all surfaces simultaneously i.e., head 0 on surface 0 accesses the track 0 (of surface 1) & so on. The disk (recording) surface is treated as an array of dot positions, each of this is considered as a bit that is set to the magnetic equivalent of 0 or 1. Since these dot positions are not precisely determined, there is a need for marking the disk with synchronization bits, matching with the recorded data. This is done during the formatting of the disk. Magnetic recording is basically analogous in form as in case of sound recording in the audio tapes. The sync bytes on the timing tracks help in digitalizing this information during the data separation. The movement of carriage assembly to move from one track to another track is achieved by driving it with a stepper motor or in some cases a voice coil mechanism. This is called head actuation. Carriage Actuator : Carriage actuation in a FDD is done using a stepper motor. Accuracy is required in a low track density media like the FDD . Actuation in a HDD which is either done by the stepper motor or by the voice coil, depending upon the capacity of the drive. A stepper motor moves in steps rather than continuously. The stepper motor is mechanically linked to the head carriage by a split steel band, coiled around the motor spindle. Sometimes the rack and the pinion gear mechanism is also used. Usually each step of the motor moves the R/W head by one track position. If the head has to move, let us say, to track number 300, then the stepper motor must move 300 steps in the required direction. Voice coil actuator : Voice coil method of actuation is done usually in large capacity drives with high reliability. The voice coil mechanism moves the head carriage assembly by pure electro-magnetic force. The construction of this is analogous to an audio speaker which uses a stationary magnet surrounded
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Function

by a voice-coil ( hence the name ) that is connected to the paper cone. When the coil is energized, it moves causing Relative speed Slow Fast the cone to move thus producing sound. Typically in a hard Temperature sensitivity Yes No disk voice coil, it is mounted on a track and surrounding Position sensitivity Yes No a stationary magnet. Coil mechanism is connected to the Auto head park No Yes head carriage assembly. As the coil is energised it attracts Reliability / Accuracy Poor High Cost Low High or repels the stationary magnet causing the head carriage Fig. 14.4 Comparison to move forward or backwards. This enables fast, quiet and between Stepper motor and accurate operation when compared with the stepper motor. Since the movement voice coil actuator. in this mechanism is not of the pre-determined steps indicating a track position, some unique method is used to determine accurate access of a track. This method involves in allocating one of the surfaces of one platter as dedicated servo surface. This is done by the manufacturer. The tracks on this surface are recorded with index signals to represent the cylinders. The head coil on this surface can only detect these index signals & they cannot write. This head is called the servo head giving feedback to the servo circuitry, which determines and controls the position of the head over each track thus enabling access to every cylinder on the disk.
Stepper motor Voice coil

Hard Disk Spindle Motor The spindle motor, also sometimes called the spindle shaft, is responsible for turning the hard disk platters, allowing the hard drive to operate. The spindle motor is sort of a "work horse" of the hard disk. It's not flashy, but it must provide stable, reliable and consistent turning power for thousands of hours of continuous use, to allow the hard disk to function properly. In fact, many drive failures are actually failures with the spindle motor, not the data storage systems. For many years hard disks all spun at the same speed. In the interests of performance, manufacturers have been steadily ratcheting up their products' spin speeds over the last few years. These higher-speed spindles often have issues related to the amount of heat and vibration they generate. The increased performance and also the new potential issues related to the spindle motor have given it renewed attention in the last few years. All PC hard disks use servo-controlled DC spindle motors. A servo system is a closed-loop feedback system; this is the exact same technology as is used in modern voice coil actuators. In the case of the spindle motor, the feedback for the closed-loop system comes in the form of a speed sensor. This provides the feedback information to the motor that allows it to spin at exactly the right speed. Increasing the speed at which the platters spin improves both positioning and transfer performance: the data can be read off the disk faster during sequential operations, and rotational latency--the time that the heads must wait for the correct sector number to come under the head--is also reduced,
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improving random operations. For this reason, there has been a push to increase the speed of the spindle motor, and more than at any other time in the past, hard disk spin speeds are changing rapidly. This table shows the most common PC spindle speeds, their associated average rotational latency, and their typical applications as of early 2000:
Spindle Speed (RPM) 3,600 4,200 4,500 4,900 5,200 5,400 7,200 10,000 12,000 15,000 Average Latency (Half Rotation) (ms) 8.3 7.1 6.7 6.1 5.8 5.6 4.2 3.0 2.5 2.0 Typical Current Application Former standard, now obsolete Laptops IBM Microdrive, laptops Laptops Obsolete Low-end IDE/ATA, laptops High-end IDE/ATA, Low-end SCSI High-end SCSI High-end SCSI Top-of-the-line SCSI

Hard Disk Geometry Geometry determines where the drive stores data on the hard drive. The geometry for the particular hard drive describes a set of numbers that refer to five special values: the heads, cylinders, sectors per track, write precomp and landing zone. Heads The number of heads for a specific hard drive describes, rather logically, the number of read/write heads used by the drive to store data. Every platter requires two heads. If a hard drive has four platters, for eg., it would need eight heads. Cylinders A platter has two sides with concentric tracks. Two tracks the align exactly with each other (one on the bottom of the platter, and one on the top) form a cylinder. If there are two or more platters, all pairs of tracks that line up with each other make up the cylinder. If there are three platters, for eg., each cylinder has six tracks (three pairs). In other words, taken together, the tracks become a virtual cylinder. You can see the relationship between tracks and cylinders in Fig. 14.5. The number of tracks per surface is identical to the number of cylinders;
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Fig. 14.5 Relationship between tracks and cylinders on a disk

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therefore, most manufacturers do not report the number of tracks, they report the number of cylinders. Although the two terms mean different things, people use cylinder and track synonymously. Sectors per Track Imagine cutting the hard drive like a birthday cake, slicing all the tracks into tens of thousands of small slivers. Each sliver is called a sector, and each sector stores 512 bytes of data "sector" refers to the sliver when discussing the geometry, but refers to the specific spot on a single track within that sliver when discussing the data capacity. Cylinders, heads, and sectors/track combine to define the hard drive's geometry. In most cases, these three critical values are referred to as CHS. The importance of these three values lies in the fact that the PC's BIOS needs to know the drive's geometry in order to know how to talk to the drive. A technician needed to enter these values into CMOS manually earlier. Today, every hard drive stores the CHS information in the drive itself in an electronic format that enables the BIOS to query the drive automatically in order to determine these values. Unlike the CHS values, the last two-write precomp and landing zone-no longer have relevance in today's PCs; however, most CMOS setup utilities still support these two values. Write Precompensation Cylinder Older hard drives had a real problem with the fact that sectors towards the inside of the drives were much smaller than sectors toward the outside. To handle this, an older drive would write data a little further apart once it got to a particular cylinder. This cylinder was called the Write Precompensation (write precomp) cylinder, and the PC had to know which cylinder began this wider spacing. Hard drives no longer have this problem, making the write precomp setting obsolete. Landing Zone On older hard drives with stepper motors, the landing zone value designated an unused cylinder as a "parking place" for the read/write heads. Old stepper motor hard drives needed to have the read/write heads parked before being moved in order to avoid accidental damage. Today's voice coil drives park themselves whenever they're not accessing data, automatically placing the read/write heads on the landing zone. As a result, the BIOS no longer needs the landing zone geometry. Interleaving A common operation when working with a hard disk is reading or writing a number of sectors of information in sequence. After all, a sector only contains
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6 7 12 8 13 9 9 5 14 4 10 6 11 14 7 16 16 5 11 17 6 17 8 16 4 14 3 8 2 13 7 1 12 9 17 1 1 10 3 11 2 2 5 4

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512 bytes of user data, and most files are much larger than that. Let's assume that the sectors on each track are numbered consecutively, and say that we want to read the first 10 sectors of a given track on the hard disk. Under ideal conditions, the controller would read the first sector, then immediately read the second, and so on, until all 10 sectors had been read. Just like reading 10 words in a row in this sentence.

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Fig. 14.6 Interleave ratio 1:1,1:2,1:3.

However, the physical sectors on a track are adjacent to each other 14 and not separated by very much 13 14 space. Reading sectors consecutively requires a certain amount of speed from the hard disk controller. The platters never stop spinning, and as soon as the controller is done reading all of sector 1, it has little time before the start of sector 2 is under the head. Many older controllers used with early hard disks did not have sufficient processing capacity to be able to do this. They would not be ready to read the second sector of the track until after the start of the second physical sector had already spun past the head, at which point it would be too late. If the controller is slow in this manner, and no compensation is made in the controller, the controller must wait for almost an entire revolution of the platters before the start of sector 2 comes around and it can read it. Then, of course, when it tried to read sector 3, the same thing would happen, and another complete rotation would be required. All this waiting around would kill performance: if a disk had 17 sectors per track, it would take 17 times as long to read those 10 sectors as it should have in the ideal case! To address this problem, older controllers employed a function called interleaving, allowing the setting of a disk parameter called the interleave factor. When interleaving is used, the sectors on a track are logically renumbered so that they do not correspond to the physical sequence on the disk. The goal of this technique is to arrange the sectors so that their position on the track matches the speed of the controller, to avoid the need for extra "rotations". Interleave is expressed as a ratio, "N:1", where "N" represents how
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far away the second logical sector is from the first, how far the third is from the second, and so on. An example is the easiest way to demonstrate this method. The standard for older hard disks was 17 sectors per track. Using an interleave factor of 1:1, (Refer fig. 14.6) the sectors would be numbered 1, 2, 3, .. , 17, and the problem described above with the controller not being ready in time to read sector 2 would often occur for sequential reads. Instead, an interleave factor of 2:1 could be used. With this arrangement, the sectors on a 17-sector track would be numbered as follows: 1, 10, 2, 11, 3, 12, 4, 13, 5, 14, 6, 15, 7, 16, 8, 17, 9. Using this interleave factor means that while sector 1 is being processed, sector 10 is passing under the read head, and so when the controller is ready, sector 2 is just arriving at the head. To read the entire track, two revolutions of the platters are required. This is twice as long as the ideal case (1:1 interleaving with a controller fast enough to handle it) but it is almost 90% better than what would result from using 1:1 interleaving with a controller that is too slow (which would mean 17 rotations were required). What if the controller was too slow for a 2:1 interleave? It might only be fast enough to read every third physical sector in sequence. If so, an interleave of 3:1 could be used, with the sectors numbered as follows: 1, 7, 13, 2, 8, 14, 3, 9, 15, 4, 10, 16, 5, 11, 17, 6, 12. Again here, this would reduce performance compared to 2:1, if the controller was fast enough for 2:1, but it would greatly improve performance if the controller couldn't handle 2:1. So this begs the question then: how do you know what interleave factor to use? Well, on older hard disks, the interleave factor was one parameter that had to be tinkered with to maximize performance. Setting it too conservatively caused the drive to not live up to its maximum potential, but setting it too aggressively could result in severe performance hits due to extra revolutions being needed. The perfect interleave setting depended on the speeds of the hard disk, the controller, and the system. Special utilities were written to allow the analysis of the hard disk and controller, and would help determine the optimal interleave setting. The interleave setting would be used when the drive was low-level formatted, to set up the sector locations for each track. On modern disk drives, the interleave setting is always 1:1. The spindle speed of a hard disk has increased from 3,600 RPM on the first hard disks, to today's standards of 5,400 to 10,000 RPM. An increase in speed of 50% to 177%. The faster spindle speed means that much less time for the controller to be ready before the next physical sector comes under the head. However, look at what processing power has done in the same time frame: CPUs have gone from 4.77 MHz speeds to the environs of around 3-4 GHz; an increase of over 20,000%! The speed of other chips in the PC and its peripherals have similarly
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gotten faster by many multiples. As a result of this increase in speed in modern circuits, controller speed is no longer an issue for current drives. There is in fact no way to set the interleave for a modern drive; it is fixed at 1:1 and no other setting would be necessary. Physical Geometry The physical geometry of a hard disk is the actual physical number of heads, cylinders and sectors used by the disk. On older disks this is the only type of geometry that is ever used--the physical geometry and the geometry used by the PC are one and the same. The original setup parameters in the system BIOS are designed to support the geometries of these older drives. Classically, there are three figures that describe the geometry of a drive: the number of cylinders on the drive ("C"), the number of heads on the drive ("H") and the number of sectors per track ("S"). Together they comprise the "CHS" method of addressing the hard disk. At the time the PC BIOS interfaces to the hard disk were designed, hard disks were simple. They had only a few hundred cylinders, a few heads and all had the same number of sectors in each track. Today's drives do not have simple geometries and therefore do not have the same number of sectors for each track, and they use defect mapping to remove bad sectors from use. As a result, their geometry can no longer be described using simple "CHS" terms. These drives must be accessed using logical geometry figures, with the physical geometry hidden behind routines inside the drive controller. Logical Geometry When you perform a drive parameter autodetection in your system BIOS setup or look in your new IDE/ATA hard disk's setup manual to see what the drive parameters are, you are seeing the logical geometry values that the hard disk manufacturer has specified for the drive. Since newer drives use zoned bit recording, wherein tracks are grouped into zones based on their distance from the center of the disk, and each zone is assigned a number of sectors per track, having ten or more values for sectors per track depending on which region of the disk is being examined, it is not possible to set up the disk in the BIOS using the physical geometry. The BIOS routines for the original AT command set allowed a hard drive size only upto 504 MB wherein a drive could have no more than 1024 cylinders, 16 heads, and 63 sectors/track. Since the BIOS has a limit of 63 sectors per track, and all newer hard disks average more than 100 sectors per track there would be a problem. Older hard disks that had simple structures and low capacity did not need
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special logical geometry. Their physical and logical geometry was the same. Newer drives cannot have their true geometries expressed using three simple numbers. To get around this issue, for disks 8.4 GB or smaller, the BIOS is given bogus parameters that give the approximate capacity of the disk, and the hard disk controller is given intelligence so that it can do automatic translation between the logical and physical geometry. The actual physical geometry is totally different, but the BIOS (and your system) need know nothing about this. Here's an example showing the difference between the physical and logical geometry for a sample drive, a 3.8 GB Quantum Fireball TM:
Specification Physical Geometry Read/Write Heads 6 Cylinders (Tracks per Surface) 6,810 Sectors Per Track 122 to 232 Total Sectors 7,539,840 Logical Geometry 16 7,480 63 7,539,840

If you install this drive, as far as the system is concerned, the disk has 16 heads and 63 sectors on every track, and the hard disk itself takes care of all the "dirty work" of translating requests to their real internal locations. The physical geometry is totally hidden from view. The fact that both geometries equate to the same number of total sectors is not a coincidence. The purpose of the logical geometry is to enable access to the entire disk using terms that the BIOS can handle. The logical geometry could theoretically end up with a smaller number of sectors than the physical, but this would mean wasted space on the disk. It can never specify more sectors than physically exist, of course. LBA (Logical Block Addressing) Another way to get around the problem of complex internal geometry is to change the way the drive is addressed completely. Instead of using the logical geometry numbers directly, most modern drives can be accessed using logical block addressing (LBA). With this method a totally different form of logical "geometry" is used: the sectors are just given a numerical sequence starting with 0. Again, the drive just internally translates these sequential numbers into physical sector locations. So the drive above would have sectors numbered from 0 to 7,539,839. This is just yet another way of providing access to the same sectors. Today's drives are over 8.4 GB in size and have therefore run into an important hard disk capacity barrier: the 8.4 GB capacity barrier. The largest logical parameters that can be used for accessing a standard IDE/ATA drive are 1,024 cylinders, 256 heads, and 63 sectors. Since the ATA standard only allows a maximum of 16 for the number of heads, BIOS translation is used to reduce
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the number of heads and increase the number of cylinders in the specification. The practical result of all of this, is that the largest logical geometry numbers for IDE/ATA drives are 16,383 cylinders, 16 heads and 63 sectors. This yields a maximum capacity of 8.4 GB. INT13 Extensions Drives larger than 8.4 GB can no longer be accessed using regular BIOS routines, and require extended Int 13h capabilities. In 1994, Phoenix Technologies (the BIOS manufacturer) came up with a new set of BIOS commands called Interrupt 13 extensions (INT13). INT13 extensions break the 8.4GB barrier by completely ignoring the CHS values and instead feeding the LBA a stream of "addressable sectors". A system with INT13 extensions can handle drives upto 137GB. Most systems made since 1998 have INT13 extension support. There is no way to even represent their full capacity using regular IDE/ATA geometry numbers. Therefore, these drives just specify 16,383 cylinders, 16 heads and 63 sectors to the BIOS for compatibility. Then, access to the drive is performed directly by the Int 13h extension routines, and the logical parameters are completely ignored. Here's how a modern drive, the 34.2 GB IBM Deskstar 34GXP (model DPTA-373420), looks:
Specification Read/Write Heads Cylinders (Tracks per Surface Sectors Per Track Total Sectors Physical Geometry 10 17,494 272 to 452 66,835,440 Logical Geometry 16 16383 63 16,514,064

As you can see, the logical and physical geometries clearly have nothing to do with each other on drives this large, and even the total number of sectors is wrong in the logical geometry. The drive must be accessed directly by an operating system supporting Int 13h BIOS extensions to see the whole drive, or drive overlay software used. If the drive is addressed using conventional geometry parameters, it will be limited in capacity to only 8.4 GB, which in the case of this drive would mean wasting over 75% of its capacity. Since they cannot have their true capacity expressed in terms of even logical geometry, all large modern drives are accessed using logical block addressing. The translation between logical and physical geometry is the lowest level of translation that occurs when using a modern hard disk. Hard-Drive Types The number of heads, cylinders, sectors/track, write precomp, and landing zone determine how the hard-drive controller accesses the physical hard drive.
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Each number must be correct if the hard drive is to function properly. When IBM created the first CMOS on the 286 AT, they believed that the five different geometry numbers would be too complicated for normal users to configure. For simplicity, IBM established 15 present combinations of hard-drive geometries, called hard-drive types. So instead of worrying about five different variables, users could simply enter a hard-drive type into the CMOS. The concept of types did make configuring the hard drive geometry in CMOS much easier. Initially, this worked well, but a problem arose. Note the capacities of the original 15 hard-drive types. They are small. If a manufacturer came up with a new, larger hard-drive type, the list would have to be expanded. At first, IBM did exactly that, eventually expanding the list to 37 different types. BIOS designers soon realized that adding to the list every time a manufacturer created a new hard-drive geometry was not practical, so IBM simply stopped using drives that required unique geometries and stopped adding drive types. The other BIOS makers continued to add types until they got to around 45 different types. At that time, AMI created a new "user" type. With this type, instead of selecting a special type, users could enter in the five geometry values manually. This provided more flexibility for hard-drive installation. Autodetection Before roughly 1994, you had to use the hard-drive type to install a hard drive. This manual installation process was always a bit of a problem. You had to have the proper CHS values, you had to be sure to type them in correctly, and you had to store these values in case your CMOS was accidentally erased. Today, all PCs can set the CMOS properly by using autodetection. All IDE/EIDE drives have their CHS values stored inside of them. Autodetection simply means that the CMOS asks the drive for those stored values and automatically updates the CMOS. There are two common ways to perform autodetection. First, most CMOS setup utilities have a hard-drive type called "Auto". By setting the hard-drive type to Auto, the CMOS automatically updates itself every time the computer is started. After selecting the Autodetection option, most CMOS setup utilities will look for any hard drive installed on the system. Hard Disk Interfaces and Configuration The interface that the hard disk uses to connect to the rest of the PC is in some ways as important as the characteristics of the hard disk itself. The interface is the communication channel over which all the data flows that is read from or written to the hard disk. The interface can be a major limiting factor in system performance. The choice of interface also has an essential impact on system configuration, compatibility, upgradability and other factors.
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Not all interfaces support the same devices. Depending on what devices and models you are trying to use, one interface may make much more sense than another. Fortunately, the market has evolved so that there are really only two main interfaces used today for hard disks: IDE/ATA and its variants, and SCSI and its variants. The fact that there are only two standards in common use means that each of them supports a large number and variety of devices. In addition, this makes it easier for software support to be made universal, and this is no longer much of an issue when using these mainstream interfaces. IDE/ATA tends in general to support a larger number of hard disk models, and also optical drives and other devices, especially economy models. This is not due to any particular technical advantages that IDE/ATA possesses over SCSI. It's simply a function of IDE/ATA being more popular than SCSI, and therefore offering manufacturers more of a target market than SCSI does. SCSI tends to have better support for high-end devices and also more device types. The most important consideration is the hardware and software cost for implementing the interface. What this often boils down to is whether or not support for the interface is already included in a given system. For example, the presence of IDE/ATA controllers on all modern motherboards makes this interface less expensive for most people than going with SCSI, which would require the addition of a SCSI host adapter. Similarly, USB has been around for years, but is only becoming popular now that almost all new systems have built-in support for it, both hardware and software. There are two hard disk interfaces that were used in the early days of the PC, in the 1980s. Both of the interfaces described here were made obsolete by IDE/ ATA and SCSI, which offered significant advantages over them without imposing any real cost. Enhanced Small Device Interface (ESDI) The first attempt at improving the original ST-506/ST-412 hard disk interface was the Enhanced Small Device Interface or ESDI. ESDI was developed in the mid-1980s by a consortium of hard disk manufacturers led by Maxtor. It moved some drive controller functions to the hard disk from the controller card, eliminating some of the reliability problems associated with its predecessor. It had a maximum theoretical bandwidth of 24 Mbits/second (fairly fast for those days), though in practice the limit was about half of that. In the late 1980s ESDI suffered under competition from IDE/ATA in the mainstream market and from SCSI in the high-end market, both of which offered significant advantages over ESDI, such as simpler configuration, lower cost and improved performance. Integrated Drive Electronics / AT Attachment (IDE/ATA) Interface The most popular interface used in modern hard disks-by far-is the one most
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commonly known as IDE. This interface is also known by a truly staggering variety of other names such as ATA, ATA/ATAPI, EIDE, ATA-2, Fast ATA, ATA-3, Ultra ATA, Ultra DMA and many more as well. IDE/ATA hard disks are used on the vast majority of modern PCs, and offer excellent performance at relatively low cost. They are challenged only by SCSI, which has certain advantages and disadvantages when the two interfaces are compared. For starters, the most commonly used name for this interface, "IDE" is a misnomer itself. The "proper" name for the IDE interface is AT Attachment, or ATA. This name is not as commonly used, for historical reasons. IDE tells you quite a bit about its history. IDE drives were the first ones to popularize integrating the logic controller onto the hard disk itself. This change corrected many of the problems that had been associated with hard disks up to that point, such as poor signal integrity, complexity and the need for every controller to be "generically" capable of dealing with any hard disk. The very first hard disks to have integrated controllers weren't technically using the IDE/ATA interface as we currently know it. They were in fact so-called "hardcards", which were designed and sold by the "Plus Development" division of Quantum. These devices were simply 3.5" hard disks that were mounted directly to a controller card that plugged into an ISA expansion slot. It didn't take long until manufacturers realized that there was really no reason to keep the hard disk physically on the controller at all. They decided to put the controller on the bottom of the hard disk and move the entire hard disk and controller assembly to a regular drive bay. The connection to the system bus was maintained through the use of a cable that ran either directly to a system bus slot, or to a small interfacing card that plugged into a system bus slot. In many ways, then, these drives were connected directly to the ISA system bus. The official name for the interface, "AT Attachment", reflects this, as the IBM PC/ AT was the first PC to use the now-standard 16-bit ISA bus. Compaq began selling PCs with integrated hard disks using Western Digital controllers starting with their IBM-compatible Deskpro 386 in 1986. Other manufacturers quickly caught on to the idea and the IDE concept grew in popularity rather quickly. As system and hard disk performance improved, the slow speed of the ISA bus became an issue, so interface cards--often called controller cards were created for the higher speed VESA local bus, and then the PCI bus. Today, all modern PCs have their IDE/ATA interface attached directly to the PCI bus. The next evolution of how IDE/ATA drives interface to the system occurred when it became obvious that every PC was going to have a hard disk, and it was therefore silly to waste an expansion slot even on a hard disk interface card. Chipset manufacturers began integrating IDE/ATA hard disk controllers into
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their chipsets, so that instead of connecting the drives to a controller card, they were connected directly to the motherboard. With this change, integration of the interface was complete, with all the logic either on the motherboard, or the hard disk itself. This is the technique that is used today. The IDE/ATA interface is fairly straight-forward. The connection between the system and the hard disks is 16 bits wide, so two bytes of data are passed at a time between the system and any hard disk. This is true regardless of the width of the system bus, and persists even today with high-performance enhancements like Ultra DMA. Two drives are supported on each IDE/ATA channel, with special signalling used to ensure that commands sent for one drive don't interfere with the other. The original ATA standard defined features that were appropriate for early IDE/ ATA hard disks. However, it was not well-suited to support the growing size and performance needs of a newer breed of hard disks. These disks required faster transfer rates and support for enhanced features. ATA (Advanced Technology Attachment) The first formal standard defining the AT Attachment interface was submitted to ANSI for approval in 1990. The original ATA standard defined features that were appropriate for early IDE/ATA hard disks. However, it was not well-suited to support the growing size and performance needs of a newer breed of hard disks. These disks required faster transfer rates and support for enhanced features. Several companies were impatient, and started the industry down the road to incompatible proprietary extensions to the original ATA standard. Western Digital, meanwhile, created "Enhanced IDE" or "EIDE", a somewhat different ATA feature set expansion. EIDE included powerful new features such as higher capacities, support of non-hard drive storage devices, for a maximum of four ATA devices and substantially improved throughput. SFF-8020 / ATA Packet Interface (ATAPI) Originally, the IDE/ATA interface was designed to work only with hard disks. CD-ROMs and tape drives used either proprietary interfaces (often implemented on sound cards), the floppy disk interface (which is slow and cumbersome) or SCSI. Unfortunately, because of how the ATA command structure works, it wasn't possible to simply put non-hard-disk devices on the IDE channel and expect them to work. Therefore, a special protocol was developed called the AT Attachment Packet Interface or ATAPI. The ATAPI standard is used for devices like optical, tape and removable storage drives. It enables them to plug into the standard IDE cable used by IDE/ATA hard disks, and be configured as master or slave, etc. just like a hard disk would be. When you see a CD-ROM or other non-hard-disk peripheral advertised as being an "IDE device" or
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working with IDE, it is really using the ATAPI protocol. A special ATAPI driver is used to communicate with ATAPI devices. This driver must be loaded into memory before the device can be accessed (most newer operating systems support ATAPI internally and in essence, load their own drivers for the interface). The actual transfers over the channel use regular PIO or DMA modes, just like hard disks, although support for the various modes differs much more widely by device than it does for hard disks. For the most part, ATAPI devices will coexist with IDE/ATA devices and from the user's perspective, they behave as if they are regular IDE/ATA hard disks on the channel. Newer BIOSes will even allow booting from ATAPI CD-ROM drives. Small Computer Systems Interface (SCSI) The other popular hard disk interface used in PCs today is the Small Computer Systems Interface, abbreviated SCSI and pronounced "skuzzy". SCSI is a much more advanced interface than its chief competitor, IDE/ATA, and has several advantages over IDE that make it preferable for many situations, usually in higher-end machines. It is far less commonly used than IDE/ATA due to its higher cost and the fact that its advantages are not useful for the typical home or business desktop user. SATA Interface SATA stands for Serial Advanced Technology Attachment. It is a new high-speed serial interface for mass storage that will eventually Connector replace Parallel ATA (PATA), the current mass storage Power Connector attachment standard. It has the advantages of increased bandwidth 150-300 Mb/s depending upon the standard used as compared to 100 Mb/s for PATA, thinner, longer cables, lower voltages and no jumpers. The fig. 14.7 show the SATA interface connections and the connectors.

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Power Cable Fig. 14.7 SATA Interface Connecter

iSCSI In computing, iSCSI, is an abbreviation of Internet Small Computer System Interface, an Internet Protocol (IP)-based storage networking standard for linking data storage facilities. By carrying SCSI commands over IP networks, iSCSI is used to facilitate data transfers over intranets and to manage storage over long distances. iSCSI can be used to transmit data over local area networks (LANs), wide area networks (WANs), or the Internet and can enable location-independent data storage and retrieval. The protocol allows clients (called initiators) to send data to SCSI storage devices (targets) on remote

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servers. It is a Storage Area Network (SAN) protocol, allowing organizations to consolidate storage into data center storage arrays while providing hosts (such as database and web servers) with the illusion of locally-attached disks. IDE/ATA Transfer Modes and Protocols Since performance is of utmost concern when using a hard disk, the different transfer modes and protocols that a drive (and interface) supports are very important. Most of the advances in newer IDE/ATA standards are oriented around creating faster ways of moving data between the hard disk and the PC system. Since the IDE/ATA interface is in essence a communication channel, support for a given transfer mode or protocol requires support from the devices on both ends of the channel. This means that both the hard disk and the system chipset and BIOS must support the mode in question. Interestingly, despite the obvious advantages of bus mastering DMA, the use of bus-mastering multiword DMA mode 2, which had a transfer rate of 16.7 MB/s never really caught on. The other important reason was the poor state of support for the technology for the first couple of years. Thus initially DMA didn't offer much incentive to make the switch from the PIO mode which offered the same speed as the DMA mode. IDE/ATA Controllers Every PC system that uses the IDE/ATA interface has at least one IDE/ATA controller. Now, as soon as you read that, a question probably formed in your mind: isn't the drive controller built into the drive in IDE, and in fact, wasn't that the whole point of how the name "IDE" came about? And you're absolutely right. Unfortunately, naming conventions in the PC world often leave much to be desired. A device that resides within the system and interfaces with a peripheral device is often commonly called a "controller", even though this isn't technically accurate. So what exactly does this so-called IDE/ATA controller do, if not control the hard disk? Well, it acts as the middleman between the hard disk's internal controller and the rest of the system. As such, its less common name is the more accurate one: IDE/ATA interface controller. The controller (whatever its name) is what manages the flow of information over the IDE/ATA channels, allowing the hard disk to talk to the rest of the PC. The data pathway over which information flows in the IDE/ATA interface is called a channel. Each IDE channel is capable of communicating with up to two IDE/ATA devices It is theoretically possible to configure and use as many as four (or even more) different IDE/ATA interface channels on a modern PC. There is nothing inherently different in concept between these channels, although there can be a difference in terms of how they are implemented.
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Single, Master and Slave Drives and Jumpering IDE/ATA devices of course each contain their own integrated controllers, and so in order to maintain order on the channel, it is necessary to have some way of differentiating between the two devices. This is done by giving each device a designation as either master or slave, and then having the controller address commands and data to either one or the other. The drive that is the target of the command responds to it, and the other one ignores the command, remaining silent. The only practical difference between master and slave is that the PC considers the master "first" and the slave "second" in general terms. For example, DOS/ Windows will assign drive letters to the master drive before the slave drive. If you have a master and slave on the primary IDE channel and each has only one regular, primary partition, the master will be "C:" and the slave "D:". This means that the master drive (on the primary channel) is the one that is booted, and not the slave. Devices are designated as master or slave using jumpers, small connectors that fit over pairs of pins to program the drive through hardware. Each manufacturer uses a different combination of jumpers for specifying whether its drive is master or slave on the channel, though they are all similar. Some manufacturers put this information right on the top label of the drive itself, while many do not; it sometimes takes some hunting around to find where the jumper pins are on the drive even once you know how the jumpers are supposed to go. The manufacturers now are better about this than they have been in the past, and jumpering information is always available in the manual of the hard disk, or by checking the manufacturer's web site and searching for the model number. Configuration Using Cable Select An alternative to the standard master/slave jumpering system used in the vast majority of PCs is the use of the cable select system. As the name implies, with this system the cable--or more correctly, which connector on the cable a device is attached to--determines which device is master and which is slave. The goal of cable select is to eliminate having to set master and slave jumpers, allowing simpler configuration. To use cable select, both devices on the channel are set to the "cable select" (CS) setting, usually by a special jumper. Then, a special cable is used. This cable is very similar in most respects to the regular IDE/ATA cable, except for the CSEL signal. CSEL is carried on wire 28 of the standard IDE/ATA cable, and is grounded at the host's connector (the one that attaches to the motherboard or controller). On a cable select cable, one of the connectors (the "master
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connector") has pin 28 connected through to the cable, but the other (the "slave connector") has an open circuit on that pin (no connection). Hard Disk Logical Structures and File Systems The hard disk is, of course, a medium for storing information. Hard disks grow in size every year, and as they get larger, using them in an efficient way becomes more difficult. The file system is the general name given to the logical structures and software routines used to control access to the storage on a hard disk system. Operating systems use different ways of organizing and controlling access to data on the hard disk, and this choice is basically independent of the specific hardware being used-the same hard disk can be arranged in many different ways, and even multiple ways in different areas of the same disk. The information in this section in fact straddles the fine line between hardware and software, a line which gets more and more blurry every year. The nature of the logical structures on the hard disk has an important influence on the performance, reliability, expandability and compatibility of your storage subsystem. The operating system is the large, relatively complex, low-level piece of software that interfaces your hardware to the software applications you want to run. The operating system you use is closely related to the file system that manages your hard disk data. The reason is a simple one: different operating systems use different file systems. Some are designed specifically to work with more than one, for compatibility reasons; others work only with their own file system. PC File Systems Most people are familiar with only the most common file system family (FAT and its variants) which are used on most PC-platform machines. However, there are in fact many different types of file systems in use by different operating systems for PC hardware. Many PC users actually employ more than one type of file system, to handle different tasks. File Allocation Table File System (FAT, FAT12, FAT16) The most common file system in the PC world is actually a family of file systems. The basic name for this file system is FAT; the name comes from one of the main logical structures that the file system uses: the file allocation table. This file system is the one that was used by DOS on the first IBM PCs, and it became the standard for the PCs that followed. Today, most PCs still use a variant of the basic FAT file system created for those early machines over two decades ago. FAT in Concept The base storage area for hard drives is a sector, with each sector storing upto 512 bytes of data. If an operating system stores a file smaller than 512 bytes
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in a sector, the rest of the sector goes to waste. One accepts this waste because most files are far larger than 512 bytes. So what happens when an operating system stores a file larger than 512 bytes? The operating system needs a method to fill one sector, find another that's unused, and fill it, continuing to fill sectors until the file is completely stored. Once the operating system stores a file, it must remember which sectors hold that file, so that file can be retrieved later. FAT32 (32-bit FAT) As hard disks continued to increase in size through the 1990s, the limitations of the FAT16 and VFAT file systems began to become obvious. The use of large cluster sizes led to a significant amount of wasted hard disk space (slack). Eventually, hard disk manufacturers started to create drives so large that FAT16 could not be used to format a whole drive in a single partition. PC makers complained that FAT16 was unwieldy for modern machines. To correct this situation, Microsoft created FAT32. This newest FAT variant is an enhancement of the FAT/VFAT file system (even though the "V" was dropped from the name, FAT32 is based more on VFAT than FAT). It is named FAT32 because it uses 32-bit numbers to represent clusters, instead of the 16-bit numbers used by FAT16. FAT32 was created primarily to solve the two problems mentioned above. It allows single partitions of very large size to be created, where FAT16 was limited to partitions of about 2 GB. FAT32 supports partitions up to 2 terabytes. It also saves wasted space due to slack when compared to FAT16 partitions, because it uses much smaller cluster sizes than FAT16 does. FAT32 was first introduced in Windows 95's OEM Service Release 2, and was originally available only in later versions of Windows 95 when purchased from a hardware manufacturer. FAT32 support was later included in Windows 98, Windows ME and Windows 2000 as well. New Technology File System (NTFS) When Microsoft created Windows NT, it built the operating system pretty much from scratch--it was based on certain existing concepts, of course, but was totally different from older Microsoft operating systems. One of the key elements of NT's architecture was the file system created especially for the operating system, called the New Technology File System or NTFS. NTFS is a much more complex and capable file system than any of the FAT family of file systems. It was designed with the corporate and business environment in mind; it is built for networking and with the goals of security, reliability and efficiency. It includes many features, including file-by-file compression, full permission control and attribute settings, support for very
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large files, and transaction-based operation. It also does not have the problems with cluster sizes and hard disk size limitations that FAT does, and has other performance-enhancing features such as RAID support. Its most significant drawbacks are increased complexity, and less compatibility with other operating systems compared to FAT. The following tables compare general and technical information for a number of file systems

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Master Boot Record (MBR) When you turn on your PC, the processor has to begin processing. However, your system memory is empty, and the processor doesn't have anything to execute, or really even know where it is. To ensure that the PC can always boot regardless of which BIOS is in the machine, chip makers and BIOS manufacturers arrange so that the processor, once turned on, always starts executing at the same place, FFFF0h.

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In a similar manner, every hard disk must have a consistent "starting point" where key information is stored about the disk, such as how many partitions it has, what sort of partitions they are, etc. There also needs to be somewhere that the BIOS can load the initial boot program that starts the process of loading the operating system. The place where this information is stored is called the master boot record (MBR). It is also sometimes called the master boot sector. The master boot record is always located at cylinder 0, head 0, and sector 1, the first sector on the disk. This is the consistent "starting point" that the disk always uses. When the BIOS boots the machine, it will look here for instructions and information on how to boot the disk and load the operating system. The master boot record contains the following structures: Master Partition Table: This small table contains the descriptions of the partitions that are contained on the hard disk. There is only room in the master partition table for the information describing four partitions. Therefore, a hard disk can have only four true partitions, also called primary partitions. Any additional partitions are logical partitions that are linked to one of the primary partitions. One of the partitions is marked as active, indicating that it is the one that the computer should use for booting up. Master Boot Code: The master boot record contains the small initial boot program that the BIOS loads and executes to start the boot process. This program eventually transfers control to the boot program stored on whichever partition is used for booting the PC.

Due to the great importance of the information stored in the master boot record, if it ever becomes damaged or corrupted in some way, serious data loss can be--in fact, often will be--the result. Since the master boot code is the first program executed when you turn on your PC, this is a favourite place for virus writers to target. Partition Types A hard drive may have up to four partitions. These partitions divide into one of two types: primary and extended. Each type of partition performs different functions and you create these partitions based on the needs of the particular PC system. Primary Partitions Primary partitions store the OS(s). If you want to boot from a hard drive, it must have a primary partition. Therefore, the MBR must check the partition table for a primary partition (Fig. 14.9). In Windows 9x and 2000, the primary
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partition is always C:, and you cannot change. A hard drive can have up to four primary partitions, but in the DOS/Windows 9x world, the built-in partitioning program, called FDISK, only enables one primary partition on the drive. Active Partition If a hard drive stores multiple primary partitions, each with a valid operating system, how does the system know which one to boot? That's where the concept of active partition comes into play. For a primary partition to boot, you must set it as the active partition. Only one primary partition may be "active" at a time. The MBR looks for a primary partition set to "active". If you partition a new hard disk and create a primary DOS partition using the standard DOS utility FDISK, but forget to set the primary partition active, the BIOS will be unable to boot the operating system. This usually results in an error message like "No boot device available". Boot Managers There are programs specifically designed for the task of booting and they are usually called Boot Managers or boot loaders. What a boot manager does is insert itself into the very beginning of the boot process, sometimes by setting up a special boot manager partition and making itself the active partition. When you boot up the PC, the code in this partition runs. It analyzes the primary partitions on the disk and then presents a menu to you and asks which operating system you want to use. Whichever one you select, it marks as active, and then continues the boot process from there. Other methods may also be used to accomplish the same general objectives. Boot managers are in many ways indispensable when working with multiple operating systems. However, you still want to take care when using one, since it does modify the disk at a very low level. Some boot managers require their own, dedicated partitions to hold their own code, which complicates slightly the setup of the disk. There are now a variety of different boot manager products on the market. Extended Partition Your hard drive may or may not have the other partition type-an extended partition. Extended partitions are not bootable and one hard drive can only have one extended partition. If a hard drive has an extended partition, it takes up one of the areas in the partition map for the primary partitions. You may only have up to three primary partitions on a drive with an extended partition. Extended partitions are completely optional; you do not have to create an extended partition on a hard drive. So, if you can't boot to an extended partition
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and your hard drive doesn't need an extended partition, why would you want to create one? First of all, many systems do not use extended partitions. Some hard drives are partitioned as one big primary partition-nothing wrong with that. We use extended partitions when we find a situation where we want to chop a drive into multiple drive letters. The beauty of an extended partition is in the way it handles drive letters. When you create a primary partition, it gets a drive letter and that's it. But when Master Partition Ta ble you create an extended partition, it does not automatically get a drive letter. Instead, you divide the extended partition into "logical drives". An extended partition may have as many logical drives as you wish, limited only by the letters of the alphabet for Windows 9x systems, enabling a maximum of 24 logical drives on one system (remember that A: and B: are reserved for floppy drives). You may turn an extended partition into one logical drive or into multiple logical drives, whatever suits you. You may set the size of each logical drive to any size you want. All of this flexibility creates a little problem, especially for people new to partitioning. Because a newly created extended partition doesn't yet have logical drives, working with extended partitions always requires two steps: first, make the extended partition, then create logical drives within that extended partition. This two steps process often confuses a new person. They forget to create logical drives in the extended partition and wonder why they don't see any new drive letters in My Computer when they finish partitioning. Partitioning Partitioning the hard disk is the act of dividing it into pieces; into logical volumes. This is one of the first things done when setting up a new hard disk, because partitions are one of the major disk structures that define how the disk is laid out. In order to use the space in a hard disk, it must be partitioned. Partitioning is the process of dividing the hard disk's space into chunks, so they can be prepared for use, or even dedicated to different uses. Even if the entire disk is intended to be left in one piece, it must be partitioned so that the operating system knows that it is intended to be left in one piece. There are many different considerations that go into deciding how to partition a hard disk. The choice of how the disk is partitioned is important because partition size has an important impact on both performance and on how efficiently the disk's
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Master Boot Code

Fig. 14.9 Master Boot Record containing the Master Boot Code and Master Partition Table

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space is utilized. Even the matter of "efficiency" has several different facets, depending on one's priorities. The rules that determine how partitions are used were set down very early in the original design of the PC, and have remained virtually unchanged since that time. Recall that when the PC was first invented there was only (really) one type of file system. Still, it was envisioned that in the future, multiple operating systems and/or file systems might be wanted on a single machine. Therefore, provision was made in the partitioning scheme to allow for several different partitions. The rules that govern partition setup are as follows: A maximum of four partitions can be placed on any hard disk. These are sometimes called primary partitions. The limitation of four is one that is imposed on the system by the way that the master boot record is structured. Only one partition may be designated, at any given time, as active. That partition will be used for booting the system. DOS (and the operating systems that depend on it for booting, which includes all consumer Windows operating systems) will only recognize the active primary partition. Any other primary partitions will be ignored. One of the four partitions may be designated as an extended DOS partition. This partition may then be subdivided into multiple logical partitions. This is the way that two or more logical DOS volumes can be placed on a single hard disk.

This is somewhat confusing, so let's take a look at some examples of systems, to show you how this scheme is used: Single Partition Windows PC: Many PCs have all of their disk space made into a single partition, and use one of the FAT file systems. Such a machine would have just a single FAT primary partition on it, and nothing else. Multiple Partition Windows PC: To use more than one partition at a time on a DOS/Windows system, two partitions are used. One is a regular DOS primary partition (which becomes the "C:" drive). The other is the extended DOS partition. Within the extended DOS partition, all the other logical drives are created. So a drive with four logical drive letters would have the first (C:) be the active primary partition, and the other three (D:, E: and F:) would be logicals within the extended DOS partition. Multiple Operating System PC: A system with multiple operating systems could use one primary partition for each of up to four different file systems.

If you want, you can also combine multiple partitions with multiple operating systems. For example, you could have a primary DOS partition, an extended DOS partition, and a Linux partition. Such setups are far less common than the simpler examples above.
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Troubleshooting Patience is said to be a virtue, and with hard disks that is true to a tee. Basically, if you make a mistake while using FDISK or formatting a drive and catch it before you install an operating system and several hundred megabytes of software, you can pretty easily recover. If you don't find out the following are some of the tips. If your computer won't boot from your hard drive, run FDISK again and check to see that the partition you have your OS installed on is set as the active partition. If FDISK reports a disk size that isn't true, your BIOS may be incorrectly identifying your hard drive. Run your BIOS setup program and confirm that the size is correct, and try running FDISK again. An older BIOS may not recognize newer hard disks, especially those over 2GB or 8.4GB (depending on the system age). If this is the case, you should update your BIOS if possible. You may have to use special software provided by your hard disk manufacturer to fool your BIOS into recognizing the disk. No access FORMAT? That may not be a problem. If you are planning to install Windows on the new hard disk, you may not need to bother with formatting the drive. Simply boot from your Windows CD (if your system allows you to boot from a CD-check the Boot Sequence settings in your BIOS) and let the SETUP program format the disk for you. Formatting a disk does not automatically make it bootable. If you've started the PC with a startup floppy made with Windows 95/98, use the /S switch with the FORMAT command (FORMAT C: /S) to copy the system files needed to boot along with the formatting operation.

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LAB EXERCISES : Different Operations on Hard Disk Drive Objective: To be familiar with the different parts of a Hard disk drive and partition and format a hard disk drive using the "fdisk" and the "format" command as well as using third party utilities such as PQMagic, Norton Ghost and DE in DOS. Lab Exercise 14.1: Identification and simple troubleshooting Tasks: 1. Open a scrap hard disk and identify the different components such as the number of platters, the head actuator, spindle motor, voice actuator etc. 2. Connect the hard disk to the hard disk controller on the motherboard, configuring it properly by jumpers to master and check whether the machine has detected the hard disk or else use the autodetect option in the PC's Setup program. 3. Use another hard disk and connect the two hard disks in such a manner that both the hard disks use the same controller on the motherboard, and are both configured as masters using jumpers and verify whether they are getting detected using the Setup program.
Create a partition in Windows with Diskpart Using Diskpart to partition your disk is very beneficial for increasing the I/O performance of hard disks newly added to a RAID array. The documentation for many server applications, such as Microsoft Exchange Server, actually goes so far as to recommend that you should use Diskpart to create your Primary or Extended partitions. (A primary partition can be used as the system partition; an Extended Partition can only be used for additional logical drive assignments.) To create a partition: 1. At a command prompt, type: Diskpart.exe 2. At the DISKPART prompt, type: LIST DISK (Lists disks found. Make note of the drive number you wish to manipulate.) 3. At the DISKPART prompt, type: Select Disk 1 (This selects the disk; make sure to type in the disk number from step 2.) 4. At the DISKPART prompt, type: CREATE PARTITION PRIMARY SIZE=10000 (Change the word PRIMARY to EXTENDED to create an extended partition.) (If you do not set a size (in MB), such as the above example for 10 GB, then all available space on the disk will be used for the partition.) (Seriously consider adding the following option to the end of the above command if you are using RAID (especially RAID 5) to improve disk I/O performance: ALIGN=64) 5. At the DISKPART prompt, type: ASSIGN LETTER=D (Choose a drive letter not already being used.) 6. At the DISKPART prompt, type: Exit

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7. Use the Command Prompt format command, Disk Administrator or any disk format utility to format the drive (typically using NTFS, of course). Extend a partition in Windows with Diskpart. When it comes to adding space to a partition or volume, this method is superior to configuring Dynamic Disks. Dynamic Disk extensions only concatenate the newly added space, menaing they merely add the disk space to the "end" of the original partition without restriping the data. Concatenation isolates performance within each partition and does not offer fault tolerance when the partition is configured in a RAID array. Diskpart allows you to restripe your existing data. This is truly beneficial when the partition is set up in a RAID array, because the existing partition data is spread out across all the drives in the array, rather than just adding new space to the end (like Disk Administrator). Microsoft's "official" position is that that you cannot use Diskpart to extend your system or boot partition Note: If you try it or any other method, make sure you have a full backup. To extend a partition: 1. Verify that contiguous free space is available on the same drive and that free space is next to the partition you intend on extending (with no partitions in between). 2. At a command prompt, type: Diskpart.exe 3. At the DISKPART prompt, type: Select Disk 1 (Selects the disk.) 4. At the DISKPART prompt, type: Select Volume 1 (Selects the volume.) 5. At the DISKPART prompt, type: Extend Size=10000 (If you do not set a size, such as the above example for 10 GB, then all available space on the disk will be used.) 6. At the DISKPART prompt, type: Exit Note: It is not necessary, but I normally reboot the server to make sure all is well from a startup standpoint. To delete a partition in Windows with Diskpart: (Note: You cannot delete an active system or boot partition or a partition with an active page file.) 1. At a command prompt, type: Diskpart.exe 2. At the DISKPART prompt, type: Select Disk 1 3. At the DISKPART prompt, type: Select Partition 1 4. At the DISKPART prompt, type: DELETE partition 5. At the DISKPART prompt, type: Exit To wiping (or zero) a disk:
.

This operation deletes all data on the disk 1. At a command prompt, type: Diskpart.exe 2. At the DISKPART prompt, type: Select Disk 1
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3. At the DISKPART prompt, type: CLEAN ALL (The CLEAN ALL command removes all partition and volume information from the hard drive being focused on.) 4. At the DISKPART prompt, type: Exit Final note: Here are four important things to keep in mind regarding Diskpart. " " " " Do not use DISKPART until you have fully backed up the hard disk you are manipulating Do not use DISKPART on dynamic disks Check with your disk vendor before using Diskpart Install the Windows Resource Kit to get the Diskpart utility

Lab Exercise 14.3: Using PQ Magic on a Hard Disk Tasks: 10. Now using the "PQMagic" utility, which is a third party software, try merging the two logical partitions which were created by using Fdisk utility. PQ Magic The PQ Magic utility when executed presents the main menu, which can only be operated in the DOS mode, if it's an older version of PQMagic in which case one will have to use the keyboard shortcuts to select the appropriate options. To merge a particular partition with another, Select the partition which is the original partition which has to be merged and then Select the option of Operations in which lies the option of Merging the partition which is to be selected. It then prompts us the different options whether the target or the second partition should appear as a folder in the original selected partition or vice versa as well as prompting us to name the folder. The operation once confirmed will only be applied if the Apply option is selected which then applies the changes to be made on the partitions and after confirmation again, the changes will be applied after restarting the machine. Lab Exercise 14.4: Backing Up and Restoring the MBR of the Hard disk. Tasks: 10. With the help of the Disk Editor (DE) utility take a backup of the MBR of the Hard Disk on the floppy disc and after making minor changes in the MBR contents, check whether the hard disk is able to boot. If not, then try using the backed up copy on the floppy disk ie. copy it back unto the MBR and then check whether the Hard disk is able to boot from it. Disk Editor (DE) The Disk Editor or DE is a DOS based utility which when run will present the main menu showing all the files present in the Floppy disk as well as all the operations which
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can be performed. To take a backup of the MBR or Partition Table Select the option of Object to change from the floppy disk to the hard disk drive. Again, select Object option in which is present the Partition Table option to select the Partition Table of the hard disk to Back Up. Select the option for Edit in which there is a Mark option to select the data to be selected for Backing Up. To back up the data, Select the option in Edit to Copy to back up the selected data. Select the destination, where the data is to be copied by selecting the option of Tools and then the option of Write to and then the option to a File It then prompts for a location where the seleted data is to be copied e.g.a:\MYBACKUP which then prompts for confirmation which when confirmed proceeds with the writing. Now making Minor Changes in the MBR & verifying whether it is Booting Making changes on MBR is the easiest step, which now involves just inserting any data on the MBR of the hard disk and quitting which prompts whether the changes made should be Written or Discard for which Write option should be selected. Once DE is quit and the machine is restarted, the machine tries to boot from the Hard disk but it won't proceed just blinking with a cursor sign on the top left tof the screen. To recover the data i.e.MBR or Partition Table from the Floppy disk To recover the MBR or Partition Table information, Run the DE utility which opens as mentioned in step I earlier showing the contents of the floppy. Now to recover select the Object option in which there is a File option to select a particular file i.e.the backup copy of the MBR in the Floppy Disk. Once the contents of the file are shown, select the contents of the file to be copied by going to Edit and then selecting the Mark option and then selecting data to be copied. Now to copy the selected data contents, go to the Edit option and then select the Copy option for the marked contents to be copied. Now to go to the MBR of the hard disk Select the Object option and go to the Drive which when selected opens a small box showing the different drives. Now Select the C: drive and select the drive Type to Physical Disks and select OK which then opens and shows the locations of the hard disk. Now select the Object option again and go to the Partition Table option which then opens just the MBR or Partition Table only whereas in the previous step it used to open the entire contents of the Hard disk. To copy the backed up file contents back to the MBR, then go to the Edit option then select the Paste over option which then replaces the contents of the MBR
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with the contents of the Backuped file. Now, try booting from the Hard disk which should recover you from a corrupted MBR problem back to the previous state before the problem.

