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A comparison between the Navier-Cauchy equation for an elastic continuum of infinite extension and Maxwell's equations for the electromagnetic fields.

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OF

INFINITE EXTENTION

BJØRN URSIN KARLSEN

To Elizabeth

Abstract. Already in the Nineteenth century William Thomson (Lord Kelvin)

(1824–1907) pointed out the resemblance between elastodynamic and electro-

dynamic equations [2, page 279-280]. In this paper I will follow up some of his

thoughts in order to see exactly how far this resemblance stretches.

I will start by recapitulating some topics from the Linear Theory of Elas-

ticity in an elastic continuum of inﬁnite extension – which I will call a spatial

continuum – and show that they can be reformulated to terms that exactly

match those applied in Electrodynamics. With the additional assumption that

there may be free moving sinks and sources in the spatial continuum, I will

show that they will behave exactly like electric charges do. Finally I will show

that if disturbance energy can be conﬁned in small areas of the spatial con-

tinuum, the energy packets will behave in the same way as matter except for

gravitation, which goes beyond the scope of this paper.

1. The Linear Theory of Elasticity

The Linear Theory of Elasticity is a discipline in its own right, and this section

is only meant as an introduction to the topic. The theory was probably originally

intended to describe ordinary elastic bodies consisting of particles bound together

by molecular forces, but it is through the centuries reﬁned to be a theory that can

describe deformations in a true elastic continuum. Here, I will focus on the part of

the theory that describes deformations of an elastic continuum of inﬁnite extension

or nearly so. In its undeformed state it is supposed to be homogeneous and isotropic

if anything else isn’t stated explicitly. For a more thorough investigation I refer

to [1]. Only a couple of the equations, namely (1.7), (1.16), and (1.18) are used in

later developments so if those equations are familiar, this section may be skipped.

1.1. Displacement ﬁelds. The space B under consideration, also called a Kelvin

space, is all ﬁlled up with an elastic continuum which in its undeformed state is

homogeneous and isotropic with mass density ρ

s

that obeys the deformation laws

of The Linear Theory of Elasticity. Notice that I already now put the index s on the

mass density in order to distinguish it from the charge density ρ of electrodynamics.

Date: 20:08:08.

Thanks to a friend who wants to be anonymous, because he has supplied me with important

books, and given me the term ”The spatial continuum”.

1

2 BJØRN URSIN KARLSEN

The displacement in this space is described by the displacement ﬁeld; its value

u(x) at a point x is the inﬁnitesimal displacement of x. The symmetric part

=

1

2

∇u +∇u

T

, (1.1)

ij

=

1

2

(u

i, j

+ u

j, i

),

of the displacement gradient, ∇u, is the inﬁnitesimal strain ﬁeld, and the above

equation, relating to u, is called the strain-displacement relation. In this context

the (local) space is to be understood as the whole of the deformed area, or at least

an area through which border no signiﬁcant forces due to the inside deformation

are conveyed. In addition u has got to be continuous and suﬃciently smooth.

We call

div u = tr ,

the dilatation. The inﬁnitesimal volume change δv(P) of a part P of space due to

a continuous displacement of the ﬁeld u is deﬁned by

δv (P) =

P

u · nda,

where n is the unit vector normal to the surface element da of the surface of P, and

we say that u is solenoidal if δv(P) = 0 for every P. By the divergence theorem

we have

δv (P) =

P

div udv =

P

tr dv.

Thus u is solenoidal if and only if

tr ≡ 0, or equivalently, div u ≡ 0,

all over space. Then there exist a vector ﬁeld Ψ such that

u = curl Ψ.

A deformation ﬁeld is said to be irrotational if it satisﬁes the condition

curl u ≡ 0,

all over the ﬁeld. Then there exist a scalar ﬁeld φ in space such that

u = ∇φ.

Let u be a vector ﬁeld where [u]

∞

= 0, then Helmholtz’s theorem states that

there exist a smooth scalar ﬁeld φ and a vector ﬁeld Ψ on B such that

u = ∇φ + curl Ψ, where div Ψ = 0,

(see e.g. http://mathworld.wolfram.com/HelmholtzsTheorem.html). In plain words

this theorem states that an arbitrary deformation ﬁeld, u, can be decomposed into

two ﬁelds; an irrotational ﬁeld u

1

= ∇φ and an solenoidal ﬁeld u

2

= curl Ψ, such

that

u = u

1

+u

2

, where

u

1

= grad φ, curl u

1

= 0

u

2

= curl Ψ, div u

2

= 0.

