Meaning of Recruitment ↓ Recruitment means to estimate the available vacancies and to make suitable arran gements for their

selection and appointment. In the recruitment process, the ava ilable vacancies are given wide publicity and suitable candidates are encouraged to submit applications so as to have a pool of eligible candidates for scientif ic selection. In recruitment, information is collected from interested candidates. For this di fferent sources of recruitment such as newspaper advertisement, employment excha nges, internal promotions, etc., are used. In the recruitment, a pool of eligibl e and interested candidates is created for the selection of most suitable candid ates. Recruitment represents the first contact that a company makes with potenti al employees. Recruitment is a positive function in which publicity is given to the jobs avail able in the organisation and interested candidates (qualified job applicants) ar e encouraged to submit applications for the purpose of selection. Definition of Recruitment ↓ According to Edwin Flippo, "Recruitment is the process of searching for prospect ive employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the Organisation." Need for Recruitment ↓ The need for recruitment may be due to the following reasons / situations :a. Vacancies : due to promotions, transfers, retirement, termination, perma nent disability, death and labour turnover. b. Creation of new vacancies : due to growth, expansion and diversification of business activities of an enterprise. In addition, new vacancies are possibl e due to job respecification. Meaning of Selection ↓ Selection is next to recruitment. It is the process of choosing the most suitabl e candidates (Properly qualified and competent) out of many interested candidate s. It is a process of selecting the best and rejecting the rest. In this selecti on process, interested applicants are differentiated in order to identify those with a greater likelihood of success in a job. Such candidates are selected and appointed. Selection is a negative function as it relates to elimination of unsuitable cand idates. 'Right man for the right job' is the basic principle in selection. Selec tion of suitable candidates is a responsible type of work as selection of unsuit able persons for jobs creates new problems before the business unit. For appropr iate selection, scientific procedure needs to be followed. Recruitment and selection are Supplementary Activities ↓ In recruitment prospective employees are encouraged to apply for the jobs and in the selection; the most suitable candidates are selected out of the pool of app licants. The purpose of both is to have the most suitable and most capable candi dates for the Organisation out of a pool of available and interested candidates. The recruitment process widens the scope for selection and provides wide choice for the selection of best candidates out of many interested. Recruitment and se lection need lengthy and scientific procedure particularly in the case of manage rial posts. Such lengthy procedure must be followed for scientific selection of employees. Sources of Recruitment and selection are Supplementary Activities ↓ Sources of recruitment are the outlets through which suitable candidates are ava ilable. The Following chart shows the sources of recruitment at supervisory and

are also rej ected. Interests and e. b. Psychological Tests : The psychological tests given to candidates includ e the following tests :a. Applic ants. Steps In The Scientific Selection Process ↓ In the selection procedure. b. all candidates may be invited for th e first test and' the candidates with poor performance in the first test need no t be called for the second test. Some companies give adve rtisement in the press and ask interested candidates to submit applications on a prescribed form. c. It is also possible to reject candidates whose performance in such writt en tests is not up to the mark. Intelligence. 7. f. Selection process is a screening process. Job Analysis : job analysis prepares proper background for recruitment a nd selection. Scrutiny of Applications Received : After the last date fixed for the re ceipt of applications. Achievement test. Clear and detailed understa nding of the job is called job analysis or job study. etc. Advertisement : This medium is widely used for recruitment of all catego ries of personnel. Incomplete applications are normally rejected. Steps involved in the selection procedure are :1. For example. Performance test. the certificates. 4. Final selection is possible only when the candidate completes this hurdle race successfully. Scientific sele ction is possible only when it is made in the light of the details available fro m job analysis. Aptitude test. the process of elimination can be introduced. experience. c. testimonials and references are checke d. For example. computer engineer and research assistant and so on. d. Lengthy selection procedure i s needed for scientific selection of candidates. At present. Suitability for a specific job. Aptitude. d. It is a t ype of hurdle race to the candidates. officer from the personnel department starts the scrutiny of applications received. A job includes various positions. The purpose of such tests is to judge the knowledge of the candidate and also to find out his :a. the be st one is selected through written test. Capacity. Synthetic test and . It gives details of a job to be performed and the human qualities and qualifications required for performing that job efficiently. Such lengthy procedure is followed in order to select the most suitable candidate. 