Lab Exercise 14.5: Using Norton Ghost for Imaging of a Hard disk Tasks: 11. Using the Norton Ghost Utility try making an image of a partition of hard disk onto another hard disk. Norton Ghost The Ghost utility, when executed first presents the version no. as well the person to whom it is registered and then it presents the main menu which will give the options for the different operations performed by it. To make an image of a Partition of a Hard disk, Select the option for Local and then Select the option to perform a Partition to Partition imaging which when selected It then prompts to select a Source drive, where the operation is to be performed. It then prompts for the source partition, which is to be imaged It prompts for the destination drive, then It prompts for the destination partition where it is to be imaged to. It then again prompts for the confirmation whether to proceed with the copy and when confirmed it performs the copy. After performing the clone it then prompts for a restart of the machine for the changes to take effect. ** It should be noted however that the source partition and destination partition sizes should be the same to perform the clone**

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Compact Disks- Read Only Memory or CD-ROMs as they are popularly known - have almost captured the market. For the last few years, the growing software industry has made available a lot of new software. These software are very intensive and capable of offering a lot of features as a result of which they are very large. Most of these software are available on CDs. CDs are gaining fast popularity due to their storage capabilities. Unlike hard disks, floppy disks and other magnetic media, CDs (Compact discs) are optically readable. Magnetic media can be used only until the magnetism in the media lasts; this normally is about 5 years. Certain external factors like moisture or other magnetic fields contribute in reducing this time. The CDRs have an advantage here. Except physical damage there is nothing much that can affect it and therefore the longetivity of any optical media is much greater when compared to any other media. The most promising development in the optical area is that in the near future CD-RW (compact disc rewritable) or DVD+RW (DVD+rewritable) will likely replace the venerable floppy disk as the de facto standard interchangeable, transportable drive and media of choice for PCs. Most new systems today include a CD-RW drive, and even though a floppy drive is also included with most systems, it is rarely used except for running tests; running diagnostics; or doing basic system maintenance, disk formatting, preparation for OS installation, or configuration. CD-ROMs CD-ROM, or compact disc read-only memory, is an optical read-only storage medium based on the original CD-DA (digital audio) format first developed for audio CDs. Other formats, such as CD-R (CD recordable) and CD-RW (CDrewritable), are expanding the compact disc's capabilities by making it writable. Additionally, new technologies such as DVD (digital versatile disc) are making it possible to store more data than ever on the same size disc.

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Fig. 15.1 Different layers of Disc

CD-ROM is a read-only optical storage medium capable of holding up to 74 or Acrylic Protective Coating Reflective Aluminium Layer 80 minutes of high fidelity audio Molded Plastic Disk Basi (depending on the disc used), or up to 682MB (74-minute disc) or 737MB (80Pits (raised) and Lands (flat) minute disc) of data, or some Laser (reading) combination of the two, on one side (only the bottom is used) of a 120mm (4.72-inch) diameter, 1.2mm (0.047 inches) thick plastic disc. CD-ROM has exactly the same form factor (physical shape and layout) of the familiar CD-DA audio compact disc and can, in fact, be inserted in a normal audio player. It usually isn't playable, though, because the player reads the subcode information for the track, which indicates that it is data and not audio.
Printed Label

Accessing data from a CD-ROM using a computer is quite a bit faster than from a floppy disk but slower than a modern hard drive. The term CD-ROM refers to both the discs themselves and the drive that reads them. Two main types of recordable CD drives and discs are available, called CDR (recordable) and CD-RW (rewritable). Because all CD-RW drives can also function as CD-R drives, and the prices of CD-R and RW drives are similar, virtually all drives sold today are CD-RW. Those drives can work with either CD-R or CD-RW discs. In addition, because the CD-RW discs are 1.5-4 times more expensive than CD-R discs, only half as fast (or less) as CD-R discs, and won't work in all CD audio or CD-ROM drives, people usually write to CDR media in their CD-RW drives. CD-ROM Technology In 1979, the Philips and Sony corporations joined forces to co-produce the CD-DA (Compact Disc-Digital Audio) standard and identical in appearance to CD-DAs is the CD-ROMs which store data instead of (or in addition to) audio. A CD is made of a polycarbonate wafer, 120mm in diameter and 1.2mm thick, with a 15mm hole in the centre. This wafer base is stamped or molded with a single physical track in a spiral configuration starting from the inside of the disc and spiraling outward. The track has a pitch, or spiral separation, of 1.6 microns (millionths of a meter, or thousandths of a millimetre). When viewed from the reading side (the bottom), the disc rotates counterclockwise. If you examined the spiral track under a microscope, you would see that along the track are raised bumps, called pits, and flat areas between the pits, called lands. It seems strange to call a raised bump a pit, but that is because when the discs are pressed, the stamper works from the top side. So, from that perspective, the pits are actually depressions made in the plastic.
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The laser used to read the disc would pass right through the clear plastic, so the stamped surface is coated with a reflective layer of metal (usually aluminium) to make it reflective. Then, the aluminium is coated with a thin protective layer of acrylic lacquer, and finally a label or printing is added. Reading Operation from CD-ROM Reading the information back is a matter of bouncing a low-powered laser beam off the reflective layer in the disc. The laser shines a focused beam on the underside of the disc, and a photosensitive receptor detects when the light is reflected back. When the light hits a land (flat spot) on the track, the light is reflected back; however, when the light hits a pit (raised bump), no light is reflected. As the disc rotates over the laser and receptor, the laser shines continuously while the receptor sees what is essentially a pattern of flashing light as the laser passes over pits and lands. Each time the laser passes over the edge of a pit, the light seen by the receptor changes in state from being reflected to not reflected or vice versa. Each change in state of reflection caused by crossing the edge of a pit is translated into a 1 bit digitally. Microprocessors in the drive translate the light/dark and dark/light (pit edge) transitions into 1 bits, translate areas with no transitions into 0 bits, and then translate the bit patterns into actual data or sound. The individual pits on a CD are 0.125 microns deep and 0.6 microns wide (1 micron equals one millionth of a meter). Both the pits and lands vary in length from about 0.9 microns at their shortest to about 3.3 microns at their longest (see Fig. 15.2). The pit height above the land is especially critical as it relates to the wavelength of the laser light used when reading the disc. The read laser in a CD drive is a 780nm (nanometer) wavelength laser of about 1 milliwatt in power. The polycarbonate plastic used in the disc has a refractive

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Fig. 15.2 Pit and land geometry on a CD.

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index of 1.55, so light travels through the plastic 1.55 times more slowly than through the air around it. Because the frequency of the light passing through the plastic remains the same, this has the effect of shortening the wavelength inside the plastic by the same factor. Therefore, the 780nm light waves are now compressed to 780/1.55 = 500nm. One quarter of 500nm is 125nm, which is 0.125 microns-the specified height of the pit. Drive Mechanical Operation:
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CD-ROM drives operate in the following manner (Refer fig. 15.3): 1. The laser diode emits a lowenergy infrared beam toward a reflecting mirror. 2. The servo motor, on command from the microprocessor, positions the beam onto the correct track on the CD-ROM by moving the reflecting mirror. 3. When the beam hits the disc, its refracted light is gathered and focused through the first lens beneath the platter, bounced off the mirror, and sent toward the beam splitter. 4. The beam splitter directs the returning laser light toward another focusing lens. 5. The last lens directs the light beam to a photo detector that converts the light into electric impulses. 6. These incoming impulses are decoded by the microprocessor and sent along to the host computer as data. CD Drive Speed CDs originally were designed to record audio, the speed at which the drive reads the data had to be constant. To maintain this constant flow, CD-ROM data is recorded using a technique called constant linear velocity (CLV). This means that the track (and thus the data) is always moving past the read laser at the same speed, which originally was defined as 1.3 meters per second. The track is spiral that is wound more tightly near the centre of the disc and the disc must spin at various rates to maintain the same track linear speed. In other words, to maintain a CLV, the disk must spin more quickly when reading the inner track area and more slowly when reading the outer track area. The
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Fig. 15.3 CD ROM Mechanical assembly

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speed of rotation in a 1x drive (1.3 meters per second is considered 1x speed) varies from 540rpm when reading the start (inner part) of the track down to 212rpm when reading the end (outer part) of the track. In the quest for greater performance, drive manufacturers began increasing the speeds of their drives by making them spin more quickly. A drive that spins twice as fast was called a 2x drive, one that spins four times faster was called 4x, and so on. At higher speeds than this, it became difficult to build motors that could change speeds (spin up or down) as quickly as necessary when data was read from different parts of the disc. Because of this, most drives rated faster than 12x spin the disc at a fixed rotational, rather than linear speed. This is termed constant angular velocity (CAV) because the angular velocity (or rotational speed) is what remains a constant. CAV drives are also generally quieter than CLV drives because the motors don't have to try to accelerate or decelerate as quickly. CD-ROM drives have been available in speeds from 1x up to 56x and beyond. What is 'x' on CD drives The transfer rate of compact disc system is a direct function of the speed at which the disc itself spins. Increasing the data transfer require higher rotation speeds. Consequently today's CD-ROM players operate much faster than the original spin rate of audio CD players. The speeds are usually expressed as a multiple of the original audio CD data transfer rate (150 Kb/sec). For eg., 1x, 2x, 4x, 48x, 52x. CD-ROM File Systems Manufacturers of early CD-ROM discs required their own custom software to read the discs. This is because the early specification for CD-ROM details only how data sectors-rather than audio sectors-can be stored on a disc, and did not cover the file systems or deal with how data should be stored in files and how these should be formatted for use by PCs with different operating systems. Obviously, non-interchangeable file formats presented an obstacle to the industry wide compatibility for CD-ROM applications. In 1985-1986, several companies got together and published the High Sierra file format specification, which finally enabled CD-ROMs for PCs to be universally readable. That was the first industry standard CD-ROM file system that made CD-ROMs universally usable in PCs. Several file systems are used on CDs now which are as follows: _ _ _ _ High Sierra ISO 9660 (based on High Sierra) Joliet UDF (Universal Disk Format)
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High Sierra In 1985, representatives from TMS, DEC, Microsoft, Hitachi, LaserData, Sony, Apple, Philips, 3M, Video Tools, Reference Technology, and Xebec met at what was then called the High Sierra Hotel and Casino in Lake Tahoe, Nevada, to create a common logical format and file structure for CD-ROMs. In 1986, they jointly published this standard as the "Working Paper for Information Processing: Volume and File Structure of CD-ROM Optical Discs for Information Exchange (1986)." This standard was subsequently referred to as the High Sierra format. This agreement enabled all drives using the appropriate driver (such as MSCDEX.EXE supplied by Microsoft with DOS) to read all High Sierra format discs, opening the way for the mass production and acceptance of CD-ROM software publishing. The High Sierra format was submitted to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and two years later (in 1988) and with several enhancements and changes it was republished as the ISO 9660 standard. ISO 9660 The ISO 9660 standard enabled full cross compatibility among different computer and operating systems. ISO 9660 was released in 1988 and was based on the work done by the High Sierra group. ISO 9660 has three levels of interchange that dictate the features that can be used to ensure compatibility with different systems. ISO 9660 Level 1 is the lowest common denominator of all CD file systems and is capable of being read by almost every computer platform, including Unix and Macintosh. The downside of this file system is that it is very limited with respect to file names and directories. Level 2 interchange rules have the same limitations as Level 1, except that the filename and extension can be up to 30 characters long (both added together, not including the . separator). Finally, Level 3 interchange rules are the same as Level 2 except that files don't have to be contiguous.
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The ISO 9660 data starts at 2 seconds and 16 sectors into the disc, which is also known as logical sector16 of track one. This data identifies the location of the volume area-where the actual data is stored. The system area also lists the directories in this volume as the volume table of contents (VTOC), with pointers or addresses to various named areas, as illustrated in fig 15.4. CD's system area also contains direct addresses of the files within the subdirectories, allowing the CD to seek specific sector locations on the spiral data track. Because the CD data is all on one long spiral track, when speaking of tracks in the context of a CD, we're actually talking about sectors or segments of data along that spiral.
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Fig. 15.4 Logical sector16 of track one.

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Joliet Joliet is an extension of the ISO 9660 standard developed by Microsoft for use with Windows 95 and later. Joliet enables CDs to be recorded using filenames up to 64 characters long, including spaces and other characters from the Unicode international character set. Joliet also preserves an 8.3 alias for those programs that can't use the longer filenames. Universal Disk Format UDF is a relatively new file system created by the Optical Storage Technology Association (OSTA) as an industry-standard format for use on optical media such as CD-ROM and DVD. UDF has several advantages over the ISO 9660 file system used by standard CD-ROMs but is most noted because it is designed to work with packet writing, a technique for writing small amounts of data to a CD-R/RW disc, treating it much like a standard magnetic drive. The UDF file system allows long filenames up to 255 characters per name. There have been several versions of UDF with most packet-writing software using UDF 1.5 , or later. Packet-writing software such as DirectCD from Roxio writes in the UDF file system. Interface Type The drive's interface is the physical connection of the drive to the PC's expansion bus. The following types of interfaces are available for attaching a CD-ROM, CDR, or CD-RW drive to your system: i) ATA/ATAPI (AT Attachment/AT Attachment Packet Interface) ii) Parallel port iii) SCSI/ASPI (Small Computer System Interface/Advanced SCSI Programming Interface) iv) USB port ATA/ATAPI: The ATA/ATAPI (AT Attachment/AT Attachment Packet Interface) is an extension of the same ATA (AT Attachment) interface most computers use to connect to their hard disk drives. ATA is sometimes also referred to as IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics). ATAPI is an industry-standard ATA ATA/ATAPI is an extension of the same ATA interface most computers use to connect to their hard disk drives. ATA is sometimes also referred to as IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics). ATAPI is an industry-standard ATA interface used for CD/DVD and other drives. This enables drive manufacturers to take their high-end CD/DVD drive products and quickly adapt them to the ATA interface. This also enables the ATA drives to remain compatible with the MSCDEX (Microsoft CD-ROM Extensions) that
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provide a software interface with DOS. With Windows 9x and later, the CDROM extensions are contained in the CD file system (CDFS) VxD (virtual device) driver. ATA/ATAPI drives are sometimes also called enhanced IDE (EIDE) drives because this is an extension of the original IDE (technically the ATA) interface. Parallel Port: One can install some CD-ROM drives simply by connecting a cable to the PC's parallel port and loading the appropriate software. Although parallel port drives have been available for some time now, USB has for the most part replaced the parallel port for this type of use. SCSI/ASPI SCSI (pronounced scuzzy), or the Small Computer System Interface, is a name given to a special interface bus that allows many types of peripherals to communicate. A standard software interface called ASPI (Advanced SCSI Programming Interface) enables CD-ROM drives (and other SCSI peripherals) to communicate with the SCSI host adapter installed in the computer. SCSI offers the greatest flexibility and performance of the interfaces available for CD-ROM drives and can be used to connect many other types of peripherals to your system as well. USB Interface USB (Universal Serial Bus) has proven to be extremely flexible and has been used for everything from keyboards and joysticks to CD/DVD drives from several vendors. USB 1.1 and earlier drives provide read and write transfer rates that match the fastest rates possible with IEEE-1284 parallel ports, with read rates on typical 6x models ranging from 1,145KB/sec to 1,200KB/sec. USB 2.0 provides a transfer rate up to 60MB/sec, which is 40 times faster than USB 1.1 and yet fully backward compatible. Media Types Writable CDs: Although the CD originally was conceived as a read-only device, these days one easily can create their own data and audio CDs. By purchasing CD-R or CD-RW discs and drives, you can record (or burn) your own CDs. This enables you to store large amounts of data at a cost that is lower than most other removable, random-access mediums. In CD-R media, after you fill a CD-R with data, it is permanently stored and can't be erased. The write-once limitation makes this type of disc less than ideal for system backups or other purposes in which it would be preferable to reuse the same media over and over. However, because of the low cost of CD-R
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media, you might find that making permanent backups to essentially disposable CD-R discs is as economically feasible as tape or other media. CD-RW discs can be reused up to 1,000 times, making them suitable for almost any type of data storage task. When first introduced, there were many CD-R-only drives; however, today most recordable CD drives are both CD-R and CD-RW in one. The following sections examine these two standards and how you can use them for your own data storage needs. CD-R Once recorded, CD-R discs can be played back or read in any standard CDROM drive. CD-R discs are useful for archival storage and creating master CDs, which can be duplicated for distribution within a company. CD-Rs function using the same principle as standard CD-ROMs, by bouncing laser light off the disc and tracking the changes in reflectivity when pit/land and land/pit boundaries are encountered. To record on a CD-R disc, a laser beam of the same wavelength (780nm) as is normally used to read the disc, but with 10 times the power, is used to heat up the dye. The laser is fired in a pulsed fashion at the top of the ridge (groove), heating the layer of organic dye to between 482 and 572F (250-300C). This temperature literally burns the organic dye, causing it to become opaque. When read, this prevents the light from passing through the dye layer to the gold and reflecting back, having the same effect of cancelling the laser reflection that an actual raised pit would on a normal stamped CD. All CD-R drives can work with the standard 650MiB (682MB) CD-R media (equal to 74 minutes of recorded music), as well as the higher-capacity 700MB (737MB) CD-R blanks (equal to 80 minutes of recorded music). The 80-minute discs cost only about 2 cents more than the 74-minute discs, so most would figure why not purchase only the higher-capacity media? Although the extra 55MB of storage can be useful and the cost difference is negligible, the 80minute discs can actually be harder to read on older CD-ROM and CD-DA drives, especially car audio units. This is because to get the extra 55MB/6 minutes of capacity, the spiral track is wound a little more tightly, making them a bit more difficult read. CD-RW Beginning in early 1996, an industry consortium that included Ricoh, Philips, Sony, Yamaha, Hewlett-Packard, and Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation announced the CD-RW format. The design was largely led by Ricoh, and they were the first manufacturer to introduce a CD-RW drive in May of 1996. It was the MP6200S, which was a 2/2/6 (2x record, 2x rewrite, 6x read) rated unit. Since that time, CD-RW drives have pretty much replaced CD-R-only drives
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in the market today, mainly because CD-RW drives are fully backward compatible with CD-R drives and can read and write the same CD-R media with the same capabilities. So, a CD-RW drive can also function as a CD-R drive. CD-RW discs can be burned or written to just like CD-Rs; the main difference is that they can be erased and reburned again and again. They are very useful for prototyping a disc that will then be duplicated in less expensive CD-R or even stamped CDs for distribution. They can be rewritten at least 1,000 times or more. Additionally, with packet-writing software, they can even be treated like a giant floppy disk, where you can simply drag and drop or copy and delete files at will. This makes CD-RW a viable technology for system backups, file archiving, and virtually any other data storage task. Besides the CD-RW media being rewritable and costing a bit more, they also are writable at about half (or less) the speed of CD-R discs. This is because the laser needs more time to operate on a particular spot on the disk when writing. They also have a lower reflectivity, which limits readability in older drives. Many standard CD-ROM and CD-R drives can't read CD-RWs. However, MultiRead capability is now found in virtually all CD-ROM drives of 24x speed or above, enabling them to read CD-RWs without problems. Recording Software Another difficulty with CD-R/RW devices is that they require special software to write them. Although most cartridge drives and other removable media mount as standard devices in the system and can be accessed exactly like a hard drive, the CD-R/RW drive uses special CD-ROM burning software to write to the disc. This software handles the differences between how data is stored on a CD and how it is stored on a hard drive. The software assembles the directory information, burns it onto the CD, opens each file on the CD, and copies the data directly from the original source. Nero is an example of such software. Nero Introduction In 1989 a process was developed with which a CD can be directly written by means of a laser beam. The way for the self-creation of CDs was thus opened. With the passage of time, the self-creation of CDs to meet individual needs has been made easy and economically feasible thanks to improved hardware and practical software. Nero - Burning ROM makes it possible for you to easily and quickly create your own CDs due to its user-friendly interface and optimized processes. Components for CD-Recording using Nero As the minimal configuration for all Windows operating systems, you must
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have: A PC with a 486 processor or higher and speed of at least 33 Mhz and a minimum of 8 MB RAM. The PC must have a CD-ROM drive in order to install Nero. If your CDRecorder is recognized as a CD-ROM drive when running with Windows, you may also use the recorder. Up to now, Windows 95/98 has supported all of the drivers which are required for this. After you have successfully installed Nero, you can begin your first job with

Fig. 15.5 New Compilation dialog box.

the recording software. You will find the default installation for the program under START > Programs > Nero - Burning Rom. Open Nero by clicking on it in the Start Menu. The following illustration shows the options window for a New Compilation, which is the default window after Nero is started. In a brief summary, the entire process for the creation of a CD may be described in the following steps: 1. Creating a Compilation. In the Compilation, you determine which files will be written on the CD. The next two steps are for the only purpose of avoiding a possible buffer underrun. 2. Determining Write Speed, also called the Speed test. This test is where the maximum possible write speed is defined. If a slower speed is measured in the Speed test than provided by the current setting, the speed setting is correspondingly reduced. This test should be performed before every simulation - or before the burn process, when there is no simulation. 3. Simulation of the Write Procedure: Here, the data of the compilation are transferred to the CD-recorder, but the laser beam does not write the data onto the CD. In this way it is determined whether you can expect everything to run without problems during the burn process. 4. Burn process (Write process). You simply make sure a recordable CD is correctly inserted and then press the Write button, provided of course the write speed test and simulation were successful. Basic Process of Burning With Nero, the creation of a CD-ROM or an Audio CD is relatively simple.
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First, you'll need to decide which files should be written onto the CD. Then you can give your undivided attention to the compilation. A compilation is created with Nero by the drag and drop method. Here, you'll select the files which you want from the File Browser and then drag them with the mouse into the compilation window. There, you can arrange your files in any way you wish or even insert new folders. The advantage here is that this arrangement does not have any influence on the physical file structure on the hard drive. After the compilation is arranged the way you want it to be, you should run the speed test. This test checks the access speed to the hard drive, or to the partition where the files which you want to be written are located. Depending on the results of this test, a speed for the simulation will be recommended. The simulation which will now follow (and it should always follow!) assumes this test result. By doing this, errors which might otherwise occur during the burn process may be detected and corrected. After a successful simulation, you can be relatively confident that the compilation you have created can also be written. The burn process itself takes place as the last step. Creating a New Compilation In the New Compilation dialog box, click on the CD-ROM compilation type (it doesn't matter which property sheet is currently activated). Leave all of the default options as they are. Then, in the upper right of the same window, click on the New button. The Compilation window will open. This window consists of two panes. In the left window, replace the file name NEW (in the upper left next to the CD icon) with HELLO. In the right window, you will see the Nero file browser. The selection of the data which you want to write onto the CD is very simple with the browser. For your first attempt to write a CD, select the file "Hello.txt" from the file browser in the directory [Drive name]:\Programs\ahead\Nero (if you have accepted the suggested target directory during installation) and drag it into the left compilation window. Then activate it by clicking on it somewhere. Now save the compilation by clicking on the floppy disk icon in the toolbar. The Save window will open. Type in the file name HELLO and then activate the Save button. Your first compilation file is now complete. Determining Maximum Write Speed Click on the icon for Write CD in the toolbar. The Write CD window is displayed with the Burn property sheet. The boxes for Determine Maximum Speed and Simulate are already selected in this window. Click on the Write selection box at this time. You may leave all of the other options with their default settings. Confirm your selection by clicking on the Write button.
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In the fig. 15.6, you see the Write CD dialog box with the Burn property sheet and the selected options. As the first step, Nero will now determine the maximum possible write speed and then transfer this value into the Write Speed field. Simulation of the Write Procedure The execution of this step was already set by the previous selection of the Simulate box. Nero now simulates the burn process in order to test whether the actual burn process will also run without any problems. Nero will inform you when the simulation has ended. With many recorders, the CD will be ejected. This means that, depending on the recorder, it might be necessary to either re-insert the caddy or to close the CD drawer. Burn Process (Write Process) You have already been prompted above to select the Write control box. By doing this, the burn process is performed immediately after the simulation. Nero will now begin the entire writing procedure with all of the preselected phases. During this process, a status window is opened (as shown in fig. 15.7) which provides you with different information during writing. The current compilation is displayed in the upper pane of the window. The phase which is running and its result is shown in the center pane. Below this, you will see a progress display for each process. The end of the writing process is indicated by an information box which indicates the successful end of the burn process. Terms Related to CD Burning Tracks Data items on a CD are not stored in concentric circles, as one might at first think. They are rather arranged in an extended spiralshaped line whose origin is at the center of the CD. The line runs from the inside to the outside. Those sections on the spiral on which data items are
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Fig. 15.6 Write CD dialog box

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Fig. 15.7 Burn process Status Windows

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located are called tracks. Up to 99 tracks may be stored on an Audio-CD. One track generally corresponds to one piece of music on the CD. Sectors The track itself is made up of units called sectors. A sector contains 2352 bytes, of which - depending on the type of CD used - a different number may be used for user data. The sector generally consists of a header, synchronization bits and user data. It may also have error recognition and correction data. To read a sector, a drive with single read speed requires 1/75th of a second. Table of Contents The initial area of the CD is physically located at the inside of the CD surface and is approximately 4 mm wide. It contains the Table of Contents of the CD (TOC) and other information about the CD, such as the name, the author or the date of the CD. Single-Session, Multi-Session The term multi-session practically speaks for itself. A multi-session CD was produced in several sessions, that is, recording procedures. The individual sessions may have been written at random time intervals. One session consists of at least one track. A single-session CD is created in only one session, as the name implies. AudioCDs are almost always single-session CDs, while CD-ROMs or Photo-CDs consist of one or more sessions. Disc At Once, Track At Once Today, one differentiates between two different recording technologies with CD recorders: Disc At Once and Track At Once. Newer recorders generally support both technologies, while older devices frequently can only handle Track At Once. For a recorder with Track At Once, every track is written separately. Therefore, pauses are unavoidably created between the tracks which cannot be influenced by the recording software. In contrast to this, with Disc At Once, the entire CD is written in one procedure, which allows more freedom for the recording software, but at the same time prevents subsequent modifications. For many formats (Audio-CD) Disc At Once is more logical, since unnecessary pauses can be avoided, while Track At Once is generally used for multi-session CDs. Choosing the Right CD-ROM CD-ROM drives aren't all the same. They vary in terms of their hardware interface, speed, drivers used, access to additional hardware, and where they attach to the computer so that one can select the right one for needs, depending upon the following characteristics.
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Physical Characteristics Physically, most CD-ROM drives look pretty much alike. The front panel typically has a power-on indicator, CD busy signal, an Eject button, a manual eject hole, an audio jack, and a volume controller of some kind. DISC Loading Not all computer-based CD players load discs the same way, as you may know from using the audio devices. Although no longer manufactured, some CDROM drives used to require that you place the CD in caddy (a protective storage case that minimizes exposure to contaminants) for loading, and then insert the caddy into the drive. Other drives have a tray that the disc goes directly into. Once you put the disc into the tray, it slides back into place in the drive, and the CD starts spinning. Although some caddy-style drives will play when the drive is on its side, so that the disc is positioned vertically rather than horizontally, some CD-ROM drives must be in a horizontal positions to run. Do not attempt to run a CD player when it's on its side unless the drive is specifically listed as being able to support this position. Internal or External Many CD-ROM models are available in both internal and external flavors. If you have an empty drive bay and don't mind opening up your system to install the drive, internal drives are often the best choice. They tend to be less expensive than external drives, and more models are available. Additionally, some interfaces (such as IDE, for eg.,) aren't available at all in external models, so if you have an IDE controller that you want to use with the drive, internal is your only choice. External drives are good for those with a USB or SCSI interface who don't like cracking the case, don't have an extra drive bay, or are running into a bit of a power crunch from too many devices making demands on the power supply (external drives have their own power supply). They do tend to be more expensive than comparable internal drives, but (assuming that you have USB port or a SCSI host adapter installed in your computer), they're much easier and faster to install. Plugging an external USB drive into your computer is as simple as it gets. Data Transfer Rate Data transfer rate, measured in kilobytes per second, is the measure of the quantity of data supplied to your computer at the onset of the first read operation. Access Time Access time is the amount of delay between the drive receiving the command
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to read and the actual beginning of the reading. It's measured in milliseconds (ms). The measurement is just an average; the actual speed depends on where the data is located on the disc and how quickly the read mechanism can get to it. The closer to the centre the data is, the quicker it can be accessed. Caching Disk caching temporarily stores recently accessed or frequently accessed data to the hard disk, to take advantage of its higher access rates. Most CD-ROM drives have a small amount of memory in them for this purpose. Typically, the directory of the CD is cached. Caching the directory enables the computer to more quickly navigate subdirectories and makes the CD-ROM drive appear to be faster. However, the actual reading of the data is still slower. Buffers A cache uses some form of logic to figure out what to store: depending on how it's set up, it will temporarily store the most recently accessed or the most frequently accessed data on the hard disk. Buffering is similar to caching, except that there's no logic as to how data goes into it. Data is stored in the buffer until the CD-ROM drive is ready to send the data to the CPU for processing. Buffer sizes can vary from 32KB to 2MB. Although bigger is always better, you should look for a buffer of at least 512KB. DVD DVD, which stands for Digital Versatile Disc, is the next generation of optical disc storage technology. It's essentially a bigger, faster CD that can hold video as well as audio and computer data. DVD aims to encompass home entertainment, computers, and business information with a single digital format, eventually replacing audio CD, videotape, laserdisc, CD-ROM, and perhaps even video game cartridges. It's important to understand the difference between DVD-ROM and DVD-Video, DVD Video (often simply called DVD, hence the earlier name Digital Video Disk) holds video programs and is played in a DVD player hooked up to a TV. DVD-ROM holds computer data and is ready by a DVD-ROM drive hooked up to a computer. The difference is similar to that between Audio CD and CD-ROM. Commonly available DVD media, which offer 4.5 GB of disk space, cost around Rs. 160, while a DVD-writer would cost Rs. 7,000 and upwards. The DVD, therefore, with times the storage space of a CD, offers itself as an affordable alternative. Yes, it does take time to write a DVD, but it is far better
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than juggling around seven CDs. Does this mean that it is good-bye to CD-burning? Definitely not. How is DVD different from CD For greater data density, there are smaller pits, a more closely spaced track and a shorter wavelength red laser. The error correction is more robust, the modulation scheme is more efficient. All this means that a standard DVD can hold 4.7 gigabytes of data.
CD Disc Diameter Disc Thickness Disc Structure Laser Wavelength Track Pitch Shortest pit/and length Data Layers Data Capacity Reference Data Rate 120 mm 1.2mm Single substrate 780mm (infrared) 1.6um 0.83um 1 Aprox. 680 megabytes 153.6 kilobytes/sec DVD 120mm and 80mm 1.2mm Two bonded 0.6 mm substrates 650 and 635 nm (red) 0.74um 0.4um 1 or 2 Single layer: 4.7GB 2(side) Dual layer: 8.5 GB 2(side) 1,108 kilobytes/sec, nominal to 176.4 kilobytes/sec

How DVD works DVD is little more than souped-up CD-ROM technology. The disc packs seven times the data onto the same surface area, but packaging tricks such as two sided disc further boost the capacity by up to 26 times that of a CD-ROM. DVD has come bringing with it the ability to record and erase data on special read/ write DCD-RAM discs. Basic DVD physics Like a CD-ROM, a DVD stores data in little pits in a single spiraling track on a reflective metal surface embedded in plastic. A laser in the drive reads the pits as zeros. The challenge in developing DVD was simple; increase data capacity by packing as many pits as possible onto a disc using inexpensive technology. The breakthrough was written in light; develop a shorter-frequency laser that produces a tighter beam, so smaller pits can be read. While the laser in an ordinary CD-ROM drive has a 780-nanometer (nm.) wavelength, DVD drives use lasers with 650-nm or 635-nm wavelengths supporting more than double the pits per track, and more than double the tracks per recording surface. Other advances, better error-correction code, and improved channel; modulation, raise the data density an additional one and a half times. Tighter

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manufacturing tolerances and a slightly bigger recording surface take DVD the rest of the way to its basic 4.7 GB capacity. The many sides of DVD Most DVD disc top out at 4.7GB. But two schemes for increasing density will soon result in discs that can hold up to a whopping 17GB. Packing data on two sides is the simplest means of doubling capacity. Manufacturers realized that they could make a DVD as thin as 0.6 mm, or half the thickness of a CD, enabling them to bond two discs back-to-back and get 9.4GB of space. The drawback is that you have to flip the disc over. The second technique, adding another data layer, doubles the capacity of a single side. The first data layer is semi-transparent, so a second laser can punch through it and read the layer beneath. This scheme sacrifice a little capacity, yielding 8.5GB per side. But you can bond two-dual-layer sides together to get that monster 17GB disk. Speeds and feeds The DVD drives actually spin DVDs slightly slower than an old-fashioned 3X CD-ROM drive spins CDs. But since data is packed much more tightly on a DVD, the throughput matches that of a 9X CD-ROM drive, about 1.3 megabytes per second (MB/sec). Newer drives have doubled this speed and can transfer DVD data at up to 2.7MB/sec. The higher throughput is glaringly obvious when you're watching movies. CDROM titles with video clips must assume they're dealing with a 2X or 4X drive, but DVD video is mastered for approximately 9X speed and makes CD-ROM video look jerky. Increases in either DVD-ROM or CD-ROM speed beyond the mastered speeds don't improve video quality; instead, you get faster software loading times from DVD-ROM discs. Performance hasn't improved much in one important area average access time, or how long it takes the laser to jump from track to track and retrieve DVD data. With average access times between, 150 and 200 milliseconds (ms). DVD-ROM drives won't run applications or find dispersed data with anything remotely resembling hard disk speeds, which are typically between 9 ms and 12 ms. Seek time has no effect on DVD video, which is stored sequentially. But DVD ROM's, just like CD-ROMs, will be best used for loading programs and providing a huge reservoir of data (including video clips) for applications that run off your hard disk. DVD Media Formats Some DVD media formats available: DVD-R ad DVD-RW Pioneer developed and released the DVD-R and DVD-RW formats in 1997. However, Pioneer was
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the only manufacturer at that time with such a product, and it did face compatibility issues. The DVD-R format is split into DVD-R (A) 'Authoring' and DVD-R (G) 'General' formats. They differ in terms of the laser use to write on them. The DVD-R (G) writes with a cheaper 650-nm (nanometre) laser, whereas DVD-R (A), intended for professional development, uses a 635-nm laser. The problem is that these formats are not compatible with each other. DVD-R(A) drives cannot record on DVD-R (G) disks, and vice-versa. Their capacities also vary. DVD-RAM It's a fast-disappearing DVD format, unshered in just after the DVD-R made its appearance. These disks are still preferred by those who munch video for a living. The reason was that it was the only format that allowed direct data manipulation on the disk in real-time, without having to rewrite the whole disk. Initially, these disks came with a storage capacity of 2.8 GB, which later increased to 4.7 GB. The DVD+R and DVD+RW formats The DVD+R and DVD+RW alliance was formed by Dell, Hewlett-Packard Company, MCC/Verbatim, Philips Electronics, Ricoh Company Ltd, Sony Corporation, Thomson Multimedia and Yamaha Corporation. These companies formed their own consortium and came up with these two formats. They are relatively new. Worldwide, they were made available only in late 2001. The DVD+R made its appearance only in mid-2002. Advantages and Disadvantages Unlike other formats, DVD-RAM media are disks housed in cartridges, which DVD-ROM drives cannot read. A later version allowed the disk to be removed from the cartridge, but DVD-ROM drives still failed to read them. DVD-Rs and DVD-RW's are incompatible with DVD+R and DVD+RW media. You cannot write to either of these disks using interchangeable writer drives. Hence, drive manufacturers came up with dual-format DVD drives that can actually write to all of them. DVD-R media are written at a lower speed than that used for DVD+R media. Both have a theoretical limit of 16X, and a few DVD-writer drives write at 12X. The DVD-R format is yet to do so. The higher the media speed, the faster your job gets done, provided the drive writes at that speed. Another aspect is the finalisation can add episodes of your favourite TV serial to a DVD+RW, and play it instantly on a DVD player. However, DVD-RWs needs finalisation before playing.
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Another factor is the mount Rainier support, the defacto standard with all future releases of Windows. It lets you write directly to a DVD+RW without any special software. Not so with the DVD-Rs and DVD-RWs since this was not specified in their format. Compatibility DVD-R, DVD-RW, DVD+R and DVD+RW media are compatible with 85 per cent of the available standalone DVD players. As for DVD-RAM disks, they were not designed for, and are not compatible with, any of the available DVD players. Only specialised drives, such as, the Iomega Super Drive read them. The Dual-layer Format All available DVD media are limited to single-layered, single-sided mode (DVD-5) and hold up to 4.7 GB of data. Some manufacturers sell dual-sided, single-layered media (DVD-10), but these are a fast disappearing specie since the same amount of data fits onto single-sided, dual-layered DVD-9 disks. This also provides less clutter since you are effectively stuffing two disks worth of data on a single disk. Philips and Mitsubishi Kagaku Media developed the first DVD-R and DVD+RW dual-layered media, meant for general users. Not to be left behind, Pioneer released a dual-layer format of the DVD-R. As of now, only dual-layered DVD+Rs and DVD+RWs are available. Two media layers are separated from each other on one single side of the disk. While writing, the first layer is written with the same speed as that used on a single-layered disk. As the laser switches to the second layer, the speed decreases and the data is written at a much slower speed. For eg., the DVD-Writer may slow down from 4X to 2.4X. The point at which this switch occurs is a known issue for the current crops of DVD-ROM drives available in the market. DVD Video DVD is vastly superior to video tape and generally better than laser-disc. However, quality depends on many production factors. Until compression experience and technology improves we will occasionally see DVD's that are inferior to laser-disc. Also, since large amounts of video have already been encoded for Video CD using MPEG-1, a few low-budget DVD's will use that format (which is not better than VHS) instead of higher-quality MPEG-2. The CCIR-601 digital video standard specifies a video rate of 167 megabits per second. At this bit rate, the 4.7 gigabyte capacity of standard DVD could only store roughly 4 minutes of digital video! Thus some form of data compression is required.
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DVD has taken advantage of sophisticated compression technology called MPEG2. It's a set of flexible compression standards, the second to emerge from the Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG). MPEG2 works by analysing the video picture for repetition called redundancy. In fact, over 97% of the digital data that represent a video signal is redundant, and can be compressed without visibly harming the picture quality. By eliminating redundancy, MPEG2 achieves superb pictures at far lower bit rates. As implemented for DVD, MPEG2 encoding is a two-stage process, where the signal is first evaluated for complexity. Then, higher bit rates are assigned to complex picture and lower bit rates to complex picture, using an "adaptive", variable bit-rate process. The DVD format compresses video to bit rates with a range of upto 10 megabits persecond. Although the "average" bit rate for digital video is often quoted as 3.5 megabits per second, the actual figure will vary according to movie length, picture complexity and the number of audio channels required. Thanks to MPEG2 compression a single layer, single-sided DVD has enough capacity to hold two hours and 13 minutes of spectacular video on a 4-3/4 inch disc! At the nominal average data rate of 3.5 megabits per second, this still leaves enough capacity for discrete 5.1 channel digital sound, plus subtitles! Including video, audio and subtitles, the total average data rate is 4.962 megabits per second. And because it's single-sided, DVD can store all this with no need to flip the disc over. Movie DVD's released will be capable of carrying Dobly Digital (AC-3) audio sound tracks with other 2 or 5.1 channels. Unlike Dobly Pro Logic coding. Dolby Digital (AC-3) multi-channel sound provides five completely separate distinct) channels: Left, Centre, Right, Left-Rear and Right-Rear, plus a common subwoofer channel. Dolby-Digital (AC-3), which uses a digital bit rate of 384 kilobits per second, is already well accepted. As an option to Dolby Digital (AC-3) sound, DVD also enables producers to choose CD quality stereo sound with Dolby Pro Logic encoding. The Interactive features DVD-Video players (and software DVD-Video Navigators) support a command set that provides interactivity. The main feature is menus, which are present on almost all discs to allow content selection and feature control. Each menu has a still-frame graphic and upto 36 highlightable, rectangular "buttons". Remote control units have four
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arrow keys for selecting on screen buttons, plus numeric keys, select key, menu key, and return key. Additional remote functions may include freeze, step, slow, fast, scan, next, previous, audio select, subtitle select, camera angle select, play mode select, search to program, search to part of title (chapter), search to time, and search to camera angle. The producer of the disc can disable any of these features. Additional material for camera angles and seamless branching is interleaved together in small chunks. The player jumps from chunk to chunk, skipping over unused angles or branches, to stitch together the seamless video. Since angles are stored separately, they have no direct effect on the bit-rate but they do affect the playing time. Adding 1 camera angle for a program roughly doubles the amount of space it requires there by cutting the playtime in half. What are the sizes and capacities of DVD There are many variations on the DVD theme. There are two physical sizes: 12 cm (4.7 inches) and 8 cm (3.1 inches), both 1.2 mm thick. A DVD disc can be single-sided or double-sided. Each side can have one or two layers of data. The amount video a disc can hold depends on how much audio accompanies it and how heavily the video and audio are compressed. At a rough average rate of 4.7 Mbps (3.5 Mbps for video, 1.2 Mbps for three 5.1 channel soundtracks), single-layer DVD holds around 135 minutes. A two-hour movie with three soundtracks can average 5.2 Mpbs. A dual-layer disc can hold a two-hour movie at an average of 9.5 Mbps. Notation and units There's confusion of units of measurement in the DVD world. For eg. a single-layer DVD holds 4.7 billion bytes (G bytes), not 4.7 gigabytes (GB). It only holds 4.38 gigabytes. Likewise, a double-sided, dual-layer DVD holds only 15.90 gigabytes, which is 17 billion bytes. Troubleshooting Optical Drives: (i) Failure Reading a CD If your CD fails to read a CD, try the following solutions: _ _ _ _ Check for scratches on the CD data surface. Check the drive for dust and dirt; use a cleaning CD. Make sure the drive shows up as a working device in System Properties. Try a CD that you know to work.

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_ _

Restart the computer (the magic cure-all). Remove the drive from Device Manager in Windows 9x, allow the system to redetect the drive, and then reinstall the drivers (if PnP-based system).

(ii) Failure to Read CD-R, CD-RW Discs in CD-ROM or DVD Drive. If your CD-ROM or DVD drive fails to read CD-R and CD-RW discs, try the following solutions: _ _ _ _ Check compatibility; some very old 1x CD-ROM drives can't read CDR media. Replace the drive with a newer, faster, cheaper model. Many early-model DVD drives can't read CD-R, CD-RW media; check compatibility. The CD-ROM drive must be MultiRead compatible to read CD-RW because of the lower reflectivity of the media; replace the drive. If some CD-Rs but not others can be read, check the media color combination to see whether some color combinations work better than others; change the brand of media. Packet-written CD-Rs (from Adaptec DirectCD and backup programs) can't be read on MSDOS/ Windows 3.1 CD-ROM drives because of the limitations of the operating system.

iii) Trouble Making Bootable CDs If you are having problems creating a bootable CD, try these possible solutions: _ Check the contents of bootable floppy disk from which you copied the boot image. To access the entire contents of a CD, a bootable disk must contain CD-ROM drivers, AUTOEXEC.BAT, and CONFIG.SYS. Use the ISO 9660 format. Don't use the Joliet format because it is for long-filename CDs and can't boot. Check your system's BIOS for boot compliance and boot order; the CDROM should be listed first. SCSI CD-ROMs need a SCSI card with BIOS and bootable capability as well as special motherboard BIOS settings.

_ _ _

How Blu-ray Discs Work Introduction to How Blu-ray Discs Work In 1997, a new technology emerged that brought digital sound and video into homes all over the world. It was called DVD, and it revolutionized the movie industry. The industry is set for yet another revolution with the introduction of Blu-ray

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Discs (BD) in 2006. With their high storage capacity, Blu-ray discs can hold and play back large quantities of high-definition video and audio, as well as photos, data and other digital content. In this article, HowStuffWorks explains how the Blu-ray disc works and how it was developed, and we'll see how it stacks up against some other new digital video formats on the horizon. A current, single-sided, standard DVD can hold 4.7 GB (gigabytes) of information. That's about the size of an average two-hour, standard-definition movie with a few extra features. But a high-definition movie, which has a much clearer image (see How Digital Television Works), takes up about five times more bandwidth and therefore requires a disc with about five times more storage. As TV sets and movie studios make the move to high definition, consumers are going to need playback systems with a lot more storage capacity. Blu-ray is the next-generation digital video disc. It can record, store and play back high-definition video and digital audio, as well as computer data. The

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advantage to Blu-ray is the sheer amount of information it can hold: A single-layer Blu-ray disc, which is roughly the same size as a DVD, can hold up to 27 GB of data -- that's more than two hours of high-definition video or about 13 hours of standard video. A double-layer Blu-ray disc can store up to 50 GB, enough to hold about 4.5 hours of high-definition video or more than 20 hours of standard video. And there are even plans in the works to develop a disc with twice that amount of storage.

Blu-ray discs not only have more storage capacity than traditional DVDs, but they also offer a new level of interactivity. Users will be able to connect to the Internet and instantly download subtitles and other interactive movie features. With Blu-ray, you can: record high-definition television (HDTV) without any quality loss instantly skip to any spot on the disc record one program while watching another on the disc create playlists edit or reorder programs recorded on the disc automatically search for an empty space on the disc to avoid recording over a program

access the Web to download subtitles and other extra features Discs store digitally encoded video and audio information in pits -- spiral grooves that run from the center of the disc to its edges. A laser reads the other side of these pits -- the bumps -- to play the movie or program that is stored on the DVD. The more data that is contained on a disc, the smaller and more closely packed the pits must be. The smaller the pits (and therefore the bumps), the more precise the reading laser must be. Unlike current DVDs, which use a red laser to read and write data, Blu-ray uses a blue laser (which is where the format gets its name). A blue laser has a shorter wavelength (405 nanometers) than a red laser (650 nanometers). The smaller beam focuses more precisely, enabling it to read information recorded in pits that are only 0.15 microns (m) (1 micron = 10-6 meters) long -- this is more than twice as small as the pits on a DVD. Plus, Blu-ray has reduced the track pitch from 0.74 microns to 0.32 microns. The smaller pits, smaller beam and shorter track pitch together enable a single-layer Blu-ray disc to hold more than 25 GB of information -- about five times the amount of information that can be stored on a DVD. Each Blu-ray disc is about the same thickness (1.2 millimeters) as a DVD. But the two types of discs store data differently. In a DVD, the data is sandwiched

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between two polycarbonate layers, each 0.6-mm thick. Having a polycarbonate layer on top of the data can cause a problem called birefringence, in which the substrate layer refracts the laser light into two separate beams. If the beam is split too widely, the disc cannot be read. Also, if the DVD surface is not exactly flat, and is therefore not exactly perpendicular to the beam, it can lead to a problem known as disc tilt, in which the laser beam is distorted. All of these issues lead to a very involved manufacturing process.
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How Blu-ray Reads Data The Blu-ray disc overcomes DVD-reading issues by placing the data on top of a 1.1-mm-thick polycarbonate layer. Having the data on top prevents birefringence and therefore prevents readability problems. And, with the recording layer sitting closer to the objective lens of the reading mechanism, the problem of disc tilt is virtually eliminated. Because the data is closer to the surface, a hard coating is placed on the outside of the disc to protect it from scratches and fingerprints. The design of the Blu-ray discs saves on manufacturing costs. Traditional DVDs are built by injection molding the two 0.6-mm discs between which the recording layer is sandwiched. The process must be done very carefully to prevent birefringence.
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1. The two discs are molded. 2. The recording layer is added to one of the discs. 3. The two discs are glued together. Blu-ray discs only do the injection-molding process on a single 1.1-mm disc, which reduces cost. That savings balances out the cost of adding the protective layer, so the end price is no more than the price of a regular DVD.

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Blu-ray also has a higher data transfer rate -- 36 Mbps (megabits per second) -- than today's DVDs, which transfer at 10 Mbps. A Blu-ray disc can record 25 GB of material in just over an hour and a half.

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LAB EXERCISE 15.1 : Identification of Optical Storage Device parts Objective: To be familiar with the different parts of the Optical Storage device as well as burning a CD using Nero. Tasks: 1. Open a scrap CDROM drive and identify the different components such as the different drive motors, the lens, interface type, etc. 2. After connecting the CDROM drive and configuring it appropriately using jumpers, install the software Nero 5.0 or versions above it. 3. Try burning a CD-R using with as well as without the wizard. 4. Now try burning the CD-R using multi-session i.e. writing data on the CD only half the capacity initially then writing the remaining half after some time.