(1.2)

which implies that the superposition of u

1

and u

2

gives a complete description of

any local deformation ﬁeld in the spatial continuum.

3

1.2. System of forces. In an elastic continuum there may be a system of forces

acting on a part, S, of space basically consisting of a surface force s

n

and a body

force b. By the same right as u can be divided in an irrotational and an solenoidal

component, so can also the body force b, making b = b

1

+ b

2

with b

1

and b

2

belonging to the irrotational and solenoidal ﬁeld respectively.

b = b

1

+b

2

b

1

= grad ϕ

b

2

= curl A, div A = 0.

(1.3)

Since ϕ initially can be set to any level, it might as well be associated with a

possible uniform pressure in the continuum, so an initial uniform pressure will not

alter the equations in the least.

We assume that there all over space is a strictly positive function ρ

s

called the

density such that the mass of any part P of space is given by

P

ρ

s

dv

The motion of the body is described by the (inﬁnitesimal) displacement ﬁeld

u(x, t) such that

˙ u =

∂u

∂t

and ¨ u =

∂

2

u

∂

2

t

are the velocity and acceleration respectively. The linear momentum l of P is

l(P) =

P

ρ

s

˙ udv,

and the body counterforce b

caused by acceleration is

b

(P) = −

˙

l(P) = −

P

ρ

s

¨ udv.

In addition to this initial body force, I will keep the possibility open that there

might be another hypothetical body force b caused by the external world, just in

order to see how such a force would change the spatial continuum. The total force

f (P) on a part P of space is the total surface force from the stress vector s

n

exerted

across the surface ∂P plus the total body force exerted on P by the external world

f (P) =

∂P

s

n

da +

P

bdv.

The Cauchy-Poisson theorem [1, page 44] states that if u is an admissible motion

and f is a system of forces, then [u, f] is a dynamic process if and only if the

following two conditions are satisﬁed:

(1) there exists a symmetric tensor ﬁeld σ called the stress ﬁeld, such that for

each unit vector n,

σ

n

= σn;

(2) u, σ, and b satisfy the equation of motion

div σ +b = ρ

s

¨ u. (1.4)

This theorem is one of the major results of continuum mechanics.

4 BJØRN URSIN KARLSEN

1.3. The stress-strain relation. In a linearly elastic continuum there exists a

relation between strain and the stress it causes, which can be expressed by the

relation

σ(x) = C

(x)

,

where C is a fourth-order symmetric tensor that maps the space of strain onto the

space of stress according to

σ

ij

= C

ijkl

kl

.

C is called the elasticity tensor, and since the continuum under consideration

is assumed to be homogeneous over the actual space, the 36 components of C

is independent of the position vector x. Since is the symmetric part of the

deformation gradient, ∇u, it may look like this relation rules out the possibility

that there might be a residual pressure in the continuum, but that is not so if is

interpreted as the actual stress minus the residual stress, provided that we interpret

the corresponding surface trajectory accordingly [1, footnote 1 on page 68].

The spatial continuum under consideration is not only homogeneous, but also

isotropic. This property immediately reduces the 36 components of C such that C

may be described by only two diﬀerent scalar constants. The stress-strain relation

in a homogeneous and isotropic continuum thus takes the relatively simple form

σ = 2µ

s

+ λ

s

(tr)I, (1.5)

σ

ij

= 2µ

s

ij

+ λ

s

kk

δ

ij

= µ

s

(u

i, j

+ u

j, i

) + λ

s

u

k, k

δ

ij

,

where µ

s

and λ

s

are Lam´e’s elastic moduli

1

, which are constants in a homogeneous

elastic continuum, and δ

ij

is the Kronecker delta

δ

ij

=

1 if i = j ,

0 if i = j .