6. g. written tests are used by Banks and public sector organisations for selection purpose. e. In such testing. Written Tests : After the scrutiny of applications.managerial levels.. psychological tests. Though quite costly. Job means an activity performed in one or the other department o f a business unit. Intelligence test. 3. 2. personal interview and medical examination. Analytical test. Trade test is particularly necessary in the case of technical jobs such as junio r engineer. such test is given in the case of all types of jobs. Collection of Applications Blanks : In this step. Testing of candidates is a lengthy process parti cularly when the number of applicants is large. 5. it provides a wide choice as it attracts large number of candidates from all over the country. a final list of cand idates for written tests is prepared. Along with this. Interest test. The qualities and qualifi cations expected from the candidates are usually mentioned in the advertisement. applications with nece ssary details are collected from interested candidates. who do not possess required qualifications. out of the available / interested candidates.

Such tests inclu de written test. In case of certain jobs. Interview technique is used extensively for the selection of manage rial posts. Each test needs to be given separately and each test is useful for judging speci fic quality of a candidate to be selected for the executive post. of the candidate before his selection. The assistance of experts should be taken while conducting such tests. Final Selection for Appointment : The selection procedure comes to an en d when the final appointment letter is sent to the candidate with a request to j oin the organisation on a particular date. Personal Interview : The candidates who have shown reasonably good perfo rmance in the written examination and psychological tests are called for persona l interview. intelligence. The possible performance of the candidate in the future can be judged with the help of such tests. intelligence of a person or his intelligence quotie . aptitude. In addition. Important Psychological Tests ↓ 1. experience. T he candidate is asked various questions about his qualifications. Personality test. The basic purpose is to jud ge the knowledge. In this final interview." Previ ously only the passing certificates of certain examinations were universally acc epted as evidence of intelligence. Intelligence test : Intelligence test is useful for judging the intellig ence of a candidate. This means the 'job is offered to the selected candidate' and he is asked to join the organisation within a specific time limit. Simon and Binet had developed in 1916 suitable Intelligence Tests to measure general intelligenc e. Fortunately for them. 8. Reference Check : The candidate is required to give at least two referen ces which may be :a. employees discovered t hat such certificates were not always very reliable as they indicate only paper qualifications. an attempt is made to judge overall personality of the candidate. The final selection depends partly on the performance of the candidate in the tests and also on the performance in the personal interview.h. Here. etc. 11. b. Employment. skills. Medical Examination : The purpose of medical examination is to judge the general health and physical fitness of the candidate. the test is of a gener al nature. trade test and psychological tests. 10. 'short-listin g of candidates' is done for final selection as per the need of the organisation . Such tests are particularly useful for the selection of supervisory staff in an Organ isation. After long experience. Social and c. The selection com mittee notes the plus and minus points of every candidate and selects the best c andidates for appointment by applying certain uniform norms. Psychological Tests / Selection Tests ↓ For scientific selection of candidates (particularly for higher level / executiv e level posts) different types of tests are given to candidates as per the requi rements of the post for which selection is required to be made. fa mily background and performance in the written test and psychological tests by t he interviewers during the course of the interview. These references help to cross check the information provided by the candidate. Educational.. Such tests need to be conducted in a sys tematic manner and not as a mere formality. medical examination has special importance in armed forces. This interview is conducted by one interviewer or by a group of inte rviewers including top officers of the company and other professional experts. "General intellig ence is the capacity of a person for comprehension and logical reasoning. According to these tests. two French psychologists. 9. Candidates who are not ph ysically fit for the specific job are rejected even when they show good performa nce in the tests and personal interview. However. According to the industrial psychologist. the results of such tests should be used while taking final decision regarding selection of the candidate. It is also possible to reject the candidates who show poor perfor mance in such tests. Medical test is taken in the case of al l candidates before appointment.