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Evolution of the Switch Mode Power Supply The power supply section that does the job of converting the available source of power into different voltages as required by the system, is one of the most important sections of the system. Power supplies like other modules have also passed through various stages of evolution with the invention and subsequent development of different component technologies from the age old vacuum tubes to the present day integrated circuits. It has brought down the size of the power supply from large rack mounted units to compact hand-held modules for more or less identical Output power capability. In addition, the contemporary power supplies are capable of having far better performance specifications in terms of regulation efficiency, reliability etc. One way to classify power supplies is to name them as AC/DC power supplies, DC/DC power supplies and DC/AC power supplies. An AC/DC power supply converts AC mains (230V, 50Hz) into required DC voltages. DC/DC power supplies are used in portable system. DC/AC power supplies are used in portable mains operatable systems and in supplement to AC mains in nonportable mains operatable systems where a disruption in power supply can affect the job being done by the system. An inverter is part of UPS and is very popular with the people using computer systems. Based on the regulation concept, the power supplies are classified as either linear or switched mode. Linear Power Supply Conventional AC/DC power supplies comprising a transformer, rectifier, filter and regulator (series on shunt) constitute the linear power supplies. In linear power supply, the active device that provides regulation, is always operated in active or linear region of its characteristics. Any change in Output due to change in input voltage or load current results in change in voltage drop across the regulator transistor (in case of series regulator) or a change in current through the regulator transistor (in case of shunt regulator) so as to maintain a constant Output voltage across the load.
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Switched Mode Power Supply DC to DC converters and DC to AC inverters belong to the category of switched mode power supplies (SMPS). Besides, there are SMPS, operating from mains, called off-line switching supplies. An off-line switching supply can be distinguished from a conventional AC-DC supply, as in case of former AC mains rectified and filtered without using an Input transformer, and DC voltage so obtained is then used as an Input to a switching type DC to DC converter. In switching power supply, the active device that provides regulation is always operated in switched mode, i.e. it is operated either in cut-off or in saturation. The Input DC is chopped at a high freq. (10khz to 100khz) using a active device and converter transformer. The transformed, chopped waveform is rectified and filtered. A sample of Output voltage is used as feedback signal for the drive circuit for switching transistor to achieve regulation. Power electronics is entirely devoted to switch mode power conversion and deals with modem problems in analysis, design and synthesis of electronic circuits as applied to efficient conversion, control and regulation and electrical energy. Design and optimization of DC to DC converters which offer the highest power efficiency, small size and weight and high performance, are also included in power electronics. These DC to DC converters with isolation transformers can have multiple outputs of various magnitudes and polarities. The regulated power supply of this type has wide applications, particularly in computer systems, wherein low voltage high current power supply with low Output ripple and fast transient response are mandatory. In addition these converters, connected in particular configuration result in switched mode AC power amplifiers with enough bandwidth and high efficiency off line switches, DC to DC single and multiple Output power supplies (battery charger and discharger), DC to DC inverters, DC to DC uninterruptible power supplies, DC to DC motor control, power servo control, robotics and switching audio amplifiers etc. are some of the examples of switch mode power supplies. Switch mode power supplies have come into wide spread use in the last decade. An essential feature of efficient electronic power processing is the use of semi-conductors in a power switching mode (to achieve minimum losses) to control the transfer of energy from source to load through the use of pulse width modulated or resonant techniques. Inductive and capacitive energy storage, elements, are used to smooth the flow of energy while keeping to a
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Fig. 16.1 SMPS unit

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low level. As frequency of switching increases the size of magnetic and capacitive element decreases in a direct proportion. Because of their superior performance i.e.. high efficiency, small size and weight and relatively low cost, they are displacing conventional linear power, supplies even at very low power levels. Industry has been quick to realize that the energy saving technique also affords the opportunity to make dramatic reductions in equipment size and weight. Changeover from Linear to Switching Supplies Linear supplies are well-known for their extremely good line and load regulation, low Output voltage ripple and almost negligible RFI/EMI. Switching power supplies on the other hand have much higher efficiency (typically 80 percent against 50 percent in case of linear supplies) and reduced size/weight for given power delivering capability. Quite often, compactness and efficiency are two major selection criteria. An improved efficiency and reduced size/weight are particularly significant when designing a power supply for portable system where a number of different regulated Output voltages are required. Also, unlike linear supplies, efficiency in switching supplies does not suffer as the unregulated Input regulated Output differential becomes large. In systems operating from battery packs and requiring higher DC voltages for their operation, the switching supply is the only option. We cannot use a linear regulator, for instance, to change an unregulated Input of 24 V DC into regulated Output 1000 V DC. Table-1 compares the major characteristics of linear and switching supplies. The characteristics which are significant from a designer's point of view and where a switching supply has high degree of superiority over a linear supply are efficiency and power density. While power density indicates the size and weight vis-a-vis power delivering capability, the transient recovery time is time required by supply Output voltages to settle within the accuracy limits after a step change in load current or the unregulated Input. Although use of switching supplies in the early days of their development was continued to military and aerospace systems, in recent years; they have found application in practical industrial and consumer applications due to easy availability of switching components like transistors, fast recovery rectifiers etc. with enhanced features and an affordable price.
TABLE - 1 Parameters Line Regulation Load Regulation Linear 0.05 - 0.05 % 0.02 -0.10 % Switching 0.05 - 0.1 % 0.10 1.0 %

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Parameters Output ripple Efficiency Power Density Transient Recovery Hold up time

Linear 1.5 - 5 MV 40 - 50 % 3 0.5 W/inch 50 Us 2 MS

Switching 25 - 100 MV 70 - 90 % 3 2.5 W/inch 200 Us 32 MS

Switch Mode Power Supply for Personal Computer Operating System Characteristics The PSU supplies various voltages and power signals necessary for the operation of PC's system board, keyboard and other installable optional cards. The PSU is a conventional desktop system designed to convert either 115W 60Hz A.C. or 230V 50Hz. It can be operated over an input voltage range of 190 V to 240 V AC and provides four regulated DC output voltages of 3.3V, +5V, -5V, +12V and -12V. Table 1 shows the current rating and regulation requirements of each of these supply voltages. These outputs are over voltage, over current and open circuit protected. The input portion of PSU is protected by a fuse of suitable rating. The 3.3V powers the chipsets, DIMMs, PCI/AGP cards and miscellaneous chips. The +5V DC powers the logic on the system board, the disc drives SIMMs and expansion cards in the system expansion slots. The +12V is used for the disc drive motors. It is assumed that only one drive is active at a time. The -5V DC level is designed for dynamic memory bias voltage and has a longer decay on power off than +5V and -12V outputs. Power Good Signal The power supply ensures that the system does not run unless the power supplied is sufficient to operate the system properly. In other words, the power supply actually prevents the computer from starting up or operating until all the power supply voltages are within the proper ranges. The power supply completes internal checks and tests before allowing the system to start. If the tests are successful, the power supply sends a special signal to the motherboard, called Power Good. This signal must be continuously present for the system to run. Therefore, when the AC voltage dips and the power supply cannot maintain outputs within regulation tolerance, the Power Good signal is withdrawn (goes low) and forces the system to reset. The system will not restart until the Power Good signal returns. The Power Good signal (sometimes called Power OK or PWR_OK) is a +5V (nominal) active high signal (with variation from +2.4V through +6.0V generally being considered acceptable) that is supplied to the motherboard when the
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power supply has passed its internal self tests and the output voltages have stabilized. This normally takes place anywhere from 100ms to 500ms (0.10.5 seconds) after you turn on the power supply switch. The power supply then sends the Power Good signal to the motherboard, where the processor timer chip that controls the reset line to the processor receives it. In the absence of Power Good, the timer chip holds the reset line on the processor, which prevents the system from running under bad or unstable power conditions. When the timer chip receives the Power Good signal, it releases the reset, and the processor begins executing whatever code is at address FFFF . On pre-ATX systems, the Power Good connection is made via connector P81 (P8 Pin 1) from the power supply to the motherboard. ATX and later systems use pin 8 of the 20-pin connector, which is normally a gray wire. Basic Block Diagram of SMPS Fig. 16.2 shows the block diagram of the PSU. The input from mains is first filtered to suppress any spikes/surges entering the power supply circuit. This is an important part of the circuit and helps in preventing data loss or erroneous working during power line disturbances. Filtered mains supply is then rectified by a full-wave bridge rectifier to produce +150V DC for the power converter section. The input supply is switched with the help of this power converter and the energy transferred to the output through a high frequency ferrite transformer. The power converter consists of two externally driven transistors operating in push-pull configuration. These are driven by converter driver. The power converter transformer Section Power Section Output Section produces low voltage switched waveforms on + 5V Full W ave Output Push Pull +12V Bridge Recti fier the secondary side which Convert er Recti fier - 5V and Filter -12V are rectified and filtered to produce well regulated 5V and Power Good 12V DC output Signal voltages. Convert er The 5V DC output voltage is sensed by Pulse control section of the W idth Modulator PSU which essentially consists of a pulse width Control Section modulator (PWM) controller IC. This PWM produces suitable drive pulses at about 22kHz for the
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AC Input AC Fuse Line Filter

O ver Current Sense

Fig. 16.2 Block diagram of SMPS

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converter driver. The width of these pulses is controlled by the modulator depending upon the output sense voltages, thus ensuring correct operating voltages at the output and providing necessary protection to the PSU. The input mains supply is applied to the circuit via an on-off switch of fuse F1. Power converters operating directly off-line like this one draw heavy current when switched on. This inrush of current causes great stress on input components, switches, rectifiers and capacitors. For low power applications, simple series resistor is used to limit the initial high voltage and high current. Special high current surge rated resistors are best suited for this application. However, adequately rated wirewound resistor also serves the purpose and is frequently used. Power Supply Form Factor Although the names of the power supply form factors will seem to be the same as those of motherboard form factors, the power supply form factor is more related to the system chassis (case) than the motherboard. That is because all the form factors use one of only two types of connector designs, either AT or ATX. All power supplies are categorized by several characteristics, one of which is the form factor. This term describes the physical dimensions of the power supply and the types of power connectors it provides to power the motherboard. The form factors encountered are as follows.
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120mm

10 12mm

100mm

120mm

100mm

8mm 12

20mm

Fig. 16.3 PC/XT/AT Form Factor Power Supply

PC/XT/AT Form Factors The original power supply form factor got its name from the IBM PC/XT. In addition to the power connectors of the peripherals, the power supply also provided a motherboard power connection using two separate connectors, called P8 and P9, that plugged side-by-side into the motherboard. In 1984 IBM introduced the successor to the PC/ XT: the AT. While the power supply's physical dimensions changed, the AT had the same motherboard and drive connections as the PC/XT form factor. The AT also featured a remote power switch, which appeared on the first tower-style case, allowed users to power up their computers from the front rather than having to reach around
48mm Pin 1 Pin 2 Pin 3 Pin 4 +12 V (Yellow) GND (Black) GND (Black) +5 V (Red) Pin 1 Pin 2 Pin 3 Pin 4 +12 V (Yellow) GND (Black) GND (Black) +5 V (Red) Pin 1 Pin 2 Pin 3 Pin 4 +12 V (Yellow) GND (Black) GND (Black) +5 V (Red) 142mm 10 Pin 1 Pin 2 Pin 3 Pin 4 +12 V (Yellow) GND (Black) GND (Black) +5 V (Red) GND (Black) GND (Black) -5 V (White) +5 V (Red) +5 V (Red) +5 V (Red) 210mm 222mm PWR_OK (Orange) +5 V (Red) +12 V (Yellow) -12 V (Blue) GND (Black) GND (Black)

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Pin 1 Pin 2 Pin 3 Pin 4 +5 V (Red) GND (Black) GND (Black) +12 V (Yellow) +12 V (Yellow) GND (Black) GND (Black) +5 V (Red) +12 V (Yellow) GND (Black) GND (Black) +5 V (Red) +12 V (Yellow) GND (Black) GND (Black) +5 V (Red)

SMPS

150mm

Pin 1 Pin 2 Pin 3 Pin 4

to the back or side. The AT form factor is no longer in use, except in very old computers running 286 CPUs. It was replaced by the Baby AT form factor.

150mm 10 150mm

150mm

131mm

5 150mm

Fig. 16.4 Baby AT Form Factor Power Supply

Baby AT/LPX Form Factor The Baby AT form factor got its name from the simple fact that it was a smaller version of the original AT form factor. With the exception of its smaller physical size, the Baby AT had the same power connectors as the AT and was used as a replacement for AT form factor power supplies. Around the same time, another version of the Baby AT appeared under several different names, including slimline (because it was found in cases bearing the same name), PS/2 (after the short-lived series of computers), and LPX (for low profile). While the LPX is physically smaller than the Baby AT, its output connectors are the same as the AT, with one small exception: the monitor pass-through power connector at the rear of the power supply began to disappear with the LPX form factor. As popular as these two form factors were, they were eventually replaced by the ATX.
Pin 1 Pin 2 Pin 3 Pin 4 5 Pin 1 Pin 2 Pin 3 Pin 4 Pin 1 Pin 2 Pin 3 Pin 4 +12 V (Yellow) GND (Black) GND (Black) +5 V (Red) PWR_OK (Orange) +5 V (Red) +12 V (Yellow) -12 V (Blue) GND (Black) GND (Black) 10 GND (Black) GND (Black) -5 V (White) +5 V (Red) +5 V (Red) +5 V (Red)

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86mm

140mm 5 186mm 7

6mm

64mm 86mm

16mm

120mm

Fig. 16.5 Baby AT Form Factor Power Supply

ATX/NLX Form Factor The year 1995 saw the introduction of the ATX form factor, and it was the first time that a genuine standard for both motherboards and their associated power supplies was created. Physically, the ATX power supply was almost identical to the Baby AT/LPX form factor, however significant changes occurred in both the output voltages and the connectors. A single 20-pin connector replaced the two separate connectors, P8 and P9. The ATX was the first power supply to provide 3.3 volts, and it introduced the first "soft power" switch, which allowed software to turn the computer on and off. The ATX power supply was designed for the NLX form factor
Pin 1 Pin 2 Pin 3 Pin 4 Pin 1 Pin 2 Pin 3 Pin 4 +5 V (Red) GND (Black) GND (Black) +12 V (Yellow) +12 V (Yellow) GND (Black) GND (Black) +5 V (Red) +12 V (Yellow) GND (Black) GND (Black) +5 V (Red) Pin 1 Pin 2 Pin 3 Pin 4 Pin 1 Pin 2 Pin 3 Pin 4 +12 V (Yellow) GND (Black) GND (Black) +5 V (Red) Pin 1 Pin 2 Pin 3 Pin 4 +12 V (Yellow) GND (Black) GND (Black) +5 V (Red) Pin 1 Pin 11 Orange Orange Black Red +3.3V +3.3V GND +5V +3.3V -12V Orange Blue GND Black PS ON GND GND GND -5V Green Black Black Black White Red Red Black Red GND +5V Black Grey GND PWR_OK +5VSB +12V Purple +5V +5V Yellow Pin 10 Pin 20 ATX Power Connector Pin Out

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motherboard, which is one of the reasons that the ATX power supply form factor is sometimes (and incorrectly) called the NLX power supply. Mini-ATX/Micro-ATX/SFX Form Factor Mini-ATX, Micro-ATX, and SFX all describe a single form factor that is physically smaller than the ATX and does not have a -5 volt signal, which is only needed by some older expansion bus (ISA) cards. ATX12V Form Factor The newest form factor, a superset ATX called the ATX12V, was created for systems using P4 and high-end Athlon processors. The ATX 12V adds an extra +12V power connector that enables the delivery of more current to the high-end processor-based boards. If you see a +12V 4-pin connector, you have an ATX12V power supply. If you don't find a +12V 4-pin connector, your power supply is an ATX version. Form Factor WTX Any discussion of power supply form factors must include the WTX, which was introduced by Intel in 1998. This form factor is usually only seen on larger, more powerful systems (the W in WTX stands for workstation). The WTX is completely different from all earlier form factors. It is designed for multiple-CPU and multiple-drive systems, such as servers and high-end engineering workstations. Connectors from SMPS Molex Connectors The first and most common type of connection is called the Molex. The Molex connector is primarily used for devices that need both 12V and 5V of power. The Molex connector has chamfers (notches), which make for easy installation. These chamfers can be defeated if one pushes hard enough, so always inspect the Molex connection to ensure proper orientation before one installs it. Mini Connectors Most systems also provide a mini connector. The mini is used primarily on 3.5-inch floppy drives, because floppy drive makers have adopted the mini connector for that use.
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Fig. 16.6 Standard Molex Connector


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Fig. 16.7 Standard Mini Connector

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Be careful about installing the mini connectors! Whereas Molex connectors are extremely difficult (but not impossible) to install incorrectly into a Molex socket, inserting a mini incorrectly takes very little effort. Installing a mini incorrectly may destroy the device. Motherboard Connectors AT Connectors Industry standard PC, XT, AT, Baby-AT, and LPX motherboards all use the same type of main power supply connectors. These supplies feature two main power connectors (P8 and P9), each with 6 pins that attach the power supply to the motherboard. P8 and P9 are identically sized and shaped; the only difference is the colors of wires and the order in which they appear. You have to get them plugged in right or you will irreparably smoke your motherboard. Just keep this in mind: black together. Both connectors have a black wire; when the connectors are plugged in properly, the black wire on P8 will be next to the black wire on P9. ATX Connectors The industry standard ATX power-supply-tomotherboard main connector is the Molex 39-299202 (or equivalent) 20-pin ATX style connector. It is used in the ATX, Mini-ATX, Micro-ATX & SFX form factors. This is a 20-pin keyed connector with pins configured as shown in Table 16.4. The colors for the wires listed are those recommended by the ATX standard; however, they are not required for compliance to the specification, so they could vary from manufacturer to manufacturer. ATX12V Connector To augment the supply of +12V power to the motherboard, Intel created a new ATX12V power supply specification. This adds a third power connector, called the ATX12V connector, specifically to supply additional +12V power to the board. Power Switch Every PC needs a power switch. Power switch
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Fig. 16.8 A Standard P8 and P9 socket


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Fig. 16.9 P8 and P9 connectors

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Fig. 16.10 ATX P1 connector

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SMPS

utilization creates one of the major differences between AT and ATX power supplies. AT power switches simply turn the system on or off, whereas ATX power supplies use a feature called soft power. AT Power Switch AT power switches come in only two common types: rocker and plunger. Each of these switches has four tab connectors that attach to four color-coded wires leading from the power supply. The ends of the cable are fitted with spade connector lugs, which plug onto the spade connectors on the power switch. The cable from the power supply to the switch in the case contains four color-coded wires. In addition, a fifth wire supplying a ground connection to the case might be included. The switch was usually included with the power supply and heavily shrink-wrapped or insulated where the connector lugs attached to prevent electric shock. The four or five wires are color-coded as follows: Brown and blue: These wires are the live and neutral feed wires from the 110V power cord to the power supply. These are always hot when the power supply is plugged in. Black and white: These wires carry the AC feed from the switch back to the power supply. These leads should be hot only when the power supply is plugged in and the switch is turned on.

Fig. 16.11 ATX P1 socket

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Plunger type Fig. 16.12 Types of Switches

Rocker type

Green or green with a yellow stripe: This is the ground lead. It should be connected to the PC case and should help ground the power supply to the case.

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Fig. 16.13 Correct wire placement for AT power supply

On the switch, the tabs for the leads are usually color-coded; if not, you'll find that most switches have two parallel tabs and two angled tabs. If no color-coding is on the switch, plug the blue and brown wires onto the tabs that are parallel to each other and the black and white wires to the tabs that are angled away from each other. If none of the tabs are angled, simply make sure the blue and brown wires are plugged into the most closely spaced tabs on one side of the switch and the black and white wires on the most closely spaced tabs on the other side. As long as the blue and brown wires are on, one set of tabs and the black
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and white leads are on the other, the switch and supply will work properly. If you incorrectly mix the leads, you will likely blow the circuit breaker for the wall socket because mixing them can create a direct short circuit. Power Supply Ratings A system manufacturer should be able to provide you the technical specifications of the power supplies it uses in its systems. Table 16.15 shows the rated outputs at each of the voltage levels for supplies with different manufacturer-specified output ratings.
PC Power and Cooling ATX Power Supply Output Ratings Rated Output Output current (amps) +5V +3.3V Max watts +5 and +3.3V +12V -5V -12V 235W 220 14.0 125W 8.0 0.5 1.0 275W 30.0 14.0 150W 10.0 0.5 1.0 300W 30.0 14.0 150W 12.0 0.5 1.0 350W 32.0 28.0 215W 10.0 0.3 0.8 400W 30.0 28.0 215W 14.0 1.0 1.0 425W 50.0 40.0 300W 15.0 0.3 1.0

Most PC power supplies have ratings between 150 and 300 watts. Although lesser ratings are not usually desirable, you can purchase heavy-duty power supplies for most systems that have outputs as high as 600 watts or more. The 300-watt and larger units are recommended for fully optioned desktops. These supplies run any combination of motherboard and expansion card, as well as a large number of disk drives and other peripherals.

Troubleshooting tips for SMPS Check the wall outlet. The outlet should be providing between 220-250V AC current. Just set the voltage-ohmmeter (VOM) to read AC voltage and put one lead in each hole of the outlet. Check the power cord. It should be firmly plugged into the power supply. If you have a spare cord, swap cords. Yes, power cords do fail. Is power getting to the power supply? The fan gets it first, so if it isn't turning on, the power supply isn't getting power. When some power supplies are first turned on, the speaker emits a low click. Check to make sure the power supply is connected to the motherboard using the right connectors, whether P8 and P9 (AT) or the single-piece, 20pin ATX connector. To conclude whether the problem is with the motherboard or SMPS, short
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the PS ON pin (Green pin) with any black pin i.e. the ground, and observe whether the SMPS fan has started. If it has, then it can be concluded that the source of the problem is with the motherboard, else it will be with the SMPS. If all those things check out correctly, try swapping in a different power supply.

LAB EXERCISE 16.1 : SMPS Connector Identification Objective: To be familiar with the different types of power supplies and their connectors and be able to do preliminary analysis on the supplies. Tasks: 1. With the help of a multi-meter, measure the line voltage from the line or wall outlet, which will act as the input to the SMPS. 2. In the case of an AT power supply, identify the different connectors and then make the connections to the power switch i.e. as mentioned in the chapter. 3. In the case of an ATX power supply, identify the different connectors from the supply unit.

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PC ENGINEERING
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UPS

Concept of UPS UPS is an abbreviation of Uninterrupted Power Supply. It is combination of both electrical and electronics systems designed to provide a total continuity of AC power to a critical computerized load (eliminating all kind of disturbances) even in the absence of mains power. A UPS draws AC power from the commercial AC line and processes it to a required condition, at the same time charging the battery which is connected to the UPS. Even if the AC mains fail, it provides an output voltage (without any interruptions) from the battery sources.

Fig. 17.1 UPS Unit

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Necessity of UPS Most of the highly sophisticated equipment like computers, medical equipment and satellite communication systems have to be run continuously without any kind of interruption. Even a short interruption may cause a serious disaster. Furthermore, with the advances in the computer technology and its vast application almost every corner of the world and also its expansion in computer networking like LAN, WAN etc., power plays a very important role in keeping the system in working condition. The voltage that should be given to a computer system should be a pure sine wave (as shown in figure 17.2) and it should be free from all kinds of distortion.
S i n ewa ve

f T

The AC voltage that is received from the commercial line may consist of different kinds of distortion like spikes, surges, sags, brown-outs, black-outs etc., as shown in the fig. 17.3.

Fig. 17.2 Pure Sine W ave

Spikes Spikes are very high voltages which are caused due to the switching ON or
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POWER FAILURE

Type III

switching OFF of a large electrical load. Surges Surges are over voltages that last for more than one cycle. They are caused due to some heavy electrical load which is suddenly switched OFF . Sags Sags are under voltages that last for more than one cycle.

SURGE OR OVERVOLTAGE SAG OR UNDERVOLTAGE

Type II

HARMONICS

Brown-Outs Brown-outs are the low voltage conditions that can be present even for several hours. This is often created when the power demands exceed to capacity of the power supply. Black-Outs Black-outs are nothing but no-power conditions, caused due to several factors like, short circuits, fuse blown no voltage in the AC main etc. Harmonic Distortion It is the deviation of the wave shape from a pure sine wave. Frequency instability and Noise are some of the other problems which may cause havoc to the computer system.

OSCILLATORY TRANSIENT TYPE I SPIKE OR IMPLUSE TRANSIENT EMI OR RFI

NORMAL VOLTAGE

UPS can be broadly classified into two categories. Rotary type Static type

Fig. 17.3 AC Voltage

Rotary Type Rotary type is the earliest type of UPS. Nowadays this kind of UPS is replaced by the static type because of its disadvantages like huge size, lot of noise and the need for regular preventive maintenance. Even though it is outdated, this kind of UPS is used in some of the bigger computer installations. It is made up of a DC motor, fly wheel, an AC generator, a battery bank and
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Main AC

Rec tifier

Fig. 17.4 Rotary type

a battery charger. The DC motor and AC generator are T rans fer Switc h L oad coupled to the same shaft with a flywheel in between them. The AC mains is stepped down, rectified DC filtered and supplied to the AC Generator Motor DC motor (simultaneously charging the batter). So the DC motor and the AC F lywh eel generator will be running B at t er y and the generator output is given to the equipment. When the AC mains fail the UPS DC motor will keep on running with the help of the battery. There with be no interruption in the supply to the load during the change over period due to the huge fly wheel which keeps the generator running without any loss of speed. (Refer to fig. 17.4) Static Type The static type of UPS is known for compactness and silent operation as they make use of electronic components (nowadays, they are also using microprocessors) thereby offering many functions. There are several different major designs in use for this type. The different types and their basic design principles are as mentioned below. Standby UPS / Standby Power Supply The standby UPS is the simplest and least expensive UPS design. In fact, some don't even consider a standby UPS to really be a UPS, calling it instead a standby power supply (SPS). However, many of the most common consumergrade devices marketed as UPSes, particularly on the lower end of the budget scale, in fact use this general design. They are sometimes also called off-line UPSes to distinguish them from online SURGE UPSes. FILTER SUPRESSOR In this type of UPS, the primary power source is line power from the utility, and BATTERY INVERTER the secondary power source is the battery. It is called a standby UPS because the battery and inverter are normally not supplying power to the equipment. The battery charger is using line power to charge the battery, and the battery and
TRANSFER SWITCH

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BATTERY CHARGER

Fig. 17.5 Block schematic of a standby UPS

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inverter are waiting "on standby" until they are needed. When the AC power goes out, the transfer switch changes to the secondary power source. When line power is restored, the UPS switches back. While the least desirable type of UPS, a standby unit is still a UPS and will serve well for most users. After all, if standby UPSes didn't work, they wouldn't sell. For a very critical function, however, such as an important server, they are not generally used. The issue with a standby UPS is that when the line power goes out, the switch to battery power happens very quickly, but not instantly. There is a delay of a fraction of a second while the switch occurs, which is called the switch time or transfer time of the UPS. While rare, it is possible for the UPS to not make the switch fast enough for the PC's power supply to continue operation uninterrupted. Again, in practice this does not normally occur or nobody would bother to buy these units. Still, you should compare the unit's transfer time to the hold (or holdup) time of your power supply unit, which tells you how much time the power supply can handle having its input cut off before being interrupted. If the transfer time is much less than the hold time, the UPS will probably work for you. Standby UPSes are usually available in a size range of up to about 1000 VA. Line-Interactive UPS The line-interactive UPS uses a totally different design than any type of standby UPS. In this type of unit, the separate battery charger, inverter and source selection switch have all been replaced by a combination inverter/converter, which both charges the battery and converts its energy to AC for the output as required. AC line power is still the primary power source, and the battery is the secondary. When the line power is operating, the inverter/converter charges the battery; when the power fails, it operates in reverse. The main advantage of this design is that the inverter/converter unit is always connected to the output, powering the equipment. This design allows for faster response to a power failure TRANSFER than a standby UPS. The SWITCH inverter/converter is also normally fitted with circuitry INVERTER/ CONVERTER to filter out noise and spikes, and to regulate the power BATTERY output, providing additional < CHARGING (NORMAL) power during brownouts and DISCHARGING (POWER FAIL) > curtailing output during surges. The line-interactive UPS is an improved design that is commonly used in units
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Fig. 17.6 Block schematic of a line-interactive UPS

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UPS

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SURGE SUPRESSOR FILTER

TRANSFER SWITCH

BATTERY CHARGER

BATTERY

INVERTER

for home and business use, available in sizes up to 3,000 VA or so. It is superior to the standby UPS, but it still has a transfer time, and thus does not provide protection as good as the online UPS. Online ("True") UPS

Fig. 17.7 Block schematic of an online ("true") UPS

The online UPS, sometimes called a true UPS, is the best type you can buy. Paradoxically, it is both very similar to, and totally opposite to, the leastexpensive type, the standby UPS. It is very similar to it in that it has the same two power sources, and a transfer switch that selects between them. It is the exact opposite from the standby UPS because it has reversed its sources: in the online UPS the primary power source is the UPS's battery, and utility power is the secondary power source! Of course, while seeming small, this change is a very significant one. Under normal operation the online UPS is always running off the battery, using its inverter, while the line power runs the battery charger. For this reason, this type of UPS is sometimes also called a double-conversion or double-conversion online UPS. This design means that there is no transfer time in the event of a power failure-if the power goes out, the inverter (and its load) keeps chugging along and only the battery charger fails. A computer powered by an online UPS responds to a power failure in the same way that a plugged-in laptop PC does: it keeps running without interruption, and all that happens is that the battery starts to run down because there is no line power to charge it. You may ask yourself, why bother having the secondary power path (the dashed line in the diagram above) if you are always running off the battery anyway? The reason is that this provides backup in the event that the inverter fails or stutters due to some sort of internal problem. While unusual, this can happen, and if it does, the unit will switch to the filtered, surge-suppressed line power. In this event, the matter of transfer time comes into play again, just as it does when a standby UPS reacts to a power failure. Of course, power failures are much more common than inverter failures. There is another key advantage to having the equipment running off the battery most of the time: the double-conversion process totally isolates the output power from the input power. Any nasty surprises coming from the wall affect only the battery charger, and not the output loads. Even though it may appear from the schematic diagrams that the online UPS and standby UPS have the same components inside, this is not the case. The
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DELTA CONVERTER

Fig. 17.8 Simplified block schematic of a deltaconversion online UPS.

distinction is that there is a big difference between designing chargers and inverters that are normally sitting around doing nothing and only run say once a month BATTERY INVERTER for a few minutes, and designing ones that are running 24 hours a day for weeks on end. The additional engineering and the increased size and quality of the components combine to make online UPSes much more expensive than lesser designs. They are typically used only for large servers, and for backing up multiple pieces of equipment in data centers. They are available in sizes from about 5,000 VA up to hundreds of thousands of VA and even larger. Aside from the cost, a disadvantage of the online UPS is its inefficiency. All the power going to the loads is converted from AC to DC and back to AC, which means much of the power is dissipated as heat. Furthermore, this is happening all the time, not just during a power failure, and while running equipment that draws a lot of power. To combat this shortcoming, a new design called a delta-conversion online UPS was created. "Delta" is the scientific term often used to refer to the differential between two quantities. In this design, the battery charger is replaced with a delta converter. Instead of providing all of the output from the battery under normal circumstances, some of it is provided directly by the delta converter from the input line power. In the event of a power failure, the delta converter stops operating and the unit acts like a regular double-conversion online UPS, since the inverter is also running off the battery all the time. This is a new design and is also available only in large UPSes (over 5,000 VA). They can result in substantial energy savings costs for large units. Common Specifications of UPS Some of the more common specifications that one will find associated with UPSes are as follows. General: UPS Type: The general design of the UPS. Very important to check this first. Load Rating: The nominal maximum capacity of the unit in VA. Many units will also specify explicitly the W rating of the unit; otherwise you need to determine the UPS's power factor from the manufacturer to properly determine sizing. Input Specifications: Input Voltage: Nominal and actual allowable range specifications. Make sure one is getting the right model for the requirement.
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Nominal Frequency: Generally either 50 or 60 Hz. Some models will automatically handle either. Input Connection: The type of plug the power cord uses; very important for larger units. Output Specifications: Output Voltage: Nominal and actual range specifications will be provided. Nominal should be the same as the nominal input voltage. Output Waveform Type: Whether the unit produces a sine, square, or modified square output waveform. Transfer Time: An important specification is the typical and/or maximum values for the time required for the UPS to switch from line to battery power. For a true on-line UPS this will be zero. For stand-by units it will normally be a few milliseconds. Battery Specifications: Battery Type: The type of battery and whether it is user-replaceable. Battery Capacity: Battery capacity in Ah. (Ampere per hr.). Typical Battery Life: Number of years the battery is expected to last, on average, in average use. Typical Run Time at Full Load: If the unit powers a load with a VA rating equal to its maximum load, the expected number of minutes of run time. Typical Run Time at Half Load: If the unit powers a load with a VA rating of half its maximum load, the expected number of minutes of run time. Typical Recharge Time: How many hours it takes to fully charge a discharged battery from line power. Battery Expansion: What sort of expansion features the UPS has, and if so, how they work. Other Indicators and Alarms: A short listing of the indicator LEDs on the unit, and conditions which trigger alarms. Control and Monitoring Hardware and Software: A brief description of any included or optional control and monitoring systems, including a specification of the interface types supported by the unit. Certifications: Which certification bodies have approved the unit. Warranty: Warranty period in years.

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Computer Mouse

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PC ENGINEERING

Computer Mouse

Mouse is an input device used to communicate with the PC. This device is used to operate a modern PC with a GUI (graphical user interface) like windows etc. also to move the cursor around on a CRT screen to make drawings or execute commands by selecting a command from a menu. The mouse was invented in 1964 by Douglas Englebart, who at the time was working at the Stanford Research Institute (SRI), a think tank sponsored by Stanford University. The mouse was officially called an X-Y Position Indicator for a Display System. Xerox later applied the mouse to its revolutionary Alto computer system in 1973. In 1979, several people from Apple-including Steve Jobs, who was heading Apple at that time-were invited to see the Alto and the software that ran the system. Steve Jobs was blown away by what he saw as the future of computing, which included the use of the mouse as a pointing device and the GUI (graphical user interface) it operated. Although Xerox released the Star 8010 computer that used this technology in 1981, it was expensive, poorly marketed, and perhaps way ahead of its time. Apple released the Lisa computer, its first system that used the mouse, in To computer Button s wi t c h es 1983. It was not a runaway success, largely because of its big price, but by then Jobs already had Apple working on the low-cost successor to the Lisa, the Macintosh. The Apple Macintosh was introduced in 1984. Although it was not an immediate hit, the Macintosh has grown in popularity since that time. Certainly the Macintosh, and now Microsoft Windows Ball that moves and OS/2, have gone on to popularize this interface when you move the mouse and bring it to the legion of Intel-based PC systems.
Two rollers mounted at 90 0 that roll when ball moves

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Buttons Circuitry that transmits roller motion information and switch depress ion to c omputer

Cas e

Roller motion detec t or Fig. 18.1 The operation of a mechanical mouse.

Mice come in various shapes and sizes and from different manufacturers but the largest manufacturers of mice are Microsoft and Logitech.

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The Mouse consists of different components as follows. A housing that you hold in your hand and move around on your desktop. A roller ball that rotates as you move the mouse Several buttons to make selections. A cable for connecting mouse to the PC An interface connector to attach the

Fig. 18.2 Inside of an Mechanical Mouse

mouse to the PC The housing, which is made of plastic, consists of very few moving parts. On top of the housing, where your fingers normally rest, are buttons. There might be any number of buttons, but in the PC world, typically only two exist. If additional buttons or a wheel are on your mouse, specialized driver software provided by the mouse vendor is required for them to operate to their full potential. Although the latest versions of Windows, Windows Me, and Windows 2000 support scrolling mice, other features supported by the vendor still require installing the vendor's own mouse driver software. Mouse Interface Types There are many ways that mice and trackballs are interfaced to a computer. Serial Bus, PS/2 and USB. Serial mice connect to a RS-232-type serial port such as COM1 on the computer. Bus mice use an interface board which plugs into a slot in the motherboard of the computer. PS/2-type computers have a direct rear panel input especially designed for mice and other pointer-type devices. Bus Mouse: Mice, which are serial devices, typically plug into a serial port. However, you also can purchase bus mice, which use an interface card that you insert into an expansion slot instead of the standard RS-232C serial port. Because bus mice do not use serial ports, they can be a useful alternative when your serial ports are already being used. They do, however, require an expansion slot to accommodate the interface card. This type of connection has now become absolute. Serial A popular method of connecting a mouse to older PCs is through the standard serial interface. As with other serial devices, the connector on the end of the mouse cable is typically a 9-pin female connector; some very old mice used a 25-pin male connector. Because most PCs come with two serial ports, a serial mouse can be plugged into either COM1 or COM2. The device driver, when
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Fig. 18.3 Bottom side of the Mechanical Mouse

initializing, searches the ports to determine to which one the mouse is connected. Some mouse drivers cannot function if the serial port is set to COM3 or COM4, but most newer drivers can work with any COM port 1-4. Because a serial mouse does not connect to the system directly, it does not use system resources by itself. Instead, the resources used are those used by the serial port to which it is connected. For example, if you have a mouse connected to COM2, and if COM2 is using the default IRQ and I/O port address range, both the serial port and the mouse connected to it use IRQ3 and I/O port addresses 2F8h-2FFh. PS/2 The disadvantage of serial mouse is that if it is attached to serial port of the PC it is difficult to attach other multiple serial devices like serial printers, modems since one of the serial port is used by the mouse. Most newer computers now come with a dedicated mouse port built into the motherboard. This practice was introduced by IBM with the PS/2 systems in 1987, so this interface is often referred to as a PS/2 mouse interface. This term does not imply that such a mouse can work only with a PS/2; instead, it means the mouse can connect to any system that has a dedicated mouse port on the motherboard. A PS/2 mouse does not require any slot to be used for a bus card nor does it require a serial port to be connected to the main computer system it is a special mouse port for connecting the mouse. The circuitry to control the mouse is directly built into the motherboard of the PC but in case of failure cannot replace the circuitry easily. USB The extremely flexible USB port is increasingly being used for mice as well as keyboards and other I/O devices. Compared to the other interfaces, USB mice (and other USB pointing devices such as trackballs) have the following advantages: 1. Mice with the most advanced features are sometimes made especially for the USB port. One example is the Logitech iFeel mouse, the first mouse with an optical sensor plus force feedback. It vibrates gently as you move the mouse over clickable buttons on Web pages, software menus, and the Windows desktop, and it's made especially for USB. 2. USB mice and pointing devices, similar to all other USB devices, are hot249

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swappable. If you like to use a trackball, and your computing partners prefer mice, you can just lean over and unplug the other users' pointing device and plug in your own, or move it from PC to PC. You can't do that with the other port types. 3. USB mice can be attached to a USB hub, such as the hubs contained in some USB keyboards, as well as standalone hubs. Using a hub makes attaching and removing your mouse easy without crawling around on the floor to reach the back of the computer. WORKING OF A MECHANICAL MOUSE The Mechanical Mouse: You use a mouse by moving it around on the table or mouse pad. This motion is detected and sent to your computer. In a mechanical mouse, the motion is mechanical and involves the movement of parts. A small ball in the base of the mouse rolls as you move the mouse across a surface. This ball is commonly made from soft rubber. When you push the mouse across the desk, friction makes the ball roll inside its housing. Within the balls housing are two rollers, which are often metal. The rollers are usually mounted at 90-degree angles to each other. As the ball rolls, it rubs against these rollers and rolls them too. Although the rubber ball can roll in any direction, the metal rollers can roll only clockwise or counter-clockwise. The rollers translate the balls motions into movement in two perpendicular (X and Y) directions. If you move the mouse exactly horizontal, you move only the roller that shows the X-direction movement. If you move the mouse exactly vertical, you move only the roller that shows the Y-direction movement. These rollers are usually connected to small disks with shutters that alternately block and allow the passage of light. Small optical sensors detect movement of the wheels by watching an internal infrared light blink on and off as the shutter wheel rotates and "chops" the light. These blinks are translated into movement along the axes which are then converted into electronic pulses which are sent to the PC. OPTICAL MOUSE Some of the early mice made by Mouse Systems and a few other vendors used a sensor that required a special grid-marked pad. Although these mice were very accurate, the need to use them with a pad caused them to fall out of favor. Microsoft's IntelliMouse Explorer pioneered the return of optical mice, but with a difference. Like the old-style optical mice, the IntelliMouse Explorer uses optical technology to detect movement, and it has
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Fig. 18.4 Bottom of the Logitech iFeel optical mouse

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no moving parts itself (except for the scroll wheel and buttons on top). The Explorer mouse needs no pad; it can work on virtually any surface. This is done by upgrading the optical sensor from the simple type used in older optical mice to a more advanced CCD (charge coupled device). This essentially is a crude version of a video camera sensor that detects movement by seeing the surface move under the mouse. An LED is used to provide light for the sensor. The IntelliMouse Explorer is just the first of a growing family of optical mice made by Microsoft. (the IntelliMouse Optical and WheelMouse Optical are less expensive versions.) Not to be outdone, Logitech & the other manufacturers also started offering their optical mouse as well. Their versatility and low maintenance (not to mention that neat red glow out the sides!) make optical mice an attractive choice, and the variety of models available from both vendors means you can have the latest optical technology for about the price of a good ball-type mouse. The Trackball: A trackball is comparable to a mechanical mouse in operation. You use a mechanical mouse by moving it across a surface. This movement causes a ball in the mouse to move; the balls motion is detected and transmitted to the PC. With some imagination, you can view a trackball as an upside down mechanical mouse. Instead of moving the mouse to roll the ball, you actually roll the ball yourself with your hand. The trackballs motion is detected inside the case by the equivalent of two rollers which are mounted at right angles to each other. The balls motion is translated into motion in the X - direction and the Y-direction, and any movement is transmitted to the PC for processing. This is used in Laptop. Infrared Wireless Mouse: Although most mice are attached to the serial port via a cable, some mice use infrared transmission to send the codes to a receiver that is attached to your serial port. The infrared mice are cordless in that they do not have a cable that attaches the mouse portion to the serial port. The infrared detector, however, is normally attached to the serial port by a cord. The electronics inside the mouse also detects when you press a mouse button. This detection is similar in all types of mice. Infrared mouse communicates with receiving unit connected to the main system unit using infrared light. As the infrared light cannot pass through objects it requires an infrared mouse to be in direct line of sight with the receiving unit connected to the PC.
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Fig. 18.5 A typical trackball.

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Computer Mouse

When you buy a mouse or trackball, it usually comes with a diskful of programs and a fairly large instruction manual. Included on the disk are the mouse drivers, typically called MOUSE.COM or MOUSE.SYS. You install one of these drivers to allow application programs to interface with the mouse. To install the standard mouse driver, MOUSE.COM, you simply copy the file to the DOS subdirectory on your hard disk and insert the command MOUSE in your AUTOEXEC.BAT file. To use the alternate driver MOUSE.SYS, you copy this file to the DOS subdirectory on your hard disk and insert the statement device = mouse.sys in your CONFIG.SYS file. Either of these methods will load the mouse driver automatically when you boot up the system. Troubleshooting Mouse 1. Make sure the mouse is plugged in securely. 2. Check the driver. Is the mouse driver set up correctly? Is it there in the first place? 3. Clean the mouse ball and roller assembly and shake any debris off the mouse pad. 4. Check the interface at the end of your mouse cable and at the motherboard, whether it is USB, PS/2, or the serial port. See if there are any obvious problem such as bent pins (for PS/2 and serial port mice only) that can be straightened. 5. Ensure that Windows recognizes the mouse and that it is listed in Device Manager as properly installed. If not then check for any interrupt conflicts which normally do not occur while using PS/2 port, but while using serial port there are chances of conflicts where one has to assign a separate interrupt which is unused. If all this fails, and your computer is not the culprit, you'll need to replace your mouse.

LAB EXERCISE 18.1 : Mouse Button options and parts identification Objective: To be familiar with the different internal parts of the mouse as well as with the mouse properties. Tasks: 1. Check the different parts inside the mouse such as the sensors, the interface type, the rollers etc. in a mechanical mouse. 2. Change the default button for selecting and dragging from the right to the left button of the mouse. 3. Change the double clicking speed to the slowest and try using the mouse.

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Keyboard

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PC ENGINEERING

Keyboard

Keyboard The keyboard is a peripheral device which is directly connected on to the motherboard (system board) and it is the only device through which a programmer or user can communicate with the CPU as well as with all the peripheral devices attached to it. Through the keyboard you can input programs or data into the machine; it is almost impossible to use a computer without a keyboard. The keyboard is basically a set of switches (much like a typewriter), connected in the form of a matrix, surrounded by electronic circuits which monitor the keymatrix that continuously scans the keys to recognize key action and generate a scan code. Types of Keyboards Serial and Parallel keyboards. Serial Keyboard It is a keyboard which outputs the data in serial form, i.e. bit by bit. The computer converts the serial data into parallel 8-bit data. The advantage of such keyboards is that they use only single line to transmit the data. Parallel Keyboard It is a keyboard which outputs all the 8-bits at a time in a parallel form. All the bits are sent simultaneously on different lines. In this fashion the transmission is faster but it needs a thicker cable with more number of wires. In PCs we always use serial keyboards. Hence we will be concentrating on the serial keyboard and its electronic circuit with different types of key switches. Board Switches There are many different types of key switches. Some of the most commonly used ones are Mechanical keyswitches Membrane keyswitches

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Keyboard

Capacitive keyswitches Hall effect keyswitches Reed Relay keyswitches

The first three of these are most commonly used in keyboards. Functioning of the Keyboard The processor in the original PC keyboard was an Intel 8048 microcontroller chip, but newer keyboards often use an 8049 version that has a built in ROM or other microcontroller chips compatible with the 8048 and 8049. A keyboard consists of a set of switches mounted in a grid or array called the key matrix. When a switch is pressed, a processor in the keyboard itself identifies which key is pressed by identifying which grid location in the matrix shows continuity. The keyboard processor also interprets how long the key is pressed and can even handle multiple keystrokes at the same time. A 16-byte hardware buffer in the keyboard can handle rapid or multiple keystrokes, passing each one in succession to the system. When you press a key, in most cases the contact actually bounces slightly, meaning that there are several rapid on-off cycles just as the switch makes contact. This is called bounce, and the processor in the keyboard is designed to filter this or debounce the keystroke. The keyboard processor must distinguish bounce from a double key strike actually intended by the keyboard operator. This is fairly easy. The keyboard's built-in processor reads the key matrix, debounces the keypress signals, converts the keypress signals into appropriate scan code, and transmits the code to the motherboard. The processors built into the keyboard contain their own RAM, possibly some ROM, and a built-in serial interface. In an AT-type keyboard design, the keyboard serial interface is connected to a special keyboard controller on the motherboard. This is an Intel 8042 also known as Universal Peripheral Interface (UPI) slave microcontroller chip in the original AT design. This microcontroller is essentially another processor that has its own 2K of ROM and 128 bytes of RAM. Some systems may use the 8041 or 8741 chips, which differ only in the amount of built-in ROM or RAM, whereas other systems now have the keyboard controller built into the main system chipset. These keyboard output values are interpreted by the keyboard circuit as two different logical conditionskey being open and key being close. Membrane Switch A membrane keyboard is not a combination of separate switches, instead it is a multi-layer plastic or rubber assembly which is used as keyboard in video
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Keyboard

CMS INSTITUTE 2012 Key Top


Top Sheet Row Conductor Sheet Sheet with Hole

game machines, calculators, medical instruments, cash registers etc.

Row Conductor

Fig. 19.1 Membrane type keyboard switch

As shown in the fig. 19.1 in this keyboard, two Column Conductor rubber or plastic sheet are used as row conductor sheet and column conductor sheet. These row and column sheet are separated by another sheet with holes at the keytop positions. When the keytop is pressed, it forces the row conductor sheet through the hole to touch the column conductor sheet.
Column Conductor Sheet

When the row conductor lines on the row conductor sheet touches the column line on the column conductor sheet, key contact is made. This is interpreted by the keyboard interface as key closure. These row and column lines are made on the plastic or rubber sheet using silver or some other conductor ink for each row and column of keys on the keyboard. This keyboard can be made very thin, as a completely sealed unit which makes it useful in some of the above mentioned applications. Typematic Functions If a key on the keyboards is held down, it becomes typematic, which means that the keyboard repeatedly sends the keypress code to the motherboard. In AT-style keyboards, the typematic rate is adjustable by sending the keyboard processor the appropriate commands. This is not possible for the earlier PC/ XT keyboard type because the keyboard interface is not bidirectional.
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Keyboard Interface The interface between the keyboard cable and the system unit is the keyboard interface. This is a DIN (or mini-DIN if it's a PS/2) plug that has five (or six, for mini-DIN) pins. Fig. 19.2 shows the connector on the system unit side. All together there are four lines (wires) used for interfacing the keyboard with the system motherboard. They are : Keyboard data (KBDATA) Keyboard clock (KBCLK) DC source (+5V Vcc) DC ground (0V GND) The Universal Serial Bus (USB) interface is becoming more popular for keyboards, and some models may, in fact, require you to use a USB port unless you have a USB-to-PS/2 adapter to make the USB keyboard compatible with the PS/2 keyboard port. The Microsoft Natural Keyboard and several
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Fig. 19.2 An old-style DIN keyboard connector with five pins (top). PS/2 mini-DIN keyboard connector with six pins (bottom)

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Keyboard

Microsoft mice are examples of devices that are USB by design, although some versions may include a USB-to-PS/2 adapter with the product. USB devices have several benefits, which mostly derive from USB being a newer, faster technology. A USB connection is faster than the other, older I/O ports on your computer, such as COM and parallel ports. In addition, a USB device doesn't require special device drivers for it to operate. The primary keyboard types are as follows: 101-key Enhanced keyboard 104-key Windows keyboard 83-key PC and XT keyboard (obsolete) 84-key AT keyboard (obsolete)

This section discusses the 101-key Enhanced keyboard and the 104-key Windows keyboard, showing the layout and physical appearance of both. Although you can still find old systems that use the 83-key and 84-key designs, these are rare today. Because all new systems today use the 101- or 104-key keyboard design, these versions are covered here. Enhanced 101-Key (or 102-Key) Keyboard In 1986, IBM introduced the "corporate" Enhanced 101-key keyboard for the newer XT and AT models. The layout of this universal keyboard was improved over that of the 84-key unit, with perhaps the exception of the Enter key, which had increased in size, reverted to a smaller size. The 101-key Enhanced keyboard was designed to conform to international regulations and specifications for keyboards. In fact, other companies, such as Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) and Texas Instruments (TI), had already been using designs similar to the IBM 101-key unit. The IBM 101-key units originally came in versions with and without the status-indicator LEDs, depending on whether the unit was sold with an XT or AT system. With the replacement of the Baby-AT motherboard and its five-pin DIN (an acronym for Deutsche Industries Norm) keyboard connector by ATX motherboards, which use the six-pin mini-DIN keyboard connector, virtually all keyboards on the market today come with cables for the six-pin mini-DIN connector introduced on the IBM PS/2s. Although the connectors might be physically different, the keyboards are not, and one can either interchange the cables or use a cable adapter to plug one type into the other; some keyboards you can buy at retail include the adapter in the package. The 101-key keyboard layout can be divided into the following four sections: Typing area Numeric keypad
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Cursor and screen controls Function keys The 101-key arrangement is similar to the earlier keyboard layout, with the exception of the Enter key. The Tab, Caps Lock, Shift, and Backspace keys have a larger striking area. Ctrl and Alt keys are on each side of the spacebar. The typing area and numeric keypad have home-row identifiers for touch typing. The cursor- and screen-control keys have been separated from the numeric keypad, which is reserved for numeric input. A division-sign key (/) and an additional Enter key have been added to the numeric keypad. The Insert, Delete, Home, End, Page Up, and Page Down keys, located above the dedicated cursor-control keys, are separate from the numeric keypad. The function keys, spaced in groups of four, are located across the top of the keyboard. The keyboard also has two additional function keys: F11 and F12. The Esc key is isolated in the upper-left corner of the keyboard. Dedicated Print Screen/Sys Req, Scroll Lock, and Pause/Break keys are provided for commonly used functions. 104-Key (Windows 9x/Me/2000) Keyboard Windows 9x and newer versions make this even more of a problem because they use both the right and left mouse buttons (the right button is used to open shortcut menus). When Microsoft released Windows 95, it also introduced the Microsoft Natural Keyboard, which implemented a revised keyboard specification that added three new Windows-specific keys to the keyboard. The 104-key layout includes left and right Windows keys and an Application key. These keys are used for operating system and application-level keyboard combinations, similar to the existing Ctrl and Alt combinations. The recommended Windows keyboard layout calls for the Left and Right Windows keys (called WIN keys) to flank the Alt keys on each side of the spacebar, as well as an Application key on the right of the Right Windows key. The WIN keys open the Windows Start menu, which you can then navigate with the cursor keys. The Application key simulates the right mouse button; in most applications, it brings up a context sensitive pop-up menu. Several WIN key combinations offer preset macro commands as well. For example, you press WIN+E to launch the Windows Explorer application. Table shows a list of all the Windows 9x/Me/2000 key combinations used with the 104-key keyboard.
Fig. 19.3 104-Key Keyboard

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Windows 9x/Me/2000 Key Combinations Key Combination Resulting Action WIN+r Runs dialog box WIN+M Minimize All Shift+WIN+M Undo Minimize All WIN+D Minimize All or Undo Minimize All WIN+F1 Help WIN+E Starts Windows Explorer WIN+F Find Files or Folders Ctrl+WIN+F Find Computer WIN+Tab Cycles through taskbar buttons WIN+Break Displays System properties dialog box Application key Displays a content menu for the selected item

Keyboards with Special Features A number of keyboards on the market have special features not found in standard designs. These additional features range from simple things, such as built-in calculators, clocks, and volume control, to more complicated features, such as integrated pointing devices, special character layouts, shapes, and even programmable keys. Cordless Keyboards Some manufacturers are now making cordless keyboards. These are like regular keyboards, except instead of having a keyboard cable that runs from the keyboard to the PC, they have no cord. The wired interface between the keyboard and the motherboard is replaced with a wireless one. Two transceivers "talk" to each other over a radio link: one is within the keyboard and wired to the keyboard's internal controller, and the other is a separate device that contains a length of keyboard cable and a conventional keyboard connector to attach to the PC. They also typically cost more than the corded models. Furthermore, since "cordlessness" is a high-end feature, they are usually highend models, making the overall package a bit pricey for a keyboard. Multimedia and Web-Enabled Keyboards Many keyboards sold at retail and bundled with systems today feature fixed-purpose or programmable hotkeys that can launch Web browsers, run the Microsoft Media Player, adjust the volume on the speakers, change tracks on the CD player, and so forth. You need Windows 98 or better to use these hot keys; Windows Me and Windows 2000 add additional support for these keyboards.
Fig. 19.4 Microsoft Multimedia keyboard

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Ergonomic Keyboards A trend that began in the late 1990s is to change the shape of the keyboard instead of altering the character layout. This trend has resulted in a number of so-called ergonomic designs. The goal is to shape the keyboard to better fit the human hand. The most common of these designs splits the keyboard in the centre, bending the sides outward. Some designs allow the angle between the sides to be adjusted, such as the now-discontinued Lexmark SelectEase, the Goldtouch keyboard and the Kenisis Maxim split keyboards. Others, such as the Microsoft Natural keyboard series, PC Concepts Wave, and Cirque Smooth Cat, are fixed. These split or bent designs more easily conform to the hands' natural angle while typing than the standard keyboard. Troubleshooting Keyboards When a keyboard stops working follow these steps: Make Sure it is plugged in. On the back of computers that use PS/ 2-type connectors are two identical ports: the mouse port and the keyboard port. Make sure the keyboard has been plugged into the correct port. You will get an error when turning on the computer if the mouse and/or keyboard are connected to the wrong port. Make sure BIOS and Windows See it. If there is a keyboard failure, you should see a message when your computer boots up. Pay close attention, and if you see the message, try checking the connection first before you move on to more drastic measures. If the BIOS doesn't display any errors on-screen (such as Keyboard not present or Keyboard failure) when you boot up, make sure Windows recognizes your keyboard by checking Device Manager. You can access Device Manager in Windows by opening Control Panel and doubleclicking the System icon. Select the Device Manager tab in the System Properties dialog box. Your keyboard should be listed in the Keyboard category. If it is listed, make sure it is the proper make and model. Fix Bent Pins: Check your PS/2 type connector that plugs into the motherboard for any bent or missing pins. This often happens if someone (usually children, although adults can do this too if they aren't paying attention) tries to force the connection in the wrong orientation. What happens is that the pins that aren't lined up with the correct holes on the motherboard connector get bent back as you force the connection. There's simply no place for them to go but sideways. If your pins are bent, carefully straighten them with a pair of slim, needle-nosed pliers. Be careful not to break off the pins as you straighten them. Connect it to Another Computer: If you're fortunate enough to have more than one computer in your home (most business have several, you can try swapping keyboards with a machine that you know isn't suffering
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keyboard problems. If the new keyboard doesn't work on the machine you're testing, you may have a faulty keyboard connection on the motherboard. Check the keys: If only one key is malfunctioning, check the spring under the key to see whether it springs up and down, as a key should. Remove the key by grabbing it with your fingers and pulling up. For the tough keys, fashion a hook from a paper clip or, again, use a chip puller. You will see a spring under the key. Replace the keytop and see whether the problem goes away. If not, try pulling the spring our just a little. Then replace the keytop.