1.4. The Navier-Cauchy equation. From the strain ﬁeld (1.1), the Stress-strain

relation (1.5) and the Equation of motion (1.4) one can derive the Navier-Cauchy

equation [1, page 213]

µ

s

u

i, jj

+ µ

s

u

j,ij

+ (λ

s

u

k,k

δ

ij

)

, j

+ b

i

= ρ

s

¨ u

i

µ

s

u

i, jj

+ µ

s

u

j, ji

+ λ

s

u

k,ki

+ b

i

= ρ

s

¨ u

i

,

µ

s

∇

2

u + (λ

s

+ µ

s

)∇divu +b = ρ

s

¨ u, (1.6)

or equivalently by the mathematical identity curl curl u = ∇div u −∇

2

u

(λ

s

+ 2µ

s

)∇divu −µ

s

curl curl u +b = ρ

s

¨ u. (1.7)

At this point it may be appropriate to stress the point that the Navier-Cauchy

equation only treats the limit where deformations can be considered inﬁnitesimal,

and it must not be mixed up with Navier-Stokes equation, which also incorporates

viscosity and takes into account the hydrodynamic property that ˙ v may be diﬀerent

from ∂v/∂t [i.e. ˙ v = ∂v/∂t + (v · ∇)v].

1

Note that I have put on the indices s to avoid mixing them up with other properties in

electrodynamics.

5

According to Helmholtz’s Theorem any vector ﬁeld satisfying

[∇· v]

∞

= 0,

[∇×v]

∞

= 0,

(no velocities at inﬁnite distance from considered area) may be written as the sum

of an irrotational part and a solenoidal part,

v = −∇φ +∇×A,

where

φ = −

V

∇· v

4π|r

−r|

d

3

r

,

A =

V

∇×v

4π|r

−r|

d

3

r

,

(see http://mathworld.wolfram.com/HelmholtzsTheorem.html).

As the spatial continuum is of inﬁnite extension, or nearly so, any deformations

have to be conﬁned to a ﬁnite part of space, so this theorem will be applicable on all

deformations. Hence the displacement ﬁeld can be decomposed into two properties

u = u

1

+u

2

,

where

u

1

= −∇φ = −grad φ,

u

2

= ∇×Ψ = curl Ψ.

Since curl grad φ ≡ 0, and div curl Ψ ≡ 0, the Navier-Cauchy equation (1.7) can

be divided into two independent equations, one for an irrotational ﬁeld

∇divu

1

=

ρ

s

(λ

s

+ 2µ

s

)

¨ u

1

−

b

1

λ

s

+ 2µ

s

, (1.8)

and the other for a solenoidal ﬁeld

−curl curl u

2

=

ρ

s

µ

s

¨ u

2

−

b

2

µ

s

. (1.9)

By deﬁning two new constants

c

1

=

λ

s

+ 2µ

s

ρ

s

, c

2

=

µ

s

ρ

s

, (1.10)

the N-C equation takes the form

c

2

1

∇divu −c

2

2

curl curl u +

b

ρ

s

= ¨ u. (1.11)

Operating on Equation (1.7) with the div operator and on Equation (1.6) with

the curl operator yields respectively

∇

2

(div u) −

1

c

2

1

∂

2

(div u)

∂t

2

= −

div b

λ

s

+ 2µ

s

(1.12)

∇

2

(curl u) −

1

c

2

2

∂

2

(curl u)

∂t

2

= −

curl b

µ

s

(1.13)

With b = 0 we have two wave equations where the dilatation, divu, satisﬁes

a wave moving with the speed c

1

, while the rotational component curlu, satisﬁes

6 BJØRN URSIN KARLSEN

a wave moving with the speed c

2

. In fact the Propagation theorem for isotropic

bodies states that if a body is isotropic, then a wave is either longitudinal, in which

case c = c

1

, or transversal, in which case c = c

2

[1, page 256]. This diversion of

the Navier-Cauchy equation into one irrotational and one solenoidal part, allows

us to examine these two parts separately and thereby simpliﬁes the strain-stress

relation immensely by reducing the elastic constants to only one single constant

(the wave speed) in each equation (c

1

= c

2

). We see from Equation (1.10) that

the two wave speeds are related to each other with a ﬁxed constant given by the

relation c

1

=

2 + λ

s

/µ

s

· c

2

. We notice that c

1

is about the double of c

2

.

Finally we notice that all information of curlu is lost in (1.12) and all information

of divu in (1.13).

1.5. Field energy and energy transport. From the Navier-Cauchy equation

one can ﬁnd the internal ﬁeld energy in an admissible ﬁeld in B by performing the

following thought experiment: Introduce a hypothetical body force, −b (negative

because b is a breaking force), from the outside world such that it eradicates the

entire ﬁeld in B; i.e. u and all functions of u become constant like zero all over

B. In addition I will assume that the entire ﬁeld is conﬁned inside B such that u

is zero on the surface of B and beyond. The energy released by this operation, E,

would then be like the total ﬁeld energy in B.