a stenographer or a typist should be give n suitable test in order to judge his ability to take dictation or type. 2.) can be measured by his performance in the test. Industrial psychologists felt that they might not have a suitable personality or temperament and began to develop tests to measure personality traits. Similar trade tests can be given to welders. SP = Selection Procedure 1. Advantages Of Psychological Tests In SP ↓ Note:. He had also devised similar tests for the selection of insp ectors for inspection of ball bearings for an American bicycle manufacturer. Mental qualities of candidates are evaluated. Personal interview offers many benefi ts to the company and also to the candidates. 4. 5.nt (I. Management Development Training and Methods ↓ Meaning of Employee Training ↓ . a similar test is being used for the selection of motor and truck drivers. 3. dexterity. observation. Vocational aptitude test : Vocational aptitude has been defined as "the capacity or latent ability of an individual to learn a job. Importance / Role of Personal Interview In SP ↓ Interviewing is the most 'popular element in the selection procedure'. Accuracy in selecting employees. Achievements of the candidates are verified. theref ore necessary to ascertain the vocational aptitude of a candidate before final s election. an industrial psychologist in the US. Dr. The essence of these tests is that the candidate is presented a comp lex situation. Application of knowledge is found out. a job is first an alyzed in terms of such qualities as speed. Right man to the right job is achieved. Munsterberg had de vised such a test for the selection of tram drivers for a Tram Company in the Un ited States. Objective comparison of candidates possible. Dr. it i s supplemented by written and other tests. machine operators and so on. 3.Here. given the necessary training. Protective test is one such test. Synthetic test : In case of jobs which are complex and so cannot be anal yzed and for which analytical tests cannot be developed. For example. Incompetent candidates are eliminated. Overall ability of the candidates is measured. 4. The se tests had produced satisfactory results. synthetic tests have be en evolved. Workers can b e given such tests in order to find out their capacities for the type of job for which they are being considered. and yet did not pro ve successful in the jobs for which they are selected. Its essential feature is that it induces a candidate to reveal his inner or real personality." It has been claimed that vocational aptitude is as important and perh aps more important than general intelligence for success on a job. Suitable candidates are given proper placement. For majority of executive posts. It plays a crucial role in the selection procedure. 7. 8. Analytical test : For the purpose of analytical tests. It is. His perfo rmance in such a test indicates his aptitude for the job. 5. 9. had first devised s uch tests for the selection of telephone operators for the American Telephone an d Telegraph Company. 6. Today. Personality test : Personnel managers have come across many individuals with the necessary intelligence and the vocational aptitude. Munsterberg. 10. 6. Compatibility of the candidate can be found out. Terms a re then devised to measure the degree to which a candidate possesses these quali ties.Q. more or less similar to the one which he will have to face in his job but on a miniature scale and he is asked to handle the situation. 2. Trade test : Trade test is necessary and useful in the case of jobs whic h involve technical work. etc.