Some keyboards use rubber cups instead of springs. Either way, the cup or spring is designed to keep the keys from being "on" all the time. Test Pin Voltages: If you hold a DIN so that the pins are at the top and count from left to right, the pins are numbered 1, 4, 2 5, and 3; the number 2 pin is at the top-centre point. Holding a mini-DIN with the single groove in the connector at the top, and starting from the bottom left and moving clockwise, the pins are numbered 1,3,5,6,4, and 2; the groove is between pins 5 and 6. The voltage between pin 4 and each of the other pins should be in the range of 2-5.5 volts DC. If any of these voltages are wrong, the problem probably lies in the PC - the system board in particular. If they're okay, the problem is probably in the keyboard. Check the Cable Continuity: Next, test continuity of the cable. Turn the keyboard upside down so that the cable is coming out of the back of the keyboard, to the right. Remove the two screws. The bottom plate will swing back and up for removal.

You will now see that the cable splits to a single wire, which is grounded to the bottom plate. You'll also see a cable with a flat-jaw connector. Push apart the jaws of the connector to release. You can then use an ohmmeter/ multimeter to test each of the five wires for continuity.

LAB EXERCISE 19.1 : Keyboard Shortcuts Objective: To be familiar with the different types of keyboards and to be able to use the features in the internet keyboards as well as be familiar with keyboard shortcuts. Tasks: 1. Differentiate the keyboards into different types depending upon the features. 2. After loading the drivers, try opening and closing the CD-ROM on a multimedia keyboard. 3. Use the keyboard shortcut to minimize or maximize a window. 4. Use the keyboard shortcut to run through the different open windows in the taskbar.
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Scanner

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Scanner

Scanner A scanner is the eye of a computer that allows you to capture information like pictures and text and convert it into a digital format that can be edited on your computer. With the prices and the interfaces used by scanners seeing very drastic changes, there are many to choose from with varied and very interesting features and applications. There are five popular types of scanners you can install on your system: Flatbed scanners: The most popular type of scanner for home use is the flatbed, or desktop, scanner. It makes it easy to scan papers, books and any other item that you can flat between a glass bed (plate) and the scanner's top cover. The image is scanned via a scan head that moves across the face of the original document. Most flatbed scanners scan in color. Sheet-fed scanners: Sheet-fed scanners are like flatbed scanners, except the scan head is fixed and the original document moves across the head. While flatbed scanners can scan just about any item that can fit on the glass plate, including three-dimensional objects, sheet-fed scanners can scan only flat pieces of paper. In addition, many sheet-fed scanners scan only in black and white. Combo scanner/printer/fax: A very popular option in home offices and small offices is the "all-in-one" machine that scans, prints, faxes, and copies. These units, popularized by Hewlett-Packard, effectively merge a black-and-white sheet-fed scanner with an inkjet or laser printer and a fax machine. You feed the original documents into a slot, just as you do with a freestanding sheet-fed printer, and then the scan head moves across the document. Handheld scanner: A handheld scanner is kind of a manually controlled flatbed scanner. In this case, the
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Fig. 20.1 Flatbed scanner

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Scanner

original document is placed on a flat surface (like a desktop), and you manually move the scanner across the face of the document. In essence, your arm becomes the moving scan head. This type of scanner doesn't deliver the best quality, but it is convenient-and very portable. Unfortunately, portable scanners have proved particularly problematic and thus aren't in widespread use today. Drum scanners: If you want high-quality black-and-white or color scans, like the kinds required by the magazine, newspaper, and book publishing industries, you need to go all the way up to an expensive drum scanner. This type of scanner mounts the original document on a rotating glass cylinder called drum. At the centre of the cylinder is a sensor that splits light bounded of the document into three beams. Each beam is then sent through a color filter into a photomultiplier tube (PMT), where the light is changed into an electrical signal. Drum scanners are much more expensive than consumer-quality flatbed scanners, and they typically connect to a computer system via a SCSI interface. Whatever method is used to scan a source document, a digital image of that document is then created. That digital image can be saved in a variety of graphics file formats. (TIF BMP JPG, and so forth), or the text information can , , be extracted (via optical character recognition technology) and saved as a text file. Scanner Working As shown in fig. 20.2 most flatbed scanners are composed of the following parts:
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Glass bed (or plate), on which the source document is placed facedown. Lamp, used to illuminate the source document Mirrors, used to reflect the image of the source document Filters, which adjust the image of the source document Lens, used to focus the image of the source document onto the CCD array
Lamp

Cover

CCD array, used to turn reflected light into an electrical charge Scan head, which contains the CCD array, mirrors, lens, and filter Stabilizer bar, to which the scan head is attached. Belt, attached to the stepper motor and used to advance the stabilizer bar Stepper motor, used to drive the stabilizer bar

Scan bed
Glass bed

CCD array
Mirrors Lens

Fig. 20.2 The major parts of a flatbed scanner

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Cover, used to provide a uniform background for the scanned documentad to keep you from being blinded by the scanner lamp.

You prepare for a scan by placing the source document facedown on a glass plate. You then close the scanner's cover, which provides a uniform background that the scanner software can use as a reference point for determining the size of the scanned document. When you press the button to start the scan, the lamp lights to illuminate the source document, and the stabilizer bar is sent rolling from one end of the document to the other. As the scan head-which is attached to the stabilizer bartravels across the face of the document light is reflected off the document, through a series of mirrors, filters, and lenses, and then onto the CCD array. The CCD is actually a collection of light-sensitive diodes, called photosites. The photosites convert the reflected light into an electrical charge; since each photosite is sensitive to slight variations in light, the brighter the light that hits a photosite, the greater the electrical charge generated. Most low-cost scanners use a single pass to scan the original document, while some higher-end models used a three-pass method. In the single pass method, the lens splits the image into three identical versions of the original. These images are then passed through three color filters (red, green, and blue) to separate sections of the CDD and combined to create a single full-color image. In the three-pass method, each pass of the scan head uses a different color filter (red, green, or blue) between the lens and the CCD array; assembling the three filtered images results in a single full-color image. Some inexpensive flatbed scanners use a contact image sensor (CIS) instead of a CCD array. The CIS replaces the entire CCD/mirror/filter/lens/lamp mechanism with rows of red, green, and blue LEDs. The image sensor is placed very close to the glass plate, and the LEDs combine to provide a bright white light. The illuminated image is then captured by the same sensors. Scanner/Computer Interface There are three main interfaces used to connect scanners to personal computers: USB, parallel, and SCSI. USB: The USB interface is the easiest way to connect a consumer-grade flatbed scanner. Just connect a cable from your scanner's USB output to a USB into input on your PC. Since USB is a "hot" interface, you don't have to turn off your computer to make your connections, and Windows should recognize the new device as soon as it's plugged in and turned on. Parallel: The parallel interface is used by almost all sheet-fed and all-in-one scanner, as well as some older flatbed units. In the case of sheet-fed and flatbed scanners, the parallel connection is shared with a printer; the printer typically
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plugs into the back of the scanner (or into a special Y cable), and the scanner then interfaces directly to the PC. This type of connection can be problematic, especially if you try to use the scanner and printer at the same time. (You can't). However, if you're connecting an all-in-one scanner/printer/fax/copier, the parallel connection is the only way to go, and you shouldn't encounter any problems. SCSI: The faster SCSI interface is used for the high data transfer rates inherent with drum scanners. Most drum scanners include a dedicated SCSI card you have to install in your computer, although many also let you use a standard SCSI controller. Determining Image Quality Most flatbed scanners deliver a resolution of at least 300 x 300 dpi. The dpi is determined by the number of sensors in a single row of the CCD or CIS array (which determines the x-direction sampling rate) and by the precision of the stepper motor ( which determines the y-direction sampling rate). Resolution can be artificially enhanced by the scanning software used by scanner. Some software program interpolate extra pixels between the actual pixels, thus increasing the apparent resolution. For eg., software that puts one extra pixel between each real pixel turns a 300 x 300 dpi scanner into a virtual 600 x 300 scanner. Managing Scanned File Size The higher the resolution of your scans, and the greater the bit depth, the larger the file sizes. For eg., if you scan a 5 x 7 photograph at 600 x 1200 dpi (and save it in the details BMP format) you end up with a whopping 74MB file. It's always a good idea to manage the file sizes of your scanned images. You can do this in several ways. First, don't use the BMP format! Bitmapped files are the least efficient file types, period. Instead, configure your scanner acquisition software to use either the TIFF (if you intend to print the final file) or JPG (if you intend to use the file on the Internet) formats. Second, if you don't need the full resolution, don't use it. For most purposes, 300 x 300 dpi is just fine. Next, if you don't need a big picture, shrink the scanned image. If that 5 x 7" photo you've scanned only needs to display as a 2.5 x 3.5 image in a newsletter or on a Web page, use your image-editing software to resize the picture accordingly. In addition, you can usually reduce the color depth without affecting the way a picture looks. If you scanned at 24-bit resolution, you may be able reduce
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the color depth (within your image-editing program) to 8-bit or 16-bit color, especially is the scanned image is for online use. Optical Character Recognition Many scanners also include optical character recognition (OCR) software, which enables you to convert scanned text into computer-based text. This way you can scan a document and import it directly into a word processor (such as Microsoft Word) as editable text, rather than as a graphic. Most current OCR software does a fairly good job of translating printed characters to digital characters, although you'll still need to clean up any misinterpretations. The cleaner the scan, the better the job the OCR software does, so start with a clean original and make sure you take a good, highcontrast scan. Working with the Scanner Installation Wizard Before trying to use the Scanner and Camera Installation Wizard, you should first try connecting your scanner to your computer and turning it on. If Windows recognizes your scanner and installs the appropriate driver, you don't need to use the wizard. The Scanner and Camera Installation Wizard helps you to install drivers for older scanners and cameras-and some networked scannersthat are not automatically recognized by Windows. To start the Scanner and Camera Installation Wizard 1. Open the Scanners and Cameras wizard by clicking the Start button , clicking Control Panel, clicking Hardware and Sound, and then clicking Scanners and Cameras. If you are prompted for an administrator password or confirmation, type the password or provide confirmation. 2. If you don't see your scanner or camera listed, ensure that it is connected to your computer and turned on, and then click Refresh. 3. If your device still isn't listed, click Add Device to start the Scanner and Camera Installation Wizard, and then follow the instructions to install the necessary drivers. Note The wizard will ask you to select your scanner from a list. If your scanner isn't listed, you will need to obtain drivers for it, either from the manufacturer's website or from a disc provided by the manufacturer, and then click Have Disk when asked to choose your scanner To add a network scanner Before you begin, make sure that you know the scanner model and manufacturer

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name, and that your computer is connected to the network. Windows will automatically detect the scanner and add it to the Network folder on your computer. 1. Open Network by clicking the Start button , and then clicking Network. 2. Locate the scanner, right-click it, and then click Install. 3. Follow the instructions to finish adding the network scanner. Note If Windows could not add the scanner to your Network folder automatically, check the information that came with the scanner to see how to install it, or contact a system administrator. To remove a scanner You must be logged on as an administrator to perform these steps. To stop using a scanner, you can unplug it from your computer at any time. You don't need to uninstall the driver. If you want to uninstall the driver and any programs that came with the scanner, follow these steps: 1. Open Device Manager by clicking the Start button , clicking Control Panel, clicking System and Maintenance, and then clicking Device Manager. If you are prompted for an administrator password or confirmation, type the password or provide confirmation. 2. To see scanners that have been added to the computer, double-click Imaging devices. 3. Right-click the scanner name, and then click Uninstall. Steps for Connecting a Scanner to PC 1. Shutdown your computer and turn-off your computer and printer (Assuming that you have a printer connected to your parallel port) 2. Unlock the scanner. (The scanner has a carriage lock that protects the internal components from damage during shipment) 3. Disconnect the end of the printer cable to the back of the scanner. Use the port labelled for connecting the printer. The printer is now connected to the scanner. 4. Connect the scanner cable to the parallel port on the computer 5. Connect the other end of the scanner cable to the back of the scanner. Use the port labelled for connecting the computer. Connect the power cord and turn on your PC, scanner and printer

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LAB EXERCISE 20.1 : Scanning through Flatbed scanner Objective: To be familiar with the flatbed scanner's internal parts as well as the scanning software present along with the scanner. Tasks: 1. Opening an old Flatbed scanner, identify the different internal parts in the scanner such as the carriage assembly, the mirror set present in the carriage unit, as well as the heating lamp, the logic board etc. 2. Identify the purpose of the buttons on the scanner. 3. Now, after installing the scanning software, scan a page from "cms" book and send the scanned image to the different editing software options which are made available by the scanning software. 4. Scan the image in the different options available i.e. text, text and image, color image, color etc.

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Printer

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Printer

Printer Printers are devices that take digital information generated by a computer and convert it into a format that is very familiar to us - printed paper. Printers were primarily aimed at high-speed printing where low running cost was the main factor. These printers consisted of a matrix of pins that could be fired or actuated as the head was moved across a line, thus generating a series of characters. Then, came the inkjet printers. These printers worked on a very novel idea of spraying tiny dots of ink on paper (or a variety of other media). As the technology used for generating these ink dots advanced, the resolution or the clarity of the final image increased to the point at which these printers could now generate photo-realistic prints. These printers are one of the best choices for both home and office use due to the quality and (depending upon the technology) the reasonably low running cost. The next printer which came in is the laser printer. The laser printer is very similar to a copier machine and is amazingly reliable. It uses a laser beam to generate the prints. The resolution and the print speeds achieved by these printers are higher than those of the other two technologies by orders of magnitude. The only downside here is the significantly higher cost but nowadays they are becoming cheaper though not as cheap as the dotmatrix and inkjet types. CLASSIFICATION OF PRINTERS In general Printers can be classified in two broad categories 1. IMPACT TYPE PRINTERS 2. NON-IMPACT TYPE PRINTERS. In IMPACT type of printers physical force is applied to get an impression of character. The printer HEAD presses through an inked ribbon that touches the paper and leaves the heads impression over the paper.
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Examples of these type of printers are: a) DAISY-WHEEL printers b) DOT-MATRIX printers c) LINE printers In NON-IMPACT type of printers, physical force is NOT applied to get an impression of character; instead either the IMAGE is transferred to paper electrostatically or ink is sprayed on to paper to form the character. Examples of these type of printers are: a) INK-JET printers b)
Print Arm The Print Hammer has a notch that positions the print arm during the strike

Daisy-Wheel Print W heel

Print Arm Side View

Print Arm Top View Print Hammer

Rigid Section Carries Type Flexible Section

LASER printers

Hub

Fig. 21.1 Daisy-wheel print mechanism.

DAISY-WHEEL PRINTERS The Daisy-Wheel is a small plastic wheel with many spokes, at the ends of which Raised Image of Characters are provided. In this sense they are similar to normal Type-Writers. As the print head moves across the paper the daisy wheel revolves. A solenoid driven hammer strikes it as the appropriate character is in front of the paper. This causes the spoke containing the desired character to press against ribbon, thus printing it on the paper.

ADVAN TAGES The output of this printer is same as that of normal typewriter, hence it is called as LETTER QUALITY output. DIS ADVA NTAGES They are very slow and noisy. Generally, they are incapable of printing graphics or different fonts. One can change fonts only by changing wheel.
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Dot-Matrix Printers (DMP) Dot-Matrix printers strike the page with small rods (called needles) that protrude from the print head. They can print through multiple layers of carbon (or carbonless) copies, and some business need that capability. The most expensive part of a dot-matrix printer that dies is the print head. Luckily, almost all dot-matrix printers these days have a thermistor (basically, a temperature sensor) that detects when the print head is getting too hot and shuts the printer down until it cools off. To avoid excess heat buildup around a dot-matrix printer, avoid stacking things around it. Leave a clear path for airflow on all sides.
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Fig. 21.2 DOT Matrix Printer

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Replacing the print head is not economical on many printers because of the high price that manufacturers charge for replacements. In general, DMPs can be characterized by following 5 parameters. 1. No of pins in print head. 2. Characters per second (CPS) 3. Characters per inch (CPI) 4. Width of printer (in columns) 5. Interface used [parallel / serial] 1. No of pins in print head. To process a character in slices, the pins in the printhead are arranged in vertical columns. Most commonly used printers have either 9 pins or 24 pins in their print head. In all 9-pin printers, all the 9 pins are arranged vertically in only one column. Examples are EPSON FX-1000, TVSE LSP 100 etc... In 24 pin printers, the pins are arranged in 2 vertical columns, slightly displaced from each other as shown. Examples are FUJITSU DL 3400, EPSON LQ1070+ Some odd pin printers are also available for example, the commonly used SEIKOSHA has 8 pins and all the Philips models have 18 pins arranged in 2 columns. In general, there are two modes of printing. a) Draft b) NLQ (Near letter quality). In draft mode, the character is generated by a single pass of the print head and hence it is faster. For NLQ print-out, in a 9 pin printer, 2 passes over the same line are made filling the gaps in between the previous dots. For this the paper is shifted very slightly. In a 24 pin printer, since the pins are arranged in 2 vertical columns, slightly displaced from each other, 2 passes are not required. 2. Characters per second (CPS) : This parameter indicates how many characters can be printed in one Printed Dots second. In a standard way, we tell the CPS for both NLQ and DRAFT Overlap mode eg., For FX 1000, In DRAFT - CPS = 240 char/s In NLQ - CPS = 40 char/s Thus we can see that this parameter indirectly tells you about the speed of the printer. The CPS is always greater for draft mode than that for NLQ.
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Fig. 21.3 Near letter quality (NLQ) type of printing.

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3. Characters per inch (CPI) : This indicates how many characters can be printed in an inch length of a printable row. Commonly used CPIs are -10 cpi, 12 cpi or 15 cpi. Normally, the 15 cpi mode or 17 cpi is called as condensed mode. In new printers 20 cpi is also possible. 4. Width of the printer : This indicates the size of printer. The two standard sizes are 80 column and 132 column. 80 or 132 column mean that the printer can print 80/132 different characters in one printable line (row). This parameter also indicates the size of stationery that will be used with that printer. 5. Interface used : There are two types of interfaces used to communicate with computer. a) Parallel b) Serial For parallel interface, we use a standard 36 pin centronics interface. This interface has a 25 pin D type female connector on the computer side and 36 pin Amphenol type connector to printer side and serial interface we use the standard 9 pin and 25 pin male on the PC side and 9 pin/26 pin female on the printer side. Dot-Matrix Printer Working 1. Your PC sends a series of hexadecimal ASCII codes that represent characters, punctuation marks, and printer movements such as tabs, carriage returns, line feeds, and form feeds, which control the position of the print head in relation to the paper. 2. The ASCII codes are stored in a buffer, which is a special section of the printer's random access memory (RAM). Because it usually takes longer for a dot-matrix printer to print characters than it takes a PC and software to send those characters to the printer, the buffer helps free up the PC to perform other functions during printing. The internal buffer of a dot-matrix printer generally has only a 7k to 8k capacity. When the buffer gets full, the printer sends an XOFF control code to the computer to tell it to suspend its stream of data. When the buffer frees up space by sending some of the characters to its processor, the printer sends an XON code to the PC, which resumes sending data. 3. Among other codes are commands that tell the printer to use a certain font's bitmap table, which is contained in the printer's read-only memory chips. That table tells the printer the pattern of dots that it should use to create the characters represented by the ASCII codes.

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4. The printer's processor takes information provided by the bitmap table for an entire line of type and calculates the most efficient path for the print head to travel. (Some lines may actually be printed from right to left.) The processor sends the signals that fire the pins in the print head, and it also controls the movements of the print head and platen. 5. Electrical signals from the processor are amplified and travel to the circuits that lead to the print head. The print head contains 9 or 24 wires, called printing pins, that are aligned in one or two straight lines. One end of each of the pins is matched to an individual solenoid, or electromagnet. The current from the processor activates the solenoid, which creates a magnetic field that repels a magnet on the end of the pin, causing the pin to move toward the paper. 6. The moving pin strikes a ribbon that is coated with ink. The force of the impact transfers ink to the paper on the other side of the ribbon. After the pin fires, a spring pulls it back to its original position. The print head continues firing different combinations of print wires as it moves across the page so that all characters are made up of various vertical dot patterns. Some printers improve print quality or create boldface by moving the print head through a second pass over the same line of type to print a second set of dots that are offset slightly from the first set. MAJOR PARTS OF A DOT MATRIX PRINTER (DMP) In general any DMP can be divided into 4 major parts. 1. Mechanical Assembly 2. Logic Card 3. Power Supply Card 4. Front Panel 1) The Mechanical Assembly : This is the most important part of a DMP from the troubleshooting point of view. This is because of 2 reasons: 1. This part is always moving at a faster rate. Hence friction is high. Consequently wear and tear is high. 2. This part is normally open. Hence dust, dirt, paper particles, etc. may interrupt its normal operation. It is observed that out of 100 printer problems, 70-75 problems are related to mechanical assembly. In general, the mechanical assembly can be divided into following parts:
a) Print head : with cable or without cable b) Carriage and carriage assembly c) Carriage motor, timing belt/carriage wire.
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Printhead # # # # # # # # # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k)

Sensors Home position and Paper empty Platen, line feed gear assembly and line feed motor. Levers Paper thickness adjustment, Friction Plunger (automatic paper loading) Ribbon and ribbon gear assembly Tractor assembly

(W ire a s si gnme nt

#7 #5 COM #9 #8

#1 #3

#2 #4 #6

Coil Resistance : 14.8 + 1.4 at 250C (between each dot wire and common)

a) The print head : The print head looks as shown in fig. 21.4 There are two types of print heads available : With cable and Without cable.

Fig. 21.4 Printhead resistance


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In head with cable, the head cable is directly soldered to the print head so that if the cable only becomes faulty you have to throw the complete head. Hence, it is not preferable. eg., TVSE series except LSP100
Stepper Motor Tab for right carriage-stop sensor

Tab for left carriage-stop sensor

Cable

In the head without cable, the head cable is connected to head through a connector. If the cable is gone faulty, then it can be easily replaced. Hence, it is preferred. eg. EPSON series except FX105 MX80

Internal structure of head and how pins are fired: Here, the coil is wound on a ferrous rod. When current Pulleys Carriage support passes through this coil, the rod gets magnetised and Carriage Rails the metallic base of the pin gets attracted towards it, Fig. 21.5 Top View of printer carriage mechanism moving the pin towards paper and thus ultimately striking ribbon and paper. b) Carriage and carriage assembly This provides the movement for the print head. As is shown in fig. 21.5 it is having a base for head and two Drive Stepper rails. Over these rails the base or carriage moves Roller Motor horizontally from left to right and back. The base has bearings wherever it comes into contact with the rails. c) Carriage motor, timing belt/carriage wire : Carriage motor is basically a stepper motor. Carriage motor provides the actual force to move the carriage. This force is converted into the actual motion of carriage using either the timing belt or the carriage wire.
Carriage Support Rails Carriage

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Idler Roller

Toothed Belt

Fig. 21.6 Top View of printer carriage mechanism

In FX1000 - Timing belt EX1000 - Carriage wire


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Spring-loaded Bail rollers

Platen Drive Gear

The tension of the belt/wire is an important consideration while troubleshooting. d) Sensors : 1. Home position sensor : The print-head is able to move freely but the controlling BIOS of printer must know its exact position. For this, there should be some reference position so that from that position onwards, Drive Gear BIOS can count the exact position of print head. In general, the leftmost position is taken as reference or home position. This must be detected. For detecting it, the home Stepper position sensor is used. It is nothing but a normal photo detector Motor circuit. The carriage has a vertical slit below it. Whenever, it reaches the leftmost position, the slit blocks the photo emission, thus giving a pulse.
Paper

Platen

Print Area

Spring-loaded pressure rollers

Fig. 21.7 Friction-Feed mechanism

2. Paper empty sensor : The printer should print only when there is paper in front of the print - head. To detect the status of paper a simple mechanical micro - switch is used. e) Platen, line feed motor and gears : Now, whenever one line is printed, the paper should be moved by some distance so that the next line will get printed in a intelligible manner. This is performed using platen and line feed motor and gear assembly. Platen is a hard rubberised rod that provides striking surface for the print-head pins. Line feed motor is also a stepper motor and its motion is given through line feed gear assembly. f) Levers : 1. Paper thickness adjust lever : This lever is used to adjust the gap between the platen and the print head. Hence, we can use variable thickness stationery like 1, 1+2, 1+4, etc. This lever virtually moves the head back and forth in horizontal plane very slightly. 2. Friction lever : If you are not using continuous stationery i.e. if you are using cutsheet papers, you must use some mechanism that will move paper with platen. This friction lever adjusts the friction rollers so that Drive W heel when in friction mode the pressure rollers are very tightly coupled Pressure to the platen. In between them the cut-sheet paper is present. As Wheel Pressure a result, the paper will move with platen movement.
Spring

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Print Hammer

Stored Ribbon is folded

Fig. 21.8 An endless-loop ribbon cassette 275

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Tractor Drive Wheel Flexible Belt with Tractor Pins

Tractor Paper

Square Drive Shaft Tractor Drive Gear Idler Gear

g) Ribbon and ribbon gear assembly : Ribbon provides the ink required for printing. Suppose the same area of ribbon is used for printing, the print quality will go on fading. For this, the ribbon is always moved in one direction only, i.e. from one side it goes in the box and for other side it comes out. Inside the box it is re-inked. To move the ribbon in only one direction while the head is moving in both direction, ribbon gear assembly is used. h) Tractor assembly : This is used only with continuous stationery which has perforation holes at the side. It is of two types.

Platen Drive Gear

Platen

Fig. 21.9 Tractor-feed mechanism

1. Push and 2. Pull Note: Whenever tractor assembly is being used never put paper in friction mode.
LF/FF button Feeds paper line by line when pressed and released. Ejects a single sheet or advances continuous paper to the next top-of-form position when held down. Paper Out light On when no paper is loaded in the selected paper source or paper is not loaded correctly. Flashes when paper has not been fully ejected or a paper jam has occurred.

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Tear Off lights** When continuous paper is in the tear-off position, otherwise the lamps indicate the selected font.

Tear Off Draft Draft Condenced Roman Roman Condenced Sans Serif Sans Serif Condenced

Tear Off

LF / FF

Load / Eject

Paper Out Pause

2) The Logic Card : It is the main printed circuit board which controls the working of the printer. It is this board which sends the appropriate signals to the parts needed by the printer for printing. It thus co-ordinates between the different actions performed by the printer. 3) Power Supply Card: This card supplies the power required by the printer for it's operations. It is thus responsible for converting the line a.c. voltage into appropriate d.c. voltages required by the different parts of the printer. This card is normally separate in the higher end DMP models however in some lower end models it may also be integrated with the logic card.

Font

Micro Adjust

3Sec

Tear Off button** Advances continuous paper to the tear-off position. Feeds continuous paper backward from the tear-off position to the top-of-form position.

Load/Eject button Loads a single sheet of paper. Ejects a single sheet of paper if a sheet is loaded. Loads continuous paper from the stand-by position. Feeds continuous paper backwards to the stand-by position.

Pause button Stops printing temporarily, and resumes printing when pressed again. When pressed for three seconds, turns on the micro adjust mode. *To turn off, press again. Pause light On when the printer is paused. Flashes when the printer is in the micro adjust mode.* Flashes when the print head has overheated.

*Micro Adjust mode When you hold down the Pause button for three seconds, the printer enters the micro adjust mode. In this mode, you can press the LF/FF and Load/Eject buttons to adjust the top-of-form or tear-off position. **Font select In Micro Adjust mode, you can select the font to use for printing by pressing the Tear Off button. The Tear Off lights turn on, off or flash to indicate the selected font.

Fig. 21.10 Front Panel Buttons and Lights

4) Front Panel: The front panel of DMP's varies from model to model however most of the printers will have the following LED's and buttons which have been displayed
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along with their functions as shown in fig. 21.10. ADVAN TAGES These printers are quick in low mode. They are versatile because they can print both graphics and text. They are inexpensive. DIS ADVA NTAGES They are noisy for an office setup. In high resolution or NLQ mode they become very slow. 3. LINE PRINTERS These printers are often used for printing large database reports. Line printer's speed is tremendous e.g 1500 lines/minute. They achieve this speed by printing one line at a time rather than one character at a time. Different technologies exist for line printers. Some low-end line printers contain print head for each character position on a line and a whole line is printed at a time. Some printers have wheel per character position and work on principle of daisy-wheel printers. Only, instead of hammering the print head spoke, the hammer presses the paper against the print ribbon and wheel. Some printers use band or chain technology. A band or chain of characters runs across the full width of paper and is rotated along the length of line. The print hammers that is behind the paper hits the paper, ribbon and the correct character as it spins past the paper. (There are hammer per printable character position). ADVAN TAGES Extremely high speed hence useful for off-set printing. DIS ADVA NTAGES Very costly and generally requires special environment for consistent output. NON-IMPACT TYPE 1. INK-JET PRINTERS These type of printers have similar operation to that of DMPs. Only, instead of using ribbons, these printers use INK CARTRIDGES which are modules that store a reservoir of ink. Inkjet printers work by directing tiny droplets of ink onto paper. Inkjet printer "heads" don't physically touch the paper at all. Instead, these printers force ink through nozzles and spray the ink right onto the paper. The print head contains a series of NOZZLES and are
Fig. 21.11 HP Desk Jet Printer 277

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arranged in vertical lines. These nozzles produce fine drops of ink and form a character. The resolution (print quality) depends upon the number of nozzles. (eg., 300 DPI). Depending on the printer and its technology, there can be between 21 and 128 nozzles for each of the four colors (cyan, yellow, magenta, and black). By mixing the colors, the printer can produce almost any color. There are two types of inkjet printer: thermal and piezo. These are two different technologies used to force the ink from the cartridge and through the nozzle. Thermal Inkjets Thermal inkjets is the older of the two technologies. It is used by manufacturers, such as Canon and Hewlett Packard, and this method is commonly referred to as bubble jet. They heat the ink in the cartridge (to about 400 degrees Fahrenheit), causing vapour bubbles in the cartridge that rise to the top and force the ink out through the nozzle. The vacuum caused by the expelled ink draws more ink down into the nozzles, making a constant stream. A typical bubble jet print head has 300 or 600 tiny nozzles, and all of them can fire a droplet simultaneously. Piezo Printing Piezo printing uses an electric charge instead of heat. It is patented by Epson It charges piezoelectric crystals in the nozzles, which change their shape as a result of the electric current, forcing the ink out through the nozzles. A crystal is located at the back of the ink reservoir of each nozzle. The crystal receives a tiny electric charge that causes it to vibrate. When the crystal vibrates inward, it forces a tiny amount of ink out of the nozzle. When it vibrates out, it pulls some more ink into the reservoir to replace the ink sprayed out. The output of both technologies is essentially the same. The primary difference between the two is that, with the thermal inkjets. (Hewlett-Packard), every time you replace the ink cartridge, you replace the print head. Traditionally with piezo technology, only the ink cartridge is replaced and the print head is a permanent part of the printer. ADVAN TAGES These are comparatively quiet printers.
Fig. 21.12 Ink Cartridge Carrier

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DISADVANTAGES Operating cost is very high.


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Ink cartridges cost more and do not last long. Ink may require more time to dry and therefore the image may get blurred. Parts of Inkjet Printer Parts of a typical inkjet printer include: Print head assembly Print head - The core of an inkjet printer, the print head contains a series of nozzles that are used to spray drops of ink. Ink cartridges - Depending on the manufacturer and model of the printer, ink cartridges come in various combinations, such as separate black and color cartridges, color and black in a single cartridge or even a cartridge for each ink color. The cartridges of some inkjet printers include the print head itself. Print head stepper motor - A stepper motor moves the print head assembly (print head and ink cartridges) back and forth across the paper. Some printers have another stepper motor to park the print head assembly when the printer is not in use. Parking means that the print head assembly is restricted from accidentally moving, like a parking brake on a car. (Refer fig. 21.13). Belt - A belt is used to attach the print head assembly to the stepper motor. Stabilizer bar - The print head assembly uses a stabilizer bar to ensure that movement is precise and controlled. (Refer fig. 21.14). Paper feed assembly Paper tray/feeder - Most inkjet printers have a tray that you load the paper into. Some printers dispense with the standard tray for a feeder instead. The feeder typically snaps open at an angle on the back of the printer, allowing you to place paper in it. Feeders generally do not hold as much paper as a traditional paper tray.

Fig. 21.13 Print Head Stepper Motor


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Fig. 21.14 Stabilizer Bar and Belt

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Fig. 21.15 Paper Feed Rollers

Rollers - A set of rollers pull the paper in from the tray or feeder and advance the paper when the print
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head assembly is ready for another pass. (Refer fig. 21.15). Paper feed stepper motor - This stepper motor powers the rollers to move the paper in the exact increment needed to ensure a continuous image is printed. Power supply While earlier printers often had an external transformer, most printers sold today use a standard power supply that is incorporated into the printer itself.

Fig. 21.16 Circuit Board with Memory and Processor

Control circuitry A small but sophisticated amount of circuitry is built into the printer to control all the mechanical aspects of operation, as well as decode the information sent to the printer from the computer. Interface port(s) The parallel port is still used by many printers, but most newer printers use the USB port. A few printers connect using a serial port or small computer system interface (SCSI) port. Working of Inkjet Printer: When you click on a button to print, there is a sequence of events that take place in the Inkjet Printer. The software application you are using sends the data to be printed to the printer driver. The driver translates the data into a format that the printer can understand and checks to see that the printer is online and available to print. The data is sent by the driver from the computer to the printer via the connection interface (parallel, USB, etc.). The printer receives the data from the computer. It stores a certain amount of data in a buffer. The buffer can range from 512 KB random access memory (RAM) to 16 MB RAM, depending on the model. Buffers are useful because they allow the computer to finish with the printing process quickly, instead of having to wait for the actual page to print. A large buffer can hold a complex document or several basic documents. If the printer has been idle for a period of time, it will normally go through a short clean cycle to make sure that the print head(s) are clean. Once the clean cycle is complete, the printer is ready to begin printing. The control circuitry activates the paper feed stepper motor. This engages the rollers, which feed a sheet of paper from the paper tray/feeder into the
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printer. A small trigger mechanism in the tray/feeder is depressed when there is paper in the tray or feeder. If the trigger is not depressed, the printer lights up the "Out of Paper" LED and sends an alert to the computer. Once the paper is fed into the printer and positioned at the start of the page, the print head stepper motor uses the belt to move the print head assembly across the page. The motor pauses for the merest fraction of a second each time that the print head sprays dots of ink on the page and then moves a tiny bit before stopping again. This stepping happens so fast that it seems like a continuous motion. Multiple dots are made at each stop. It sprays the CMYK colors in precise amounts to make any other color imaginable. At the end of each complete pass, the paper feed stepper motor advances the paper a fraction of an inch. Depending on the inkjet model, the print head is reset to the beginning side of the page, or, in most cases, simply reverses direction and begins to move back across the page as it prints. This process continues until the page is printed. The time it takes to print a page can vary widely from printer to printer. It will also vary based on the complexity of the page and size of any images on the page. For example, a printer may be able to print 16 pages per minute (PPM) of black text but take a couple of minutes to print one, full-color, page-sized image. Once the printing is complete, the print head is parked. The paper feed stepper motor spins the rollers to finish pushing the completed page into the output tray. Most printers today use inks that are very fast-drying, so that you can immediately pick up the sheet without smudging it.

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Laser Printer Laser printers have become increasingly popular where high print quality is required. This is largely due to decreasing cost, which has now reached the level of a good quality dot-matrix or inkjet printer. (Refer fig. 21.17). The principle of operation is exactly similar to normal photocopying machine. The basic approach is to first form an image of the page that is to be printed on a photosensitive drum in the machine. Powdered ink, or toner, is then applied to the image on the drum. Next the image is electrostatically transferred from the drum to a sheet of paper. Finally the inked image on the paper is fused with heat. A rotating mirror sweeps a laser beam across the photosensitive drum as it rotates. The laser beam is turned on and off as it is swept back and forth
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Fig. 21.17 Laser Printer

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across the drum to produce an image in about the same way that an image is produced on a raster scan CRT. After the image on the drum is inked and transferred to the paper the drum is cleaned and is ready for the next page. One major advantage of laser printers is their high print quality. Commonly available lower priced units have a resolution of 1200 dots per inch. Print speeds are in the range of 17-19 pages per minute for text and 6 to 7 pages per minute for graphics. Lasers are more complex than other types of printers, and consequently much more expensive to build. Most manufacturers do not make their own mechanisms or print engines, but use a standard one made by Canon, Ricoh, or Hitachi. This is why so many laser printers from different manufacturers look the same. Mechanically, they are the same. Only the firmware (operating programs in ROM) differs. There are basically two types of print engines: write-white and write-black. In a write-white engine, the laser writes a negative image to the drum, and toner is attracted to the areas untouched by it. In the write-black engine, toner is applied to the image produced by the laser. The Canon engine used in the Hewlett-Packard Laser Jet Printers, as well as those by Brother, Star and others, is a write-white engine. Parts of Printer In order to reduce maintenance costs, many of the laser printer parts, including those that suffer the most wear and tear, have been incorporated into the toner cartridge. Although this makes replacement of individual parts nearly impossible, it greatly reduces the need for replacement; those parts that are most likely to break are replaced every time you replace the toner cartridge. Unlike ink-jet printers, the relatively higher cost of laser printers makes their repair a common and popular option. The Photosensitive Drum The photosensitive drum is an aluminium cylinder coated with particles of photosensitive compounds. The drum itself is grounded to the power supply, but the coating is not. When light hits these particles, whatever electrical charge they may have had drains out through the grounded cylinder. The drum, usually contained in the toner cartridge can be wiped clean if it becomes dirty. If the drum becomes scratched, the scratch will appear on every page printed from that point on. The only repair in the event of a scratch is to replace the toner cartridge.

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Erase Lamp The erase lamp exposes the entire surface of the photosensitive drum to light, making the photosensitive coating conductive. Any electrical charge present in the particles bleeds away into the ground drum, leaving the surface particles electrically neutral. Primary Corona The primary corona wire, located close to the photosensitive drum, never touches the drum. When charged with an extremely high voltage, an electric field (or corona) forms, enabling voltage to pass to the drum and charge the photosensitive particles on its surface. The primary grid regulates the transfer of voltage, ensuring that the surface of the drum receives a uniform negative voltage of between ~600 and ~1,000 volts. Laser The laser acts as the writing mechanism of the printer. Any particle on the drum struck by the laser becomes conductive, enabling its charge to be drained away into the grounded core of the drum. The entire surface of the drum has a uniform negative charge of between ~600 and ~1,000 volts following its charging by the primary corona wire. When particles are struck by the laser, one can "write" an image onto the drum. Note that the laser writes a positive image to the drum. Toner The toner in a laser printer is a fine powder make up of plastic particles bonded to iron particles. The toner cylinder charges the toner with a negative charge of between ~200 and ~500 volts. Because that charge falls between the original uniform negative charge of the photosensitive drum (~600 to ~1,000 volts) and the charge of the particles on the drum's surface hit by the laser (~100), particles of toner are attracted to the areas of the photosensitive drum that have been hit by the laser (that is, areas that have a relatively positive charge with reference to the toner particles). Transfer Corona To transfer the image from the photosensitive drum to the paper, the paper must be given a charge that will attract the toner particles off of the drum and onto the paper. The transfer corona applies a positive charge to the paper, drawing the negatively charged toner particles to the paper. The paper, with its positive charge, is also attracted to the negatively charged drum. To prevent the paper from wrapping around the drum, a static charge eliminator removes the charge from the paper.
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Fig. 21.18 Laser Printer's toner cartridge

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Fuser The toner is merely resting on to of the paper after the static charge eliminator has removed the paper's static charge. The toner must be permanently attached to the paper to make the image permanent. Two rollers, a pressure roller and a heated roller, are used to fuse the toner to the paper. The pressure roller presses against the bottom of the page while the heated roller presses down on the top of the page, melting the toner into the paper. The heated roller has a non-stick coating such as Teflon to prevent the toner from sticking to the heated roller. Working The printing process takes six steps in this order:
1. Clean 2. Charge 3. Write 4. Develop 5. Transfer 6. Fuse

Fig. 21.19 Cleaning and Erasing the Drum

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Clean the Drum The printing process begins with the physical and electrical cleaning of the photosensitive drum. Before printing each new page, the drum must be returned to a clean, fresh condition. All residual toner left over from printing the previous page must be removed, usually by scraping the surface of the drum with a rubber cleaning blade. If residual particles remain on the drum, they will appear as random black spots and streaks on the next page. The physical cleaning mechanism either deposits the residual toner in a debris cavity or recycles it by returning it to the toner supply in the toner cartridge. The physical cleaning must be done carefully. Damage to the drum will cause a permanent mark to be printed on every page. (Refer fig. 21.19). The printer must also be electrically cleaned. One or more erase lamps bombard the surface of the drum with the appropriate wavelengths of light, causing the surface particles to completely discharge into the grounded drum. After the cleaning process, the drum should be completely free of toner and have a neutral charge. Charge the Drum To make the drum receptive to new images, it must be charged. Using the primary corona wire, a uniform negative charge is applied to the entire surface of the drum (usually between ~600 and ~1,000 volts). (Refer fig. 21.20).

Fig. 21.20 Charging the Drum with a uniform negative charge

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Write and Develop the Image A laser is used to write a positive image on the surface of the drum. Every particle on the drum hit by the laser will release most of its negative charge into the drum. Those particles with a lesser negative charge will be positively charged relative to the toner particles and will attract them, creating a developed image. (Refer fig. 21.21). Transfer the Image The printer must transfer the image from the drum onto the paper. Using the transfer corona, we charge the paper with a positive charge. Once the paper has a positive charge, the negatively charged toner particles leap from the drum to the paper. At this point the particles are merely resting on the paper. They must still be permanently affixed to the paper. (Refer fig. 21.22). Fuse the Image The particles must be fused to the paper. They have been attracted to the paper because of the positive charge given to the paper by the transfer corona, but if the process stopped there, the toner particles would fall off the page as soon as the page was lifted. The toner particles are mostly composed of plastic, so they can be melted to the page. Two rollers, a heated roller coated in a non-stick material and a pressure roller, melt the toner to the paper, permanently affixing it. Finally, static charge eliminator removes the paper's positive charge. Once the page is complete, the printer ejects the printed copy and the process begins again with the physical and electrical cleaning of the printer. Setting Up Printers Setting up a printer is easy in Windows. Most printers are Plug and Play, so installing a printer is reduced to simply plugging it in and loading the driver. If the system does not detect the printer or if the printer is not PnP click Start , Settings | Printers to open the Printers applet. The icon for this applet can also be found in the Control Panel. Fig 21.23 shows a Printer applet with no printers installed. Note the only icon: Add Printer. As you might guess, a new printer is installed by starting the Add Printer applet. This starts the Add Printer Wizard. After a pleasant intro screen, the screen shown in Fig. 21.24 appears.
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Fig. 21.21 Writing the Image and applying the toner


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Fig. 21.22 Writing the Image and applying the toner

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You may choose to install a printer plugged directly into your system or a network printer. If you choose a local printer the manufacturer and the model of printer. It then asks you to select the printer port to which the printer is connected as shown in Fig. 21.25. Then set a printer name when prompted for it and then is prompted to print a Windows Test Page and after confirmation prints a Test Page. How do I install a new printer? A USB port is a socket on your computer that allows you to plug devices such as a printer, digital camera, or scanner into your computer. If your printer can be connected to your computer via a USB port, Vista may be able to automatically install your printer. To add a network, Bluetooth, or wireless printer: 1. Click the Start button. The Start menu appears. 2. Click Control Panel. The Control Panel window appears. 3. Click Hardware and Sound. The Hardware and Sound window appears. 4. Click Add a Printer. The Add Printer Wizard appears. 5. Click Add a Network, Wireless, or Bluetooth. The Add Printer Wizard finds all available printers. 6. Select the printer you want to install. 7. Follow the steps outlined by the wizard to complete the installation. How do I cancel a print job? 1. Click the Start button. The Start menu appears. 2. Click Control Panel. The Control Panel window appears. 3. Click Hardware and Sound. The Hardware and Sound window appears. 4. Click Printers. The Printers window appears. 5. Double-click the printer you are using. The printer's dialog box appears. 6. Click the job you want to stop. If you want to stop more than one job, hold down the Ctrl key while you click the additional jobs. 7. Click Document, which is located on the menu bar. A drop-down menu appears. 8. Click Cancel. You asked if you are sure you want to cancel the print job. 9. Click Yes. Vista cancels the print job. When you start a print job, a print icon may appear on the taskbar in the notification area. You can click the icon to open the printer's dialog box mention in step 5.

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How do I cancel every print job? 1. Click the Start button. The Start menu appears. 2. Click Control Panel. The Control Panel window appears. 3. Click Hardware and Sound. The Hardware and Sound window appears. 4. Click Printers. The Printers window appears. 5. Double-click the printer you are using. The printer's window appears. 6. Click Printer, which is located on the menu bar. 7. Click Cancel All Documents. The document you are printing may finish, but Windows Vista cancels all other documents. How do I temporarily stop selected jobs from printing? 1. Click the Start button. The Start menu appears. 2. Click Control Panel. The Control Panel window appears. 3. Click Hardware and Sound. The Hardware and Sound window appears. 4. Click Printers. The Printers window appears. 5. Double-click the printer you are using. The printer's window appears. 6. Right-click the document you want to pause. A menu appears. 7. Click Pause Printing. Vista pauses the printing of your document. How do I restart print jobs I temporarily stopped? 1. Click the Start button. The Start menu appears. 2. Click Control Panel. The Control Panel window appears. 3. Click Hardware and Sound. The Hardware and Sound window appears. 4. Click Printer. The Printers window appears. 5. Double-click the printer you are using. The Printer window appears. 6. Right-click the document that you want to resume printing. A menu appears. 7. Click Resume. The document starts printing again. Troubleshooting It's hard to discuss printer problems and troubleshooting without delving too deeply into the specifies of the thousands of models out there. As always, try to isolate the problems. Something in the computer or its software. The printer interface? The cable? The printer? Is the printer plugged in, cabled, and online? The steps are as follows : 1. Check whether the printer is online, is plugged in, has paper, and is turned on.

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2. Turn the printer off and then on again. Reboot the computer, and try it again. 3. If it is a network printer, check the network configuration (such as the IP address and subnet mask on TCP/IP). 4. Use the printer self-test to see whether the test page prints correctly. The printer's manual usually tells how to do this. 5. Check that the software is configured for the printer and that the correct drivers are loaded for it in Windows (if used). 6. Swap the printer cable to make sure your cable isn't faulty. 7. If it is network printer, try printing from another computer. 8. Swap the printer with a different one of the same model, if possible. Some other things to check are: Do a DIR from the command prompt, and then try a screen print using the Print Screen key. If you are troubleshooting a network printer, check the queue at the server to be certain there are no stuck jobs. If there are, then purge the queue. Check the printer manufacturer's Web site to see whether an updated driver is available for your version of Windows or for the particular DOS-based program you want to print from.

Multi Function Printer An MFP (Multi Function Product/ Printer/ Peripheral), multifunctional, all-in-one (AIO), or Multifunction Device (MFD), is an office machine which incorporates the functionality of multiple devices in one, so as to have a smaller footprint in a home or small business setting, or to provide centralized document management/distribution/ production in a large-office setting. A typical MFP may act as a combination of some or all of the following devices: Printer Scanner Photocopier Fax

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E-mail Advantages of multifunction printers: 1. Low cost - it is often cheaper to buy a multifunction printer than individual components (fax machine, scanner, printer, copier) separately 2. Take up less room
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Disadvantages of multifunction printers: 1. If one component is broken, the entire machine has to be replaced 2. Failure in any component will affect other functions 3. The print quality and speed may be lower than some stand alone components

LAB EXERCISE 21.1 : Printing with Different Printers Objective: To be able to identify the different parts of different types of printers as well as print using the appropriate printer drivers. Tasks: 1. Open up an old Dotmatrix printer (DMP) and identify the different parts of the printer such as the print head, the carriage unit, the logic board, the supply board unit if present, the different motors, ribbon, etc. 2. Observe the different LED display combinations as well as the buttons in the front panel of the DMP. 3. Open a Deskjet printer and identify the different printer parts such as the carriage unit, the different motors, the logic board, and the two LED's and their functions etc. 4. Identify the purpose of the buttons and perform a self test of the Deskjet Printer. 5. Test whether the deskjet printer is communicating with the PC by printing the test page after the installation of the printer driver 6. Identify the different parts in a old laser printer such as the logic board, the fuser, the paper pickup assembly, the interface system as well as sockets available for memory expansion etc. 7. Identify the function of each LED and the buttons on the front panel and perform a self test of the laser printer. 8. Now, after the installation of the drivers of the printer, test the communication between the PC and the printer by printing the test page.

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Display Interfaces & Monitor

Video Display As much as the mouse and keyboard, the video display is a vital part of the user interface of any computer. The video display is actually a latecomer to computing; before CRT monitors came into general use, the teletypewriter was the standard computer interfacea large, loud device that printed the input and output characters on a roll of paper. The first CRT displays were primitive by today's standards; they displayed only text in a single color (usually green), but to users at the time they were a great improvement, allowing real-time display of input and output data. Today, PC video displays are much more sophisticated, but you must be careful when selecting video hardware for your computer. Working with even the fastest and most-powerful PC can be a chore when the video adapter slows the system down, causes eyestrain, or is unsuitable for the tasks you want to accomplish. The video subsystem of a PC consists of two main components:
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Monitor (or video display). The monitor can be either a CRT or an LCD panel. Video adapter (also called the video card or graphics adapter). On many recent low-cost systems, video might be built into the motherboard or included as part of this motherboard's chipset.

Fig. 22.1 PC Monitor

How CRT Display Technology Works A monitor can use one of several display technologies. The most popular technology continues to be cathode ray tube (CRT) technology, the same technology used in television sets. CRTs consist of a vacuum tube enclosed in glass. One end of the tube contains an electron gun assembly that projects three electron beams, one each for the red, green, and blue phosphors are used to create the colors you see on screen; the other end contains a screen with a phosphorous coating.
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Electron gun assembly Shadow mask Glass Panel Internal Magnetic shield

When heated, the electron gun emits a stream of high-speed electrons that are attracted to the other end of the tube. Along the way, a focus control and deflection coil steer the beam to a specific point on the phosphorous screen. When struck by the beam, the phosphor glows. This light is what you see when you watch TV or your computer screen. Three layers of phosphors are used: red, green, and blue. A metal plate called a shadow mask is used to align the electron beams; it has slots or holes that divide the red, green, and blue phosphors into groups of three (one of each color). Various types of shadow masks affect picture quality, and the distance between each group of three (the dot pitch) affects picture sharpness.