E = −

B

dv

0

f(u)

bdu

=

B

dv

f(u)

0

ρ

s

¨ u −(λ

s

+ 2µ)grad divu + µcurl curlu

du

**E can be separated into three integrals, i.e. E = E
**

1

+ E

2

+ E

3

. The ﬁrst of these

integrals is simply the kinetic energy of the system

E

1

=

B

dv

ρ

s

˙ u

0

d ˙ u

dt

du

=

B

dv

ρ

s

˙ u

0

d ˙ u · ˙ u

,

E

1

=

B

1

2

ρ

s

˙ u

2

dv.

The next part can be integrated by using the mathematical identity (1.17) and

inserting φ = div u and A = du

7

E

2

= (λ

s

+ 2µ)

B

dv

div u

0

div u · div(du) −div(du · div u)

= (λ

s

+ 2µ)

B

dv

div u

0

div u · d(divu)

−

(λ

s

+ 2µ)

B

dv · div

div u

0

du · divu

.

The ﬁrst part of the integral can readily be integrated, and the last part can

be transformed into a surface integral over ∂B by the Divergence theorem

2

and

disappear because u is constant like zero on the border of B and beyond. Thus

E

2

=

B

1

2

(λ

s

+ 2µ)(div u)

2

dv.

We can ﬁnd E

3

in much the same way by using the identity

div (A×B) = curl A· B− curl B· A, (1.14)

and inserting B = curl u and A = du

E

3

= −µ

B

dv

curl u

0

div(du ×curl u) −curl u · curl(du)

= µ

B

dv

curl u

0

curl u · d(curl u)−

µ

B

dv · div

curl u

0

du ×curl u

.

Again the ﬁrst part can be integrated and the last part disappear by the same

reason as above, and we get

E

3

=

B

1

2

µ(curl u)

2

dv.

Finally we can write the total energy in the deformed area

E =

B

1

2

ρ

s

˙ u

2

+

1

2

(λ

s

+ 2µ)(div u)

2

+

1

2

µ(curl u)

2

dv. (1.15)

The development may be a bit unorthodox, but the result is already known as

Kelvin’s theorem [1, page 208], and is a proven theorem in the Linear Theory of

Elasticity. The result can be interpreted as the local energy density even if this

development does not prove where in the ﬁeld the energy is to be found; only

that there to a curl u and a div u always corresponds an energy given by the

2

∂B

(A· n) df =

B

div Adv

8 BJØRN URSIN KARLSEN

equation above, and no other energy is present as long as we deal with inﬁnitesimal

deformations restricted to a limited area of a homogeneous and isotropic continuum

covered by the Linear Theory of Elasticity.

3

With this restriction in mind the local

energy density, e, in the spatial continuum is given by

e =

1

2

ρ

s

˙ u

2

+

1

2

(λ

s

+ 2µ

s

)( div u)

2

+

1

2

µ

s

( curl u)

2

(1.16)

leaving the possibility open that there may be a residual pressure and a corre-

sponding homogeneous residual energy density in addition to this ﬁeld energy. It

is noteworthy that the energy density in any ﬁeld of strain and motion is nonneg-

ative even if the space itself should happen to contain a huge amount of uniformly

distributed energy due to an initial pressure.

The energy transport in the deformation ﬁeld can be found by deriving the

equation above with respect on time. We acquire

∂e

∂t

= ρ

s

˙ u¨ u + (λ

s

+ 2µ

s

) div udiv ˙ u + µ

s

curl ucurl ˙ u.

We substitute ρ

s

¨ u from Equation (1.7) and get

∂e

∂t

=˙ u

(λ

s

+ 2µ

s

) grad div u −µ

s

curl curl u +b

+ (λ

s

+ 2µ

s

) div udiv ˙ u + µ

s

curl ucurl ˙ u,

b˙ u =

∂e

∂t

+ µ

s

curl ( curl u) · ˙ u − curl ˙ u( curl u)

−(λ

s

+ 2µ

s

)

( div u) div ˙ u + ˙ ugrad ( div u)

.

By the mathematical identity (1.14) and the identity

div (φA) = φdiv A+Agrad φ, (1.17)

this equation develops into

∂e

∂t

+ div (µ

s

curl u × ˙ u) − div

(λ

s

+ 2µ

s

) div u · ˙ u

= b˙ u.