In addition . information and experience of persons occupying import ant executive positions. The purpose is to enable an employee to adjust with the wor k assignment at the higher level. Training of employees is the responsibility of the management / employer. Training is used as a tool / technique for manag ement/executive development. Job training relates to specific job and the purpose is to give sui table information and guidance to a worker so as to enable him to perform the jo b systematically. social skills and administrative skills among the employees. The purpose is to give "bird's eye-view" of the organisation to an employee. new methods and so on. efficiently and finally with confidence. Employees are now given training immediately after appointment an d thereafter from time to time. 2. It is a short and informative training given immediately after joining th e organisation. 3. To avoid accidents and wastages of all kinds." Training is necessary due to technological changes rapidly taking place in the i ndustrial field. 4. To raise efficiency and productivity of employees and the Organisation a s a whole. to develop ba lanced. It is also essential along with the introduction of new techniq ues. 5. It is necessary for developing overall personality o f employees and also for developing positive attitude towards fellow employees. a manager needs training for promotion and for his sel f improvement. Ac cording to Edwin Flippo. The purpose of refresher training is to update the professional skills. to grow and to develop for jobs at the higher levels. correctly. Training for promotion is given after the promotion but before joining the post at the higher level.Training is next to selection. To meet the challenges posed by new developments in science and technolo gy. etc. 3. In addition. Training for managerial development. 2. capable and loyal employees at all lev els and thereby to make arrangement to meet the future needs of an organisation. training is "the act of increasing the knowledge and sk ill of an employee for doing a particular job. In fact. Objectives of Training ↓ 1. Expend iture on such training is an investment for manpower development and gives good dividend in the long run. A company has to make provision for providing all types of training. A worker selected / appointed in an Organisation needs proper training. healthy and safety attitudes among the employees. job and Organisation where he is working. To provide opportunities of growth and self-development to employees and thereby to motivate them for promotion and other monetary benefits. Types of Training ↓ Different types of training are :1. Employees should take the benefit of training faciliti es provided for raising their efficiency and also for self-development. . 5. Refresher training. Job training. Similarly. Training means giving information. 4. Induction training aims at introducing the organisation to a newly appointed emp loyee. It is used for the development of human resource wo rking in an Organisation. Induction training. This enables him to perform the job correctly and also wi th efficiency. To create a pool of well-trained. Training for promotion. Training for managerial development is given to manager s so as to raise their efficiency and thereby to enable them to accept higher po sitions. knowledge and education in order to develop t echnical skills. Training need not be treated as a punishment but an opportunity to learn. to give safety and security to the life and health of employees. training is the watchword of present dynamic business world.

9. Training brings stability to labour force by reducing turnover of manage rial personnel. Training reduces absenteeism as trained managers find their job interest ing and prefer to remain present on all working days. It also reduces the volume of spoiled work and wastages of all kinds. Training creates skilled and efficient manpower which is an asset of an industrial unit. 9. 7. Training raises the morale of employees. 10. Training raises the efficiency and productivity of managers. Training develops positive attitude towards work assigned and thereby cr eates interest and attraction for the job and the work place. In other words. To develop cordial labour management relations and thereby to improve th e organisational environment. 6. Training creates an attitude of mutual co-operation and understanding am ong the managers. To prevent manpower obsolescence in an organisation. et c. Training creates a pool of trained and capable personnel from which repl acements can be drawn to fill up the loss of key personnel due to retirement. It gives p ersonal safety and security to them at the work place. It reduces accidents as trained employees work systematically and avoid mistakes in the work assigned. 6. 8. 12. 4. Such training programmes are called 'managerial developmen t / executive development programmes. Training moulds attitudes of employees and develops cordial industrial r elations. 2. 8. It actually refreshes the mental outlook of employees. To develop certain personal qualities among employees which can serve as personal assets on long term basis. 5. 2. Meaning of Management Development / Managerial Training ↓ In addition to training for operative staff. Training facilitates the introduction of new management techniques and a lso new production techniques including automation and computer technology. Training provides attractive remuneration and other monetary benefits to employees. 3. Managerial talent is the most important as . Importance of Training ↓ (A) Benefits of Training To Employer / Management 1.6. Such attitude is useful not only at the work place but also in the social life. 5. Training provides proper guidance and instructions to newly appointed ex ecutives and assists them to adjust properly with the job and the organisation. 10. to improve the culture of the Or ganisation. This reduces cost of production and i mproves quality. 7. (B) Benefits of Training to Managers / Employees ↓ 1. Training provides opportunity for quick promotion and self-development t o managers. 3. Training improves the quality of production. Training reduces expenditure on supervision as trained employees take in terest in the work and need limited supervision and control. Training develops adaptability among employees. It updates their knowled ge and skills and keeps them fresh. Training develops skills which act as valuable personal assets of employ ees. To develop positive attitude and behavior pattern required by an employe e to perform a job efficiently. To improve the quality of production and thereby to create market demand and reputation in the business world. 11. 7. 4. an organisation has to take steps f or training managers. It also imp roves the performance of workers due to their motivation. Training creates a feeling of confidence among the employees.