Red, Green, and Blue phosphors

Fig. 22.2 Typical CRT Monitor

The phosphor chemical has a quality called persistence, which indicates how long this glow remains on screen. Persistence is what causes a faint image to remain on your TV screen for a few seconds after you turn the set off. The scanning frequency of the display specifies how often the image is refreshed. You should have a good match between persistence and scanning frequency so the image has less flicker (which occurs when the persistence is too low) and no ghost images (which occurs when the persistence is too high). Refresh Rate Video data is displayed on the monitor as the electron guns make a series of horizontal sweeps across the display, energizing the appropriate areas of the phosphorous coating. The sweeps start at the upper-left corner of the monitor and move across and down to the lower right corner. The screen is "painted" only in one direction, then the electron gun turns and retraces its path across the screen, to be ready for the next sweep. These sweeps are called raster lines. The speed at which the electron beam moves across the screen is known as the horizontal refresh rate (HRR). The monitor draws a number of lines across the screen, eventually covering the screen with glowing phosphors. The number of lines is not fixed, unlike television screens, which all have a fixed numbers of lines. After the guns reach the lower-right corner of the screen, they all turn off and point back to the upper-left corner. The amount of time it takes to draw the entire screen and get the electron guns back up to the upper-left corner is called the vertical refresh rate (VRR). Video cards "push" the monitor at a certain VRR and then the monitor produces
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a noticeable flicker, causing eyestrain and headaches for users. Pushing the monitor at too high of a VRR, however, causes a definite distortion of the screen image and will damage the circuitry of the monitor and eventually destroy it. Monitors were limited to a fixed VRR. Around 1986, NEC introduced the first monitor to support automatic selection of multiple VRRs, called a multiple-frequency monitor. NEC coined the term "MultiSync" to describe its line of multiple-frequency monitors, but techs tended to call any monitor that handled multiple refresh rates a MultiSync monitor. All monitors used on PCs today are MultiSync.

Fig. 22.3 A monitor is a grid of red, green, and blue phosphors.

Phosphors and Shadow Mask All CRT monitors contain dots of phosphorous or some other light-sensitive compound that glows red, green, or blue when an electron gun sweeps over them. Each dot is called a phosphor. These phosphors are evenly distributed across the front of the monitor. (Fig. 22.3) The CRT has three electron guns: one to hit the red phosphors, one for the blue phosphors, and one for the green phosphors. It is important to understand that the electron guns do not fire colored light; they simply fire electrons at different intensities, which then make the phosphors glow. The higher the intensity, the brighter the color. Which then make the phosphors glow. The higher the intensity, the brighter the color. Directly behind the phosphors is the shadow mask, a screen that enables only the proper electron gun to light the proper phosphors. (Fig. 22.3). This prevents for eg., the red electron beam from "bleeding over" and lighting neighboring blue and green dots. The electron guns sweep across the phosphors as a group, turning rapidly on and off as they move across the screen. When the group reaches the end of the screen it moves to the next line. It is crucial to understand that turning the guns on and off, combines with moving the runs to new lines, creates a "mosaic" that is the image you see on the screen. The number of times the guns turn on and off, combined with the number of lines drawn on the screen, determines the number of mosaic pieces used to create the image. These individual "pieces" are called pixels, from the term "picture elements". Just the area of phosphors lit at one instant when the group of guns is turned on. The size of pixels can change, depending on the number of times the group of guns is turned on and off and the number of lines drawn. Not all monitors use dots. The popular Sony Trinitron line of CRT monitors uses
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Low Resolution

bars of red, green, and blue instead of dots. The holes in the shadow mask have a rectangular shape. Many people feel this makes for a much more crisp, clear monitor. Somebody must agree with the as the Trinitron enjoys tremendous popularity. Even though the phosphors and shadow mask have a different shape, everything you learn here goes for Trinitrons also.

Fig. 22.4 Resolution and Pixel size

Resolution Monitor resolution is always shown as the number of horizontal pixels times High Resolution the number of vertical pixels. A resolution of 640x480, therefore, indicates a horizontal resolution of 640 pixels and a vertical resolution of 480 pixels. If you multiply the values together, you can see how many pixels are on each screen: 640 x 480=307, 200 pixels per screen. An eg., of resolution affecting the pixel size is shown in Fig. 22.3. These resolutions match a 4:3 ratio. This is called the aspect ratio. Most monitors are shaped like television screens, with a 4:3 aspect ratio, so most resolutions are designed to match-or at least be close to-that shape. A pixel must be made up of at least one red, one green, and one blue phosphors to make any color, so the smallest theroretical pixel would consist of one group of red, green, and blue phosphors, a triad. Various limitations in screens, controlling electronics, and electron gun technology make the maximum resolution much bigger than one triad. Each discrete dot of phosphors is called a phosphor dot, each triangle of three phosphors (one red, one green, one blue) is called a triad, and each group of dots painted as the electron beam sweeps across the screen is called a pixel. Higher resolutions sweep a narrower beam with more pixels per row, and lower resolutions sweep a wider beam with fewer pixels per row. The horizontal refresh rate (HRR) defines the speed at which the monitor can draw one line on the screen, while the vertical refresh rate (VRR) defines how many times per second the entire screen is redrawn. These values relate to the number of vertical resolution
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Fig. 22.5 One triad

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lines, as follows: HRR = (VRR) x (number of lines), so (number of lines) = (HRR) (VRR) Given the HRR and VRR, you can determine the maximum number of lines of resolution a monitor can support. For eg., given an HRR of 31.5 kilohertz (KHz = thousands of cycles/second) and a VRR of 72 Hertz (Hz), what would be the maximum number of lines on the screen? Could you support 640x480? Take 31.5 KHz and divide it by 72 Hz: 31,500 72 = 437 lines. So now, with an HRR of only 31.5 KHz, you would have to either reduce the resolution or reduce the VRR and put up with increased screen flicker. By reducing the VRR to 60 Hz, the formula would be 31,500 60 = 525 lines. Because 525 > 480, one know that your monitor could support 640 x 480 resolution at that HRR and VRR. Alternately, you could increase the HRR from 31.5 KHz to a value that enables 480 lines at a VRR of 72 Hz. If you used an HRR of 37.9 KHz and divided it by 72, you would have a maximum line value of 526, which would enable a 640 x 480 resolution. Dot Pitch
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Fig. 22.6 Dot Pitch

The resolution of a monitor is defined by the maximum amount of detail the monitor can render. The dot pitch of the monitor ultimately limits this resolution. The dot pitch defines the diagonal distance between phosphorous dots of the same color, and is measured in millimetres. Because a lower dot pitch means more dots on the screen, it usually produces a sharper, more defined image. Dot pitch works in tandem with the maximum number of lines the monitor can support in order to determine the greatest working resolution of the monitor. It might be possible to place an image at 1,600 x 1,200 on a 15-inch monitor with a dot pitch of .31mm, but it would not be very readable. The dot pitch can range from as high as .39 mm to as low as .18 mm. For most Windows-based applications on a 17-inch monitor, most people find that .28 mm is the maximum useable dot pitch that still produces a clear picture. Interlacing To keep costs down, some low-end monitors produce interlaced images. This means that the monitor sweeps or refreshes alternate lines of pixels on the display. In other words, it takes two sweeps through the screen to make one
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image. In its first pass, the monitor covers all the odd lines, and on the next pass it covers the even line. Interlacing enables a low-end monitor to support faster refresh rates by giving it twice as much time to make a screen. But interlacing depends on the ability of the eye and brain to combine the two separate sets of lines into one stable image. Interlacing is another way of creating eyestrain and headaches, and should be avoided. Video Adapter Types A monitor requires a source of input. The signals that run to your monitor come from a video adapter inside or plugged into your computer. The three ways computer systems connect to either CRT or LCD displays are as follows: Add-on video cards. This method requires the use of an AGP or a PCI expansion slot but provides the highest possible level of performance and the greatest versatility in memory size and features. Video-only chipset on motherboard. Performance is less than with add-on video cards, and memory is seldom upgradeable. Motherboard chipset with integrated video. Lowest cost of any video solution, but performance is also very low, especially for 3D gaming or other graphics-intensive applications. Resolution and color-depth options are also more limited than those available with add-on video cards.

Most systems that use Baby-AT or ATX motherboards typically use add-on video cards, whereas older LPX, NLX, and Micro-ATX motherboards typically use video chipsets on the motherboard. Many of the most recent low-cost computers built on the Micro-ATX, Flex-ATX, or NLX form factors use motherboard chipsets that integrate video, such as the Intel 810 series. Systems with integrated video (either with video chipsets or motherboard chipsets that include video) usually can be upgraded with an add-on video card, but most do not include an AGP slot, which is best suited for high-speed video today. Display Adapters Although many types of display systems were at one time considered to be industry standards, few of these are viable standards for today's hardware and software. MDA VIDEO STANDARD : IBM's Monochrome Display Adapter is capable of displaying a resolution of 720x350. This is a text-only (no graphics) standard. Hercules Video Standard: Monochrome adapter capable of high resolution (720x348) text and graphics.
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CMS INSTITUTE 2012 Pin 1

CGA Video Standard : IBM's Colour Graphics Adapter produces text and graphics in two modes; choose four colors from a palette of 16 with 320x200 resolution, or two colors with 640x200 resolution. EGA Video Standard : IBM's Enhanced Graphics Adapter produces sharp text and graphics in 16 colors from a palette of 64 colors with 640x350 resolution.

Fig. 22.7 VGA Connector

MCGA Video Standard : IBM's Multi-Color Graphics Array is an adapter built into the PS/2 Model 30. It produces sharp text and graphics in several modes and 256 colors from a palette of 256,000 colors with 320x200 resolution. Two-color display has 640x480 resolution. MCGA also offers 320200 resolution with 64 shades of gray. Video Graphics Array PS/2 systems incorporated the primary display adapter circuitry onto the motherboard, and both IBM and third-party companies introduced separate VGA cards to enable other types of systems to enjoy the advantages of VGA. Although the IBM MicroChannel (MCA) computers, such as the PS/2 Model 50 and above, introduced VGA, it's impossible today to find a brand-new replacement for VGA that fits in the obsolete MCAbus systems. However, surplus and used third-party cards might be available if you look hard enough. The VGA BIOS (basic input/output system) is the control software residing in the system ROM for controlling VGA circuits. With the BIOS, software can initiate commands and functions without having to manipulate the VGA directly. Programs become somewhat hardware independent and can call a consistent set of commands and functions built into the system's ROM-control software. Other implementations of the VGA differ in their hardware but respond to the same BIOS calls and functions. New features are added as a superset of the existing functions, and VGA remains compatible with the graphics and text BIOS functions built into the PC systems from the beginning. The VGA can run almost any software that originally was written for the CGA or EGA, unless it was written to directly access the hardware registers of these cards. A standard VGA card displays up to 256 colors onscreen, from a palette of 262,144 (256KB) colors; when used in the 640x480 graphics or 720x400 text mode, 16 colors at a time can be displayed. Because the VGA outputs an analog signal, you must have a monitor that accepts an analog input. VGA displays originally came not only in color, but also in monochrome VGA models, which use color summing. With color summing, 64 gray shades are displayed instead of colors. The summing routine is initiated if the BIOS detects a monochrome display when the system
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boots. This routine uses an algorithm that takes the desired color and rewrites the formula to involve all three color guns, producing varying intensities of gray. Users who preferred a monochrome display, therefore, could execute color-based applications.
Pin Configuration of VGA Connector 1 Red out 6 Red return (ground) 2 Green out 7 Green return (ground) 3 Blue out 8 Blue return (ground) 4 Unused 9 5 Ground 10 Sync return (ground) 11 Monitor ID 0 in 12 Monitor ID 1 in or data from display 13 Horizontal Sync out 14 Vertical Sync 15 Monitor ID 3 in or data clock

Super VGA When IBM's XGA and 8514/A video cards were introduced, competing manufacturers chose not to attempt to clone these incremental improvements on their VGA products. Instead, they began producing lower-cost adapters that
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offered even higher resolutions. These video cards fall into a category loosely known as Super VGA (SVGA). SVGA provides capabilities that surpass those offered by the VGA adapter. Unlike the display adapters discussed so far,
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SVGA refers not to an adapter that meets a particular specification, but to a group of adapters that have different capabilities.

Fig. 22.8 SVGA Connector

For example, one card might offer several resolutions (such as 800x600 and 1,024x768) that are greater than those achieved with a regular VGA, whereas another card might offer the same or even greater resolutions but also provide more color choices at each resolution. These cards have different capabilities; nonetheless, both are classified as SVGA. On the VGA cable connector that plugs into your video adapter, pin 9 is often pinless. Pin 5 is used only for testing purposes, and pin 15 is rarely used; these are often pinless as well. To identify the type of monitor connected to the system, some manufacturers use the presence or absence of the monitor ID pins in various combinations.
Pin 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 Function Red Video Blue Video TTL Ground Green Analog Ground Key (Plugged Hole) Monitor ID 0 Horizontal Sync Monitor ID 3
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Pin 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

Function Green Video Monitor ID 2 Red Analog Ground Blue Analog Ground Sync Ground Monitor ID 1 Vertical Sync

Direction Out In In Out

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VESA SVGA Standards The Video Electronics Standards Association includes members from various companies associated with PC and computer video products. In October 1989, VESA, recognizing that programming applications to support the many SVGA cards on the market was virtually impossible, proposed a standard for a uniform programmer's interface for SVGA cards known as the VESA BIOS extension (VBE). VBE support might be provided through a memory-resident driver (used by older cards) or through additional code added to the VGA BIOS chip itself (the more common solution). The benefit of the VESA BIOS extension is that a programmer needs to worry about only one routine or driver to support SVGA. Various cards from various manufacturers are accessible through the common VESA interface. Today, VBE support is a concern primarily for real-mode DOS applications, usually older games, and for non-Microsoft operating systems that need to access higher resolutions and color depths. VBE supports resolutions up to 1,280x1,024 and color depths up to 24-bit (16.8 million colors), depending on the mode selected and the memory on the video card. VESA compliance is of virtually no consequence to Windows versions 95 and up. These operating systems use custom video drivers for their graphics cards. LCD Displays Borrowing technology from laptop manufacturers, most major monitor makers sell monitors with liquid crystal displays (LCDs). LCDs have low-glare, completely flat screens and low power requirements (five watts versus nearly 100 watts for an ordinary monitor). The color quality of an active-matrix LCD panel actually exceeds that of most CRT displays.
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At this point, however, LCD screens usually are more limited in resolution than typical CRTs and are more expensive; for example, a 15-inch LCD screen cost more than twice the cost of a high-quality 17-inch CRT monitor. However, it is important to consider that an LCD screen provides a larger viewable image than a CRT monitor of the same size. Refer fig. 22.9 for an example of a typical desktop LCD display panel. Three basic LCD choices are available today on notebook computers: passive-matrix color, activematrix analog color, and the latest-active-matrix digital. Monochrome LCD displays are obsolete for PCs, although they remain popular for Palm and similar organizer devices and are sometimes used for industrial display panels. Virtually all passive-matrix designs sold today use dual-scan
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Fig. 22.9 LCD Screen

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technology, with the dimmer single-scan versions again being related to handheld organizers. The passive-matrix color panels are primarily found in lowcost notebook computer displays or in industrial-use desktop display panels because of their relatively low cost and enhanced durability compared to active-matrix models. Desktop LCD panels are analog or digital active-matrix units. In an LCD, a polarizing filter creates two separate light waves. The polarizing filter allows light waves that are aligned only with the filter to pass through. After passing through the polarizing filter, the remaining light waves are all aligned in the same direction. By aligning a second polarizing filter at a right angle to the first, all those waves are blocked. By changing the angle of the second polarizing filter, the amount of light allowed to pass can be changed. It is the role of the liquid crystal cell to change the angle of polarization and control the amount of light that passes. In a color LCD, an additional filter has three cells for each pixel-one each for displaying red, green, and blue. The light wave passes through a liquid-crystal cell, with each color segment having its own cell. The liquid crystals are rod-shaped molecules that flow like a liquid. They enable light to pass straight through, but an electrical charge alters their orientations and the orientation of light passing through them. Although monochrome LCDs do not have color filters, they can have multiple cells per pixel for controlling shades of gray. In a passive-matrix LCD, each cell is controlled by the electrical charges of two transistors, determined by the cell's row and column positions on the display. The number of transistors along the screen's horizontal and vertical edges determines the resolution of the screen. For example, a screen with a 1024x768 resolution has 1024 transistors on its horizontal edge and 768 on the vertical, for a total of 2,000. As the cell reacts to the pulsing charge from its two transistors, it twists the light wave, with stronger charges twisting the light wave more. Supertwist refers to the orientation of the liquid crystals, comparing on mode to off mode-the greater the twist, the higher the contrast. Charges in passive-matrix LCDs are pulsed; therefore, the displays lack the brilliance of active-matrix, which provides a constant charge to each cell. To increase the brilliance, virtually all vendors have turned to a technique called double-scan LCD, which splits passive-matrix screens into a top half and bottom half, reducing the time between each pulse. In addition to increasing the brightness, dual scan designs also increase the response time and therefore the perceptible speed of the display, making this type more usable for fullmotion video or other applications in which the displayed information changes rapidly.

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In an active-matrix LCD, each cell has its own dedicated transistor behind the panel to charge it and twist the light wave. Thus, a 1024x768 active-matrix display has 786,432 transistors. This provides a brighter image than passivematrix displays because the cell can maintain a constant, rather than a momentary, charge. However, active-matrix technology uses more energy than passive-matrix, leading to shorter battery life on portable systems. With a dedicated transistor for every cell, active-matrix displays are more difficult and expensive to produce, but in return they offer a faster display that can be used in outdoor as well as indoor conditions and at wider viewing angles than dual scan displays. Note: Because an LCD display requires a specified number of transistors to support each cell, there are no multiple frequency displays of this type. All the pixels on an LCD screen are of a fixed size, although CRT pixels are variable. Thus, LCD displays are designed to be operated at a specific resolution; however, most recent notebook and desktop display panels offer onboard scaling. Before purchasing this type of display, be sure your video adapter supports the same resolution as the screen and that the resolution is sufficient for your needs throughout the life of the monitor. In both active- and passive-matrix LCDs, the second polarizing filter controls how much light passes through each cell. Cells twist the wavelength of light to closely match the filter's allowable wavelength. The more light that passes through the filter at each cell, the brighter the pixel. Monochrome LCDs used in hand-held organizers and industrial LCD panels achieve grayscales (up to 64) by varying the brightness of a cell or dithering cells in an on-and-off pattern. Color LCDs, on the other hand, dither the threecolor cells and control their brilliance to achieve different colors on the screen. Double-scan passive-matrix LCDs (also known as DSTN) have recently gained in popularity because they approach the quality of active-matrix displays but do not cost much more to produce than other passive-matrix displays. Although DSTN panels offer better on-axis (straight-ahead) viewing quality than straight passive-matrix panels, their off-axis (viewing at an angle) performance is still poor when compared to active-matrix (TFT) panels. Note: An alternative to LCD screens is gas-plasma technology, typically known for its black and orange screens in some of the older Toshiba notebook computers. Some companies are incorporating full-color gas-plasma technology for desktop screens and color high-definition television (HDTV) flat-panel screens, such as the Philips Flat TV.

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Flat-Panel LCD Displays LCD desktop monitors, once seen mainly on the office sets of futuristic TV shows, are now becoming an increasingly reasonable choice for use in today's office computing environment. LCD desktop monitors offer the following benefits over conventional CRT "glass tube" monitors: Virtually 100% of LCD size is viewable area, compared to a loss of 1 to 1 1/2-inches of viewable area versus the diagonal tube measurement on CRT monitors. Thus, a 15-inch LCD provides a viewable area roughly equal to a typical 17-inch CRT monitor. Small front-to-back dimensions free up desk space. Removable bases on some models enable the screen to be mounted on a wall or stand Direct addressing of display (each pixel in the picture corresponds with a transistor) and always perfect alignment provide a high-precision image that lacks CRT's problems with pincushion or barrel distortion or convergence errors. Low power consumption and less heat buildup make LCD units less expensive to operate. Because LCD units lack a CRT, no concerns exist about electromagnetic emissions. A number of LCD panels offer a pivoting feature, enabling the unit to swivel 90, allowing a choice of the traditional landscape horizontal mode for Web surfing and the portrait vertical mode for word processing and pagelayout programs. LCD panels weigh substantially less than comparably sized CRTs. For example, the ViewSonic VA 550, a 15-inch LCD display, weighs only 10.1 lbs., compared to the 35 lbs.-50 lbs. weight of typical 17-inch CRTs. The Digital Flat Panel (DFP) standard approved by the Video Electronic Standards Association (VESA) in February 1999. DFP was previously known as PanelLink. The Digital Visual Interface (DVI) standard proposed by the Digital Display Working Group (DDWG) in April 1999. DVI is much more popular with hardware vendors and has become a de facto standard.

There are two major proposals for digital LCD display panel standards:

Changing a Video Driver Often the manufacturer of a video card will release new drivers sometime after the card has been in production. This may be to take advantage of a feature
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in a new operating system (like Windows 98) or to fix a bug that wasn't apparent at the time the card was manufactured. To install a new video driver, just follow these steps: 1. Select Start > Settings > Control Panel and click the Display icon. 2. Click the Settings tab and then the Advanced button. This opens even more settings. Click the Adapter tab here. 3. The Adapter page shows the name of the video card and something about its features. Click the Change button. 4. The Update Device Driver Wizard will launch and search for updated drivers. Use the default settings except where you can be specific about the location of the new driver. As with other devices, you may have the driver file on floppy disk, CD-ROM, or a network drive; or you may want the Wizard to check the Windows Update site. If you want, you can let the Wizard search all the locations. Note: Deselect the floppy disk drive option if you don't have a floppy disk. Likewise, if you want the system to search the CD-ROM drive, make sure there is actually a CD in the drive. It won't do any harm, but you'll receive error messages that will slow the process. Optimizing Video Settings The video settings you can make are limited only by the capacity of your video card and monitor. Also, some settings-such as very high resolutions on small monitors-are aesthetically unappealing, not to mention rendering icons practically invisible. To modify your video settings you need to open Display Properties. You can do this by clicking the Display icon in the Control Panel. Or you can right-click on a blank spot on the desktop and select Properties from the pop-up menu. Then click the Settings tab. Changing Resolutions Displays are described in terms of their resolution-the number of dots on the screen and the number of colors that can be displayed at the same time. The resolutions you can choose using the slider under Screen Area choices are based on what you like to look at - limited by the capabilities of your monitor and video card. Making Advanced Changes Also on the Setting page is a button labelled Advanced. Click this button to get to additional pages for video configuration. Different types of video cards

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will have different effects on these pages. You may have other pages in additional to the ones described below. Consult the documentation for your video card and monitor for information on how these additional pages are to be used. If you're using a very high resolution, the desktop elements can be very small. Try Large Fonts under Display to see if that works better for you. (Under the Display Properties' Effects page, you can also choose to use Large Icons). This way you can preserve the higher resolution and have objects on the desktop that are legible. The default setting under Compatibility is to be prompted whenever you make new color settings. While it's true that some programs require a reboot after colors and resolution have changed, most do not. If you do not. If you don't have a problem program and you change color settings without restarting. Likewise, if you change display settings often, put a checkmark next to Show setting icon on task bar. This will place a miniature Display icon on the Taskbar. Click the icon and you can change your display on the spot. Monitor If you change your monitor, you usually only need to plug it in and start Windows 98. The monitor will be detected and correctly installed. If the monitor isn't correctly detected, you'll have to provide the right information. Click the Change button and then supply the name of the manufacturer and the model. Also on the monitor page are several options relating to power management and Plug-and-Play. These are probably set correctly. However, if you have display problems such as a flashing screen after the monitor returns from Suspend mode, right-click on each option and read the description. Try checking on unchecking these options to see if your problem is solved. If you don't have a problem, leave the settings in their default state. The Performance page lets you adjust graphics acceleration. Again if your display is working fine, leave the Hardware Acceleration set to Full. If your mouse pointer disappears frequently, try moving the slider down one notch. Many color profiles are included with Windows 98 and you can choose one or many. Click Add and select a profile. Add as many as you like. Highlight one and click Set As Default. What's the difference between LCD and LED? LCD stands for "liquid crystal display" and technically, both LED and LCD TVs are liquid crystal displays. The basic technology is the same in that both television types have two layers of polarized glass through which the liquid crystals both block and pass light. So really, LED TVs are a subset of LCD TVs.
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LED, which stands for "light emitting diodes," differs from general LCD TVs in that LCDs use fluorescent lights while LEDs use those light emitting diodes. Also, the placement of the lights on an LED TV can differ. The fluorescent lights in an LCD TV are always behind the screen. On an LED TV, the light emitting diodes can be placed either behind the screen or around its edges. The difference in lights and in lighting placement has generally meant that LED TVs can be thinner than LCDs, although this is starting to change. It has also meant that LED TVs run with greater energy efficiency and can provide a clearer, better picture than the general LCD TVs. LED TVs provide a better picture for two basic reasons. First, LED TVs work with a color wheel or distinct RGB-colored lights (red, green, blue) to produce more realistic and sharper colors. Second, light emitting diodes can be dimmed. The dimming capability on the back lighting in an LED TV allows the picture to display with a truer black by darkening the lights and blocking more light from passing through the panel. This capability is not present on edge-lit LED TVs; however, edge-lit LED TVs can display a truer white than the fluorescent LED TVs. Because all these LCD TVs are thin-screen, each has particular angle-viewing and anti-glare issues. The backlit TVs provide better, cleaner angle viewing than the edge-lit LED TV. However, the backlit LED TV will usually have better angle viewing than the standard LCD TV. Both LED and LCD TVs have good reputations for their playback and gaming quality. Video projector A video projector is an image projector that receives a video signal and projects the corresponding image on a projection screen using a lens system. All video projectors use a very bright light to project the image, and most modern ones can correct any curves, blurriness, and other inconsistencies through manual settings. Video projectors are widely used for many applications such as, conference room presentations, classroom training, home theatre and concerts. Projectors are widely used in many schools and other educational settings,[1] sometimes
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connected to an interactive whiteboard to interactively teach pupils. Overview A video projector, also known as a digital projector, may project onto a traditional reflective projection screen, or it may be built into a cabinet with a translucent rear-projection screen to form a single unified display device. Common display resolutions for a portable projector include SVGA (800600 pixels), XGA (1024768 pixels), 720p (1280720 pixels),

Projected image from a video projector in a home cinema.

and 1080p (19201080 pixels). The cost of a device is determined not only by its resolution but also by its light output. A projector with a higher light output (measured in lumens, "lm") is required for a larger screen or for a room with a larger amount of ambient light.[2] For example, a light output of approximately 1500 to 2500 ANSI lumens is suitable for small screens viewed in rooms with low ambient light; approximately 2500 to 4000 lm is suitable for medium-sized screens with some ambient light; over 4000 lm is needed for very large screens or for use in rooms with no lighting control such as conference rooms. A few camcorders have a built-in projector suitable to make a small projection; a few more powerful "pico projectors" are pocket-sized, and many projectors are portable. What is an LCD Projector LCD is acronym for 'Liquid Crystal Display'. The paradox here is that we are using the term liquid and crystal together. Well, this is the case of the LCD Projector the heat from the halogen bulb converts the crystal into a liquid. LCD Projector Working The LCD video projector contains three LCD panels. At the center of the projector is a halogen bulb, which is surrounded by the panels. The panels produce light. As the halogen bulb heats up, the crystals melt and allow more light to pass through. Hence, the intensity of the halogen bulb brings about the difference in the tones. Higher the temperature of the bulb, lighter the tone and vice a versa. Images travel to the tube present inside the projector from the DVD player or the satellite box. These images in turn bounce on a screen that is coated with phosphor. Every fragment of light hitting the screen is termed pixel. On hitting
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the screen, the pixel breaks down into its color component that is red, blue or green. The heat produced by the halogen bulb is controlled by the voltage that flows into the LCD video projector. Considering the voltage that flows into the projector, the 3 LCD panels can produce more than sixteen million colors. This is what enables us to view all the subtle colors of a sunset. A single panel is for a single color; meaning one panel handles all the pixels that are created by the red color, the second for blue and the third for green. The color images travel as three separate beams of light and hit the wall. Here the colors fall on each other to produce the true color. LCD Projector Mounts The LCD Projectors available these days provide the feature of displaying the image upside down so that they can be mounted on the ceiling. Although, this is a common feature, some manufactures have not incorporated this feature as yet. An LCD Projector mount allows you to mount your projector to the ceiling. While purchasing a mount, ensure that the mount can be rotated 360 degrees and also provides the flexibility of mounting to the wall and angled ceilings. Facility to route the cable inside the channel should also be available. LCD projector lamps (Bulbs) An LCD projector bulb is a key item in the projector itself and can cost anywhere between $200 and $500. Therefore, it is very important to consider the listed lamp life before purchasing the projector. A listed lamp life of about 2000 hours is the benchmark. Some projectors also provide mode choices, for example, the 'eco-mode', which not only extends the life of the lamp; it also reduces the operating cost of the projector. The two most commonly used bulbs are the metal halide and the UHP type because they project a very white light. The range of listed life of these bulbs is 750 to 2000 hours. While the halogen bulbs have a shorter life span and project light with a yellow tinge, xenon lamps are used in the high-end projectors. LCD Projector Resolution The resolution of an LCD projector can be defined in four different categories: " UXGA (1600 x 1200): provide very high-resolution and are very expensive. They can support a very broad range of computer equipment.
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" "

SXGA (1280 x 1024): provide high-resolution images. These projectors are targeted for people with high-end personal computers. XGA (1024 x 768): provide relatively low-resolution images when compared to UXGA and SXGA. However, as they are less expensive, they are more popular.

"

SVGA (800 x 600): is the most popular resolution today because they are available at a reasonable cost and display great images. LCD projectors with SVGA are ideal for personal computer. The key factor that decides the cost of an LCD projector is the resolution. If you need it for business purposes wherein you have to give presentations on a daily basis, then you can go for the higher end models. However, if you need it only for personal requirements, like catching up old classics over the weekend like I do, then you can opt for lower resolutions so that it leaves you with enough money to rent the DVD.

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23
PC ENGINEERING

Multimedia

Introduction For years DOS and Windows could play only loud, high-pitched beeps and low-pitched beeps. We owe today's multimedia sound abilities to game players. They saw the advantages of hearing realistic explosions, rocket blasts, gun shots, and moodsetting background music long before developers creating business software realized the practical advantages of sound. Now, you can listen to your PC speak instructions as you follow along on the keyboards, dictate a letter by talking into your PC, give your PC spoken commands, attach a voice message to a document, and not have to take your eyes off a hard-copy list while your PC sounds out the numbers as you're typing them into a spreadsheet. None of the multimedia that enhances business, personal, and family use of a PC could exist without sound capabilities. Multimedia CD-ROMs bring their subject to life in ways not possible in books because you hear the actual sounds of whales, wars, and warblers, of sopranos, space shots, and saxophones. Not that sound capabilities must always enlighten you on a topic. You should have fun with your PC, too. Sound has become so important that it's helped lead to the development of a chip called a digital signal processor (DSP) that relieves the computer's main CPU of most of the processing chores involving sound. Eventually, expect to find other types of digital signal, such as voice mail, fax, and video managed by a single DSP that simply follows different instructions for the different types of signals. And now that the PC has a voice, it's become fluent in many different digital languages. Media are the electronic and mechanical means a computer uses to communicate with you. The monitor and video card
Fig. 23.1 Multimedia PC 309

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combination provide you with something to see. Speakers and a sound device supply the sound. Force-feedback systems-joysticks that fight back and special computer chairs that rock and roll-take advantage of your sense of touch. The term multi comes into play when any OS like Windows 98 synchronizes the activities of the various media, given Windows 98's function as a multimedia mediator. PC Audio Adapters At first, consumer audio adapters were used only for games. In 1989, Creative Labs introduced the Game Blaster, which provided FM-synthesized sound to a handful of computer games. The Game Blaster was soon replaced by the Sound Blaster. The Sound Blaster included a built-in microphone jack, stereo output, and a MIDI port for connecting the PC to a synthesizer or other electronic musical instrument. Finally, the audio adapter had the potential for users other than games. The followup Sound Blaster Pro featured improved sound when compared to the original Sound Blaster. Ideally, a Sound Blaster Pro-compatible card would be capable of using the same IRQ, DMA, and I/O port addresses as a Sound Blaster Pro card from Creative Labs and would be used by an application program in the same way as an actual Sound Blaster Pro. Some cards required two separate sets of hardware resources, using one set of IRQ, DMA, and I/O port addresses for native mode and a second set for Sound Blaster Pro compatibility. Others worked well within Windows or within an MS-DOS session running with Windows in the background but required the user to install a DOS-based Terminate and Stay Resident (TSR) driver program to work in MS-DOS itself. As a result, most MS-DOS game developers had to develop configurations for each of the leading sound cards. The replacement of MS-DOS by 32-bit Windows versions starting with Windows 95 has made life easier for game and other multimedia developers because of a Microsoft innovation called DirectX, which was first introduced in December of 1995. Sound Processing The sound card can handle more than one signal at a time, allowing you to record sounds in stereo. The signals go to an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) chip. The chip changes the continuous analog signal into the 0s and 1s of digital data. A ROM chip contains the instructions for handling the digital signal. Newer designs use an EPROM (erasable, programmable read only memory) chip instead of ROM. The EPROM chip allows the board to be updated with
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improved instructions as they're developed. The ADC sends the binary information to a chip called a digital signal processor (DSP) that relieves the computer's main CPU of most of the processing chores involving sound. The DSP gets its instructions about what to do with that data from the ROM chip. Typically, the DSP compresses the incoming signal so that it takes less storage space. The DSP sends the compressed data to the PC's main processor, which, in turn, sends the data to a hard drive to be stored. To play a recorded sound, the CPU fetches the file containing the compressed, digital replication of the sound from a hard drive or CD-ROM and sends the data to the DSP . The DSP decompresses the data on the fly, and sends it to a digital-to-audio converter (DAC) chip, which translates the digital information to a constantly wavering electrical current. The analog current is amplified, usually by an amplifier built into the PC's speakers. Then the stronger current powers an electromagnet that's part of the speaker, causing the speaker's cone to vibrate, creating sound. While some types of sounds are straight-forward recordings, such as those contained in .WAV files. MIDI sound was developed to save disk space by saving only instructions of how to play music on electronic instruments rather than the actual sounds. The MIDI instructions tell the digital signal processor (DSP) which instruments to play and how to play them. To assemble entirely new sounds, PC software authors needs way to tell a sound card. "Play an A as it would sound on a piano. One method is to use frequency modulation (FM) synthesis. It's usually implemented as a Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) circuit. The notion in FM synthesis is to describe an instrument's waveform in terms of the size of the attack, decay, sustain, and release (ADSR) parts of the cycle. These four elements are generally the basis for sound in terms of waveforms. Attack is the speed at which a sound begins. Decay describes how the sound begins to release. Sustain describes the actual length of the sound. And finally, release describes when the note is "turned off". Sound cards vary in how they create sounds, how fine a resolution they use for sound, and what "extras" they carry onboard, such as a pass-through audio circuit or a CD-ROM interface. When it comes to sound cards, 16-bit means something else entirely: it refers to sample types.
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A sample is a recording of a sound, such as a musical instrument, for the purpose of playback. In this context, the sample attempts to reproduce an instrument's sound in a digital format. Accurately reproducing an instrument's sound requires many samples that represent its entire scale of sonic capabilities. A typical collection of samples to cover a wide range of musical instruments is around 4 to 8MB in size, after compression. An accurate representation of a piano requires 16 to 24MB of space! Eight-bit sample are good for simple game sounds or music. However, you really need a board with the ability to play back and record 16-bit sounds (at a minimum!) to do good multimedia. The Sound Blaster 16 from Creative Labs was a good 16-bit card. Nowadays there are 32- and 64-bit cards. Basic Connectors on Audio Adapter (Sound Card): Most audio adapters have the same basic connectors. These 1/8-inch minijack connectors provide the means of passing sound signals from the adapter to speakers, headphones, and stereo systems, and of receiving sound from a microphone, CD player, tape player, or stereo. The four types of connectors your audio adapter should have at a minimum are shown are as shown in fig. 23.2. Stereo line, or audio, out connector (lime green): The line-out connector is used to send sound signals from the audio adapter to a device outside the computer. You can hook up the cables from the line-out connector to stereo speakers, a headphone set, or your stereo system. If you hook up the PC to your stereo system, you can have amplified sound. Stereo line, or audio, in connector (light blue): With the line-in connector, you can record or mix sound signals from an external source, such as a stereo system or VCR, to the computer's hard disk. R ea r ou t or s pe a k er / h ea d p ho n e connector (no standard color): Older sound cards often provided an amplified jack supplying up to four watts of power for use with unpowered speakers or headphones along with the line-out connector. Today, you are more likely to find this jack being used for rear speakers in four-speaker setups. The rear out jack often is disabled by default;

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Microphone

Stereo system

Line in Microphone Line out Rear line out Game MIDI port Front speakers Audio adapter

Rear speakers

Joystick

Fig. 23.2 Basic Input and Output Connectors with most Audio Adapters 312

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check your audio adapter properties or setup program to see whether you need to enable this port when you connect rear speakers. Microphone, or mono, in connector (pink): The mono-in connector is used to connect a microphone for recording your voice or other sounds to disk. This microphone jack records in mono, not in stereo, and is therefore not suitable for high-quality music recordings. Joystick connector (gold): The joystick connector is a 15-pin, D-shaped connector that can connect to any standard joystick or game controller. Sometimes the joystick port can accommodate two joysticks if you purchase an optional Y-adapter. Many computers already contain a joystick port as part of a multifunction I/O circuit on the motherboard or an expansion card. If this is the case, you must note which port your operating system or application is configured to use when connecting the game controller. MIDI connector (gold): Audio adapters typically use the same joystick port as their MIDI connector. Two of the pins in the connector are designed to carry signals to and from a MIDI device, such as an electronic keyboard. In most cases, you must purchase a separate MIDI connector from the audio adapter manufacturer that plugs into the joystick port and contains the two round, 5pin DIN connectors used by MIDI devices, plus a connector for a joystick. Because their signals use separate pins, you can connect the joystick and a MIDI device at the same time. You need this connector only if you plan to connect your PC to external MIDI devices. Many of the newest sound cards are designed for advanced gaming, DVD audio playback, and sound production uses and have additional connectors to support these uses, such as MIDI in and MIDI out: Some advanced sound cards don't require you to convert the game port (joystick port) to MIDI interfacing by offering these ports on a separate external connector. This permits you to use a joystick and have an external MIDI device connected at the same time. SPDIF (also called SP/DIF) in and SPDIF out: The Sony/Philips Digital Interface receives digital audio signals directly from compatible devices without converting them to analog format first. SPDIF interfaces are also referred to by some vendors as "Dolby Digital" interfaces. CD SPDIF: Connects compatible CD-ROM drives with SPDIF interfacing to the digital input of the sound card. Aux in: Provides input for other sound sources, such as a TV tuner card. Pass through and CD ROM Interfaces Many sound cards have a small Berg connector on them designed for a cable, like the one in Fig. 23.3.
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This is an audio pass-through cable. It lets you play music CDs from your PC's CD-ROM, through the speakers on your sound card. This used to be a problem because getting this audio cable required complying with each manufacturer's proprietary requirements. CD-ROM drives coupled with standardized cabling for digital audio/video make it easier to install such devices. Data Compression Virtually all audio adapters on the market today can easily produce CD-quality audio, which is sampled at 44.1KHz. At this rate, recorded files (even of your own voice) can consume more than 10MB for every minute of recording. To counter this demand for disk space, many audio adapters include their own data-compression capability. Most manufacturers of audio adapters use an algorithm called Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation (ADPCM) compression to reduce file size by more than 50%. However, a simple fact of audio technology is that when you use such compression, you loose sound quality. When you install an audio adapter, several codecs (programs that perform compression and decompression) are installed. Typically, some form of ADPCM is installed along with many others. To see which codecs are available on your system, open the Windows Control Panel and open the Multimedia icon in Windows 9x. With Windows 9x, click the Devices tab followed by the plus sign next to Audio Compression to see the installed codecs. If you create your own recorded audio for use on another computer, both computers must use the same codec. You can select which codec you want to use for recording sounds with most programs, including the Windows Sound Recorder. The most popular compression standard is the Motion Pictures Experts Group (MPEG) standard, which works with both audio and video compression and is gaining support in the non-PC world from products such as the new crop of DVD players now hitting the market. MPEG by itself provides a potential compression ratio of 30:1, and largely because of this, full-motion-video MPEG DVD and CD-ROM titles are now available. The popular MP3 sound compression scheme is an MPEG format, and it can be played back on the latest versions of the Windows 9x Media Player, as well as by MP3- only player programs and devices. MP3 Audio The hottest thing going in the PC world-soundwise, that is-is a relatively new
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Fig. 23.3 Berg Connector to Connect CD ROM to Sound Card

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audio format called MP3. As with most things computer-related, MP3 is an acronym of sorts, standing for MPEG Layer-3. This format deals specifically with compressing high-quality sound while retaining as much of the original quality as possible. It does this by removing those ranges of sounds that we cannot hear, which are produced in audio. There is a always a measure of "waste" sound included in all recordings. Now, as more compression is applied, the complex algorithms used to determine what sounds a human is able to hear based on psychoacoustic models trim more and more inside of the human hearable range. So, the greater the compression, the lower the quality. Two factors make up the quality of MP3 files: kHz and Kbps (kilohertz and kilobits per second, respectively). The kHz is in direct relation to the bit depth of the sample. A 16-bit recording is on par with a 44.1kHz recording, also known as White Book or CD-quality audio. Making it 22kHz reduces its reproduction quality by only one-third. Kbps are the other piece to this twopart puzzle whereas kHz can be correlated to the sharpness of a picture. Kbps can be correlated to how smooth the sound plays back; Kbps are often referred to as frames. In cartoons the more "frames" there are, the smoother the apparent motion. Simply put, 60 pictures showing the stages of a person moving their arm over a period of five seconds with result in a more natural movement than will 15 frames. Sound works the same way and, again, is represented in Kbps. 144Kbps at 44kHz makes for an MPEG Layer-3 file that sounds as good as digital CD audio but takes up only a fraction of the space. Considering this, Layer-3 can compress a CD-quality audio file to fit about a minute's worth of sound into roughly a megabyte of space. Your typical three-to five-minute song would end up being anywhere from 3 to 6MB in size. Sound Drivers A software driver provides a vital link between an audio adapter and the application or operating system that uses it. Operating systems such as Windows 9x, XP etc. include a large library of drivers for most of the audio adapters on the market. In most cases, these drivers are written by the manufacturer of the audio adapter and only distributed by Microsoft. You might find that the drivers that ship with the adapter are more recent than those included with the operating system. As always, the best place to find the most recent drivers for a piece of hardware is the manufacturer's own Web site or other online services. Configuring Sound Card in Windows 98 Plug and Play (PnP) in Windows 98 has made non-PnP sound cards completely obselete. Device driver installation in Windows 98 has been reduced to
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Fig. 23.4 Sound card detection Screen CMS INSTITUTE 2012

inserting a floppy or CD-ROM with the proper INF file. However, if the sound card is not configured properly i.e. the driver for the device is not provided then the sound card can be configured with the proper driver either by running the "Setup.exe" file from the driver CD provided along with the sound card which will present the screen as shown in the fig. 23.4 or by re-detecting the sound card from the Device Manager and then giving the drivers for the device or by going to the Add/Remove Hardware icon in Control Panel and then installing the sound drivers for the device. The sound card properly configured would present a volume control icon on the system tray of the taskbar. The sounds applet in the Control Panel is used to test the speakers by playing some test sounds, as shown in fig. 23.5. AGP Working AGP improves the process of storing texture maps by allowing the operating system to designate RAM for use by the graphics card on the fly. This type of memory is called AGP memory or non-local video memory. The net result is that the graphics controller is required to keep fewer texture maps in local memory. Thus, using the much more abundant and faster RAM used by the operating system to store texture maps reduces the number of maps that have to be stored on the graphics card's memory. In addition, the size of the texture map your computer is capable of processing is no longer CPU limited to the amount of RAM on the graphics card. (Refer fig. 23.6) System
System RAM to Local Chipset Texture 2 Memory Texture 1

Fig. 23.5 Playing a Sound in the Sounds applet CMS INSTITUTE 2012

Local Texture Surface to Backbuffer

Frame Buffer Texture 2

D i sp l a y

Graphic Chip

PCI

Disk Drive

Fig. 23.6 AGP Working

The graphics controller needs fast access to local video memory for screen refreshes and various pixel elements. Keeping textures out of the frame buffer allows larger screen resolution, or permits Z-buffering for a given large screen size. As the need for more graphics intensive applications continues to scale upward, the amount of textures stored in system memory will increase. AGP delivers
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AGP 3.3V (1x/2x) Graphics Card

Universal AGP (1x/2x/4x) Graphics Card

AGP 3.0 (1x/2x/4x/8x)) Graphics Card (1.5V, 0.8V)

AGP 2X Graphics card in a AGP 2X slot Fig. 23.7 Identification of different AGP Cards and slots

Universal AGP Graphics card on AGP 4X slot

AGP 8X Graphics card on a Universal 4X/8X slot

these textures from system memory to the graphics controller at speeds sufficient to make system memory usable as a secondary texture store. The other way AGP saves RAM is by only storing texture maps once. It does this with a little trickery. This trickery takes the form of a chipset called the Graphics Address Remapping Table (GART). GART takes the portion of the system memory that the AGP borrows to store texture maps for the graphics card and re-addresses it. The new address provided by GART makes the CPU think that the texture map is being stored in the card's framebuffer. GART may be putting bits and pieces of the map all over the system RAM; but when the CPU needs it, as far as it's concerned the texture map is right where it should be. AGP Speeds At its inception the AGP 1.0 standard allowed for both 1X and 2X speeds with the frequency of X being 66Mhz. AGP 1.0 compliant graphics cards are designed to operate at a 3.3Volt AGP signalling. Over the next couple of years, 3D applications (games primarily) and graphics cards made to support these 3D applications accelerated at a rapid pace. Thus a mere two years after the original AGP standard was ratified, the AGP 2.0 standard was released. AGP 2.0 introduced a 4X pipeline and doubled the peak bandwidth of AGP The . 1.1GB/sec offered by 4X AGP was sufficient up until now. With the natural evolution of 3D graphics, today's generation of 3D software and hardware have once again begun to challenge the AGP bus. By the fall of 2004 the AGP
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3.0 standard was released and with its 2.1 GB/sec. of peak bandwidth (8X) the progression of 3D Graphics is guaranteed to continue. Since the AGP 1.0 operates at 3.3V, they are keyed "AGP 3.3V". They will operate in AGP 1.0 compliant motherboards as well as AGP 2.0 compliant motherboards with a "Universal AGP" slot. The latest is the AGP 3.0 which has signalling voltages of 1.5V, 0.8V. The figs. 23.7 show the different cards following the different standards and the slots supporting it. TV Tuner Cards TV Tuner Cards are devices which connect to a computer and feed a signal to the computer so that a television picture (and sound) is shown on the computer just like if it was a television. You can connect cable TV to pick up cable channels or a standard TV antenna to pick up local channels. Terms associated with TV Tuner Cards MPEG: MPEG is a group (Moving Picture Experts Group) that develop standards for digital audio and video compression. There are several versions of this standard, including MPEG-1, MPEG-2 and MPEG-4. NTSC: This stands for National Television Standards Committee that developed the protocol for broadcast transmission and reception in the US. NTSC signals are used in the US and Japan, and have hardly been altered since their inception, except for the addition of new parameters for colour signals. NTSC signals are interlaced, and an NTSC TV image has 525 horizontal lines per frame. Every other line is dropped, and thus it takes two screen scans to complete one image. One complete frame is scanned every 1/30 second. NTSC signals are not directly compatible with computer systems, but there are adapters available that let you view an NTSC signal on a PC monitor.
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Cable TV Connector

RF Tuner
FM Connector IR Port Composite in S-video in Audio In Audio Out

ADC

PAL: Phase Alternation Line is the standard that is used in India and Europe. In the PAL standard, the horizontal image has 625 horizontal lines per frame. A slight color variation is seen between the PAL and NTSC standards. This standard was developed in Germany. SECAM: This stands for Sequential Couleur Avec Memories, and is prevalent in some parts of Europe-mainly in Russia and countries of the former Soviet Union. Similar to the PAL standard, it is an interlaced transmission signal for TV.

Fig. 23.8 TV Tuner Card with Connectors 318

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NICAM stereo: This stands for Near Instantaneous Companded Audio Multiplex, and was developed by the BBC Research Centre in the early 1980s. It was first transmitted with the PAL colour broadcasting system in Britain. This technology improves on the sound quality of the transmitted TV signal. The Compro and Pinnacle TV tuners feature NICAM stereo. Working A TV-tuner card is just another PCI card. Most cards have a very simple layout with a RF (Radio Frequency) Tuner unit and an ADC (Analog to Digital Converter) chip. The ADC chips are mostly manufactured by Brooktree (Conexant) or Philips; and most tuner units are made by Philips. The RF tuner unit is just like the one you have in your TV. The frequency of TV signals lie between 40MHz and 300Mhz for VHF and about 800MHz for UHF FM radio , . bandwidth is also between 88MHz and 109 MHz, hence the name RF . The cable wire is plugged into the Tuner unit, where the RF signal is separated from the carrier signal and then passed to the ADC. The converter then samples this data, depending on the signal-either NTSC or PAL. The data is then passed on to the video card, where it is overlaid on the frame-buffer. This saves a lot on the system resources, However, capturing content will definitely hog system resources, and affect any other tasks you may be doing. This includes playing games or working with multimedia applications. Working in Word or Excel, or surfing the Net while capturing content shouldn't be a problem. Digital Cameras A good photograph appears to be one smooth, seamless image of widely varying color, darkness, and contrast. If you examine it closely enough, you will see that it chemically consists of the same elements found in electronic photography. Color film is made up of thin layers of chemicals that react to three different colors, just as PC displays are made of three colors. And chemical film has its own equivalent of a screen's pixels. The film uses the grains of silver compounds that react to light by clumping together to create tiny dots of black and white or different colors. The more and smaller the clumps, the finer the film's resolution. A digital image is just a long string of 1s and 0s that represent all the tiny colored dots or pixels-that collectively make up the image. If you want to get a picture into this form, you have two
Fig. 23.9 Digital Camera

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options:
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You can take a photograph using a conventional film camera, process the film chemically, print it onto photographic paper and then use a digital scanner to sample the print (record the pattern of light as a series of pixel values). You can directly sample the original light that bounces off your subject, immediately breaking that light pattern down into a series of pixel valuesin other words, you can use a digital camera.