We deﬁne a new vector

S = µ

s

curl u × ˙ u −(λ

s

+ 2µ

s

) div u · ˙ u, (1.18)

and in the absence of external forces we acquire the compact equation:

∂e

∂t

+ div S = 0.

Since the increase in energy density has got to be equal to the inﬂow of energy per

unit volume, S can be interpreted as the energy ﬂow vector.

2. Solenoidal deformations and Electrodynamics

In this section I will redeﬁne some of the terms used in elastodynamics to terms

that can be directly compared to those in electrodynamics. I will stress that these

redeﬁnitions only are intended to make the comparison simpler and will not change

the physics behind the original terms in any way. With the additional assumption

that there might be true sinks and sources in the elastic continuum, I will also

show that they will inﬂuence the elastodynamic ﬁelds in exactly the same way as

electric charges inﬂuence the electromagnetic ﬁelds. How sinks and sources can be

3

The corresponding expression for the energy density in an electromagnetic ﬁeld has the same

limitation, but nonetheless it is usually interpreted as the local energy density.

9

more than pure mathematical entities will be discussed in another paper

4

. Some

terms are used quite diﬀerently in mechanics and electrodynamics. For example

the Greek letter ρ is used for mass density in mechanics, but as charge density

in electrodynamics. To avoid confusion I will use an index s on the mechanical

terms whenever necessary. Hence ρ

s

means spatial mass density while ρ means the

density of sinks – the spatial counterpart to charge density.

2.1. Reformulation of the Navier-Cauchy’s Equation. First we deﬁne some

new properties

µ

0

def

=

1

µ

s

, [L

2

F

−1

] = [LT

2

M

−1

], (2.1)

ε

0

def

= ρ

s

, [FT

2

L

−4

] = [ML

−3

], (2.2)

E

def

= −

∂u

2

∂t

, [LT

−1

], (2.3)

B

def

= curl u

2

, [ ], (2.4)

j

def

= b, [FL

−3

] = [ML

−2

T

−2

], (2.5)

c

2

=

1

ε

0

µ

0

, [L

2

T

−2

]. (2.6)

Note that in this section all the deﬁned properties refer exclusively to elastic

properties. The notations inside the square brackets are the dimensions of the

properties in front, but in this context I have found it convenient to alternatively

replace mass with force as a fundamental unit. Hence the mass unit is converted

to the force unit by the relation

[F] = [MLT

−2

].

By the identities curl (∂(·)/∂t) = ∂ curl (·)/∂t and div curl (·) = 0 we immedi-

ately get the relation between B and E

curl E+

˙

B = 0, (2.7)

and by the mathematical identity div curl a = 0 we have

div B = 0. (2.8)

Navier’s Equation (1.9) takes the form

curl B−

1

c

2

˙

E = µ

0

j. (2.9)

Now I will make the assumption that there may be real sinks and sources in the

spatial continuum. How this is possible will be discussed elsewhere, but here I take

entities like that for granted. I will take sinks as positive entities and sources as

negative sinks, and assume that they can only be created by pair production; one

sink for for one equally strong source. If there are more sinks than sources in an

area, the sink density is positive, and if there are more sources than sinks, then the

4

See a proposition on how it might work in http://www.scribd.com/doc/3014850/The-Great-

Puzzle.

10 BJØRN URSIN KARLSEN

sink density is negative. The strength of a spatial sink, Q

s

, can be deﬁned as the

inﬂow of spatial mass through a closed surface around the sink

Q

def

= −ρ

s

V

˙ undf, [FTL

−1

] = [MT

−1

],

where n is an outwards pointing unit vector normal to df.

Now let sinks and sources with strength Q

1

, Q

2

, Q

3

, · · · , Q

n

be suﬃciently smoothly

distributed in space. Then the density of sinks is given by

ρ

def

= lim

V →

1

V

m

¸

n=1

Q

sn

= −ρ

s

lim

V →

1

V

V

˙ undf

= −ρ

s

div ˙ u,

or with the new terms incerted

ρ = ε

0

div E, [FTL

−4

] = [ML

−3

T

−1

],

where m is the number of sinks in a volume V of space, and is a small volume, but

still great enough to contain many sinks. (Note the diﬀerence between the spatial

mass density ρ

s

and the density of sinks ρ.)