Management obsolescence : Executive obsolescence occurs due to mental de terioration and aging process. the only choice is that of method. suitably qualified persons are ready to fill the vacancies. Its effectiveness depends on the capacity and the interest taken by the superior and also by the subordinate. i. Managerial development consists of all means by which executives learn to improv e their performance. These methods can be divided into two broad categories. Coaching method favours learning by doing. the organisation can create its own team of talented managers t o lead the whole Organisation. and ii." The need for management dev elopment is well accepted in the present business. It is designed to improve the effectiveness of mangers in t heir present jobs and to prepare them for higher jobs in future. 5. N." According to P. market competition. The superior al so checks the performance of his subordinate and guides him to improve his short falls and deficiencies. Such managers are not available easily. Complexity of management jobs : The jobs of managers are now complicated and more challenging. Well-trained and matured managers are there fore required. Singh. In fact. (b) Experience. Coaching : Coaching on the job coaching is a method by which a superior teaches job knowledge and skills to a subordinate manager. talented persons should be selected and proper tr aining should be given to them. Technological and social changes : Rapid technological and social change s are taking place in the business world. provide a supply of managers to meet the need of organisations in future and extend the understanding of the manageme nt activity by drawing from the following three resource areas :." Need / Importance of Management Development ↓ According to Edwin Flippo. 3. They need varied skills for dealing with the complex orga nizational problems. 2. social pressure s and consciousness among consumers. Shortage of trained managers : Talented and matured managers are not eas ily available. namely. In India. (A) Internal Training Methods / On The Job Methods 1.(a) Knowledge. Management development is a way to improving the culture of the Organisation so that it could be geared to excellence. "People move organisations not machines. Management development ensures that as and when the demand for managers arise. This can be corrected by offering self-developmen t opportunities to managers. In this way. 1. 4. He briefs the trainee executive about what is expected of him and how it can be done. The best way is to train existing managers through management development programmes. For this. Manager s should be given proper training and exposure in computer applications and info rmation technology. and (c) Trainee himself.set that a company can possess. Managerial deve lopment aims at helping the mangers to realise their full potential. which is fast changing due to technological and social developments. "Management development is an activity designed to imp rove the performance of existing managers. such developments are fast t aking place along with the liberalization and globalisation of business. (B) Methods of Management Development / Managerial Development ↓ For management development. It is not possible to appoint managers from outside for the key m anagerial posts. External or Off the job methods. The superior should adopt a positive approach in the coaching process and help the . several methods / techniques are used. "No organisation has a choice of whether to develop e mployees or not. The better alternative is to select talented persons as trainee managers and develop their qualities through special training and wider exposur es. self-development must continue throughout the career of an executive. The superior acts as a friend and guide of his subordina te. Complexity of business management : Business management is becoming very complicated due to government legislations. Internal or On the job methods.