Just like a conventional camera, it has a series of lenses that focus light to create an image of a scene. But instead of focusing this light onto a piece of film, it focuses it onto a semiconductor device that records light electronically. A computer then breaks this electronic information down into digital data. All the fun and interesting features of digital cameras come as a direct result of this process. The key difference between a digital camera and a film-based camera is that the digital camera has no film. Instead, it has a sensor that converts light into electrical charges. (Refer fig. 23.8). The image sensor employed by most digital cameras is a charge coupled device (CCD). Some low-end cameras use complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. While CMOS sensors will almost certainly improve and become more popular in the future, they probably won't replace CCD sensors in higher-end digital cameras. Working The operation of a digital camera is very similar to that of a conventional camera in that the image that needs to be captured is focused through a system of lenses, but the difference lies in the medium that is used for capturing that image. In conventional cameras, a light sensitive photographic film is used and when it is exposed to light the chemicals on the film undergo changes and remain fixed that way. Finally, when the film is developed, the image is obtained. In a digital camera, the primary sensing element is a Charge Coupled Device (CCD), which is an array of very tiny phototransistors that are arranged in a grid. When this grid is exposed to light, it transmits electricity depending upon the intensity of the light falling on it. These transistors are the smallest elements on the sensing device and they form the pixels in the image. Therefore, the greater the number of pixels in the image, the greater will be resolution supported and consequentially, the greater is the clarity. In the case of a monochrome digital camera, one pixel would be made up of a single transistor but in a colour digital camera, each pixel would be composed of three separate pixels - red, green and blue. Therefore, together these colours
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can represent any number of colours depending upon the light incident on them. This closely mimics the operation of the human eye where rods and cones are used to interpret chrominance and luminance information. These transistors generate continuous electrical signals that are sent to an Analog to Digital Converted (ADC) where these signals are converted to a digital format comprising of a stream of 1s and 0s. This bit stream is then sent to a specialised processor called a DSP (Digital Signal Processor) which is programmed specifically for handling image information, where various parameters of the photo like brightness, contrast and image clarity are adjusted. After this, the DSP converts the digital image information into a format that is compressed, so that it can be stored in the camera's internal memory or can be transmitted to the host computer. In many digital cameras available today, the primary storage medium is either a Flash ROM chip or an internal miniature hard disk drive. Some cameras, especially the high end ones, also feature an interface that can be used for connecting them to a host computer and exchanging information and downloading photographs from the camera as the photo is being taken. In many of the cameras, the viewfinder is in the form of an LCD screen that displays the image that is to be taken. This screen can also be used to preview images that are already stored on the camera along with other functions like arranging, deleting and transmitting information from the camera to the host computer. Most expensive cameras also feature very impressive functions like Zoom and Panaroma modes where the focal length of the lens can be varied along with other optical parameters, giving them the flexibility of most of the other conventional cameras. Web Cameras A simple Webcam consists of a digital camera attached to your computer. Cameras like these have dropped their prices and they are easy to connect through a USB port (earlier cameras connected through a dedicated card or the parallel port). A piece of software connects to the camera and grabs a frame from it periodically. For example, the software might grab a still image from the camera once every 30 seconds. The software then turns that image into a normal JPG file and uploads it to your Web server. The JPG image can be placed on any Web page . If you don't have a Web server, several companies now offer you a free place to upload your images, saving you the trouble of having to set up and maintain a Web server or a hosted Web site. This is the simplest possible Webcam. Putting a standard JPG image into a standard Web
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Fig. 23.10 Web Camera

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Multimedia

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page is straightforward, but it has the disadvantage that your readers must manually refresh the image. However, it is possible to create a system that automatically refreshes the image for the readers of the web page. Joystick The functioning of a joystick in its most basic form, is that of a controller that tells the computer in what position the handle is placed at any point in time. Since the handle of a joystick can move in one of two directions, the X-axis (Forward-Backward motion) and the Y-axis (Left-Right motion), the joystick can convey two-dimensional information. However, some types of joysticks can also convey information like the rotation of the shaft of the joystick (the R-axis, used for achieving the twisting action in a game). The base of the joystick contains a yoke assembly that pivots and thus allows the joystick to move freely in the two directions. (Refer fig. 23.12). It is this motion that is sensed and conveyed to the computer and finally on to the game. Two sensors are attached to each of the two axes of the joystick yoke, which electrically convey the information of the position of the joystick. This information is delivered to the game controller card and is finally used by the software to interpret the joystick's position. In the more advanced joysticks, there are more than two axes. Besides the X-Y axis, there may also be additional controls for a special button on the top of the joystick called the POV (Point Of View) hat that enables a player to look around when playing games like flight simulators.

Fig. 23.11 Joystick

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The buttons on a joystick are simple contact switches that send signals to the controller card when they are pressed. The controller card in turn writes a 1 at a specific stick address in memory. This memory address is continually scanned and the presence of a high potentiometer motion sensors signal indicates to the software that a button has been pressed. This results in further response in Y-axis the game like firing a gun.
shaft

Fig. 23.12 Yoke assembly in Joystick

Types of sensors: The most important part of the joystick is the sensor, as this component has to be able to accurately convey the exact position of the joystick. Various methods are used for X-axis shaft implementing this sensor. In the older analog joysticks, a variable resistor also called a potentiometer is used ailing with a capacitor. The potentiometer is connected
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to the two axes of the joystick. Since the capacitor has the ability for storing a charge, depending upon the resistance of the potentiometer - that is the current position of the joystick - the capacitor will take a certain amount of time to charge and discharge. When the resistance is greater, the time taken to charge and discharge will by longer than when the resistance is lesser. It is this time that is measured in milliseconds by the game controller card and is finally converted to a corresponding digital value that can be further used by the game in determining the current position of the joystick. In the newer digital joysticks, accuracy and response time is much greater since newer types of sensors are used. In one type of sensor, a special piezo-electric crystal is used and when pressure is applied to it, the crystal gets distorted and generates a certain amount of electric current. Hence, this crystal can be used as the sensing element. In another type of sensor, a Light Emitting Diode (LED) is used at one end, with a Charge Coupled Device (CCD) that converts light into electricity at the other end. Between these two components, there is a strip of film that is gradually shaded from one end to the other. Therefore, varying degrees of light, unlike conventional joysticks that are based upon mechanical potentiometers that could degrade over time. Media Player The Media Player is the jack-of-all-multimedia-trades in Windows 98. It can play CD audio, MIDI, WAV, and AVI files. Media Player can even play DVD VOB (Video Object) files-but it won't let you copy and paste images from DVD to some other application.

LAB EXERCISE 23.1 : Using Multimedia with Media Player Objective: To be familiar with identification and configuration of the different multimedia devices such as the Sound card and adjusting the volume control of the Speakers etc.as well as with the different utilities present in Windows 98 such as Windows Media Player. Tasks: 1. After installing the driver for the Sound card, try using the Windows Media player. 2. Change the volume control settings, and verify whether they are actually working out or not. 3. Also with a Windows Media Player insert a VCD and verify whether it is able to play all the files present in it. 4. In the Windows Media Player try out opening different media files supported by it.
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Modem

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Modem

Modems : To communicate between computers over greater distances the best alternative was to use the present laid down telephone network, which spans across the whole country. This network can only transmit analog signals, so normally a device called computers. The term modem combines the words modulator and demodulator. Simply, the modem modulator circuit converts binary data into tones. At the other end of the transmission line the demodulator circuit converts the tones back into binary data. By this technique, a pair of modems can send digital information over long, distances. The modems allows personal computers to communicate with mainframes and each other. Modem permits any two devices to communicate over a single pair of dedicated wires or the switched telephone network using a serial data communication protocol. The switched network comprises all the telephone, any individual can reach any one by dialling a number. The switched telephone network is not only connected by wires, but it also uses microwave and satellite transmissions. This means it can not be used to send binary data without first converting the data to tones, since these are ac-coupled circuits.
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modem is used to communicate between two

The
CARRIER GENERATOR MODULATOR

simple

modem

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information into two tones. One common


DTE TX CLK RX DIGITAL SIGNAL GENERATOR SYNC (CLOCK) TO PHONE LINE RS 232C

standard converts the RS-232 signals into a high frequency tone (1270Hz) for a logic 1 and a low-frequency tone (1070 Hz) for a logic 0. These tones are then transmitted over a telephone line or any long serial line. Again the demodulator portion of the modem converts received tones from the telephone line back to RS-232 signals.
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DEMODULATOR

Fig. 24.1 Block diagram of the modem.

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Modem

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COMPUTER COMPUTER

MODEM

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DI GITAL

ANAL OG

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DI GITAL

LED Indicators on External Modem They indicate the condition of the modem and the status of its operation. Though the actual location of these lights may vary from one modem to another, their functionality and naming convention is the same.

Fig. 24.2 Modem communication

HS: The Highest Speed LED indicates that your modem is currently operating at its highest rated speed. AA: The Auto Answer light indicates that your modem will automatically answer all incoming calls allowing you to access your computer while it's unattended. CD: Carrier Detect is a signal that the modem sends to the host computer, informing the computer that it has connected with the remote computer and has detected a carrier signal, which is the signal used to transmit data using modulation. OH: The Off Hook LED lights up whenever the modem takes charge of the phone line and is the same as the telephone receiver being off the hook.

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PHONE LINE SOCKET

RD: Receive Data is a signal that lights up whenever the modem is receiving data from the remote computer. TD: Transmit Data is a signal that lights up when the modem is transmitting data from the host computer

TO PHONE MODEM

COMPUTER TO LINE

to the remote computer. TR: The Terminal Ready LED lights up when the computer sends a DTR (Data Terminal Ready) signal

TELEPHONE

Fig. 24.3 Connecting the Modem.

to the modem, indicating that it is now ready for sending data to the modem. MR: Modem Ready LED lights up when the modem is turned on and ready for operation. Types of Modems External Modems : External modem usually come in small box with series of lights in the front and the connection at the back. Installation of the these types is quite easy. To connect it to the computer following cables will be required 1. Serial cable to connect computer to the modem 2. The phone line 3. A power cable to the modem

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These modems are easy to install, but there are certain disadvantages in using them. They require separate power supply and separate serial port as it does not have the serial port controller. It is also a bit expensive, but popularly these modems are used. Internal Modems : Internal modems come as a peripheral card which can be easily fitted into the I/O slot of the PCs. These modems has advantage, as it has its own serial port controller and can be used for high speed data transfer. Installing them is a bit difficult as the PC has to be opened and the required port and interrupt jumper setting has to be done before installing it. Internal modems has its own initializing program which can be installed in the memory as a device driver through Config.sys. Error-Correcting Modems (Present in Internal/External Modem): It has long been possible for communication software to detect errors and request retransmission automatically. Error detection and automatic retransmission have now been built into some modems. There are two methods in common use, which are both described in the V.42 standard issued by CCITT. The first method is called Link Access Procedure for Modems (LAPM). The second method, devised by Microcom, Inc., is called MNP 4. If error detecting is implemented it is necessary that modems on each end of a transmission agree on which error-correcting method to use. Modems that claim V.42 compatibility should support both methods. Error correction can be important at higher baud rates, where line noise can cause havoc with data communications. However, it is not always necessary for the error correction to be built into the modems themselves. Data errors are most critical when transferring binary files such as programs, where a single incorrect byte may cause the program not to run. For transferring binary files, the file transfer protocol that itself incorporates error checking and retransmission. In these cases, there is an element of redundancy in using an error-correcting modem.
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Modulation Standards: There are many standards for modulation. These are explained in brief below: Bell 103 & 212A. These are old standards. Bell 103 transmits at 300 bps at 1 bit per baud. Bell 212A was the next step up, capable of two bits per baud. It was capable of 1200bps at 600 baud. Each used a different type of modulation. V.21. Uses mainly outside the U.S., it was a sort of international standard. It is not compatible with Bell protocols, and is only capable of 300bps.

Fig. 24.4 External Modem

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V.22. Shares the features of V.21, but was capable of 1200bps. Later, the V.22bis protocol was used. It was used both in the U.S. and outside, and ran at 4 bits per baud for a total of 2400bps. V.23. Used mainly in Europe, this allowed the modem to send and receive data at the same time, although it could send data only at 75bps. This standard was developed to lower the cost of modems. A 1200 bps modem was very expensive at the time. V.29. A half-duplex standard, meaning one-way. It works at 9600bps. The standard is not laid out well for modems, therefore isn't much used. The protocol is most often used for fax machines.

Fig. 24.5 Internal Modem

V.32. This standard began to get users into the ballpark we are all in now. It was a full-duplex standard and operated at 9600bps, with a 2400 baud rate. It incorporates error-correcting and negotiation. The error-correcting allowed V.32 to work well over phone line noise. V.32bis. This is one step up from v.32. It transmitted 6 bits per baud, allowing throughputs of 14,400 bps. It also allowed fallback onto regular V.32 if the phone line was impaired. Many still use this modem standard primarily. V.32fast Better known as the 28,800 bps modem. V.34. The latest real modem standard. It provides a reliable 28,800 bps connection. With upgrades to the ROM BIOS on the modem, the standard is often used for 33,600 bps transmissions. V.90. It digitally encodes data and transmits it over phone lines instead of modulating it to an analog signal. It provides 56 kbps download rates while uploading is limited to 33.6 kbps. BROADBAND TECHNOLOGIES Cable Modem: A cable modem is an external device that attaches to your computer. Instead of getting an Internet connection through your telephone wire, you can get a connection through your cable network (the same place your cable TV connection comes from). Cable modems work by translating radio frequency (RF) signals to and from the cable plant into internet protocol (IP), the communication language spoken by all computers connected to the internet. This translation process takes place at the cable operator's plant. When a cable modem is installed, a splitter is placed on the side of the

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customer's home, which separates the coaxial cable line serving the cable modem from those serving televisions. A separate coaxial cable line is then run from the splitter to the cable modem, which is located next to the customer's computer. Cable modems typically connect to computers through a standard 10BaseT Ethernet interface. A wire (called Category 5 cabling) is run from the cable modem to an Ethernet card in the computer. Data is transmitted between the cable modem and computer at 10 Mbps. Fe atur es Support VPN. (PPTP pass thru) for Internet connection. Internet applications such as Web, FTP Telnet, E-Mail, News, NetMeeting. , Natural firewall keeps hackers out. DHCP server allocates up to 128 client IP addresses. DHCP client to get global IP address automatically. 4 ports 10/100 base-T Nway Ethernet Switch Virtual server. Rich packet filters. Static routing. Support Proxy-DNS. Easy setup by Windows GUI program and Telnet through network. Flash memory for firmware upgrade.

Fig. 24.6 Implementation of DSL for Home and Business Purposes

DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) It is a technology developed by the phone companies in order to compete against cable modems. Both technologies came to market at around the same time, though one or the other may only be available in your area. DSL technology works over existing phone lines, and makes use of additional bandwidth that is not currently used by phones. The way the technology works has to do closely with how modems work. DSL works on the basis that a signal travelling over a phone line does not have to be transferred back and forth between analog and digital realms. DSL

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assumes that the data is being sent digitally, and never bothers with the conversion. This allows for greater bandwidth than analog signals could ever hope to offer, but allows for the two to coincide on the same line. Which DSL technology you pick up depends on what your provider is carrying, but xDSL and ADSL seem to be the two most popular variants. ADSL(a = asynchronous) works by focusing much of the bandwidth on the download speed and lowering the upload speed - perfect for most users. DSL technology requires you to hook up either to a DSL modem, or to a router system which is usually provided by your provider (amazing how that works). If you can, opt to go the router route as your connection will be in an 'alwayson' state. If you have to get a DSL modem you may be forced to 'dial-in' to the DSL server each time you reboot or want to connect to the net (which would defeat the purpose of having a connection such as this). ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) Digital Subscriber Line or DSL is a technology that delivers voice, video and data at high speeds over conventional telephone lines. ADSL stands for Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line, a type of DSL service with different (asymmetric) upstream and downstream capabilities. ADSL technology uses your existing telephone line to your home or office to provide you with a fast, reliable, "Always On" connection to the Internet. You will no longer receive a busy signal or spend time waiting for a connection. In addition, you are able to use your telephone while surfing the Internet because DSL technology uses different frequencies to transport voice [lower] and data [higher]. ADSL Modem on your end sends data over the telephone line to your service provider company. At the company; DSL Access Multiprocess redirects voice traffic to the (PSTN) and data to a high speed digital line that connects to the internet. The difference between DSL and cable modems DSL provides always-available high-speed Internet access over a private, "dedicated" and secure communication channel between you and your service provider. Cable modems offer high-speed Internet access over a "shared" cable, where access speed and security are compromised as more users try to connect. While cable modems may have greater theoretical downstream (from the Internet to the home) bandwidth capabilities, that bandwidth is shared among all users in a neighbourhood, and will therefore vary, perhaps dramatically, as more users in a neighbourhood get online at the same time. Broadband is today's reality with demands of connectivity speed exceeding

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125 kilobits per second. Comparing the overall price/performance of both service types, we see that Cable-modem access has lower installation costs and faster Internet data download from 3 to 4 megabits per second. According to the supporters of cable modems, DSL will soon become outdated due to intensive data requirement of video-on-demand, multi-player games, streaming of audio and video, Internet software distribution, and other such services that generally require very high data downloading speeds. On the other hand, supporters of DSL say that Cable modem access will face tough time with its inherent security and speed issues - any single addition of subscriber to a neighbourhood hub dilutes the overall quality of cable-modem service. On the contrary, DSL is slower than cable with an average speed of 1.5 megabits per second, but is considered far secure and reliable since it's based on a dedicated line between a home and the phone company. Hence there is a little security risk of personal computing systems getting hacked when using DSL access type.

DSL Service Up to 1.5Mbps downstream, 1.5Mbps upstream in a point-to-point connection. Bandwidth is dedicated, not shared, between the user's location and our central office.

Cable Modems Up to 30 Mbps downstream, engineered for sharing between 500-2,000 users. Service deterioration occurs when a large number of users attempt simultaneous transmission. Functionality is very similar to Ethernet LAN technology. DSL is not subject to eavesdropping in a Cable is a shared medium that is subject to point-to-point environment. Also, Copper eavesdropping, denial of service attacks, facilities, a staple of DSL technology, is service theft and speed degradation. more readily available than alternate (over subscription) technologies such as fiber or cable. Bandwidth is easily scalable; An access Subscription can be made only after the node can be installed into an area when entire network is upgraded to Hybrid economically justified to augment DSL Fiber/Coax. Simply dropping an optical coverage. node will not suffice. The fiber optics and coaxial cable must be in place. DSL provides for simultaneous voice Current cable modems do not provide for service on the POTS line. voice and require an analog modem for upstream communications that ties up a dial tone line. DSL modems only affect a single user if A CATV line cut will bring down all users malfunctioning. on that line.

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Modem

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Configuring a Modem The following steps below describe the configuration. Step 1, From the Start button, select Settings and open the Control Panel. Open the Modems tab in Control Panel. If you already have a modem installed in your computer, you will see modem listed refer fig 24.7, if you do not have a modem installed in your computer Click the Add button. Step 2, Be sure that your modem is properly connected and, if it is external, that it is turned on. Do not place a tick in the box titled Don't detect my modem, refer fig 24.8. Click Next to begin the process of detecting your modem. Windows will now attempt to detect your modem by scanning each of the communications ports in your computer Step 3, Once Windows completes scanning your system for your modem, it will list the type of modem that it found. If the modem listed is not what you have in your computer, click the Change button and move to the next step. If your modem is correctly identified, click the Next button and move to Step 6. Step 4, Scroll through the list of manufacturers in the left hand column. If the manufacturer for your modem is listed, click once on that manufacturer. The list of modems will change in the right hand column. If your modem is listed, click on its entry once then click the Next button. Move to Step 6. If your modem is not listed and you do not have a disk for your modem, click on Standard Modem Types from the left hand column. Then click once on the modem that most closely matches yours from the list on the right hand side. Click the Next button. Move to Step 6. Step 5, If you have a disk for your modem, click the Have Disk button, Insert the disk that contains your modem software into the disk drive, Select the correct drive letter and folder that contains the modem software. You may need to use the browse button to change drive letters or folders, Click the OK button and move to the next step. Once you have selected the correct drive and folder that contains your modem software. The file that Windows is looking for is listed in the File name box. There will be a file with the same name highlighted in the list under the file name box, refer fig. 24.9. Click the OK button.
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Fig. 24.7 Modem Properties dialog box CMS INSTITUTE 2012

Fig. 24.8 Install New Modem

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Fig. 24.9 Selection of Modem driver

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Modem

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Step 6, Windows will now ask which communications (COM) port you want the modem to communicate through. External modems are usually connected through COM1 or COM2. Internal modems are usually connected through COM3 or COM4. Select the COM port that you want to use (refer fig 24.10) then click the Next button Step 7, Your modem software has now been installed. Click the Finish button to finalize the settings, Click the OK button to close the Modem Properties window.
Fig. 24.10 Port Selection for Modem

The Modem Properties dialog box is the next screen to appear (Refer fig 24.7); this figure shows the modem is installed. Here you can manage the modems installed on your comuter. The Add button gives you the option of adding another modem from a list of available modems; alternatively, the Remove button enables you to remove a modem from the list of installed modems. The Properties button of this dialog box displays the General properties dialog box for the highlighted modem after you choose a modem from the list (see fig. 24.11). This box lists several of the selected modem's properties, such as the maximum speed and speaker volume. However, the most important property shown here is the Port field: This field tells you the COM port that modem is configured to. You can find and define several other modemspecific settings here that have little or no effect on the fax parameters. Settings that may be specified include speaker volume, the maximum speed at which the modem may connect, connection preferences (data bits, parity, stop bits), call preferences (wait for dial tone before connecting, cancel if connection is not established within a given number of seconds, disconnect after a predefined idle time), whether to use FIFO buffers 9 for 16550 UART), error control settings (required to connect, compress data, use cellular protocol), flow control settings (hardware (RTS/CTS), software (XON/XOFF), and others. Click on OK to return to the Modems Properties dialog box and then click on close to wrap up the property definition process.

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Fig. 24.11 Properties for the Selected Modem

Setting Up Internet Connections This section describes how to connect to the Internet using the Windows 98
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TCP/IP and PPP services. It assumes that you are making a full Dial-Up Networking connection to an Internet service provider. The following steps are merely an overview of how you'll connect to the system. Install and configure a modem with the Modem utility in the Control Panel. The next few sections provide more detail about setting up TCP/IP and your Internet connection. Configuring a Dial-Up Networking Session Here are the steps to configure an Internet dial-up connection. These steps assume the Dial-Up Networking Support files are installed on your computer. My Connection Open the My Computer window, then double-click the Dial-Up Networking folder to open it. Double-click the Make New Connection object. The Make New Connection wizard pictured in Fig. 24.12 appears with a list of modems you can use on your computer. Type a name in the top field that describes what this connection does (for example "Internet dial-up connection") and then click the Next button. In the next wizard box, type the phone number that your service provider gave you to use when dialing in. Click Next, then click Finish to complete the operation.

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Motorola Voice SURFR 56K Internal PnP

Fig. 24.12 Choosing a modem for the dial-up connection


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You should now see a new object in the Dial-Up Networking window for your new Internet connection, similar to the one shown here: Dialing Into the Internet To connect to your service provider, double-click the dial-up object you created in the previous section. You'll see a dialog box similar to the one shown in fig. 24.13. Type your Internet name in the User name field. You'll be entering just the first part of your Internet address.
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Fig. 24.13 Preparing to dial out to the internet

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For example, my Internet address is dilipd@cms.co.in but I'll type only dilipd in this field. Be sure to use lowercase letters. Click the Connect button to establish the connection. Once you connect with your service provider, you'll see a small dialog box similar to the following that indicates the speed of your connection and the amount of time you have been connected. You can click the Disconnect button to end the session, but make sure you first quit or log out of any session you might have open. Click the Details button to see the protocols in use.

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Backup Devices

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PC ENGINEERING

Backup Devices

Tape Drive Backing up your hard disk to a tape drive used to be like one of your mother's warnings when you were a child: Take an umbrella with you on cloudy days and always wear a raincoat. Sure, Mom was right once in a whilerain would come down and you would get wet, but it wasn't all that terrible. So what if your hard disk's file allocation table got scrambled and you lost half your files. A few years ago, as long as you'd copied a few essential data files to floppies, recreating a couple of megabytes of programs from their original distribution disks wasn't that much trouble. Today, however, the implication of a little hard-disk disaster have mushroomed. You're more often talking about hard drives that contain not just a few megs of files, but hundreds. A single Windows program may include 30 megabytes of files. And with a complex environment such as Windows, no program exists alone. Many Windows programs you install modify at least one of the .INI files of Window. At the same time that it becomes more critical than ever to back up hard drives, disk sizes up to 500 megabytes make the idea of backing up to floppy disks even more abhorrent. Enter the new breed of less expensive, more capacious tape backup drives. And the ability to copy a gigabyte or more to a single tape makes them simple to use for even the biggest hard drives. Tapes have been around since 1972 when the first QICs (Quarter Inch Cartridges) were introduced by 3M to store data from telecommunications and data acquisition applications. Large-capacity tape-medium still remains the best option for full-system, network-wide data backups. Tape drives use magnetic tapes to hold large amounts of data. They can store up to 72 gigabytes and hence are very useful for very large backups and allow you to back up your entire system at once. Since they are magnetic all the advantages of magnetic media along with its disadvantages are applicable to tape drives also.

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Types of Drives The drives have been classified on the basis of the methodology adopted to record data and there are two ways in which this can be done, in a spiral, or 'helical' fashion wherein the data tracks are written at an angle with respect to the edge of the tape called the HST (Helical Scan Technology) and the LST (Linear Serpentine Technology) where multiple linear tracks are written parallel to the edge of the tape. In HST, a magnetic tape is partially wrapped around an angled, rapidly rotating drum containing the read and write heads. In LST, the tape moves linearly over the head assembly where the precisely aligned read and write heads are located. The 4mm DAT (Digital Audio Tape), Exabyte's 8mm Mammoth and Sony's AIT (Advanced Intelligent Tape) are based on HST while Quantum's Digital Linear Tape (DLT and SuperDLT) and LTO (Linear Tape Open) by IBM, Seagate and HP employ the use of LST. Tape Drives and their Media: Tape manufacturers usually specify two separate capacities for their tapes: native capacity and compressed capacity. Native capacity is the actual available capacity on the media. But, most tape drives use some algorithm to compress data before writing it to tape. This increases the overall available capacity. Tapes and tape drives are rated with two numbers, for eg., "7/14 GB. Here the first number which is the smaller number represents the storage capacity of the tape and the second which is the larger number is the capacity using data compression which doubles the actual capacity of the drive itself. Compression also doubles the data transfer speed. Digital Linear Tape Digital Linear Tape technology was developed by DEC (Digital Equipment Corporation) to be used with its MicroVax systems. Quantum acquired the technology from DEC in 1994 and has since then been selling various DLT formats. DLT-drives have a unique HGA (head-guide assembly), which minimizes tape wear. The HGA is a boomerang-shaped aluminium plate with six large bearing-mounted rollers. While in helical scan systems, tape is grabbed from the middle and pulled into place, the DLT HGA system links a leader strip on the end of the tape, pulls the tape out of the cartridge and wraps it around the take-up reel, guided by the rollers. Quantum introduced the Super-DLT range in 1998, with a much higher capacity (110 GB native in SDLT 220 compared with 40 GB native in DLT8000). The latest SDLT drive from Quantum offers 160 GB native and 320 GB
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compressed capacity, with 16 MB/sec native and 32 MB/sec compressed transfer rate. The main advantages of DLT are the higher storage capacity, higher data transfer rates, and higher reliability because of the HGA which does not allow the media to touch the head in the drive. DLT or Digital Linear Tape is supported largely by Quantum but HP Dell, IBM, , Fujifilm, Maxell and Exabyte, also provide DLT products. Like other formats, DLT also has several generations DLT III, DLT IV, DLT VS1. Out of these, DLT IV is the most commonly used. Archival life of DLT media is 30 years and about 1,000,000 end to end passes usage life. DLT IV: capacity 40GB native, 3.0 - 6.0 MB/sec native transfer rate. All DLT formats are backward compatible Quarter-inch Cartridge (QIC) Tape Backup Drive When you use the software for a quarter-inch cartridge drive to issue a backup command, the program reads your hard disk's file allocation table to locate the files you've told it to back up. The software writes the directory information to a 32K buffer in your PC's RAM. It then copies the files into the same buffer. Each file is prefaced with header information that identifies the file and its location on the hard drive's directory tree. If the tape drive's controller includes chips that handle error correction, the backup software dumps the full buffer from RAM to the controller's own buffer, where the chips append error correction (EC) codes. If the controller doesn't have built-in error correction, the software computes the EC codes based on the pattern of 0 and 1 bits in the files, appends them to the end of the data in the RAM buffer, and copies the contents of the RAM buffer to the controller buffer. Once the data is transferred to the controller, the RAM buffer is free to receive the next block of data from the disk. The tape drive's controller sends signals to the tape mechanism to start the tape moving. QIC drives depend on the cartridges to keep the tape taut. When the drive's capstan turns the cartridge's roller, an elastic belt wrapped around the reels of tape stretches slightly as it grips the tape, ensuring that the pulling force of the take up reel matches the resistance of the supply reel. This makes the tape press against the drive head with a constant pressure, minimizing write and read errors. The controller sends a stream of data to the drive's write head. Many tape drives have three-part read-while-write head. Two read heads flank a central write head that transfers the data to the magnetic coating on the tape. Depending on which way the tape is moving, one of the read heads reads the data that's just been written by the write head to verify that the data on the
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tape matches what the write head sent to the next section of disk data. If the data doesn't check out, the data is rewritten on the next stretch of tape. Note : To restore a file from tape, the drive uses the directory on the tape to locate the file, and then reads the file into its buffer. The controller computes a CRC code for each block and compares it with the CRC code written at the end of the block. If there's a discrepancy, error-correction routines usually can fix the data using the EC codes appended to each data block. As the tape drive's buffer fills up, data is written to the hard disk in the appropriate directory. The format of a QIC tape typically contains 20 to 32 parallel tracks. When the tape reaches either end of a spool, its movement reverses and the flow of data loops back in a spiral fashion to the next outside track. Each track is divided into blocks of 512 or 1,024 bytes and segments typically contain 32 blocks. Of the blocks in a segment, eight contain error-correction codes. In addition, at the end of each block, the drive computes a cyclic redundancy check (CRC) for further error correction and appends it to the block. Most backup software reserves space for a directory of backed-up file at the beginning of track 0 or in a separate directory track. As either end of the tape approaches the drive head, holes punched in the tape signal the drive to reverse the direction of the tape and to shift the active area of the recording head up or down to the next track and then continue recording. When all the data has been written to the tape, the backup software updates the tape's directory with the track and segment locations of the files that it's backed up. Digital Audio-Tape (DAT) DAT drives are the most popular kind of tape drives. They are available in two size - 4 mm and 8 mm. These 4 mm size look like small audio cassettes. They were initially designed to store CD like quality of audio. 4mm DAT (Digital Audio Tape) is used for storing CD-quality audio format. Digital Data Storage or DDS is a DAT-based computer-data storage format, developed by Sony and HP and released in 1989. So what is used with computers is DDS, not DAT, but the name DAT-drives has stuck. DDS has gone through four different revisions: DDS, DDS-2, DDS-3, DDS-4; the first two formats are not used as much as the others now. HP has further revised this standard and calls the latest standard DAT 72. DDS cartridges have an archival storage life of 10-20 years and a usage life of about 2000 end-to-end passes. DDS cartridges are quite smaller in size and lightweight compared to other formats.

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DDS-3: capacity 12GB native, 1.2MB/sec native transfer rate DDS-4: capacity 20GB native, 2.4MB/sec native transfer rate DAT72: capacity 36GB native, 3MB/sec native transfer rate DDS format is backward compatible with all previous formats. 8mm The 8mm tape is similar to DAT but with higher storage capacities. Two protocols differentiated by compression algorithms and drive technologies exist in the 8mm space-the Mammoth by Exabyte and the AIT (Advanced Intelligent Tape) by Sony and Seagate. Digital Audio-Tape (DAT) Backup Drive When you issue a backup command from your software, the program checks your hard disk's file allocation table to find the files to back up. Then it copies the data, file by file, into the digital audio tape drive's buffer, which usually has room for 512K or 1MB of data. Like a QIC tape drive, the DAT drive performs an algorithm on the data to create error-correction code that it adds to the data in the buffer. The distinctive design of the DAT drive's read/write head is what allows it to backup huge amounts of data onto a small tape cartridge about the size of a matchbox. The mechanism is a rotating cylinder with four heads 90 degrees apart. Two of these heads, write heads A and B, write backup data, and two corresponding read heads verify the data. The cylinder tilts slightly so it rotates at an angle to the tape. The cylinder spins 2,000 times a minute while the tape (at a rate of 1/2 inch a second) passes in front of the cylinder in the opposite direction of the cylinder's spin. During the time that write head A is in contact with the tape, it writes about 128K of data and error-correction codes from the drive's buffer to a track on the tape. Because the cylinder is tilted, the head encounters one edge of the tape at the beginning of the write head and moves diagonally across the tape until it reaches the other side. This results in a narrow diagonal track about eight times longer than the width of the tape.

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Fig. 25.1 DAT Backup drive

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Fig. 25.2 Mechanism of rotating cylinder with four heads

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W rite head A

Fig. 25.3 Write Head A writing Data while Read Head A verifies it

Read head A reads back and verifies the Read head A data in track A, bit by bit, against the data still in the buffer. If the data on the tape is checked, it's flushed from the buffer, and more data is read from the hard disk. If the data in track A contains errors, the data will be rewritten on the next pass. As write head B passes over the tape, it writes data in a track at a 40-degree angle to track A, making a crisscross pattern that overlaps track A. The overlapping data packs more information per inch of tape; it isn't misread later because the magnetic bits written by the two write heads have different polarities, and the different read heads read data only from properly aligned tracks. Read head B and write head B go through the same steps, alternating with the A heads until all the data is backed up. Then the drive rewinds that tape and writes a directory of stored files either in a special partition at the front of the tape or in a file on the hard disk. Note : When you restore files from the DAT drive, the software reads the directory, winds the tape to the spot where the requested files begin, and copies the files to the hard disk. Deciding Factors while selecting a tape drive: Once the business requirement is identified, choosing the right tape technology depends upon the following factors i) Tape capacity: The tape manufacturers, specify the native capacity and the compressed capacity. The actual compression depends on the kind of data being stored and will therefore not always be equal to the manufacturers' rating. For example, .bmp and text files are more compressible than binary or .exe files. So, while choosing a backup solution, look for the uncompressed (the native) capacity.

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Fig. 25.4 Write Head B writing Data on Tape

ii) Speed of writing data on tape: This becomes important when you have lots of data to back up, and would like to have it backed up in the shortest time possible. The capacity and speed would depend upon the tape technology you choose. The speeds range from 1.2 MB/sec to 30 MB/sec. iii) Drive maintenance and service: All tape cartridges have a usable life and
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a shelf life, depending upon whether you're using it for backup or archival. So you'll need to see how soon would you have to replace the cartridges of the technology you choose and what the replacement cost will be. iv) Interface and form factor: While SCSI is the favorable choice for connecting tape drives, IDE and USB tape devices are also available. SCSI, with so many standards may also crop up installation or performance issues. Apart from the interface, things like the size of the tape and drive, whether it's internal or external, should be considered. v) Cost: Last but not the least is the cost at which you get the entire solution. This includes both the price of the drive and the cartridges. The latter is important as it's the running cost. It would vary because the number of cartridges you'll use will vary depending upon your back up strategy. Zip Drive After floppy drives, Zip drives were a miracle in the magnetic media world. Until the advent of CD-burners, Zip drives were and still continue to be one of the most popular backup devices. Zip Drive Types The zip drives can be classified according to the capacities i.e. 100 MB, 250 MB, 750 MB and the type of interface used by the zip drive. Zip drives can be internal or external types. In internal type, it comes only with the ATAPI type of interface having all the same type of connectors as that of the hard disk, as well as the jumper settings as well. In external type, it can come with a parallel or USB type of an interface Zip Drives and Cartridges Zip drives and their media were cheaper than CD burners and their media. They could be used like any other ordinary floppy drives. The media used in these drives are called Zip cartridges or simply cartridges. These cartridges are also portable and much more stable. These Zip cartridges can store up to 100 MB of data of any kind. They are 4 inches square that is a little larger than a floppy disk and about twice as thick. Unfortunately to read a zip cartridge (Zip media) you need a Zip drive only and not all computers have one. So everytime you need your information somewhere else you need to also carry the Zip drive, the cartridges and the drivers of course. However, with an install base of 25 million Zip drives, finding one in places that extensively shuttle data between computers should not be too difficult. Zip drives
Fig. 25.5 Zip Drive and cartridges

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cannot really work as booting devices. You have to buy some additional hardware or software for this purpose. If you have a SCSI drive then you need SCSI card. In addition to this you also need to have the option of "Boot from SCSI instead of IDE" in the BIOS of your motherboard. Also, if you are looking for speed this is not a very viable option for you. Zip drives are comparatively faster in operating files but when it comes to writing large files or reading and writing smaller files they are quite slow but definitely faster than a floppy drive. More about Zip drives Like floppy diskettes Zip drives also work with magnetic media and therefore need great care but unlike the magnetic coating on the floppy disks, the latter has a coating of a much better quality. Due to this the head that reads the information on the cartridge is much smaller in size and therefore there exist a greater number of tracks per sector on the cartridge and so more information can be stored on the same. This magnetic media is enclosed in hard plastic. And the entire cartridge comes enclosed in a plastic jewel case like CDs. The zip drive has a read/write head with which it reads magnetic impressions on the diskette. Wings attached closely to it control the head movements. These wings are on opposite sides to the head so that they can travel on either side of the disk and position the head correctly. The data is stored on concentric circles like in case of floppy diskettes but the Zip drive uses a variable number of sectors per track to make the optimum use of the disk space. Unlike in a floppy disk the Zip drives do not park their heads automatically when powering down and therefore it is better to eject the disks from the drives before shutting the drive or the computer. Unfortunately till now Zip drives drivers are not built into the standard operating systems as a result of which they have to be installed separately. Drivers for installing the Zip drives are normally available on either floppies or nowadays on CDs. During installation of these drivers several other utilities can also be installed. These offer various additional features, like, if you want to change the drive letter, or if you want to format a Zip disk, which is rare, as these disks are preformatted.

What are Disk Arrays? Disk arrays are storage systems that link multiple physical hard drives into one large drive for advanced data control and security. Disk arrays have several advantages over traditional single-disk systems. A hard disk, while being the vital center of any computer system, is also its weakest link. It is the only critical device of a computer system that is not electronic, but relies on intricate moving mechanical parts that often fail. When
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this happens, data is irretrievable and unless a backup system has been employed, the user is out of luck. This is where disk arrays make a difference. Disk arrays incorporate controls and a structure that pre-empts disaster. The most common disk array technology is RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks). RAID utilizes disk arrays in a number of optional configurations that benefit the user. One advantage of RAID disk arrays is redundancy of data writes so that if a file is damaged or stored in a bad cluster or disk, it can be instantly and transparently replaced from another disk in the array. RAID also allows hotswapping of bad disks and increased flexibility in scalable storage. Performance is also enhanced through a process called "striping." There are many varieties of RAID, and though designed primarily for servers, disk arrays have become increasingly popular among individuals because of their many benefits. RAID is particularly suited for gamers and multimedia applications. RAID controllers, built into motherboards, must set parameters for interacting with disk arrays. The controller sets the performance parameter to match

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the slowest disk. If it were to use the fastest disk as the benchmark, data would be lost when written to disks that cannot support that speed. For this reason, all disks in the array should be the same brand, speed, size and model for optimal performance. A mix of capacities, speeds and types of disks will negatively impact performance. The best drives for disk arrays are SATA (Serial ATA) RAID drives. These drives are optimized for RAID use and, being SATA, are hot-swappable. Using disk arrays can provide peace of mind while improving data security and performance. Motherboards with built-in RAID controllers support certain types of RAID. For example, an older or inexpensive motherboard might only support RAID 0 and RAID 1, while a newer or more expensive board might support RAID 1 through RAID 5. Be sure to get a motherboard or third party RAID controller that supports the RAID configuration you require for your disk array. Since a backup system contains at least one copy of all data worth saving, the data storage requirements are considerable. Organizing this storage space and managing the backup process is a complicated undertaking. A data repository model can be used to provide structure to the storage. In the modern era of computing there are many different types of data storage devices that are useful for making backups. There are also many different ways in which these devices can be arranged to provide geographic redundancy, data security, and portability. Before data is sent to its storage location, it is selected, extracted, and manipulated. Many different techniques have been developed to optimize the backup procedure. These include optimizations for dealing with open files and live data sources as well as compression, encryption, and de-duplication, among others. Many organizations and individuals try to have confidence that the process is working as expected and work to define measurements and validation techniques. It is also important to recognize the limitations and human factors involved in any backup scheme

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LAB EXERCISE 25.1 : Backup Data on backup devices Objective : To be familiar with the built-in backup programs for backing up data using Hard disk, Zip Drive or Tape Drive. Tasks: 1. Open the Microsoft Backup program from the System tools tab. 2. Now, try backing up a small file such as a text file from My Documents on the hard disk itself so that even if the system files are corrupted the data is backed up. 3. Once backed up, then, now try recovering the file on the Desktop so that it is easily visible. 4. Now, backing up by using the Zip drive, which is ready for use after installing the driver, which will get a drive letter, and then backup the My Documents Folder. 5. Try now recovering back the My Documents folder from the Zip drive.

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Viruses

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PC ENGINEERING

Viruses

What is a Computer Virus? Computer viruses are mysterious and grab our attention. Viruses show us how vulnerable we are. A properly engineered virus can have an amazing effect on the worldwide Internet. Computer viruses are computer software programs, just as word processors, spreadsheets, database managers. They are simply lists of instructions that tell computers what actions to execute and precisely how to execute them. Computer viruses can, therefore, perform all operations that are supported by the host computer's operating system just as any other piece of software can perform those operations. For example, the thing making big news right now is the Mydoom worm, which experts estimate infected approximately a quarter-million computers in a single day. Back in March 1999, the Melissa virus was so powerful that it forced Microsoft and a number of other very large companies to completely turn off their e-mail systems until the virus could be contained. The ILOVEYOU virus in 2000 had a similarly devastating effect. That's pretty impressive when you consider that the Melissa and ILOVEYOU viruses are incredibly simple. Most software programs carefully monitor and control users actions to prevent from inadvertently damaging or losing data by displaying warning or error messages. These alerts serves as fail-safe mechanisms against unintentionally destructive actions. Computer viruses and other rogue programs, on the other hand, are designed to function in a manner diametrically opposed to virtually all "legitimate" software programs. Viruses load and run without users requesting them to run; they hide inside normal programs called host programs and run when the hosts are run. Viruses act without prompting users for permission and without warning users of the consequences of their actions. When viruses encounter errors, they recover or attempt to recover without printing error messages and without asking users to assist in correcting error-related conditions. In a nut shell, computer viruses are designed to operate secretly, behind the

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scenes, so that their missions can be accomplished without, and not be compromised by, user input. What Can Viruses do? Virus stands for Vital Information Resources Under Seize. Virus can do anything which a software programs can do, but it does it secretly. It can format disks, copy, rename and delete files, clone themselves with new configuration information, modify file dates and attributes, call other computers to upload and download files, and so on. If the action can be performed by computer software, it can be performed by a computer virus. Technically speaking virus is a program that modifies other programs to include an viral codes in it. To meet the minimum criteria for computer virus design the program must : be executable be capable of cloning itself convert other executable objects into viral clones

Nowhere in the definition of computer viruses is there any mention of non prompted, secret operations, of destructive actions, or of spreading across multiple computer installations. Rogue programmers have added those twists, but a program need not conduct such activity to qualify as a computer virus but the important property of the virus is the replication and doing things in secrecy. From the merely amusing to the absolutely disastrous, there is practically no limit to what extent virus affects computing activity. The ability of viruses to corrupt important databases and programs can cause great problems. It can alter just a small bit of data here and there, such as adding a zero to multiply certain figures by 10 or moving a decimal point a place or two, either in a carefully calculated or a random manner. In text files, a virus may change one name for another. Virus can execute a normal DOS routine at the most inappropriate time so that it causes the most harm. For example, when save a file command is given, the virus might change the command to FORMAT, destroying all the data on the disk to the file was to be saved. The .COM and .EXE infector viruses interrupt normal computing activity at the first available opportunity to take control of the system while they copy themselves to new .COM and .EXE files. They may attach to the file externally. Or they may find internal spaces that will accommodate the virus code within the coding for the program selected as a host. Some of the .COM and .EXE infector remain resident in the system's memory so that they can enter in the boot sector of a disk to make this a more
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comfortable environment for virus replication and other activity. They can also alter applications programs so that they are more accommodating to the needs of the virus. A virus may seek out a system file that is already hidden, or change a file that it has infected into a hidden one that will not show up in directories. A number of viruses hide in or alter for their own purposes the software that control a system's internal clock. Often one of the first actions of a virus is to check the time and date in a system to see if these match the virus's programmed activation time. Another frequent first action by a virus is to check if there are any new files or disks accessible within the system for it to infect. If not, it may immediately pass control back to the operating system or application program and remain dormant until a suitable infection opportunity arises. Viruses may run concurrently with the operating system or application programs they have infected, carrying out their tasks either openly or hidden in the background. There are generic application infectors programmed to gain control of application programs when these are run, make whatever changes the virus has been instructed to do, then pass control back to the application. These viruses either hide in the application and take over some of its functions or more frequently, attach themselves to the beginning or end of files. Viruses can prevent the user from accessing the data, even if the data is not destroyed? Showing error messages like "File not found" and "Error reading drive". Many viruses slows down the computing operations because of the sheer load that their reproductive activity imposes, particularly if there are bugs in the virus. Good example of this is the Christmas virus. But they can also be made to do this deliberately in various ways, either to annoy users or to make the system virtually unusable. Why Virus is created? With the ongoing growth in the popularity and raw processing power of personal computers, more and more people have access to computers than ever before. This increased exposure has led to an explosion in the number of talented programmers, both self-taught and professionally trained. The rise in the number of computer programmer is parallel to this growth. The Computer viruses are designed by these programmers. After the program has been designed and compiled, programmer must build a convincing cloak that tricks users into dumping viral code inside their uninfected computers. People create viruses. A person has to write the code, test it to make sure it spreads properly and then release the virus. A person also designs the virus's attack phase, whether it's a silly message or destruction of a hard disk. So why do people do it?
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For some people that seems to be a thrill. If that sort of person happens to know computer programming, then he or she may funnel energy into the creation of destructive viruses. The second reason has to do with the thrill of watching things blow up. Many people have a fascination with things like explosions and car wrecks. Creating a virus that spreads quickly is a little like that -- it creates a bomb inside a computer, and the more computers that get infected the more the fun. The third reason probably involves bragging rights, or the thrill of doing it. Sort of like Mount Everest. The mountain is there, so someone is compelled to climb it. If you are a certain type of programmer and you see a security hole that could be exploited, you might simply be compelled to exploit the hole yourself before someone else beats you to it. Of course, most virus creators seem to miss the point that they cause real damage to real people with their creations. Destroying everything on a person's hard disk is real damage. Forcing the people inside a large company to waste thousands of hours cleaning up after a virus is real damage. Even a silly message is real damage because a person then has to waste time getting rid of it. For this reason, the legal system is getting much harsher in punishing the people who create viruses. How virus get into the system? After the virus has been created by the programmer they have to think of a way how to insert this virus into other system without users knowledge. Some programmers use infected start-up disks or everyday program disks as viral carriers. They distribute pirated (illegally copied) editions of expensive commercial software using system disks that they've infected. When users boot up the contaminated disks, the embedded bugs are released and quickly spread throughout their systems. Other programmers choose to bury their viral code inside useful utility programs such as directory sorters or print spoolers or into any executable program . Then they distribute their softwares to trusting users through user group disk libraries, bulletin boards, swap meets, and electronic mail. It is logical for viruses to be designed to enter systems through the files they are most likely to encounter when they arrive. So the .COM, .EXE, or .SYS files that are part of every DOS system are the obvious targets. Other operating systems have similar vulnerabilities. There are also system files that are not listed in directories, and so provide a good place for viruses to hide. Many executable files tend to be activated during the initial booting up procedure as soon as the computer is switched on. Consequently, many viruses are designed to attached themselves to these files because they are always
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present in DOS, they perform powerful, vital functions, and they are usually the first to be run every time the computer is started. Electronic mail i.e e-mail systems are the most recently used method many programmers use to spread viruses. They create virus definitions that spread themselves to all the members in the address list thereby spreading. Nowadays worms are more popular than viruses. These worms or viruses are hidden in the attachment once the user clicks or downloads the attachment the system gets infected. What Systems are at most risk from viruses? Nowadays all viruses are greatly made to affect the networking subsystem. Microsoft Operating systems are more prone to viruses. It is very difficult to design a virus for Unix based system due to its internal architecture. Nowadays 75 % of the viruses are affecting Windows NT/2000/XP and 2003 operating systems. Mailservers cannot be left behind. The latest MyDoom is in the picture. How Viruses Spread? There are many ways for a virus to enter your system: Email attachments Database replications Shared network files and network traffic in general World Wide Web (WWW) sites FTP traffic from the Internet (file downloads) Floppy disks brought in from outside the organization Electronic bulletin boards (BBS) Pirated software Demonstration software Computer labs

The most likely virus entry points are email, Internet and network connections, floppies; modems or other serial or parallel port connections. In todays increasingly interconnected workplace (the Internet, intranet, shared drives, removable drives and email), virus outbreaks now spread faster and wider than ever before. How viruses spread in the network? The latest breed of computer viruses is after LANs (Local Area Networks). Most of them have support to attack the network operating system. Network system operators now face a difficult task in preventing the spread of viruses. The most
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popular LANs are Micro computer LANs. The way the LAN normally functions is that applications are loaded on the file server and the users sitting at the nodes can access the files on server as if they are on a local drive although the drive is attached to the file server. Let's now consider file infector viruses. When a node communicates with the sever, first the TCP/IP protocol (in case of Windows) is loaded in the node's memory, followed by the network file redirector. This is a memory resident program, and its function is to redirect any request for a remote drive. All requests for remote resources are pipelined by the redirector. Here again, two cases arise: Clean files on server being infected by virus files on node. Clean files on node being infected by virus files on server.

In the first case, suppose after logging in, the user executes an infected file on the node. The file infector virus attached to the file will become memoryresident and hook crucial interrupts like INT 13 H, 21 H. The user now executes some program on the server. The redirector deftly executes the program without OS knowing about it. Our watchful virus is sitting in the node's memory and as soon as it sees that the file being executed is an EXE file, it issues an OS call to open the file in read-write mode. The redirector interprets this call and passes it on to the server. The virus now executes the OS calls to attach its code to the file executed on the server. The redirector redirects these calls, so the file on the server gets infected. However, in this situation, files executed by the server (thus, not involving the node) would not be infected, because our viruses are memory-resident on the node. From the node, it can only infect files on server executed from node but cannot occupy the server's memory. In the second case, the files on server are infected. Execution of an infected file brings the virus into the server's memory. Now, when clean file is executed by server, it gets infected. What is an infected file on the server is accessed by the node? Well, the redirector redirects the call, the infected file is picked up from server's hard disk, loaded in to the node's memory and executed. This execution brings the virus code into the node's memory also. Any EXE file executed on node, even if accessed from the node's local disk will now get infected. This second case is thus the most dangerous one. Types of Viruses Thousands of viruses are known to exist with more being created each day. Computer viruses exist in Windows, OS/2, Mac, DOS, and UNIX environments. Computer viruses can be roughly classified into the following categories: Macro viruses
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File viruses Boot viruses Multi-partite viruses Polymorphic or mutation viruses Stealth viruses

Macro Viruses Macro viruses are perhaps the newest type of virus. The first macro virus, written in Microsofts Word macro language, was discovered in August, 1995. Currently, thousands of macro viruses are known to exist and include viruses written in the macro language of Microsofts Excel, Word and AmiPro applications. Since a macro virus is written in the language of an application, not the operating system (OS), it is platform independent and can spread between DOS, Windows, Mac, and even OS/2 systems. That is, macro viruses can be spread to any machine that runs the application the virus was written in. Any machine running Word, for example, whether it is a PC, Mac or something else, is vulnerable to Word documents that contain a macro virus. This in itself is revolutionary. Now add the ability to travel by email, plus the tremendous interconnections of networks, the World Wide Web and the increasing power of the Macro language (Word, Excel, etc.), and youve got yourself a real threat. File Viruses (Parasitic Viruses) File viruses attach themselves to executable files and are at least partially activated whenever the host file is run. File viruses are typically TSR (terminateand-stay-resident), direct action or companion programs. TSR viruses, which are among the most common of viruses, reside in memory and attach themselves to executable programs when they are run. It is in this way that TSR viruses spread to other programs on the hard drive, floppies or network. A direct action virus loads itself into memory to infect other files and then unloads itself, while a companion virus acts to fool an executable file into executing from a .COM file. For example, a companion virus might create a hidden PGM.COM file so that when the PGM command is executed, the fake PGM.COM runs first. The .COM file invokes its virus code before going on to start the real PGM.EXE file. Boot Viruses Boot-sector viruses, the most common type of virus, move or overwrite a disks original boot sector data and replace it with an infected boot code of their
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own design. Floppies and hard drives are the most susceptible to being overwritten by a boot sector virus. Then, whenever the infected system is powered on (boots up), the virus loads into memory where it can gain control over basic hardware operations. From its place in memory, a boot virus can quickly spread to any of the other drives on the system (floppy, network, etc.). Multi-partite Viruses Multi-partite viruses share some of the characteristics of boot sector viruses and file viruses: they can infect .COM and .EXE files, and the boot sector of the computers hard drive. On a computer booted up with an infected floppy, a typical multi- partite virus will first make itself resident in memory and then infect the boot sector of the hard drive. From there the virus may infect a PCs entire environment. Not many forms of this virus class actually exist. They do, however, account for a disproportionately large number of infections. Polymorphic or Mutation Viruses Polymorphic (mutation) viruses are unique in that they are designed to elude detection by changing their structure after each execution--with some polymorphic viruses, millions of permutations are possible. Of course, this makes it harder for normal antivirus programs to detect or intercept them. It should be noted that polymorphic viruses do not, strictly speaking, constitute a separate category of virus; they usually belong to one of the categories described above. Stealth Viruses Stealth viruses, or Interrupt Interceptors, as they are sometimes called, take control of key DOS-level instructions by intercepting the interrupt table, which is located at the beginning of memory. This gives the virus the ability to do two important things: 1. take control of the system by redirecting the interrupt calls, and 2. hide itself to prevent detection. How a Virus Works A virus is very similar to a standard piece of software that you would pay for in the stores, but with some key differences. Unlike normal software it will install and run itself, usually to perform malicious damage, and replicate through your systems. Like biological viruses, they replicate quickly and can be difficult to eliminate. They may attach themselves to almost any type of file and are spread as these files are copied between people's computers.
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Besides replication, viruses have another common trait; a damage routine that will deploy the malicious payload. This payload could simply show a message box or a picture on your screen, but it could also change or delete files, format a hard disk or many other types of damage. Before the Internet, most viruses were spread on floppy disks as they passed between computers, but the Internet has provided a much quicker and easier to exploit method of transferring these malicious programs. E-mail is now one of the most commonly heard-of methods of virus replication and can spread through entire enterprises in minutes, costing the companies millions of pounds each year in clean-up procedures. Every computer virus has a lifecycle that starts when they are created and finishes when they're completely eradicated. Below is a summary of that lifecycle, with a description of each stage. Stage 1 - Creation Until a few years ago, creating a virus required a lot of complex programming knowledge. However as computers have become easier to use and understand, only basic knowledge is required. Viruses are usually created by the misguided individual who wishes to cause widespread damage to computer systems. Stage 2 - Replication Viruses replicate themselves to cause widespread damage, and usually try to conceal their replication. Floppy disks, CD-ROMs, any other type of media, plus e-mail and web pages are all perfect replication vehicles for a virus. Often viruses are "dormant" for a period of time after their initial release, which means it can travel undetected and infect as many systems as possible before "activating" and delivering their payload. Stage 3 - Activation Viruses that have been created to cause damage often activate on certain triggers. It could be a time delay (as described above), or a particular action performed by the user or computer that has been infected. Some viruses without damage routines don't activate, but can run repetitive tasks on your PC in the background. This could reduce the amount of available memory on your computer, processor time or even slowly fill your hard drive. Stage 4 - Discovery This phase usually comes after activation, but not always. When a virus is detected and isolated, it is sent to the International Computer Security Association (ICSA) in Washington, to be documented and distributed to anti-virus developers. Discovery of a virus often takes place at least a year before it actually causes a threat to the general computing community.