There is a hidden dependency between the sink density ρ and and the volume

force j. By taking the divergence of Equation (2.9):

div curl B− div

˙

E

c

2

=div µ

0

j,

−div

˙

E =

1

ε

0

div j, (I)

and the partial derivative with respect on time of Equation (??):

∂

∂t

div E =

1

ε

0

∂ρ

∂t

div

˙

E =

1

ε

0

∂ρ

∂t

, (II)

and evaluating the combination I + II, we acquire

˙ ρ + div j = 0. (2.10)

Since sinks and sources by deﬁnition can only be created or disappear in pairs, the

only way the density can change in a volume is by out- or inﬂow, hence the vector

j can be interpreted as a ﬂow of sinks or sources, i.e. a ﬂow of sinks or sources will

create a force ﬁeld (a drag) in the spatial continuum.

2.2. The stress energy tensor. According to (1.16) and the newly deﬁned prop-

erties the elastodynamic ﬁeld energy in a divergence-free ﬁeld is

e =

ε

0

2

E

2

+

1

2µ

0

B

2

, [FL

−2

] = [ML

−1

T

−2

]. (2.11)

Since this ﬁeld may contain energy, we must also expect that it can move around

in space as the ﬁeld changes. To examine this property we can start by deriving

11

the ﬁeld energy (2.11) with respect on time and get

∂e

∂t

= ε

0

E·

˙

E+

1

µ

0

B·

˙

B.

From this expression we can eliminate the time derivatives of E and B by applying

(2.9) and (2.7)

∂e

∂t

= ε

0

E·

c

2

curl B−

1

ε

0

j

−

1

µ

0

B· curl E,

∂e

∂t

=

1

µ

0

curl B· E− curl E· B

−j · E,

and further by the mathematical identity (1.14) it develops into

∂e

∂t

+

1

µ

0

div

E×B

= −j · E, {= ˙ u · b}. (2.12)

The right side of this equation is the rate of work done by external forces per unit

volume on the continuum, and the left side can be interpreted as the rate of increase

in energy density plus the rate at which the energy is leaving per unit volume. Thus

the energy ﬂow vector is

S

def

=

1

µ

0

(E×B), [FL

−1

T

−1

] = [MT

−3

]. (2.13)

With this property inserted, Equation (2.12) takes the form

1

c

∂e

∂t

+

1

c

div S = −

1

c

j · E. (2.14)

To examine the forces involved by a change of momentum, we can derive the mo-

mentum vector with respect on t and again eliminate the time derivatives of E and

B by applying (2.9) and (2.7)

˙

S

c

2

=

1

c

2

µ

0

E×

˙

B+

˙

E×B

,

˙

S

c

2

= ε

0

E×(−curl E) + (c

2

curl B−c

2

µ

0

j) ×B

,

˙

S

c

2

= −ε

0

E× curl E+

1

µ

0

curl B×B+B×j.

By applying the mathematical identity

grad (A· A) = 2[A×curl A+ (A· ∇)A], (2.15)

we obtain

˙

S

c

2

+ grad

ε

0

2

E· E

−ε

0

(E· ∇)E+ grad

1

2µ

0

B· B

−

1

µ

0

(B· ∇)B = (B×j). (2.16)

12 BJØRN URSIN KARLSEN

We then write out the above equation in component form

5

:

˙

S

i

c

2

+ (

ε

0

2

E· E+

1

2µ

0

B· B)

,i

−ε

0

E

j

E

i, j

−

1

µ

0

B

j

B

i, j

=

ijk

B

j

j

k

,

and expand it by adding ±ε

0

E

j,j

E

i

and ±

1

µ

0

B

j,j

B

i

˙

S

i

c

2

+

ε

0

2

E

2

+

1

2µ

0

B

2

, i

−ε

0

E

j

E

i, j

−ε

0

E

j, j

E

i

+ ε

0

E

j, j

E

i

−

1

µ

0

B

j

B

i, j

−

1

µ

0

B

j, j

B

i

+

1

µ

0

B

j, j

B

i

=

ijk

B

j

j

k

.