The trainee manager finds it difficult to adjust himself to his new boss es. which are necessary for a good manager. Job rotation method is also u seful for providing variety of job experience to managers. Here. Junior managers a . Understudy assignment : An understudy is a trainee-manager who is to ass ume the full duties and responsibilities of the position currently held by his s uperior. 4. There is absence of monotony in the training process due to job rotation . 3. For example. Limitations of Job Rotation are:5. the subordinate wanting advice approach es his superior. The aim of job rotation is to broaden the knowledge. Similarly. Man agers from different departments are taken on such committees.subordinate. Advantages of Job Rotation 1. 2. The performance of subordinates may not improve unless additional respons ibility and authority are delegated to them. the success of coaching method depends on the inte rest and initiative taken by the trainee . The departmental manager will guide him (i. 7. Appointment as 'Assistant to' : A junior executive may be appointed as ' Assistant to' senior executive for the purpose of training and practical experie nce. The work of departments is affected due to frequent changes of executive s for training purpose. 2. 8. This method can be used in the case of management trainee and also in the case of an existing manager due for promotion. the junior executive is given exposure to the job of senior executive and he teams new techniques while providing assistance to his boss.subordinate in achieving self-development. a trainee manager cannot develop much beyond the limits of his own sup erior's abilities.manager. Frequent changes of position of executives may also affect their morale. Counselling is provided in matters relating to the job. on request from the subordinate. The superior executi ve also gets the benefit as he can delegate some of his responsibilities to the assistant and also acts as guide of his assistant. The understudy will learn the job of his superior through observation and part icipation in the decision making. Making the subordinates to achieve a particular target through delegation is one way by which subordinates will lea rn to grow and develop independently. 7. counselling may also be offered on matters no t directly related to the job. Membership of Committees : Inter-departmental committees are normally cr eated for bringing co-ordination in the activities of different departments. They will develop leadership qualities and decision-making skills. when the later leaves his post due to retirement. Even the executives are not in a position to have specialized knowledge and training in one particular branch of work. 5. He may be given specific problems to study and to make recommendations for solving them. New procedures are introduced in departments along with the rotation of managers. This broade ns his viewpoint and makes him ready for future promotions. 6. There is two-way dialogue between the subordinate and the superior to find solution to his problem. However . The understudy will be given wider ex posure and an opportunity to develop capacity to deal with difficult problems an d complex situations. Coaching has certain limitations. Job rotation facilitates inter-departmental cooperation. transfer or promotion . It brings all departments on the same footing as executives move from on e department to other. 6. Delegation : Delegation is one more internal method of management develo pment. 4. Here. Counselling : Under this method. a departmental manager (head) selects one of his suitable subordinates t o become his understudy. underst udy) to learn his job and deal with the problems that confront the manager daily . Job Rotation : It involves transfer of executives from one job to anothe r. 3. Counselling provides emotiona l stability to trainee . As an alternative. the personnel department may make th e selection of understudy.e. The benefit of wider exposure is available to trainee manager. skills and outlook of ex ecutives.

9. This means the solution to the problem is not provided. Even seminars. A case is a written account giving certain details of the situation is relation to a specific matter. home assignments. which involves realistic behavior in the imaginary situations. as they have to study the problem in depth and make recommendations. It helps to promote interpersonal relations and a ttitude change. Such role playing results in better un derstanding among individuals. Candidates working at managerial levels in companies are no rmally selected for such training programmes. Such case study may be related t o any aspect of management such as production. Here. For example. (B) External Methods of Management Development / Off The job Methods ↓ 1. Colleges affiliated to the Universities also c onduct DBM. MBA and other management development programmes for the executives f rom business sector. Then. the executive has to study the project on his own and make recommendations for the considerati on of the departmental head. In t he role playing. . provide facilities of management education. who can guide intelligent discussion and analysis. ther e are management training institutions such as NITIE. It gives an opportunity to work at different positi ons and develop. Compa nies can depute their managers for short orientation courses and update the know ledge and information of their managers in specific areas. Its obje ctive is to raise the ability of trainee manager while dealing with others. and Productivity Councils and so on. Transfer also facilitates the broadening of viewpoint re quired for higher positions. The p roject relates to specific problem faced by the department. These institutes run special training courses for graduates interested in management education and also orientation pr ogrammes for existing managers from public and private sector enterprises. The participants are supposed to identify the best avai lable solution. now. A small l study capable nothing group of managers are asked to study the case in the fight of theoretica already completed and is followed by open discussion in the presence of instructor. 