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Step 5 - Assimilation Anti-virus developers then deconstruct the virus to find telltale signs of it's existence, and how to safely remove it. Depending on the virus, this could take anywhere from a single day to six months. Once assimilated, the virus "definition" is sent to all computers running the anti-virus software. The software can then use this definition to detect it. Stage 6 - Eradication If enough users across the globe ran up-to-date anti-virus software, these viruses would very easily become extinct. However at the moment no known virus has been completely eradicated. Luckily enough users have protection against these malicious files for old viruses to not pose a significant threat. Virus Examples : I LOVE YOU Virus An analysis of the computer code showed that while the virus does indeed delete files from personal computers, it multiplies itself quickly, sending duplicates via e-mail and a program used to access Internet Relay Chat, a text based online messaging system. Because the virus accesses and sends copies of itself to everyone in a victim's e-mail address book, it literally clogs up the Internet with junk mail, much like a plumbing clog, grinding everything to a halt. The virus only targets users running Microsoft Windows operating system, attacking the Outlook e-mail program and the Internet Explorer browser, both of which are made by Microsoft. The victim activates the virus by opening the e-mail, then clicking on the attachment inside. Opening the e-mail of its own does not activate the program. Once activated, the program accesses pieces of the Windows operating system, essentially turning on the parts of Windows it needs to spread. First, it opens the Internet Explorer Web browser and attempts to download more virus code from one of four different web sites. The downloaded code is then used to obtain passwords from the user's computers. Finally, it goes into Microsoft Outlook's address book and creates e-mail duplicates of itself, sending the virus to everyone in the address book. If the user has the e-mail-to-fax function activated, the virus is sent via fax, though the program is actually printed out as computer code, which presents no danger to the fax machine. The best defence, experts said, is to simply leave any unusual or unknown attachments unopened. Instead of clicking on them, just delete the entire email.

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Code Red Worms use up computer time and network bandwidth when they are replicating, and they often have some sort of evil intent. A worm called Code Red made huge headlines in 2001. Experts predicted that this worm could clog the Internet so effectively that things would completely grind to a halt. The Code Red worm slowed down Internet traffic when it began to replicate itself, but not nearly as badly as predicted. Each copy of the worm scanned the Internet for Windows NT or Windows 2000 servers that do not have the Microsoft security patch installed. Each time it found an unsecured server, the worm copied itself to that server. The new copy then scanned for other servers to infect. Depending on the number of unsecured servers, a worm could conceivably create hundreds of thousands of copies. The Ida Code Red Worm, which was first reported by eEye Digital Security, is taking advantage of known vulnerabilities in the Microsoft IIS Internet Server Application Program Interface (ISAPI) service. Un-patched systems are susceptible to a "buffer overflow" in the Idq.dll, which permits the attacker to run embedded code on the affected system. This memory resident worm, once active on a system, first attempts to spread itself by creating a sequence of random IP addresses to infect unprotected web servers. Each worm thread will then inspect the infected computer's time clock. Upon successful infection, the worm would wait for the appointed hour and connect to the www.whitehouse.gov domain. This attack would consist of the infected systems simultaneously sending 100 connections to port 80 of www.whitehouse.gov (198.137.240.91). The U.S. government changed the IP address of www.whitehouse.gov to circumvent that particular threat from the worm and issued a general warning about the worm, advising users of Windows NT or Windows 2000 Web servers to make sure they have installed the security patch. W95.CIH The CIH virus, also known as Chernobyl, was first discovered in June 1998 in Taiwan. According to the Taipei authorities, Chen Ing-hau wrote the CIH virus. The name of the virus derived from his initials. CIH is a destructive virus with a payload that destroys data. On April 26, 1999, the payload triggered for the first time, causing many computer users to lose their data. In Korea, it was estimated that as many as one million computers were affected, resulting in more than $250 million in damages. CIH is a virus that infects the 32-bit Windows 95/98/NT executable files, but can function only under Windows 95/98 and ME. It does not function under Windows NT or Windows 2000. When an infected program is run under
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Windows 95/98/ME, the virus becomes resident in memory. Although Windows NT system files can be infected, the virus cannot become resident or infect files on a computer running Windows NT or Windows 2000. The virus does not function under DOS, Windows 3.1, or on Macintosh computers. Once the virus is resident, the CIH virus infects other files when accessed. The files infected by CIH may have the same size as the original files, due to the unique infection mode of CIH. The virus searches for empty, unused spaces in the file. Next, it breaks itself up into smaller pieces and inserts its code into these unused spaces. W32.Blaster.Worm W32.Blaster.Worm is a worm that exploits the DCOM RPC vulnerability (first described in Microsoft Security Bulletin MS03-026) (users are recommended to patch this vulnerability by applying Microsoft Security Bulletin MS03-039) using TCP port 135. The worm targets only Windows 2000 and Windows XP machines. While Windows NT and Windows 2003 Server machines are vulnerable to the afore mentioned exploit (if not properly patched), the worm is not coded to replicate to those systems. This worm attempts to download the msblast.exe file to the %WinDir%\system32 directory and then execute it. W32.Blaster.Worm does not have a mass-mailing functionality. The worm also attempts to perform a Denial of Service (DoS) on the Microsoft Windows Update Web server (windowsupdate.com). This is an attempt to prevent you from applying a patch on your computer against the DCOM RPC vulnerability. Systems Affected are Windows 2000, Windows NT, Windows Server 2003, Windows XP W32.Klez.gen@mm W32.Klez.gen@mm is a mass-mailing worm that searches the Windows address book for email addresses and sends messages to all the recipients that it finds. The worm uses its own SMTP engine to send the messages. The subject and attachment name of the incoming e-mails are randomly chosen. The attachment will have one of the extensions: .bat, .exe, .pif, or .scr. The worm exploits a vulnerability in Microsoft Outlook and Outlook Express to try execute itself when you open or preview the message. Email spoofing: Some variants of this worm use a technique known as "spoofing" by which the worm randomly selects an address it finds on an infected computer. The worm uses this address as the "From" address when it performs its mass-mailing routine. Numerous cases have been reported in
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which users of uninfected computers received complaints that they sent an infected message to another individual. For example, Trishal R. Doshi is using a computer infected with W32.Klez.E@mm. Trishal is neither using an antivirus program nor has the current virus definitions. When W32.Klez.gen@mm performs its email routine, it finds the email address of Dilip Davis. The worm inserts Dilip's email address into the "From" portion of an infected message, which it then sends to Ajay Harsora. Then, Ajay contacts Dilip and complains that he sent him an infected message; however, when Dilip scans his computer, Norton AntiVirus does not find anything, because his computer is not infected. If you are using a current version of Norton AntiVirus and you have the most recent virus definitions, and a full system scan with Norton AntiVirus, which is set to scan all the files, does not find anything, your computer is not infected with this worm. Systems Affected by this virus are Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP Windows Me. , W32.Mydoom.A@mm W32.Mydoom.A@mm (also known as W32.Novarg.A) is a mass-mailing worm that arrives as an attachment with the file extension .bat, .cmd, .exe, .pif, .scr, or .zip. When a computer is infected, the worm sets up a backdoor into the system by opening TCP ports 3127 through 3198, which can potentially allow an attacker to connect to the computer and use it as a proxy to gain access to its network resources. In addition, the backdoor can download and execute arbitrary files. There is a 25% chance that a computer infected by the worm will perform a Denial of Service (DoS) on February 1, 2004 starting at 16:09:18 UTC, which is also the same as 08:09:18 PST, based on the machine's local system date/ time. If the worm does start the DoS attack, it will not mass mail itself. It also has a trigger date to stop spreading/DoS-attacking on February 12, 2004. While the worm will stop on February 12, 2004, the backdoor component will continue to function after this date. Systems Affected are Windows 2000, Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows Me, Windows NT, Windows Server 2003, Windows XP . Protection Against Viruses You can protect yourself against viruses with a few simple steps: If you simply avoid programs from unknown sources (like the Internet), and instead stick with commercial software purchased on CDs, you eliminate
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almost all of the risk from traditional viruses. In addition, you should disable floppy disk booting -- most computers now allow you to do this, and that will eliminate the risk of a boot sector virus coming in from a floppy disk accidentally left in the drive. You should make sure that Macro Virus Protection is enabled in all Microsoft applications, and you should NEVER run macros in a document unless you know what they do. There is seldom a good reason to add macros to a document, so avoiding all macros is a great policy. You should never double-click on an attachment that contains an executable that arrives as an e-mail attachment. Attachments that come in as Word files (.DOC), spreadsheets (.XLS), images (.GIF and .JPG), etc., are data files and they can do no damage A file with an extension like EXE, COM or VBS is an executable, and an executable can do any harm and thus they should not be double-clicked. Anti Virus Technologies Anti Virus solutions have deviced a variety of techniques to detect, cure and immunise against viruses. Each of these technologies has its advantages and drawbacks. These technologies are constantly being modified and refined to be effective against the new viruses that are continuously being written. Virus detection using Signatures A virus writer writes a virus using a specific logic. The logic used to write a virus distinguishes it from other viruses. The logic for a virus program has a unique sequence which is known as the signature of the virus. An anti virus software uses this signature to detect the virus. While selecting a signature from a virus the anti virus developer should take care that the sequence is long and unique enough so that it does not cause any false alarms. The draw back of this method is It cannot detect new viruses until the virus signature database is updated to detect the new virus. As viruses increase the signature database grows so large that the time taken to scan for viruses is very large. Polymorphic viruses, which mutate continuously are difficult to detect. Virus detection using TSR Guards : Anti virus softwares use TSR (Terminate and Stay Resident) programs to detect and prevent virus like activity. The TSR acts like a guard checking all activity on the computer. When the TSR detects an activity that it feels is suspicious it gives an alarm to the user. The user should respond to the alarm. The draw back of this method is The computer is slowed down because every activity is checked by the TSR.
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TSR's occupy memory. The user should understand every alarm given by the TSR and should respond correctly. Any wrong response would cause the virus to spread on the computer making the TSR ineffective. TSR Guards are ineffective in non technical computer environments because the user may not respond correctly. Virus detection using Checksums: Anti virus softwares use checksums of programs to detect if a program is infected. A checksum is a number generated by using the complete contents of the file. The checksum is unique to every file. A single one byte change will result in a change in the checksum. The anti virus software first calculates and stores a checksum for every program on the disk. It later compares the current checksum program against its previously stored checksum. A change would be taken as a virus infection. The draw back of this method is Any change in the checksum is taken as a virus infection. Legitimate changes like recompilation is also confused as a virus, resulting in false alarms. Updates to softwares is also confused as a virus, resulting in false alarms. Cannot be used in development environment. What to look for in an Anti-virus Software Q. Does the anti-virus package come with a DOS boot disk and does it ask you to create an emergency repair disk during installation? A. It is essential that the package comes with a DOS boot disk and asks the user to create an emergency repair disk during installation. These disks come in handy when the system is attacked by a virus that does not allow the OS to load. Using the DOS boot disk, one can boot the system and run the virus cleaning procedure through DOS. The emergency repair disk maintains a copy of the system's Master Boot Record (MBR) as well as startup files such as io.sys, msdos.sys and command.com. In case the system MBR is destroyed, it can be replaced using this disk. Q. Does the anti-virus package offer option for scanning the boot record and a complete file scan immediately after pre-install scan? A. Very often, users install an anti-virus package after their machines are already infected. It is very essential for the anti-virus package to offer the option of scanning at least the boot records during the installation process. Once the installation is complete, the software should offer to scan the Master Boot Record as well as all files at start-up to ensure that the virus is removed before you perform any other operations. Q. Does the application check for file integrity?
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A. Certain viruses, when infecting a particular files, change the size of the file. The change could be either an apparent increase or decrease in the file size. When an anti-virus software checks files for viruses, it uses methods such as checksum, and CRC (cyclic redundancy check) to keep a check on file integrity. They take a 'fingerprint' of each file and store it in an integrity file. Later, the file is examined and its fingerprint matched with the stored version. Q. How often can the user download virus signature updates? A. Anti-virus software developers should have the latest virus signature files on their Web site for download as soon as a new virus is discovered. They should provide users with regular newsletters via e-mail, informing them about the posting of the signature update files. This will allow users to update their version of the application and ensure that new viruses do not effect their machine. Q. Does the anti-virus software have the option of performing a heuristic analysis? A. A heuristic analysis is a method of detecting viruses that have the capabilities of changing their signatures with each infection in an attempt to avoid detection. As far as possible, select the 'heuristic analysis' option before performing a virus scan. Q. Is the anti-virus package capable of analysing and disinfecting compressed archives such as .ZIP and .ARJ files, as well as disinfecting files within the archive? A. Many good anti-virus programs can detect and disinfect most known viruses but it is very essential for the software to be capable of scanning and disinfecting infected files within a compressed archive. If files from within the archive need to be extracted for scanning, there is a possibility that the user might accidentally execute an infected file. Different Antivirus Softwares Antivirus software is must-have protection. When you're seeking total system coverage each of the following anti virus mentioned below provides superb virus protection for Windows-based PCs. Because every system is unique, evaluate several of these antivirus products to find the software best suited for your PC and your level of experience. PC-cillin Internet Security Suite 2004 Trend Micro PC-cillin Internet Security provides comprehensive and easy to use protection from viruses, hackers, and other Internet-based threats. Its new advanced features go far beyond standard antivirus and firewall protection,
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helping to safeguard your PC from new emerging threats like network viruses, spam email, inappropriate web content, and Spyware programs that can compromise your privacy. The new Network Virus Emergency Center provides the most advanced protection from todays fast spreading network viruses such as MSBLAST, SOBIG, and Code Red. It proactively warns users about new network virus outbreaks and scans for these viruses at the network firewall level where they attempt to penetrate your PC. If network virus activity is detected it can automatically invoke the Internet Lock feature stopping the virus from infecting the PC and spreading to other computers. PC-cillin Internet Security also now includes a powerful new anti-spam scanner that detects and flags annoying and potentially dangerous junk email. For people on the go, the Firewall Profiles feature allows you to quickly adjust security control levels for your different network environments such as home, work, Wi-Fi, and on the road. As always, Trend Micro PC-cillin Internet Security is backed by award-winning technical support. Features Comprehensive Virus Detection and Removal Trend Micro PC-cillin Internet Security helps make the detection and removal of viruses more precise and powerful. The enhanced Personal Firewall helps prevent intrusion from hackers and the new breed of Network Viruses. Trend Micro Damage Cleanup Services can now be triggered as soon as a virus is caught to keep your system functioning properly. Enhanced Network Virus Protection With the Network Virus Emergency Center, consumers can now get the same level of protection as big corporations from network viruses such as KLEZ, MSBLAST, and SOBIG. If a network virus is detected, Trend Micro PC-cillin Internet Security can automatically shut off the PCs network access, stopping the spread of the virus. Anti-Spam Filtering Users can now configure Trend Micro PC-cillin Internet Security to identify and block unsolicited and junk e-mails. Filtering sensitivity can be set for High, Medium, or Low based on personal preference. URL Filtering and Parental Control Manage the sites your family can view with Parental Control, also known as URL Filtering. Permitted lists and restricted lists can block or allow connections to Web sites you deem appropriate.

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Advanced Privacy and Spyware Protection Trend Micro PC-cillin Internet Security helps prevent third parties from monitoring your Internet use and blocks malicious programs and websites from accessing your personal information. Spyware Protection is designed to detect and remove annoying Spyware programs from tracking your surfing behaviours, stealing passwords or account information, and creating dangerous back doors into your system. Panda Antivirus Platinum v7.0 An innovative security solution that adapts perfectly to the needs of today's small businesses and professionals , protecting information from viruses and hackers with a single product. Features Eliminates all types of viruses. Panda Antivirus Platinum 7.0 detects and eliminates all types of viruses, Trojan horses, worms, malicious ActiveX controls and Java applets. Thanks to its advanced technology, it is effective against new, unknown viruses. Install it and prevent any nasty surprises when sending and receiving e-mails, downloading files or working on the Internet. Protects against hackers: Panda Antivirus Platinum 7.0 stops hackers from destroying, your computer into a fortress unwanted viruses out. includes firewall protection. incorporates a latest generation firewall that stealing or corrupting your information. Turning against Internet threats, keeping data in and

Completely automatic daily updates against new viruses. Panda Antivirus Platinum 7.0 discreetly utilizes your Internet connection to automatically incorporate new updates against new viruses. This process is fast and transparent, so you can continue to work without distractions. And don't forget that all registered Panda Software clients have access to daily automatic updates against viruses. Maximum speed and stability. Your time is money! Panda Antivirus Platinum 7.0 respects the normal working functions of your computer while its Ultrafast engine exhaustively scans and disinfects the entire system. Platinum 7.0 will keep your information safe and you won't even notice it's there. McAfee VirusScan 2004 Trusted by over 2 million satisfied users worldwide, McAfee VirusScan protects your PC, files and email address book from high-risk, productivity-killing
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viruses, worms and trojans like Bugbear, Slammer, Code Red, Nimda, SirCam and Nicehello. Easy to use and always on guard, VirusScan automatically checks for virus updates and software updates. So your protection is always up-to-the-minute. And it's from McAfee Security, the most trusted name in online security. Features Email Scanning VirusScan automatically scans inbound (POP3) and outbound (SMTP) email and email attachments for most popular email clients, including Microsoft Outlook, Outlook Express, Netscape Mail, Eudora, Pegasus and others. Instant Message Scanning VirusScan scans Instant Message attachments sent via AOL Instant Messenger, Yahoo Messenger and Windows Messenger. Sc ri pt St op pe r Many of the fastest spreading viruses, like I Love You, use scripts to infect your PC. ScriptStopper detects then stops these threats. Wor m St o p pe r WormStopper stops mass-mailing worms like Sobig by detecting activity that may indicate a new, undetected worm which is active on your PC. Like email sent to more than 40 recipients or more than five e-mails sent in less than 30 seconds. Detects Spyware Protecting loss of data and privacy, VirusScan detects potentially malicious desktop applications like spyware, adware, Web dialers and more. Windows Explorer integration Access VirusScan directly by selecting files and clicking the VirusScan icon in the Windows Explorer window. MS Outlook Scanning VirusScan integrates directly on the MS Outlook toolbar for instant, on-demand scanning of older email or folders. Silent Updating VirusScan silently updates virus definitions (DATs), without interrupting your work, ensuring your computer is always up-to-date. Symantec Norton Antivirus 2004 Symantec's Norton AntiVirus 2004 is the world's most trusted antivirus solution. It protects email, instant messages, and other files by automatically
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removing viruses, worms, and Trojan horses. New built-in features also detect certain non-virus threats such as spyware and keystroke loggers. Features Expanded threat detection alerts you to certain non-virus threats such as spyware and keystroke logging programs. Scans compressed file archives before you open them and risk infecting your computer. (Not available on Windows Me/98.) Includes product activation procedure to ensure authenticity. Automatically removes viruses, worms, and Trojan horses. Scans and cleans both incoming and outgoing email messages. Detects and blocks viruses in instant message attachments. Downloads new virus protection updates automatically to protect against new threats. Worm Blocking detects worms such as Nimda in outgoing mail. Script Blocking defends against fast-moving script-based viruses such as ILoveYou and Anna Kournikova. Worm Blocking and Script Blocking can detect new threats even before virus protection updates are created for them.

LAB EXERCISE 26.1 : Virus Scanning using Anti-Virus Software Objective: To be familiar with different Anti-virus software and the common characteristics which are present on all of them. Tasks: 1. After installing one of the common Anti-virus software mentioned above, scan the entire computer for viruses. 2. Once scanned, it will give a list of the files repaired as well as quarantined files, in that case what do the quarantined files mean. 3. Try scheduling a scan and verify whether it works out. 4. Try the Startup scan option and verify whether it affects the normal operation of the PC. 5. Perform the liveupdate of installed antivirus software.

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Laptop & Palmtop Computers

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Laptop & Palmtop Computers

Types and Classes of Portable Computers Three basic form factors describe most of the PC-compatible portable computers on the market today: Laptops, Notebooks, and Subnotebooks. A fourth type, are the hand-held/ palmtops. The definitions of the first three types are fluid, with the options available on some systems causing particular models to ride the cusp of two categories. The categories are based primarily on size and weight, but these factors have a natural relationship to the capabilities of the system because a larger case obviously can fit more into it. Laptops As the original name coined for the clamshell-type portable computer, the laptop is the largest of the three major form factors. Typically, a laptop system weighs 7 pounds or more and is approximately 9122 inches in size, although the larger screens now arriving on the market are causing all portable system sizes to increase. Originally the smallest possible size for a computer, laptops today have become the high-end machines, offering features and performance comparable to a desktop system.
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Indeed, many laptops are being positioned in the market either as desktop replacements or as multimedia systems suitable for delivering presentations on the road. Because of their lesser weight, laptops typically are used by sales people and other travellers who require the features they provide. However, many high-performance laptops are now being issued to users as their sole computer, even if they travel only from the office to the home. Large active-matrix displays, with 64MB256MB of RAM, and hard drives of up to 20GB or more in size are all but a reality, with virtually all systems now carrying fast CD-ROM or DVD
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drives; onboard speakers; and connectivity options that enable the use of external display, storage, and sound systems. Some models even include combo DVD-CD/RW drives and wireless Wi-Fi network capabilities. To use them as a desktop replacement, you can equip many laptops with a docking station (or a less expensive port replicator) that functions as the users home base, enabling connection to a network and the use of a full-size monitor and keyboard. For someone who travels frequently, this arrangement often works better than separate desktop and portable systems, on which data must continually be kept in sync. Naturally, you pay a premium for all this functionality. Cuttingedge laptop systems can cost at least twice the price of a comparable desktop. Notebooks A notebook system is designed to be somewhat smaller than a laptop in nearly every way: size, weight, features, and price. The dividing line between what we might call a notebook or laptop system is somewhat fuzzy. Youll find that these categorizations are somewhat flexible. Weighing 57 pounds, notebooks typically have smaller and less-capable displays and lack the high-end multimedia functions of laptops, but they need not be stripped-down machines. Many notebooks have hard drive and memory configurations comparable to laptops, and virtually all are equipped with CD-ROM or DVD drives and sound capabilities. Designed to function as an adjunct to a desktop system rather than a replacement, a notebook can actually be used as a primary desktop replacement for all but the most power-hungry users. Notebooks typically have a wide array of options because they are targeted at a wider audience, from the power user who cant quite afford (or who doesnt want the size and weight of) the top-of-the-line laptop to the bargain hunter who requires only basic services. Subnotebooks Subnotebooks are substantially smaller than both notebooks and laptops and are intended for users who must enter and work with data on the road, as well as connect to the office network. Weighing 2 to 2.5kgs., and often less than an inch thick, the subnotebook is intended for the traveller who feels overburdened by the larger machines and doesnt need their high-end capabilities. Usually, the first component omitted in a subnotebook design is the internal floppy drive, although some include external units. You also will not find CDROM drives and other bulky hardware components built in, although some
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machines, such as IBMs ThinkPad X21, use a detachable module (or slice) that fits under the main system to carry CD-ROM or DVD drives and floppy drives. However, many subnotebooks do include large, high-quality displays, plenty of hard drive space, and a full-size keyboard (by portable standards). As it is common in the electronics world, devices become more inexpensive as they get smaller, but only up to a certain point at which small size becomes a commodity and prices begin to go up. Some subnotebooks are intended (and priced) for the high-end market, such as for the executive who uses the system for little else but email and scheduling but who wants a lightweight, elegant, and impressive-looking system. Subnotebooks range in price depending on features. Different Laptop Brands There are several vendors for laptops available. Few of them are listed below Compaq DELL IBM Think Pads Acer Toshiba

Desktop v/s laptop: First of all, a big misconception about laptops needs to be removed. Laptops, if purchased correctly, do not need a desktop to function. Laptops are "desktop replacements", that is they replace desktops. There is no need to purchase a desktop, if you have a laptop. Almost everything a desktop can do, a laptop can do. However, a laptop has some fundamental differences from a desktop. One of these is expandability. If you purchase a laptop, there is only so much you can change or upgrade at a later time. Desktops do not have this limitation. Everything in a desktop can be replaced. Another fundamental difference is price. A laptop is portable, but you pay for this portablity in upfront purchase price. Laptops will cost additional price over a similar desktop system. This additional cost is due to the laptop specific components such as batteries, specialized hard drives and other laptop specific hardware. Palmtop (Handheld Mini-Notebooks) The rarest category (at least outside of Japan these days) is the palmtop PC. Not to be confused with the PDAs (such as the Palm or Handspring series) or the PocketPC, these handheld mini-notebook computers run Windows 9x and use standard applications and external accessories. Palmtop computers are typified by the Libretto series from Toshiba (now discontinued outside of Japan but still available on the used market in North America). Librettos weigh about a kilogram, feature a built-in hard disk, have screens of 8 inches or less in size,
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and offer a tiny keyboard with an integral TrackPoint device. These systems dont offer the faster or more power-hungry Pentium II/III/ Celeron processors but are fully functional PCs that run normal Windows and normal applications using various Pentium-class CPUs. Some of the newest Japan-market Librettos use the Transmeta Crusoe processor, which can emulate Pentium and similar x86 CPUs. If you can find a palmtop on the used or refurbished market, this type of system is ideal as a secondary system for somebody who travels and demands the smallest and lightest, yet fully functional, PC. Palmtops such as the Libretto offer a standard layout of keys, but with the keys spaced much more closely together than with a standard keyboard. As such, this class of system is very difficult to use for extensive typing, but for simple field work, email, or Internet accessor anything that doesnt require a lot of data entrythey are incredibly useful. Personal Digital Assistants Introduction Personal Digital Assistants (PDA's) are small portable handheld computers that organize data, such as your schedule, address book, appointment calendar and to-do list. PDA's are also designed to work with your desktop PC by connecting the two devices with a serial cable. Your PDA will include software that will manage tasks on your desktop PC and synchronize tasks with your PDA. Before you buy your PDA you need to consider a variety of factors. Do you want just a basic electronic pocket organizer with personal information management (PIM) functions? Do you need to coordinate your information with others who are connected through a network? Will you need to download email and other information from the Internet to your PDA? Will you need your PDA to take down notes during meetings? Will you need a larger PDA with a bigger screen and more memory, or will you want to travel with your PDA in your pocket? If you know how you expect to use your PDA it will help you decide what size, display type, amount of memory, operating system, handwriting software, power source and other amenities you'll need. Size of PDA's The size of a PDA can range from that of a credit card to a notebook computer. The number of features and the computing power usually increase with the size. Credit card size units typically offer only basic PIM functions and have about 512Kb of RAM. Because the units are so small, the screen may be difficult to read, and there's little room for buttons, so entering data
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Fig. 27.2 PDA

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Laptop & Palmtop Computers

can be tedious or require you to connect to a desktop PC and to use the PC's keyboard. Palm size computers are the most popular PDA. In fact, many people consider "PDA" and "palm computer" to be synonymous. Smaller than a paperback but larger than a deck of cards, palm computers fit easily in the palm of your hand. The units are too small to include a keyboard, so you enter commands and data by pressing surface mounted buttons or by tapping the display with a stylus. Most PDA's also let you "write" text and include some sort of handwriting recognition software - a few even recognize spoken commands. Larger handheld PDA's range in size from a thick checkbook to a small notebook computer. These units have room for more memory and expansion slots, a half height or even full size VGA display and a keyboard with touch type capabilities. With increased size you get increased computing power and versatility, but you lose the advantages of pocket portability. These larger units also usually cost more than smaller ones. Operating Systems for PDA Two operating systems dominate the PDA market - Microsoft's Windows CE and 3Com's Palm OS. Usually Windows CE devices have more memory and functionality. The Windows CE operating system comes with a large set of standard applications and its interface uses a variation of the familiar Windows desktop. The standard applications are Microsoft Pocket Outlook which includes Calendar, Contacts, Tasks, and Inbox (which sends and receives e-mail), ActiveSync (which synchronizes data with your PC), Calculator, Channels (which downloads information from the Internet), Connections (which provides Internet access and communications), PC Link, Solitaire and Voice Recorder. The PDA manufacturer may add other applications as well. Devices based on 3Com's Palm operating system tend to operate faster starting up faster after you turn them on, running applications and finding data faster etc. They have a reputation for being easy to set up, learn, and use, and have a much longer battery life. They are also known for their popular PIM applications and extensive support from third-party developers, with thousands of software, shareware, and freeware titles to choose from. The PIM applications include Date Book, Address Book, Mail, To-Do List, Memo Pad, Expense, and Calculator, along with Security, Games, and HotSync technology (synchronizes data with your PC). PDA display types PDA's use displays that are smaller versions of those used in notebook computers, but as PDA's are small the display usually covers most of the front of the unit and is therefore the most visible feature. It's important to have a
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display that's as bright and legible as possible on a PDA that is within your budget. A typical palm size PDA has a resolution of 320 x 240 pixels with four shades of grey. More expensive colour models offer 256 colors. Nearly all PDAs have a liquid crystal display (LCD), backlit touch-screen with a stylus for tapping commands, selecting items, and writing text. Monochrome LCD is the least expensive and most energy-efficient choice, providing greyscale images and text. Passive matrix is a type of LCD color display on mid-level units that provides good color images when you view it straight on. There are three types of passive-matrix displays (i) double-layer supertwist nematic (DSTN); (ii) color super-twist nematic (CSTN); (iii) High-Performance Addressing (HPA). Recent improvements in CSTN make it a great budget alternative to active matrix. Active matrix, also called "thin film transistor" (TFT), is the brightest, sharpest, clearest, and most expensive type of LCD flat panel display that is practical for PDA's. Memory requirement for PDA PDA's are usually supplied with 512-Kb of system RAM in credit card models and up to 16 MB in larger models. Many models also provide expansion slots for more memory. The operating system and built-in application programs are stored in ROM. To enable you to upgrade some manufacturers place the operating system in a socketed ROM module which can be removed from its socket and replaced with a new one. Other manufacturers use flash memory which can be erased and reprogrammed but will not erase when the power is disconnected. Some PDA's include slots for CompactFlash cards. These 50-pin cards are similar in function to, but much smaller than, the 68-pin PCMCIA PC cards that are so popular in laptop and notebook computers. CompactFlash cards provide up to 96 MB (and growing) of data storage, but their small, light, energy-efficient design make them ideal for PDA's. (With an appropriate 50to-68 pin adapter, a CompactFlash card can be used in a PCMCIA Type II slot). Some larger handheld PDA's include PCMCIA slots for PCMCIA cards. There are three types of PCMCIA cards and slots:- Type I, Type II and Type III. Type I cards are 3.3 millimetres thick and are used mostly as additional ROM or RAM. Type II cards are 5.5 millimetres thick and used mostly as modems. Type III cards are 10.5 millimetres thick and used mostly as virtual disk drives but most PDA's are not large enough to accommodate these. A Type I slot holds one Type I card; a Type II slot holds one Type II card or two Type I cards. A Type III slot holds one Type III card or one Type I and one
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Type II card. Data Transfer from PC to PDA The most common method for transferring data to your desktop PDA/PC is via a cable through a serial port. However, many PDA's can communicate with each other through an infrared port. These ports use the same technology as the remote control for your TV or VCR but with a higher data transfer rate (about the same rate as a parallel port). The infrared port on a PDA should conform to the IrDA standard specified by the Infrared Data Association. Any two PDA's running the same operating system, in close proximity, and in a straight line of sight to each other should be able to exchange data through their IrDA ports. Inserting text into a PDA Larger PDA's have actual keyboards but medium and small PDA's require you to enter information through the touch screen with the stylus. Most systems let you tap letters on an on-screen "keyboard" or write letters on an on-screen tablet. Palm OS and Windows CE come with handwriting recognition software ie. Graffiti and Jot which allow you to print letters individually. However, you must form your letters precisely according to the software's rules, which can take some time to adjust to. Some PDA's come with natural handwriting recognition software. Instead of following the software's rules for writing letters, you train the software to recognize your own handwriting. The advantage is that you don't have to learn the PDA's writing rules - the disadvantage is that natural handwriting recognition is less accurate, although the accuracy may improve with training. Power sources for PDA More memory, CompactFlash cards, color screens, voice recording--there are many cool features and accessories for PDAs, but they need battery power to work. Most PDAs come with either alkaline batteries (usually AA size) or a rechargeable battery pack. Many also include a small backup battery to protect the memory when your main batteries run out. One set of alkaline batteries usually lasts a few weeks with normal use; rechargeable battery packs typically last several hours between charges. And not by coincidence, the PDAs that come with rechargeable battery packs usually consume more power than those that come with only alkaline batteries. Many PDAs have powermanagement settings to help the batteries last longer. For example, you can set the backlight or the PDA itself to turn off after a few minutes of idle time. The most common types of rechargeable battery packs are nickel cadmium (NiCad), nickel metal hydride (NiMH), and lithium ion. A larger PDA may have a smart battery pack that provides the PDA with information about its power status so that the PDA can conserve power intelligently.
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Accessing e-mail and Internet on a PDA Many PDAs are designed with the assumption that you'll check e-mail through your desktop PC and download the messages to your PDA for future reading. You can also download Web magazines, audio programs, and news subscription services if your PDA supports these features. However, some PDAs include a built-in modem or a slot where you can add one, allowing you to send and receive e-mail directly. Setting up a PDA to work with an Internet Service Provider's (ISP) e-mail server can be a tedious, time-consuming process-especially if you've never done it before--but you should only have to do it once. One reason for the added time and complication is that the communication software on many PDAs is less sophisticated and has fewer automatic setup conveniences than the corresponding software on desktop PCs. Before setting up the PDA, you need your e-mail address, password, ISP's dialup telephone number, and the following information about your e-mail system: your protocol to receive e-mail; your incoming-mail server name; your outgoingmail server name; and your primary and secondary DNS name server addresses. You may also need to know if your ISP wants you to use IP header compression or to enable software compression. You can find this information on your ISP's Web site or by contacting its customer service department. Among the PDAs that support e-mail directly, most work with POP3, IMAP4, SMTP and LDAP protocols, with POP3 being the , most common. Larger PDAs based on Windows CE may include Pocket Internet Explorer, a slimmer version of Microsoft Internet Explorer. Tapping your stylus on a touch screen that's running Pocket Internet Explorer is a convenient and fun way to surf the Web, but don't expect to watch streaming videos or to listen to sound clips; these functions are not yet supported. How Tablets Work When Steve Jobs ended years of speculation in 2010 by announcing the iPad tablet device, he helped launch a new era in computer hardware. Though tablet PCs have been around for years, the iPad was the first device to use the form factor successfully in the consumer market. And Apple's success benefitted other companies as well as tech enthusiasts looked for alternatives to Apple's approach. So what exactly is a tablet? At its most basic level, a tablet PC is a mobile computing device that's larger than a smartphone or personal digital assistant. There's not a strict cutoff size for tablet devices -- the iPad line sports a screen size of just under 10 inches but other tablets can be larger or smaller. In
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general, if the computing device uses an on-screen interface and doesn't include a phone, it's a tablet. To confuse matters, some manufacturers produce hybrid devices that are part tablet, part laptop computer. The device might come with an attached keyboard -- the screen swivels or folds down to cover the keyboard and voila, you have a tablet! In 2010, Lenovo introduced a prototype device called the IdeaPad U1 at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas, Nev. At first glance, it looked like a normal laptop computer. But if you detached the screen from the base, the laptop converted to a tablet computer with its own, independent operating system. Lenovo rebranded the device, naming it the Lenovo LePad and launching it in China in 2011. Although tablets come in a variety of shapes, sizes and feature sets, they share many similar characteristics. Nearly all have a touch-screen interface and an operating system capable of running small programs. They don't necessarily replace the need for a more robust computer, but they create a new space for computing devices. What Makes Tablets Tick If you were to crack open a tablet computer to take a look inside, you'd notice three things pretty quickly. First, you've just voided your warranty. Second, the manufacturer has packed all the tablet's components together to create a snug, efficient fit. And third, most of the components you'll see are similar to what you'd find in a standard computer.
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The brain of a tablet is its microprocessor. Typically, tablets use smaller processors than full-fledged computers. This helps save on space and cuts down on heat generation. Heat is bad for computers -- it tends to cause mechanical failures. Tablet computers typically draw power from a rechargeable battery. Battery life for tablets varies between models, with eight to 10 hours being the average. Some tablets will have replaceable batteries. But others, like Apple's iPad and iPad 2, don't allow you to switch out a battery without taking it to a store or voiding your warranty. Depending on the manufacturer, a tablet computer may be underpowered on purpose. Computer CPUs execute commands in clock cycles. The more clock cycles a CPU
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runs per second, the more instructions it can process. Some tablets have underclocked processors, meaning the CPU is set to run fewer instructions per second than it's capable of executing. The reason for making a CPU underperform on purpose is to reduce heat production and conserve battery life. While you might be irritated to learn your new tablet isn't performing at full speed, the truth is most tablets don't need the extra processing power. Programs for tablets tend to be less complex and robust than computer programs. The common term for these programs is applications or apps. Besides the CPU and battery, other components you'll likely find in a typical tablet include: " " " " " " " " accelerometers gyroscopes graphics processors flash-based memory WiFi and/or cellular chips and antennas USB dock and power supply speakers a touch-screen controller chip

" camera sensors, chips and lenses Accelerometers and gyroscopes help the tablet determine its orientation so that it displays graphics in either portrait or landscape mode. The graphics processor or GPU takes the load off of the CPU when it comes to generating graphics. The WiFi or cellular components let you connect your tablet to a computer network. The tablet may also have a Bluetooth receiver, allowing it to interface with other Bluetooth devices. One thing you won't find in most tablets is a fan -- there's just not enough space. Touch Screens and Tablets There are two basic methods of creating touch screens for tablet devices: resistive screens and capacitive screens. Manufacturers have to choose between the two -- they don't work together. Resistive systems detect a touch on a screen through pressure. Tablets that require a stylus often use resistive screens. But how does it work? Resistive systems have a layer of resistive material and another layer of conductive material. Spacers hold the two layers apart. When the tablet is on, an electric current runs through both layers. If you put pressure on the screen, it causes the two layers to come into contact with one another. This changes

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the electrical field for those two layers. Imagine you own such a tablet and you've decided you want to activate a game. You use your stylus to tap the game icon on your tablet's screen. The pressure from your touch causes the two layers in the resistive system to touch, changing the electric field. A microchip inside the tablet interprets this change in the field and translates it into coordinates on the screen. The tablet's CPU takes these coordinates and maps them

The Apple iPhone uses a capicitive touch-screen interface, as do many tablet computers.

against its operating system. The CPU determines that you have activated the app and launches it for you. Resistive screens can be susceptible to damage. If you use too much pressure, you may cause the resistive and conductive layers to be in constant contact. This will cause the tablet to misinterpret commands. Resistive screens also tend to have poorer resolution than capacitive screens. A capacitive system also detects changes in electrical fields but doesn't rely on pressure. A capacitive system includes a layer of material that stores an electrical charge. When you touch a conductive material to this screen, some of that electrical charge transfers over to whatever is touching it. But the material must be conductive or the device won't register a touch. In other words, you can use anything to touch a resistive screen to register a charge but only conductive material will work on a capacitive system. Capacitive systems tend to be more robust than resistive systems since you don't have to press down as hard to register a touch. They also tend to have a higher resolution than resistive systems. History of Tablets The idea of the tablet computer isn't new. Back in 1968, a computer scientist named Alan Kay proposed that with advances in flat-panel display technology, user interfaces, miniaturization of computer components and some experimental work in WiFi technology, you could develop an all-in-one computing device. He developed the idea further, suggesting that such a device would be perfect
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as an educational tool for schoolchildren. In 1972, he published a paper about the device and called it the Dynabook. The sketches of the Dynabook show a device very similar to the tablet computers we have today, with a couple of exceptions. The Dynabook had both a screen and a keyboard all on the same plane. But Key's vision went even further. He predicted that with the right touch-screen technology, you could do away with the physical keyboard and display a virtual keyboard in any configuration on the screen itself. Key was ahead of his time. It would take nearly four decades before a tablet similar to the one he imagined took the public by storm. But that doesn't mean there were no tablet computers on the market between the Dynabook concept and Apple's famed iPad. One early tablet was the GRiDPad. First produced in 1989, the GRiDPad included a monochromatic capacitance touch screen and a wired stylus. It weighed just under 5 pounds (2.26 kilograms). Compared to today's tablets, the GRiDPad was bulky and heavy, with a short battery life of only three hours. The man behind the GRiDPad was Jeff Hawkins, who later founded Palm. Other pen-based tablet computers followed but none received much support from the public. Apple first entered the tablet battlefield with the Newton, a device that's received equal amounts of love and ridicule over the years. Much of the criticism for the Newton focuses on its handwriting-recognition software. It really wasn't until Steve Jobs revealed the first iPad to an eager crowd that tablet computers became a viable consumer product. Today, companies like Apple, Google, Microsoft and HP are trying to predict consumer needs while designing the next generation of tablet devices. While it may have taken time to hit the ground running, it seems likely we'll be seeing tablet computers on store shelves for years to come.

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Installation of Windows Vista

INSTITUTE

28
PC ENGINEERING

Installation of Windows Vista

Installing Windows Vista Client "Configuring Windows Vista Client," is aimed at information technology (IT) professionals who will be installing and supporting the Windows Vista client operating system. The first thing you should recognize is that the installation process is a critical task in a computer's life cycle. How you configure a Windows Vista client computer has significant ramifications for how it is used throughout its lifetime. Today, with more reliable hardware and software, few people will need to have their operating system reinstalled from scratch. It is likely that the configuration decisions you make during the installation of Windows Vista will remain in effect until the computer on which you install it is retired from service. As an IT pro, you are responsible for making configuration decisions for people who have placed their trust in you. These people might be customers, work colleagues, family members, or friends. These people have given you this responsibility because they lack your expertise and training. They need you to decide whether their current hardware is capable of running Windows Vista. Do you recommend that they upgrade components? Should they purchase a new computer entirely? Which edition of Windows Vista will best suit their needs? What sort of post-installation configuration of device drivers will be necessary? This chapter will help you address all of these questions and will start you on your journey to better understanding the Windows Vista operating system. Exam objectives in this chapter: Identify hardware requirements. Perform a clean installation. Install and configure Windows Vista drivers.

Lesson 1: Identifying Hardware Requirements The objective of identifying hardware requirements can be boiled down to a
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single question: "Will this computer run Windows Vista well?" Although it is possible to install Windows Vista on a computer that does not measure up to the minimum requirements, the person's experience in using that computer is not going to be as agreeable as it might be. In some situations, hardware that does not meet the minimum requirements will mean that it is simply impossible to install Windows Vista at all. This lesson will help you determine whether a particular hardware configuration is sufficient to run Windows Vista. This lesson will also provide you with an overview of each Windows Vista edition. After this lesson, you will be able to: ? ? ? ? Determine Windows Vista client hardware requirements. Differentiate each edition of Windows Vista based on its feature set. Understand the difference between Windows Vista Capable and Windows Vista Premium Ready specifications. Run the Upgrade Advisor.

Assessing Hardware Requirements At its simplest, assessing hardware requirements means comparing two lists of specifications. The first list of specifications is what you need to run Windows Vista. The second list of specifications shows the current state of the computer on which you want to run Windows Vista. The four primary hardware components that you need to assess in determining whether you can install Windows Vista are: Processor RAM Hard disk drive Graphics adapter

Processor Although there are multiple processor architectures, Windows Vista requires that a processor have a minimum speed of 800 MHz. The recommended processor speed is greater than 1 GHz. Windows Vista will function on both 32-bit and 64-bit architectures. If you want to run Windows Vista on a 64-bit architecture, you should ensure that you obtain the 64-bit edition of Windows Vista rather than the standard 32-bit edition. The 64-bit edition of Windows Vista will provide improved performance on 64-bit hardware over the 32-bit edition. RAM Not only do you need enough RAM to run the operating system, but you also need extra RAM to run applications. Most people like to run several applications at once, such as a word processor, e-mail client, web browser, and chat program. When a computer begins running out of available RAM, it begins
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to use the page file. A page file is a special file, usually hidden, that is used to hold parts of programs and data files that do not fit within the computer's physical memory. Data is moved from the paging file to memory and back again as required. The page file is sometimes called the swap file. The more a computer uses the page file, the slower the computer gets. You can often improve the speed of a computer more by increasing the amount of RAM it has than you can by increasing its processor speed. Windows Vista has a minimum recommended RAM of 512 MB and a recommended RAM of 1 GB. Hard Disk Drive Having enough free space on the volume to install the operating system is one thing, but you will need space for an office productivity suite, all that e-mail that arrives, and space to install the latest and greatest games. Although a standard Windows Vista installation will consume approximately 7 GB of hard disk drive space, the recommended minimum amount of hard disk drive space is 20 GB, and the recommended amount is 40 GB. If you had only 7 GB of hard disk drive space, you would not be able to install any extra applications! Graphics Card Windows Vista has two graphics interfaces: the basic interface and the more advanced Windows Aero interface. Windows Aero is more aesthetically pleasing, but Windows Vista is still fully functional if using only the basic interface. The minimum requirement to run the basic interface is a graphics adapter that is DirectX 9 capable. You can find information on whether a graphics adapter is DirectX 9 capable on the vendor's website or on the product packaging. To run Windows Aero, a graphics adapter needs: DirectX 9 capacity A WDDM Driver Hardware Pixel Shader 2.0 32 bits per pixel A minimum of 128 MB graphics memory

Comparing Windows Vista Editions To the uninitiated, one of the most challenging things about Windows Vista is the number of editions it comes in. Each edition, or SKU (Stock Keeping Unit), is aimed at a particular target audience, and each edition has a particular price point. It is likely that in your job as an IT pro, you will have to provide recommendations to friends, family, and customers about which edition of Windows Vista will best suit their needs. To understand the differences between editions, you should first know the meaning of several terms.
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Active Directory Domain Active Directory directory service domains are rarely used in the home environment but are common in medium and large enterprises. Active Directory domains require a computer running a Windows server operating system. Aero The new Windows Vista graphical user interface (GUI), which is more efficient and aesthetically pleasing than the Windows XP or Windows 2000 interfaces. Media Center Allows a computer to play live and recorded standard and HDTV, movies, music, and pictures all through a single application. Full Hard Drive Encryption Enables a hard disk drive to be encrypted on the volume level rather than at the individual file and folder level. Tablet PC capacity The ability to run on a Tablet PC and accept pen-based input from the screen. Multiprocessor support The ability to use more than one processor. Parental controls Allows parents to restrict the websites and games that their children's user accounts can access.

Windows Vista Starter Windows Vista Starter is the most basic version of Windows Vista. This edition supports only a single 32-bit processor. Starter cannot be used in a domain, cannot run the Aero GUI, does not support Media Center or full hard drive encryption, and cannot be run on a Tablet PC. This edition allows only three applications to run simultaneously and does not support inbound network connections. This edition does not support parental controls. This affordable edition is primarily aimed at computer users in emerging markets. Windows Vista Home Basic Windows Vista Home Basic differs from the starter edition in that it comes in both 32-bit and 64-bit editions. Home Basic Edition cannot be used in a domain, cannot run the Aero GUI, does not support Media Center or full hard drive encryption, and cannot be run on a Tablet PC. Home Basic does support parental controls and allows users to have more than three applications open at once. Windows Vista Home Premium Like Windows Vista Home Basic, Windows Vista Home Premium cannot be used in a domain. It does, however, support the Aero GUI, it can be run on a Tablet PC, and it supports Media Center functionality. Home Premium supports parental controls and allows users to have more than three applications open at once.