The term B

j, j

is like zero by (2.8), E

j,j

= ρ/ε

0

by Equation (??), and the rest

can be manipulated into

−

∂S

i

c

2

∂t

+ σ

ij,j

= ρE

i

−

ijk

B

j

j

k

. (2.17)

where the new tensor σ

ij

is given by

σ

ij

def

= ε

0

E

i

E

j

+

1

µ

0

B

i

B

j

−

1

2

ε

0

E

2

+

1

µ

0

B

2

δ

ij

. (2.18)

Now we write out (2.14) and (2.17) in component form and obtain the set of

equations (the zeroes are inserted for clarity)

∂e

c∂t

+

∂S

x

c∂x

+

∂S

y

c∂y

+

∂S

z

c∂z

=0 −

E

x

j

x

c

−

E

y

j

y

c

−

E

z

j

z

c

,

∂S

x

c

2

∂t

−

∂σ

xx

∂x

−

∂σ

xy

∂y

−

∂σ

xz

∂z

=E

x

ρ + 0 −B

z

j

y

+ B

y

j

z

,

∂S

y

c

2

∂t

−

∂σ

yx

∂x

−

∂σ

yy

∂y

−

∂σ

yz

∂z

=E

y

ρ + B

z

j

x

+ 0 −B

x

j

z

,

∂S

z

c

2

∂t

−

∂σ

zx

∂x

−

∂σ

xy

∂y

−

∂σ

zz

∂z

=E

z

ρ −B

y

j

x

+ B

x

j

y

+ 0.

The four diﬀerential equations can be written as one matrix equation

∂

c∂t

∂

∂x

∂

∂y

∂

∂z

¸

¸

¸

¸

·

e S

x

/c S

y

/c S

z

/c

S

x

/c −σ

xx

−σ

xy

−σ

xz

S

y

/c −σ

yx

−σ

yy

−σ

yz

S

z

/c −σ

zx

−σ

zy

−σ

zz

¸

¸

¸

¸

=

0 −E

x

/c −E

y

/c −E

z

/c

E

x

/c 0 −B

z

B

y

E

y

/c B

z

0 −B

x

E

z

/c −B

y

B

x

0

¸

¸

¸

¸

·

cρ

j

x

j

y

j

z

¸

¸

¸

¸

(2.19)

which formally can be written

T

αβ

,β

= F

αβ

J

β

,

or in frame independent notation

∇· T = F · J.

5

Notice that Latin indices go from 1 to 3.

13

Here the second order tensor T, the stress energy tensor, is given by

T

αβ

def

=

e S

x

/c S

y

/c S

z

/c

S

x

/c −σ

xx

−σ

xy

−σ

xz

S

y

/c −σ

yx

−σ

yy

−σ

yz

S

z

/c −σ

zx

−σ

zy

−σ

zz

¸

¸

¸

¸

, (2.20)

the second order tensor F by

F

αβ

def

=

0 −E

x

/c −E

y

/c −E

z

/c

E

x

/c 0 −B

z

B

y

E

y

/c B

z

0 −B

x

E

z

/c −B

y

B

x

0

¸

¸

¸

¸

, (2.21)

and ﬁnally J by

J

α

def

= (cρ, j

x

, j

y

, j

z

). (2.22)

In four-space we need some deﬁnitions:

First the Minkowski metric

η

αβ

=

−1 0 0 0

0 1 0 0

0 0 1 0

0 0 0 1

¸

¸

¸

¸

.

Coordinates in 4-space

x

α

=(x

0

, x

1

, x

2

, x

3

) = (ct, x, y, z),

x

β

=x

α

η

αβ

= (−ct, x, y, z).

The del operator in four space

∇

α

= ∂

α

=

1

c

∂

∂t

,

∂

∂x

,

∂

∂y

,

∂

∂z

,

∇

α

= ∂

α

=

−

1

c

∂

∂t

,

∂

∂x

,

∂

∂y

,

∂

∂z

,

∇

2

= ∂

α

∂

α

=

−

1

c

2

∂

2

∂t

2

,

∂

2

∂x

2

,

∂

2

∂y

2

,

∂

2

∂z

2

.

2.3. The vector potential in the elastic continuum. Equation (2.8) means

that the ﬁeld B can be derived from some vector potential A

B = curl A, (2.23)

where div Ais temporarily arbitrary, but can be given a ﬁxed meaning later without

changing the term curl A.

By inserting (2.23) into (2.7) we get

curl (E+A

,t

) = 0.

Therefore E+A

,t

may be represented as some gradient

E+A

,t

= −c grad φ,

hence

E = −(c grad φ +A

,t

). (2.24)

Thus both E and B can be represented by some potentials A and φ. For the choice

of A and φ the Equations (2.7) and (2.8) are fulﬁlled.