4. There is like one correct answer to the case study. Here. 2. Project Assignment : In the project assignment method. Ad hoc committee of executives is also constituted and is assigned a specific problem for study. a trainee manager is given a project that is closely related to the work of his department. d iscussions. Mumbai Universit y (MU) has its Jamnalal Bajaj Institute of Management Studies (JBIMS) for variou s management development courses. personnel. 8. Case Study : Case study method was first developed by Christopher Langde ll at Harvard Law School. tests and examinations. Such assignment provides valuable experience to the trainee and develops problem-solving attitude. Bombay Management Associat ion. which is one essential requireme nt of an executive. Universities and Colleges : The universities and colleges. marketing." It is pa rticularly useful for learning human relations and leadership training. Management Institutions : Along with the universities and colleges. It motivates hi m for self-improvement. The case presented is always incomplete. Such commitee assignments offer opportunity of training to junior executives. Role-playing : Role-playing has been defined as "A method of human inter action. education is given through lectures. Promotion gives an opportunity to a manager to acquire new skills required for the job at the higher level. In India. finance and so on. a male employee may as sume the role of a female supervisor and the female supervisor may assume the ro le of a male employee. Promotions and Transfers : Promotions and transfers are two more interna l methods of management development. a conflict situation is artificially created and two or more tr ainees are assigned different roles to play. worksh ops and conferences are arranged for the training of managers by various associa tions such as chambers of commerce and export promotion councils.re also given membership of such committees so as to give them a broader exposur e to the viewpoints of other departmental heads. 3. both may be given a typical work situation and aske d to respond as they expect others to do.

Explain the meaning. Video. which closely represents the real life situa tion at the work place.HRM / HRD ↓ 1. Audio-visual aids (film strips.) are now used for training of managers. Question Bank On Human Resource Management and Development . activities of an organisation may be simula ted and the trainee may be asked to make a decision in support of those activiti es. T he employee is asked to make a decision. State and explain the different methods of training of managerial person nel. Sources of recruitment iii. Simulation : Here. This method develops capacity to take rational decisions by managers. This traini ng method is used in management development. 5. Explain. As a result. TV. 3. Meaning and objectives of employee training iv. TV and Video Instructions : TV and Video instructions are used for train ing and management development programmes. Employees for managerial positions are put in an exercise of actual decision-making. the trainee can learn a lot out of his mistake. Even if mistake is made in the game. Management / Business Games : A variety of computer and non-computer man agement / business games have been devised for training of managers. 6. Conferences may be directed or guided or ma y be for consultation and finally for problem solving. 5. Videotapes are also available on management training. At present. The pro cessing of information is supposed to be guided by knowledge of the goals and po licies of the organisation. This provides new information and knowledge to the managers. the steps in the selection procedure. Various matters are discusse d systematically in such conferences and seminars. The trainee teams from this feedback and improves his subsequent simulation . 4. The quality of this decision is judged by how well the applicant has processed the information provided to him. 2. an executive or trainee is given practical training b y creating situation / environment. more persons get an opportunity to participate in su ch conferences for self-development. The game is designed to represent real life situation. The participants in such conferences and seminar s are limited. For example. nature and features of human resource. The results of those decisions are reported back to the trainee with an expl anation. 8. in brief. Books and periodicals are published regularly on management . The report illustrates what would have happened if that decision was ta ken. Recruitment and selection ii. A problem is provided to them along with all the necessary information and constraints. 7. It is a type of classroom method of training. (a) in-depth thinking about the m atter by managers. programmes on management problems are arranged on TV network regularly. Advantages of training of employees . This avoids possible mistakes while taking deci sions for his company. etc. Explain the significance scientific selection of supervisory staff. tape recorders. (b) more perception in situation and greater respect for the opinions of others. Write short notes on: i. Conferences and Seminars : Deputing officers for conferences and seminar s is a method available for management development. What are the objectives and benefits of training of managers? 6. overhead projectors .Case study method has certain advantages like.

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