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Windows Vista Business Windows Vista Business supports Aero and Tablet PC functionality. A Windows Vista business PC can also be a member of a domain. Windows Vista Business does not support Media Center and does not support full hard disk drive encryption. Windows Vista Enterprise Windows Vista Enterprise supports Aero and Tablet PC functionality. A Windows Vista Enterprise computer can be a member of a domain and can use full hard disk drive encryption. Windows Vista Enterprise does not support Media Center functionality. Windows Vista Enterprise is not available through regular retail channels and is available only to organizations that have their computers covered by Microsoft Software Assurance or a Microsoft Enterprise Agreement. Windows Vista Ultimate Windows Vista Ultimate supports all features of Windows Vista Enterprise and Windows Vista Premium. Computers running Windows Vista Ultimate can take full advantage of Media Center functionality and can also be members of an Active Directory domain. 32-Bit and 64-Bit Editions Windows Vista is available in both 32- and 64-bit editions. Although it is possible to run a 32-bit edition of Windows Vista on a computer with a 64bit processor, it is not possible to run a 64-bit edition of Windows Vista on a computer with a 32-bit processor. The primary advantage of a 64-bit edition of Windows Vista is that it allows a computer to use significantly more RAM than the 32-bit edition. The 64-bit editions of Windows Vista are generally used for specialized computing requirements, such as industrial design or computer generated special effects. Practice: Evaluating a Computer Prior to Installing Windows Vista In these practices, you will evaluate whether or not a computer is capable of running Windows Vista. The first practice is an evaluation of the hardware requirements. The second practice involves running the Upgrade Advisor. Practice : Evaluate Computer Hardware Prior to Installing Windows Vista The Windows Vista Upgrade Advisor is limited in that it can run only on a subset of the operating systems that are actually available. You might be considering, for example, running Windows Vista on a computer that has an operating system such as Linux installed. In this case, you need to make your own evaluation of the computer's hardware capacity.
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1. Review the minimum and recommended hardware requirements of Windows Vista. 2. Enter the computer's BIOS. When you power on a computer, it informs you which key to press to enter setup or BIOS. 3. Use BIOS to determine how much RAM is installed on the computer, as shown in Figure 28-1. 4. Use BIOS to determine the size of the hard disk drive installed in the computer. 5. Use BIOS to determine the processor speed of the computer. 6. Log on to the website of the manufacturer of your computer's graphics adapter. Check whether the
Fig. 28.1 Using BIOS to determine the amount of RAM a computer has

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graphics adapter meets the minimum or exceeds the recommended specifications for windows Vista. Lesson 2: Installing Windows Vista Although the installation process is straightforward, as an IT pro, you will need to make several important decisions that will influence the configuration of the computer. This includes setting initial disk and volume configuration, security, and network discoverability options. Depending on the hardware configuration of the computer on which you install Windows Vista, performing an installation can take some time. You need to understand the ramifications of each decision. In some cases, if you choose the wrong option, the only remedy will to be to start over from the beginning. In this lesson, you will learn about the Windows Vista installation process, a process that is likely to become very familiar to you over the course of the next few years as an IT pro. Performing the Windows Vista Installation The first step in an average Windows Vista clean installation is inserting the
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installation DVD into the computer's DVD-ROM drive and allowing the computer to boot off the DVD-ROM. Some computers will not automatically boot from the DVD-ROM drive. This bypass is often implemented for security reasons because it is possible to boot into an alternate operating system if you can boot from the DVD-ROM drive. To change the computer boot order so that the DVD-ROM drive is checked first, you need to enter the computer's BIOS. From here it is possible to configure the boot order. The first screen in the installation process, shown in Figure-28.2 below, asks which language you want to install, the time and currency format, and the keyboard layout you want to use. These selections are important because trying to install an operating system in a foreign language is a difficult skill to master! Keyboard layout is also important; even keyboards from other Englishspeaking countries might superficially seem to use the same layout as a U.S. keyboard, but some of the keys are in different positions. If you are installing Windows Vista for someone who needs access to multiple keyboard layouts, it is possible to add these alternative layouts once Windows Vista is installed. The user can then switch between them as necessary. The next step in the installation process is the Install Windows page. Clicking the Install Now button begins the installation. You also have the option of repairing your computer. If you click What To Know Before Installing Windows, you are reminded to: ? ? ? ? Verify that your computer meets the minimum hardware requirements. Have your installation media ready. At this point, of course, the media is in the drive! Ensure that you have located your 25-character product key. Have determined what antivirus software you will install after installation completes. A link to Windows OneCare is provided in the Welcome screen after you complete installation. OneCare is a fully featured subscriptionbased application available from Microsoft that you can use to protect
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Fig. 28-2 Select language, time and currency format, and keyboard layout

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against viruses and to ensure that your computer has appropriate security settings. You do not have to select OneCare as your antivirus or security solution, and many other vendors have released comparable products. ? Prepare a name for the computer that you will enter during installation. If you are installing in an Active Directory environment, you should also know the name of the domain that you want to join the computer to. Ensure that your Internet connection is working.

Clicking Install Now begins the installation process. After a moment, you are asked to enter the 25-character product activation key in the text box shown in Figure 28-3 and to select whether or not you want to automatically activate Windows when the computer connects to the Internet. It is possible to use Windows Vista for 30 days before you need to activate it online or by telephone. Until you are an expert at installing Windows Vista, you should ensure that you are completely happy with the installation and configuration prior to performing activation. That way, if you find something problematic, you will be able to reinstall from scratch without having to worry about a prior activation using your 25-character product key. If you want to enter the product key later, you receive a dialog box asking if you are sure. After it is installed, Windows Vista reminds you each day until the grace period expires that you need to perform the activation process. Windows Product Activation Windows Product Activation (WPA) is the method Microsoft uses to ensure that Windows Vista is installed on only a limited number of computers. You should record each unique key and the computer that it is tied to in a table or in a database in case you misplace the installation media. Several separate identifiers are used in the WPA process: ? Hardware ID An identifier that is generated using information generated from a computer's hardware configuration Product ID A 25-character unique key supplied with the installation media

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? ?

Installation ID An identifier that Windows Vista creates from the hardware ID and product ID During the WPA process, the Product ID and Hardware ID are sent to Microsoft. A single Product ID cannot be tied to more than one Hardware ID. If the activation check finds that the Product ID has
Fig. 28.3 Enter the product key

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not been activated and tied to a Hardware ID, both IDs are recorded and the installation is activated. If the activation check finds that the Product ID is tied to a different hardware ID, the activation fails. MORE INFO Windows Product Activation For more information on Windows Product Activation, consult the following website: http://www.microsoft.com/technet/windowsvista/library/plan/ e35edd60-9784-491d-8c51-7affbb42df30.mspx?mfr=true Microsoft allows you to reinstall and reactivate Windows Vista on the same computer once. Trying to do so again results in WPA failing, and you need to contact Microsoft support. If you substantially change your hardware configuration, you also need to reactivate Windows Vista. Changing a single component does not force reactivation, but changing multiple componentsfor example, motherboard, network card, and graphics adapter-forces reactivation. This is to guard against people installing multiple copies of Windows Vista on different computers by swapping hard disk drives around. NOTE Wait until your system settles We have found that until you have installed a new operating system a few times, you are likely to want to reinstall once or twice. With Windows Vista's hardware requirements, you will probably consider upgrading some of your hardware after you have installed to improve your experience. For this reason, we recommend that you do not go through the activation process until you are positive you are happy with your current configuration. That way, if you find you have to revise your hardware configuration, you do not have to worry about activation problems. Selecting an Edition of Windows Vista The next stage in the installation process, shown in Figure 28.4, involves selecting the edition of Windows Vista that you will install. The Windows Vista installation media ships with all editions of Windows Vista; however, you can activate only the version of Windows Vista that you have purchased. Each unique 25-character product key is tied to a specific edition of Windows Vista. If you install an edition that does not match your 25-character product key, you will either have to reinstall from scratch after the 30-day activation period has expired or purchase the edition that you have installed. If you purchase a new edition, you will receive a new unique 25-character product key.

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For example, if you install Windows Vista Ultimate but have purchased Windows Vista Business or Home Basic, you will need to reinstall from scratch or purchase a license for Ultimate. There is an exception to this rule. If you purchase Ultimate but accidentally install another edition, you will be able to perform an in-place upgrade to Ultimate. When you are sure, select the I Have Selected The Edition Of Windows That I Purchased check box, and click Next.

Fig.28.4 Select the edition of Windows Vista that you have purchased

Performing a Custom Installation The option to upgrade is presented only if you run the Windows Vista installation routine from an existing Windows XP or Windows Vista installation, and the computer meets the upgrade requirements. If you have booted off the Windows Vista installation media, only the Custom option is available. The Where Do You Want To Install Windows page shows a list of all disks and partitions available on the computer. From this page, you can load a driver for a disk drive if one is not already included with Windows. This is often necessary only with special high performance disks or redundant array of independent disks (RAID) arrays. If your hard disk drive is not visible when you reach this part of the installation routine, you need to install the appropriate hard disk driver. Clicking Drive Options (Advanced) brings up tools, shown in Figure 28.5, that you can use to create a new partition, format, extend a partition across multiple disks, or load a driver. It is not necessary to use the advanced drive options unless you want to create multipleseparate partitions. Extending volumes

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across partitions and disks is beyond the scope of the 70620 exam. Windows Vista automatically creates and formats a partition if you do not use any of the advanced options. Generally speaking, you will want to allocate as much space as possible to the partition that will host the Windows Vista volume. By default, all applications are installed onto the volume that hosts Windows Vista. Most people do not delete applications that they have installed unless
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Fig. 28.5 Drive options

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they have to, which means that over time, the amount of disk space used on the volume that hosts Windows Vista fills. This is especially the case if the person that you are building the computer for likes to play computer games. Modern games take up many gigabytes of disk space. If someone installs a new game each month, that person might use more than 100 GB of storage capacity within a year! If you are ever asked to free up disk space on someone's computer, you should check whether the user has installed any games. There are also good reasons to partition disks. Windows Vista allows you to create mirrored volumes across separate disks as a way of protecting data. Although you will want to ensure that the volume that hosts Windows Vista has as much space as possible, setting up a separate volume to host data, such as Microsoft Office documents, simplifies setting up redundancy and also greatly simplifies configuring backups. CAUTION Disks, partitions, and volumes These three terms are sometimes used interchangeably in technical documentation. This can be confusing for readers. A disk is the physical hard disk drive. A partition is a logical segmentation of a hard disk drive. A volume is a formatted storage area contained within a partition. If you open Windows Explorer, you are able to view only volumes. The only way that you can view disks and partitions is through the Disk Management tool, which is accessible through the Computer Management console. After these stages of the process are complete, the installation routine begins copying files from the Windows Vista media to the newly created volume. Features are then installed. After these aspects are completed, the installation reboots. Your input is not required until the Windows Vista routine reaches the Choose A User Name And Picture page. Here you are asked to enter a username and a password and to select a picture to represent your user account. You will need to enter the password twice and provide a password hint, as shown in Figure 28-6. It is important for you to note that this account automatically becomes a member of the local administrators group. For this reason, you should make the username and password memorable, though be careful to keep them both secured. Whoever has access to this username and password pair has complete control of this computer. For this reason, you should also ensure that the hint you provide is not too obvious. Unlike previous versions of Windows, Windows Vista ships with a built-in Administrator account that is disabled by default. The next step is to enter a computer name. Windows Vista offers a name based on the user-name you entered in the preceding step. You should select a name
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that is informative rather than wildly imaginative. Good computer names relate to the computer's role. Accounts01 is an excellent name for a Windows Vista computer used in a company's accounting department.

NOTE Label a computer clearly Although it is not critical in the home, it is easy to lose track of computer names if you work in a large environment. In such an environment, you should label the exterior of a computer with its computer name. That way it is easier to track the computer down when you get a message in the server log that
Fig. 28.6 Configguring a username and password

something has gone wrong with a particular client computer. The next stage of the installation process asks whether you want to install updates. The options are as follows: ? Use Recommended Settings This installs important and recommended updates and helps make Internet browsing safer. It also contacts Microsoft to see if there are solutions to any problems you encounter, such as a missing hardware driver. Install Important Updates Only Download and install any important security updates Microsoft has issued since Windows Vista's release.

? ?

Ask Me Later Do nothing at the moment. A warning is provided that the computer might be vulnerable to security threats. Although it might seem obvious that using the recommended settings is the best solution, there are good reasons why you might select Ask Me Later. If you are installing 100 Windows Vista computers, you will not want each one of them downloading a copy of the same files over your company's Internet connection from the Windows Update servers. Windows Update is a free service through which Microsoft provides patches and updates to your software. It is possible to install Windows Server Update Services (WSUS), an additional component that runs on Windows Server software that allows an organization to have a local Windows Update server. Each of the 100 Windows Vista computers would be able to retrieve all released updates over the company's local area network (LAN) rather than each of them downloading them from the Internet. If your organization is charged for the amount of traffic downloaded over its Internet link, implementing WSUS can bring significant cost benefits. The installation routine then asks you to review your time and date settings,
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Fig. 28.7 Setting your computer's time zone CMS INSTITUTE 2012

as shown in Figure 28.7. Be sure to set the correct time zone and date for your computer. If your region shifts to daylight savings during the summer months, ensure that the Automatically Adjust Clock For Daylight Saving Time check box is selected. During installation you do not need to set Windows Vista's time more accurately than the closest minute. When the computer is connected to the Internet, it synchronizes with time servers that keep time using an atomic clock. By default, once a week all Windows Vista computers synchronize with a time server located at time.windows.com. Many people use their home computers to tell them the accurate time rather than calling the telephone company's automated service. After completing the configuration of the time and date, the installation process presents the Select Your Computer's Current Location dialog box, as shown in Figure 28.8. Setting a computer's location determines how it interacts with the local network. Setting the network to Home configures the network to attempt to discover peer-topeer network devices. Setting the network to Work configures Windows Vista to attempt to discover domain resources. Configuring the network to Public Location means that the computer will not interrogate other devices on the network. In all cases, the Windows Firewall is active. The settings in this dialog box determine how inquisitive Windows Vista is about other devices on the local network. Microsoft recommends that if you are unsure of what to choose, you should select Public Location. Making a selection here completes the installation. Quick Check 1. How long do you have after installation to activate Windows? 2. You have purchased Windows Vista Ultimate but have accidentally installed Windows Vista Home Premium. What step should you take to remedy the problem? Quick Check Answers 1. You have 30 days to activate Windows after installing it. 2. Perform an upgrade to Vista Ultimate.
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Fig. 28.8 Selecting a computer's location

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Dual Booting Dual booting is the process by which you select an operating system to run during boot. When a computer is configured to dual boot, each operating system is installed on a separate volume. Those volumes can be separate partitions on the same hard disk drive or separate partitions on separate hard disk drives. Although virtual machines are making dual booting less popular, there are several reasons to dual boot. These include: ? ? ? Your organization requires you to run either Windows 2000 or Windows XP but has asked you to also test Windows Vista. You are a developer who wants to switch between multiple operating systems, such as Windows Server 2003 and Windows Vista.

Your computer does not have enough memory to run different operating systems within virtual machines. When configuring dual booting, you need to ensure that you install Windows Vista after you install Windows XP If you have to rebuild a computer that dual . boots and you install Windows Vista prior to XP there might be problems with , the way that the boot menu functions. When you dual boot, you are presented with a text menu asking you which operating system you want to run. To select Windows XP or any other operating , system released prior to Windows Vista, use the arrow keys to select Earlier Version Of Windows, as shown in Figure 28.9. Selecting Earlier Version Of Windows automatically boots Windows XP If you have multiple earlier operating . systems, such as Windows XP and Windows Server 2003, selecting Earlier Version Of Windows brings up the original boot loader. From there you can select between earlier versions of Windows as you would have prior to installing Windows Vista. If you install a version of Windows released after
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Windows Vista-for example, Windows Longhorn Server-this is listed as an option on the Windows Vista boot menu. It is possible to change which operating system you want to boot by default in the System Properties dialog box. To configure which operating system to boot by default, perform the following steps. 1. Click Start. 2. Right-click Computer, and then click Properties. This opens the View Basic Information About Your Computer window.
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Fig. 28.9 Choosing Windows XP by selecting Earlier Version Of Windows in the boot manager

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NOTE Alternative methods It is also possible to get to this window by opening System in Control Panel. You will find that there are many ways to access important Windows Vista tools. There is no right way to do it; just find what works for you. 3. On the Tasks pane, click Advanced System Settings. 4. In the User Account Control dialog box, click Continue. 5. In the Advanced tab of System Properties, click the Settings button in the Startup And Recovery area. 6. Use the Default Operating System drop-down list, shown in Figure 28.10 to select the default operating system for Windows startup.

Fig. 28.10 Configuring the default startup operating system

Practice: Installing Windows Vista Business Select Practice 1 or 2, depending on whether you want to install Windows Vista on a computer with or without an existing operating system. If you have a fresh computer or are installing on a virtual machine, you should select Practice 1. If you want to configure Windows Vista in a dual boot configuration with Windows XP Windows 2000, or Windows Server 2003, do Practice 2. Practice , 2 assumes that you have a fresh unpartitioned hard disk drive available. Practice 1: Installing Windows Vista Business on a Computer Without an Operating System In this practice, you will install Windows Vista Business on a computer that meets the mini-mum hardware requirements outlined previously, "Identifying Hardware Requirements." If you want to install Windows Vista to dual boot, you should do Practice 2 rather than Practice 1. NOTE Windows Vista Virtual Server Settings If you are using Virtual Server 2005 R2, you should ensure that Virtual Server 2005 R2 is upgraded to SP1. If configuring Windows Vista as a virtual machine, allocate a minimum of 512 MB of RAM to the virtual machine, although 1024 is better. Allocate 25 GB of disk space to the virtual hard disk drive and ensure that Undo Disks are enabled. 1. Ensure that the Windows Vista installation DVD is in the DVD-ROM drive and turn on the computer. 2. The Windows Vista installation routine should start automatically, and after several moments you should see the language options screen. Set the options appropriate to your language, currency, and keyboard layout, and click Next.
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3. On the Install Windows page, click Install Now. This begins the installation process. 4. The next screen is the WPA page. On this page, clear the Automatically Activate Windows When I'm Online check box. You will perform WPA during a practice in Chapter 3, "Troubleshooting Post-Installation System Settings." Click Next. 5. On the Do You Want To Enter Your Product Key Now page, click No. 6. In the Select The Edition Of Windows That You Purchased dialog box, click Windows Vista Business, and then select the I Have Selected The Edition Of Windows That I Pur-chased check box. 7. Click Next. On the next page, review the Windows Vista license terms, and then select the I Accept The License Terms check box. Click Next. 8. Because you are installing on a clean system, the Upgrade option is disabled. Click Custom. 9. On the Where Do You Want To Install Windows page, ensure that the disk that you want to install Windows on is selected. Click Drive Options (Advanced). 10. Click New to create a new partition on the allocated space. By default, a new partition is allocated all remaining space on the disk. Click Apply. This creates a new partition. 11. Click Format to create a volume on the newly created partition. A warning, shown in Fig-ure 1-13, informs you that all data stored on the partition will be deleted. Because the partition is newly created, there is no data to lose.
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Fig. 28.11

Partition deletion warning

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12. Windows automatically formats the partition using the NTFS file system. When the installation routine has finished formatting the partition, click Next. 13. You need to wait for some time while Windows copies files, installs features and updates, and then completes the installation. The installation reboots during this process. 14. In the Choose A User Name And Picture page, assign the username Vikram Patel and the password P@ssw0rd. You need to enter the password twice, and you should enter a hint to remind you of what the password is. Click Next. NOTE Setting your own username and password The practice items in this book assume that the initial username set up is Vikram Patel and the assigned password P@ssw0rd. If you decide to use a separate username and password pair, substitute it each time you see Vikram Patel. 15. In the Type A Computer Name dialog box, shown in Figure 28.12, type 620-Vista. Select a desktop background, and then click Next. 16. On the Help Protect Windows Automatically page, click Use Recommended Settings. 17. On the Review Your Time And Date Settings page, select your time zone. If you live in a region that uses daylight savings time, ensure that the Automatically Adjust Clock For Daylight Savings Time check box is selected. Ensure that the date is correct and that the time setting is accurate to within several minutes of the current time. Click Next. 18. On the Select Your Computer's Current Location page, click Public Location. 19. Click Start to complete the installation. Windows Vista now checks the computer's per-formance and assigns a rating before presenting you with the logon screen. ? Practice 2: Installing Windows Vista Business in a Dual Boot Configuration In this practice, you will install Windows Vista on the second hard disk of a computer that already has Windows XP installed. If you have performed the first Windows Vista installation practice, there is no need to perform this practice.

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Fig. 28.12 Selecting a computer name and desktop background

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1.

Ensure that the Windows Vista installation DVD is in the DVD-ROM drive.

NOTE Preparing for dual boot This practice is offered for people who do not have enough RAM to run virtual machines or who want to dual boot their current computer with Windows Vista. There are two basic ways of preparing an existing computer to dual boot. The first is to install a second hard disk drive. The second is to purchase a disk repartitioning tool. Given the licensing fees and the chance of losing data, we recommend that you purchase a second internal hard disk drive. Several software tools will reliably repartition a disk that currently holds data. The license fee for these tools is around the same cost as a new hard disk drive with several hundred gigabytes of storage. 2. Turn on the computer. When you see the prompt: Press any key to boot from CD or DVD press the spacebar. This starts the Windows Vista installation routine. 3. After several moments, you should see the language options screen. Set the options appropriate to your language, currency, and keyboard layout, and click Next. 4. On the Install Windows page, click Install Now. This begins the installation process. 5. The next screen is the activation page. Clear the Automatically Activate Windows When I'm Online check box. You will perform product activation in Chapter 3, "Troubleshoot-ing Post-Installation System Settings." Click Next. 6. In the Do You Want To Enter Your Product Key Now dialog box, click No. 7. In the Select The Edition Of Windows That You Purchased page, select Windows Vista Business, and then select the I Have Selected The Edition Of Windows That I Purchased check box 8. Click Next, review the Windows Vista license terms, and then select the I Accept The License Terms check box. Click Next. 9. To upgrade to Windows Vista, you need to start the installation process from Windows XP rather than booting off the Windows Vista DVD-ROM. Click Custom. 10. On the Where You Do You Want To Install Windows page, click Drive Options (Advanced).

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11. Locate the new drive that you have just installed. In Figure 28.13, you can see that the newly installed drive is Disk 1. The entire drive is unallocated, and it has no partitions. Disk 0, on the other hand, has a single partition of 5.0 GB and a small amount of unallocated space. 12. Ensure that the disk with unallocated space is selected, and click New. 13. By default, all space on the disk is allocated to the new partition on which you install Windows Vista. Click Apply. 14. Click Format to format the newly created partition with the NTFS file system. When the installation routine has finished formatting the partition, click Next. 15. You need to wait for some time while Windows copies files, installs features and updates, and then completes the installation. The installation reboots during this process. 16. At the Choose A User Name And Picture page, assign the username Vikram Patel and the password: P@ssw0rd. You need to enter the password twice, and you should enter a hint to remind you of what the password is. Click Next. NOTE Setting your own username and password The practice items in this book assume that the initial username set up is Vikram Patel and the assigned password is P@ssw0rd. If you decide to use a separate username and password pair, substitute it each time you see Vikram Patel. 17. In the Type A Computer Name dialog box, shown earlier in Figure 28.12, type 620-Vista. Select a desktop background, and then click Next. 18. On the Help Protect Windows Automatically page, click Use Recommended Settings. 19. On the Review Your Time And Date Settings page, select your time zone. If you live in a region that uses daylight savings time, ensure that the Automatically Adjust Clock For Daylight Savings Time check box is selected. Ensure that the date is correct and that the Time setting is accurate to within
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Fig. 28.13 Installing Windows Vista on a second disk

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several minutes of the current time. Click Next. 20. On the Select Your Computer's Current Location page, click Public Location. 21. Click Start to complete the installation. Windows Vista now checks the computer's per-formance and assigns a rating before presenting you with the logon screen. Lesson Summary ? If a computer does not boot directly into the Windows Vista installation routine, you might need to alter the BIOS settings. ? Prior to installation, you should ensure that you have your 25-character product key, have determined what antivirus solution you will implement, have chosen a computer name, and have chosen a user account name and password for the computer. ? Windows Vista allows you a 30-day activation grace period after the completion of the installation process. ? The unique 25-character product key ties you to a specific edition of Windows Vista. If you install an SKU of Windows Vista higher than the one you purchased, you will have to purchase the higher version or reinstall from scratch. ? If the disk that you want to install Windows Vista on is not visible during the installation process, you will have to install the correct driver. ? The user account that you create during the installation process will be the default administrator account for the Windows Vista computer. The default built-in administrator account is disabled in Windows Vista. ? Unless you have a special network configuration, you should use the recommended settings when Windows Vista asks whether you want to download and install updates. ? If you are unsure of which location to specify when the Windows Vista installation routine asks you, select Public Location. ? When a computer is configured to dual boot, each operating system is installed on a separate volume.

LAB EXERCISE 28.1 : Windows Vista Installation Objective : To be familiar with the different installation types as installing the OS. Tasks: 1. Install the Windows 98SE OS and observe the different switches with setup program and try some of the switches. 2. If possible, try out the different installation types i.e. difference between typical and custom etc.
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Managing Application on Windows Vista

Introduction Adding software is usually done with the installation disk or executable, while adding Windows components can be done within the "Add and Remove Programs" utility. In order to change or remove a program in Windows Vista, you must either use the "uninstall" utility bundled with the program you wish to remove, or more often, use the "Program and Features" option in the Windows Vista control panel (with the advent of Windows Vista, the Windows XP "Add and Remove Programs" utility was renamed to "Programs and Features"). DO NOT delete folders under your C: drive in an attempt to remove an unwanted program-this can cause serious problems with your operating system, often leading to full operating system reinstalls. The following instructions apply to all versions of Vista. How to Remove Programs 1. Click on the "Start" button, located in the lower left corner of your screen. 2. Click on "Control Panel" to access control panel options. 3. The system may warn you that changing these options may negatively affect your system. Ignore this warning and proceed. 4. Click on Programs, then Programs and Features. 5. Select the program you wish to change or uninstall. To uninstall, click uninstall and follow the directions. To change or repair a program, click on change or repair. 6. It is possible that you'll receive no further notification of the action from Windows, or it may start a third-party program to assist with removal developed by the software manufacturer. Things to Remember: " You may be prompted for an administrative password or some kind of confirmation-just enter it and proceed.

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Fig 29.1 Remove programs

"

If you can't find the program, it may have been made for an earlier version of Windows, and you'll need to check the software's documentation.

How to Add/Remove Windows Components In order to add or remove Windows components, you must be an administrator on your computer. 1. Click on the "Start" button, located in the lower left corner of your screen. 2. Click on "Control Panel" to access control panel options. 3. The system may warn you that changing these options may negatively affect your system. Ignore this warning and proceed. 4. Click on Programs, then Programs and Features. 5. Click Turn Windows Features on or off, located on the left side of the screen. 6. Follow the instructions in the Windows Features Wizard. Things to Remember: " " If an item is checked in the Windows Features Wizard, it's already installed. If you installed Windows components but did not configure them at installation, there will be a list. Click configure and follow the instructions.

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Fig 29.2 Add/Remove Windows Components CMS INSTITUTE 2012

Installing Office 2007 in Windows Vista Microsoft Office 2007 software is developed by Microsoft for Windows and other operating systems. Its main applications are Word, Excel, Outlook, PowerPoint and Access. It is most popular suite as it has been the most widely used since its versions for Windows 1.0 which was launched in 1990. If you want to install Microsoft Office 2007 on your system then follow these guidelines: STEP 1. Insert the Office 2007 Installation CD into your computer's CD drive. It will take few seconds to start the installation process. If the installation does not start automatically, open 'My Computer', then open the "OFFICE12 CD", and double-click the "SETUP .EXE". Microsoft Office Wizard A 2007 Microsoft Office Wizard window will appear (Figure 29.3); allow it to process. This procedure will prepare the necessary files to start installing Microsoft Office 2007 on your computer.

Fig 29.3

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STEP 2. The Product Key Now the setup will prompt for the Office 2007 product key. Type the product key in the key field. Enter five characters per field in box, and make sure that there are a total of 25 characters. After entering the complete product key, click ' Continue ' (Figure 29.2). If you are unable to find the product key on the CD then click on the Windows help icon on the product key page to open the Microsoft help topic page

Fig 29.4 CMS INSTITUTE 2012

STEP 3. Software License Agreement The next screen shows the End-User License Agreement (EULA). Now click the checkbox at the bottom corresponding to "I accept the terms in the License Agreement". Without accepting the EULA, the setup will not proceed further, so, it is recommended that you go through this once. Then click ' Continue '. (Figure 29.5).
Fig 29.5

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Fig 29.6 CMS INSTITUTE 2012

Step 4: Choosing Installation Type The next window shows the installation options for MS Office 2007. If you want to install default application that MS Office provides, click the selection button 'Install Now'. This will start the installation process. The other installation options is Custom Install: Custom Install: Here's where you'll find maximum configurability. If you have a good idea of how you'll be using Office and its individual applications, this selection will let you tailor the installation more tightly to your specific needs. (see Figure 29.6). Step 5: Installation Options The Installation Options tab now appears (Figure 29.7). Left-click on the root directory called Microsoft Office. On the drop-down menu select Run all from My Computer and click on Install Now.

Fig 29.7

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Step 6: File Location Next, click on the File Location tab. Make sure that the installation directory reads C:\Program Files\Microsoft Office (Figure 29.8). If you do not want to type this address, you can simply click the Browse button and select the location where you wish to install Microsoft Office 2007.

Fig 29.8 CMS INSTITUTE 2012

Step 7: User Information Finally, click on the User Information tab (Figure 29.9). In the Full Name, Initials, and Organization fields fill in your name, your initials, and Trinity University, respectively. After this information has been typed click on Install Now to continue. Once you're done selecting what type of install to do, to begin installation, click on the 'Install Now' button and this will start the process of installing Microsoft Office 2007 on your computer. After starting the installation process, a progress bar will be displayed showing that

Fig 29.9 406

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Microsoft Office 2007 is currently being installed on your computer. After a few minutes, MS Office 2007 will be completely installed on your system and now you can enjoy working with Office 2007.

Step 8: Installation Progress The Installation Progress window will now appear (Figure 29.10). Step 9: Office Online Click on the Go to Office Online button (Figure 29.11). An Internet Explorer window will open. Follow the on-screen directions in order to update your Microsoft Office software and protect yourself from possible security vulnerabilities. Step 10: Finished Congratulations, your installation and updating of Microsoft Office 2007 is now finished. Be sure to check for new updates on a monthly basis via Office Online to protect your computer from security vulnerabilities. To access your new software click on the Start button, move to All Programs, Microsoft Office and select the Microsoft Office product you wish to use.

Fig 29.10

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Fig 29.11

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Managing Application on Windows Vista

LAB EXERCISE 29.1 : Installing Different Application in Windows Vista Objective: To be familiar with the installation as well as use of the different applications which are commonly used in Windows 98. Tasks: 1. Install one of the in-built utilities such as "Backup" which is present along with Windows 98 OS. 2. Try installing Office 2000 and utilize one of the Office programs such as Word to create your Resume. 3. Now try installing WinZip and verify whether there is any difference by using WinZip. 4. In the Outlook Express, try creating an account, create a mail and send it and then verify by using a POP3 account or Hotmail account, whether it is actually working i.e. whether one is able to send and receive mails.

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PC Assembling

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Since we've covered the nitty-grittys of the functioning of each of the system components, it's time to get our hands dirty and actually put together an entire system. Now we're not just talking of any system. Starting with the choice of the individual components to the loading of the final operating system, we will be stepping through the entire process of selecting, assembling, configuring and finally tweaking the system so that at the end of it all we have a seriously powerful and efficient powerhouse. The basic principles underlying the assembly and the overall construction of the system remain constant, no matter which system you finally decide to build - be it an Internet surfing station to a trailblazing 3D gaming workstation. Getting it all together Firstly, depending upon your budget, plan the purchase of each of the system components. Given the sheer variety of components available, this could be the most tiring task while building the computer system. However, here is a rule-of-thumb guide in choosing the components. Each of the system components should be given a "weightage" of importance before buying components for the base system (that is, the system excluding peripherals like a printer, scanner etc). Generally, the following is the sequence of importance that you could consider while deciding on your choice of components from the most to the least important: monitor, processor, RAM, hard disk, 3D graphics card, motherboard, sound card, CD/DVD drive, speakers, modem, casing, keyboard, mouse, floppy drive etc. You might change the order of this list depending upon your specific applications and allot a greater importance of some components over others. For example, if you need a powerful system for 3D gaming, your 3D graphics card would have greater importance than the choice of hard disk. The reason that great importance be given to the monitor is because it is the only component in your system that can never really be "upgraded". While other components like the
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processor, RAM, 3D graphics card etc can be upgraded, your monitor will generally see your computer through its entire period of existence. Therefore, one must go in for the best monitor that one can afford and then settle upon other system components. The following steps give as overview of assembling a computer. 1. Gather all your parts. 2. Open the case and remove the power supply and drive chassis. 3. Set up your motherboard. Install the CPU. Install main memory.

Tip: It's a good idea to connect everything you can outside the case first and test each component as you install it. Only when you're sure everything works should you disassemble the test setup and install everything inside the case. (That's why, even though you're putting everything together here, the last step is to "put it all together"). This approach makes troubleshooting much easier. 4. Install the video card (if the motherboard doesn't have integrated video) and test it. 5. Install the hard drive(s) and floppy drive. 6. Configure the BIOS. 7. Install your CD-ROM or DVD drive. 8. Install the operating system. 9. Install the sound card (if the motherboard doesn't have integrated audio). 10. Install your other expansion boards, such as internal modem and DVD decoder board. 11. Put it all together: Install the motherboard. Install the power supply. Attach the add-on boards. Conduct another system check. Install the rest of the boards. Install the parallel and serial port connectors.

Connect the front panel lights and speaker. Having collected all the components for the system, one can now get down to actually assembling the computer together.

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Step 1 Open the system casing


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Step 2 Remove the backplate of the casing for mounting the motherboard
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Step 3 Align the motherboard with the mounting screws provided and see that the
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motherboard is fastened at all four corners and at least two places within the motherboard. This will keep the motherboard stable and provide a good foundation for the rest of the system's cards. Caution : Beware of static electricity as this can destroy a motherboard and render it completely useless. To ensure that you are free from any static charge, the best approach is to wear a wrist-strap. This is a device that attaches to your wrist with the other end attached to a grounded object like a metal pipe. If you can't obtain a wrist strap, it is safest to refrain from wearing any shoes while handling the motherboard. This will discharge any static charge you might be carrying. In any case, handle the motherboard by its edges only. Do not completely tighten the screws after you affix the motherboard to the backplate. Instead, lightly attach the board to the backplate with the help of the screws and spacers and tighten these screws only after you mount the cards on the board. This will prevent any unwanted stresses from being built up within the system (this is seen when you have to force cards into the slots after mounting the motherboard). If the motherboard is initially mounted loosely, the cards will easily slide into the slots, as the board will have a little "play" in it. Only after you mount all the cards you should tighten the screws that fasten the motherboard. The same rule should be applied while attaching the motherboard backplate to the casing-tighten the screws only after mounting the cards. Also, before mounting the motherboard, you can use the foam that is used to wrap the board as a backing for it so that the contacts on the underside of the motherboard do not accidentally touch the backplate. Cut out the foam to the size of the motherboard and mount the board with the foam between the board and the backplate. If there is no foam available, you could also use sheets of an old newspaper. Step 4 Mount the processor on the motherboard
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Remember to check any jumpers that you may have to set to configure the motherboard to the processor you have. These settings are indicated in the manual that accompanies the motherboard. Caution : Remember to attach the connector for the CPU fan to the appropriate point on the motherboard. Failing to do so would result in your processor overheating and could even result in permanent damage. Step 5 Mount the RAM The RAM goes into the slots in only one direction so remember to align the notches on the RAM to those on the slot.
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Step 6 Mount the motherboard and backplate in the system casing.


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Step 7 Mount the CD/DVD drive


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Step 8 Mount the hard disk drive


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Step 9 Mount the floppy drive


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Step 10 Connect the power cables to the motherboard If you have an ATX power supply, the connectors will only fit into the motherboard in one direction. Align the connector so that the clip on the connector fits into the one on the power connector on the motherboard socket.
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Step 11 Attach the front panel connectors to the motherboard


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The indications for attaching the front panel connectors to the motherboard are shown in the motherboard manual. Step 12 Connect the primary IDE channel to the hard disk The master IDE channel is indicated on the motherboard. Look out for an indication that reads "Pri. Master" or "IDE 0" on the motherboard.

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Step 13 Attach the power connector to the hard disk.


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Step 14 Connect the secondary IDE channel to the CD/DVD drive By connecting the CD/DVD drive to a separate IDE channel as a master drive, the efficiency of accessing the IDE devices will be much higher than connecting the CD/DVD drive as a slave to the same channel as the hard disk.
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Step 15 Attach the power connector to the CD/DVD drive


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Step 16 Connect the floppy drive to the motherboard connector.


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Step 17 Attach the power connector to the floppy disk After connecting the IDE and the floppy drives, now would be a good time to get hold a of a few rubber bands or tie-wraps and arrange the floppy, CD and hard disk cables. Group them together and tuck them out of the way of the airflow to the processor. This will eventually help your system to run cooler.

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Step 18 Connect the serial, parallel and game ports to the motherboard If you have a baby AT cabinet, you will need to attach these ports to the motherboard by way of the connectors that are supplied. Indications for doing so are outlined in the motherboard manual. This is not necessary for an ATX motherboard as these ports are built onto the motherboard itself. After attaching these connectors, remember to group the cables together with a couple of rubber bands so that they do not obstruct the CPU fan or airflow. Step 19 Connect the display card
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Caution : Remember to handle the card by its edges so as to prevent damage due to static charge. Insert the card by first aligning the connectors to the socket on the motherboard. Then slide in the card by gently rocking it back and forth so as to ease it into the slot. Do not try to force the card into the slot. See that the card is firmly seated in the slot before fastening the screw.

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Step 20 Mount the sound card This is necessary only if you are using a motherboard that does not have any integrated sound card.
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Step 21 Connect the audio cable from the CD/DVD drive to the sound card Connect the "Audio out" socket from the CD/DVD drive to the "CD-In" connector as indicated on your sound card.
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Step 22 Connect the keyboard to the connector on the motherboard.


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Step 23 Connect the mouse to the port on the motherboard Depending upon which mouse you have, you should connect the mouse to either the serial port or to the PS/2 port on your motherboard. Remember that a PS/2 mouse should always be connected to the outer PS/2 port on the motherboard while the keyboard is connected to the inner PS/2 port.
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Step 24 Connect the VGA connector from the monitor to the display card
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Step 25 Connect the power cord to the power supply


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Caution : Remember to verify that the power point that you are connecting your computer to is properly earthed. Get this checked by an electrician so that the delicate electronics in your computer are protected from stray voltages that may exist on the power lines. Step 26 Connect the monitor's power cord to the monitor Depending upon the type of power supply your cabinet has, the monitor's power cord could be either connected to the mains power supply or to a connector on the SMPS near the main power connector of the computer.

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Step 27 Check all connections and cards You are now nearly ready to power up your system. Before doing so, now's a good time to check all the connections and cards in your system. Glance over all the connectors to the drives and cards and see that they are securely attached with no loose contacts anywhere. Step 28 Switch on the power to the system. Probably the most apprehensive part of building the computer, now's the time to power up the system. Switch on the mains power and hit the power button on the casing. You should hear the hard disk spinning up and the motherboard should emit a single "beep" signalling that all systems are functional. See that the CPU fan and the power supply is running. Keep an eye out for any signs of instability in the form of the system hanging as this could mean that a setting on the motherboard could be incorrectly set or one of the cards might be loose, Observe the display and verify that the CPU speed indicated on boot-up is the rated CPU speed. If it isn't, shut down the system and re-check the motherboard jumper settings for your CPU. In most new motherboards, these settings will have to be done from the CMOS. Hit "Del" when you see the message at the bottom of the screen to access the system BIOS of the system. Step 29 Configuring the BIOS One of the most effective methods to sap that extra power from your computer and enable it to run at full throttle is to tweak the BIOS. By changing parameters in the BIOS, the system could behave in a variety of ways. The system could run very smoothly, or it could run erratically or could stop functioning altogether. However, by adopting a systematic approach, a significant amount of power can be extracted from your system by changing select parameters in your system BIOS. Step 30 Close the system casing Now that your system is up and running and all the components are found to be running well, the system casing can be closed. Fasten the four or six screws at the back of the casing securely. With all the hardware properly set up, you are now ready to load the operating system. Load the operating system and verify that the system is functioning correctly and only then connect peripherals like the printer and scanner etc.
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Finally, for sapping that extra power out of your computer, it is recommended that you apply the tweaks to maintain the system. There are many utilities that help you to access registry settings and other parameters of your hard disk and operating system that can increase the overall speed of your system.

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Troubleshooting

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The average PC has about a bazillion screen savers, application, background communications programs (such as fax receive programs), and of course driver programs for sound boards, network cards, video boards, and the mouse, to name just a few. Determining the source of a problem is really hard when there are innumerable interactions between hardware and software. The smart troubleshooter makes the troubleshooting job traceable by breaking down problems into individual steps. Don't panic, and remember to be methodical; otherwise, you will thrash helplessly about and get frustrated. Once you are frustrated, you are lost, and you start creating new problems. The key steps you should take in troubleshooting most PC problems (while remembering to stay calm and positive). Several of these steps occur before you ever power down and remove the case. 1. Check for operator error-commands or configurations that you may have done wrong, software or hardware that you may have set up incorrectly, or instructions that you may have reversed (for eg., literally reversing a cable or putting a jumper on exactly opposite from the way it needs to go). 2. Check to make certain that everything that should be plugged into either a direct power source or the PC itself is plugged in correctly, and that the connection is secure. 3. Check the software, including program files and drivers, to make sure you have the most current versions installed - and configured properly. 4. Check for external signs of trouble, such as flickering LED power indicators or those that don't come on at all, strange sounds or lack of sound, and lack of display. 5. Run appropriate diagnostic programs, which will be present in OS or some other 3rd party utilities. 6. Only when all else fail, disassemble the PC, shut it down, disconnect all power, remove the case, ground yourself, and go inside to check cable and
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power connections, the proper seating of expansion boards and memory modules, and anything out of the ordinary. Diagnostics Software Several types of diagnostic software are available for PCs. Some diagnostic functions are integrated into the PC hardware or into peripheral devices, such as expansion cards, whereas others take the form of operating system utilities or separate software products. This software, some of which is included with the system when purchased, assists users in identifying many problems that can occur with a computer's components. In many cases, these programs can do most of the work in determining which PC component is defective or malfunctioning. All versions of Windows from Windows 98 on include a set of diagnostic system tools (accessed via Start > Programs > Accessories > System Tools) that can help you track down many types of system problems. For eg., ScanDisk enables you to perform either a surface or thorough scan of your drives and tries to fix errors it finds; Disk Defragmenter defragments and reorganizes your hard drive to make it run more efficiently. Microsoft's System Information tool provides a host of indispensable data about various components of your system, and (is its Tools menu) serves as a gateway for several more "hidden" utilities. These utilities include the Dr. Watson logging tool, which keeps track of operations performed and error messages generated; System File checker, which seeks out missing or damaged essential files and attempts to replace them; and the System Information Utility (a.k.a. MSCONFIG), which enables you to set up a troubleshooting bootup mode and select which items you really want to load at Windows startup. These diagnostics are not available directly within Windows 95 or Windows NT 4. Windows 95 (as well as all later versions) does include Device Manager, one of the tabs available under the System icon in Control Panel. Although it's not a diagnostic checker, vital information gets reported there that you need to check when you're having a problem. You may see an exclamation mark or red x on a device, indicating a device in conflict or disabled entirely. Or you may find a needed device driver not present at all when it should be. Or you may find a note on your hard drive indicating that the drive is running in MS-DOS compatibility mode (meaning Windows feels the drive isn't set to run properly in Windows, so it's running in a slower mode compatible with MSDOS). Common Problems - and Solutions Some of the more common hardware-related problems are as given below and the possible ways to get over it as well.
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Your Computer Won't Start This is perhaps the scariest problem you can encounter. Either nothing at all happens, or you hear a few familiar or unfamiliar sounds, or even see a blinking light or two, but it all leads to a big fat zero. What can cause your entire system not to work? Here are some things to look for: Make sure the power cable is connected, both to your PC and to either a power strip/surge suppressor or wall outlet. If the cable is connected to a power strip/surge suppressor, make sure the strip is turned on-and that other device plugged into the strip are working. (The strip itself could be bad). Make sure that the wall outlet has power. Check to see whether the power cable itself is bad. If you have a spare cable or one from another PC, try swapping it for the current cable. If your system unit lights up and makes noise but nothing appears onscreen, make sure that the computer monitor is turned on and getting power, and that it is connected properly and securely to the monitor output on your system unit. If you suspect you actually have a monitor problem rather than a system unit problem, try connecting your PC to a different monitor. If your computer starts up but you receive an error message telling you that you have a non-bootable or invalid or non-system disk, you've accidentally left a floppy in drive A. Remove it. If your system tries to start but then locks up, it's possible you have some type of damage to your main hard disk. You could have a damaged boot sector, or an internal connection may have worked loose, or your key system files might have become corrupted. Try restarting with an emergency boot disk (or the Windows Startup disk) and then use Scan Disk to check for hard disk errors. If your system appears to start but then generates a series of beeps (with nothing showing on your video display), it's possible that you have a problem with your video card. (Consider this a probability if you've just installed a new video card)! Make sure the video card is seated firmly in its slot, you've switched the appropriate switches on your motherboard (if necessary) to recognize the new card. Try uninstalling the new card and reinstalling your old one it's possible the new card is defective. A beeping-and-not-starting scenario can also be caused by incorrect settings in your system's CMOS setup. Check the video and memory settings, specifically. Another possible cause is a bad memory chip or faulty memory installation. A weak or dead CMOS battery can also cause this problem.
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If nothing turns on - no power lights light, no disk drivers whirr, nothingit's possible that the power supply transformer in your system unit is bad.

Your Computer Locks Up In terms of causing extreme user panic, a frozen system is second only to a completely dead system. What can cause your system to freeze up? Here are some of the most likely causes: It's possible that it's not your entire system that's locked up-it could be your keyboard or mouse. Check the connections for both these devices, and make sure both cables are firmly plugged into the appropriate ports. If you're using a wireless keyboard or mouse, replace your batteries. Misbehaving software problems are, perhaps, the greatest cause of frozen systems. If a program is stalled, try switching to another open program, either from the Windows Taskbar or by pressing Alt+Tab to shuttle through all open programs. If things are still frozen, press Ctrl+Alt+Del (the old "three-fingered salute)" to display the Close Program dialog box; highlight the program that isn't responding and click the End Task button. If, after trying all these actions, your system is still frozen, you'll have to reboot completely-press Ctrl+Alt+Del twice to shut down and then restart your entire system. If even this doesn't shut things down, you'll have to use the Power button on your system unit - or, in the worst of all possible cases, unplug the system unit from its power source. Many computer lockups are caused by too many programs trying to use more memory than is available. It's possible that you'll get a kind of warning before a total lockup; if your computer starts to slow down in the middle of an operating session, it's a sure sign of an upcoming memoryrelated failure. If the problem recurs, try closing a program or two to free up system memory-or upgrade the amount of memory in your system unit. Since Windows uses free hard disk space to augment random access memory, too little disk space can also cause your system to slow down or freeze. Make sure you've gone through your folders and deleted any nonessential or unused files-especially TMP files in the \WINDOWS\TEMP directory.

Finally, any time something weird happens with your system, consider whether the problem could have been caused by a computer virus. Make sure you're running some sort of antivirus program system sweep if you start experiencing performance problems.

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A New Piece of Hardware won't Work - or Messes up your System It happens to the best of us. You install a new card or external peripheral, and all of a sudden your system either starts working funny or stops working completely. Obviously, something in the new installation caused the problem - but what? Make sure that the new hardware is properly installed. If you installed a new internal board, make sure the board is fitted properly in its slot, that any additional wires or cables are connected properly, and that any switches are set appropriately. If you installed a new external peripheral, make sure that its' plugged into the right port, that the cable is firmly connected, and that the device is hooked up to and is receiving external power (if that's required). Some new devices require you to rest specific jumpers or switches on your system's motherboard. Check the item's installation instructions and make sure you've performed this vital step. Check your system configuration. It's possible that Windows Plug and Play didn't recognize your new device, or didn't recognize it properly, or installed the wrong driver. Try uninstalling both the hardware and its associated software, and then reinstalling. Use the Add new Hardware Wizard to override the standard Plug-and-Play operation. Make sure you have the latest version of the item's device drivers. Go to the vendor's web site and download updated drivers, if necessary. (While you're there, check the online support facilities to see whether any documented problems exist between this peripheral and your specific system). Look for an interrupt conflict, which could occur if the new device tries to use the same IRQ as an older device. This happens a lot with COM ports - not only is sharing the same port a problem, but some devices (such as mice and modems) don't like to share even- or odd- numbered ports. (This means that you may have a conflict between COM1 and COM3 that could be fixed by moving one of the devices to COM2 or COM4). If worse comes to worst, try reassigning the IRQ for your new piece of hardware. It's possible that your system's CMOS settings need to be changed. This is most common when you upgrade or change memory or disk drives. Enter the CMOS configuration utility on system startup and change the settings appropriate to the new hardware you added.

Your Hard Disk Crashes Any problem you may encounter with your hard disk is a major problem. That's because everything from your system files to your program files to your data
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files resides on your hard disk. What are the most common causes of hard disk problems? Here are a few to look for: If your system can't access your hard disk at all, you'll need to reboot using a system disk or the Windows Startup disk. Run ScanDisk (it's built into the Windows Startup disk) or a third-party hard disk utility from a floppy to check drive C for defects, and then fix any found damage. If the hard disk utility doesn't get your hard disk spinning again, it may be possible to "rescue" the data on the damaged hard drive and transfer it to another disk. If you encounter frequent disk write errors, it's possible that you have some physical damage on your hard disk. Run the hard disk utility to check and fix any defects. If your disk is working but running slower than normal it probably needs to be defragmented. Run a good disk defrag program (such as Windows' Disk Defragmenter) to get all those noncontiguous clusters lined up properly. If you experience a lot of disk write errors or your system runs much slower than normal, and if you're using DriveSpace for disk compression, the problem is probably in DriveSpace. DriveSpace gives your system a pretty good workout and can cause lots of different types of problems. You may find that disk compression is more trouble than it's worth; if so, uncompress the drive! (In these days of cheap hard drives, you're probably better off to install a second hard disk drive than you are to use DriveSpace or some similar disk compression utility).

Your Monitor Doesn't Display Properly If your computer is working but your monitor isn't, look for the possible causes: Make sure the monitor is plugged in, turned on, and firmly connected to your PC. Try to determine whether it's monitor problem or a video card problem. If you have a spare one handy, plug a different monitor into your PC; if it works, your old monitor has a problem. If it doesn't, the problem is most likely in your video card. Make sure that your system is configured properly for your video card/ monitor combination. Right-click anywhere on the desktop and select Properties to display the Display Properties dialog box; use the Settings tab to select the correct hardware and configuration settings. If your monitor suddenly goes blank and emits a high-pitched whine, turn off your monitor - immediately. Leaving the monitor on in this condition
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could damage it. Now check the settings on your video card (or in Windows' Display Properties dialog box); chances are the configuration is set to a higher resolution than your monitor is capable of displaying. Reconfigure the settings for a lower-resolution display, and you should be fine. If your monitor pops and crackles and maybe even starts to smell (like something's burning), turn it off immediately. While it's possible that all this trouble is caused by dirt building up inside your monitor, it's more likely that something major-like the power supply-has gone bad, and that it's time to invest in a new monitor.

Your Modem won't Connect In this interconnected world, we all need the Internet to survive. What do you do if your modem won't let you connect/ Check your cables! If you're using an external modem, make sure it's firmly connected to the correct port on your PC, and that it's plugged into and receiving power from a power strip or wall outlet. If you're using an internal modem, make sure that card is firmly seated. For all modems, make sure that it's connected to a working phone line - and that you have the cable connected to the in jack on the modem, not the out jack! Make sure your modem is configured correctly. If you're using Windows 98, Me or XP use the Modem Troubleshooter to track down potential problems. , Otherwise, go to Control Panel and start the Modems applet, then run the diagnostics in the Modem Properties dialog box. If problems persist, try uninstalling and then reinstalling the modem on your system and then check whether an updated driver is available from the modem vendor. Check your dial-up configuration. Make sure you have the right phone numbers listed, that you've entered the correct username and password, and that any Internet service provider (ISP) - specific information (such as DNS numbers) is entered properly. Check your system network or TCP/IP settings. This isn't so much a problem with Windows Me/2000/XP but it can be an issue with Windows 98/NT and , other operating system.

Also, remember that just because you can't connect to your ISP doesn't mean that you have a modem problem. Many ISPs try to connect too many users through too few phone lines, resulting in busy signals, slow connections, dropped connections, or similar problems. See whether your connection problems ease up at different times of the day (the after-dinner period is a typical "rush hour" for most ISPs), or if your ISP has different numbers that you can use to connect. If the problem persists, consider changing ISPs.

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Your Printer won't Print Printer problems are quite common-especially after you've just hooked up a new printer to your old system. Here are a few things to look for: Make sure that your printer is plugged in and has power, and that it is connected properly to your PC. A loose printer cable can cause all sorts of bizarre problems. Along the same lines, make sure that your printer isn't out of paper, and that it's online and not experiencing any type of paper jam. Make sure that Windows recognizes your printer - and that it recognizes the correct printer. (Recognizing a similar model from the same manufacturer doesn't cut it). Make sure that Windows has the correct printer driver installed. You may even want to check with the manufacturer to make sure that one has the latest and greatest version of the printer driver. If you have more than one printer installed on your system (including faxes and devices that your system sees as printers), check the Print dialog box to make sure you have the correct printer selected. Check for device conflicts. Fax machines and printers frequently interfere with each other, but any two devices, if not configured properly, can cause conflicts. Make sure you have enough free disk space to print. Windows will use temporary hard disk space (called a cache) to store data while a print job is in process. Try deleting old and unused files (including TMP files in the \WINDOWS\TEMP\ folder) to free up additional disk space.

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