14 BJØRN URSIN KARLSEN

By adding and subtracting the same term c grad ψ

,t

into (2.24), we acquire

E = −[c grad (φ −ψ

,t

) + (A+ c grad ψ)

,t

].

We also have that adding c grad ψ to Aleaves Bunchanged. Hence the substitutions

φ →φ

= φ + ψ

,t

, A →A

= A+ c grad ψ (2.25)

leave the properties E, B, j, and ρ unchanged for arbitrary functions ψ. The substi-

tutions (2.25) are called Gauge transformations (see http://www.mathematik.tu-

darmstadt.de/ bruhn/Maxwell-Theory.html).

The most obvious gauge is to set div A = div u which means to infer that the

spatial continuum is uncompressed. It would work equally well to set div u = const.

This picture is complicated by the assumption that there are true point-like sinks

and sources around, hence −div ˙ u = ρ/ε

0

(see Equation (??)), so we can introduce

a potential φ such that

−∇

2

φ =

ρ

ε

0

.

This leads to the Coulomb gauge which works well if we consider a ﬁxed frame in

the spatial continuum. What we need, however, is a gauge that works equally well

in a moving frame. This requirement leads to the Lorenz gauge after the Danish

physicist Ludvig Valentin Lorenz (1829-1891):

div A+

1

c

φ

, t

= 0. (2.26)

Inserting (2.23) and (2.24) into (2.9) yields

curl curl A+

1

c

2

(A

,tt

+ c grad φ) = µ

0

j,

and by applying the mathematical identity

curl curl A = grad div A−∇

2

A, (2.27)

we obtain

1

c

2

A

,tt

−∇

2

A+ grad ( div A+

1

c

φ

, t

) = µ

0

j.

Analogously by inserting the same properties into (??) we obtain

−(c∇

2

φ + div A

,t

) =

ρ

ε

0

,

or by adding and subtracting 1/cφ

,tt

we acquire

1

c

φ

,tt

−c∇

2

φ −( div A+

1

c

φ

, t

)

,t

=

ρ

ε

0

,

1

c

2

φ

,tt

−∇

2

φ −

1

c

( div A+

1

c

φ

, t

)

,t

= µ

0

·

cρ

c

2

ε

0

µ

0

.

By the Lorenz gauge and (2.6) the two potentials reduce to

−

1

c

2

φ

,tt

+∇

2

φ = −µ

0

· cρ, (2.28)

−

1

c

2

A

,tt

+∇

2

A = −µ

0

· j. (2.29)

These two equations can be expressed as one vector potential in four-space

∂

α

∂

α

A

β

= −µ

0

· J

β

,

15

where

A

β

= (φ, A

x

, A

y

, A

z

),

J

β

= (cρ, j

x

, j

y

, j

z

),

or in frame independent notation

∇

2

A = −µ

0

· J. (2.30)

2.4. Energy ﬂow and momentum. Think of disturbance energy as a substance

that ﬂows through space with velocity c. Then the energy ﬂow vector alternatively

can be expressed as

S = e · c,

and the energy density as

e =

|S|

c

.

Next if we only consider disturbance energy without the presence of any sinks or

sources, Equation (2.17) reduces to

∂S

i

c

2

∂t

= σ

ij,j

,

∂

∂t

S

c

2

= ∇· σ.

Now, if σ is a stress tensor, then the divergence of it represents a force, hence

∂

∂t

S

c

2

= f ,

and we can deﬁne a new vector

p

def

= S/c

2

, (2.31)

to obtain

∂p

∂t

= f .

Let us imagine some elastodynamic radiation trapped inside an imaginary box

with reﬂecting walls, and let the box be subdivided into m small cells containing

small parts of the radiation energy E

n

. At a given time the sum of the energy ﬂow

is given by

E · v =

m

¸

n=1

S

n

, (2.32)

hence the box is moving with some velocity v in the direction of S and it contains

an amount of energy given by

E =

m

¸

n=1

E

n

.

16 BJØRN URSIN KARLSEN

We divide Equation (2.32) by c

2

and take the time derivative of it. We obtain

∂

∂t

Ev

c

2

=

m

¸

n=1

∂

∂t

S

n

c

2

,

∂

∂t

Ev

c

2

=

m

¸

n=1

f

n

,

∂

∂t

Ev

c

2

= f .

Finally we deﬁne a new property m given by

m

def

=

E

c

2

,

or

E = mc

2

, (2.33)

and acquire

∂

∂t

(mv) = f . (2.34)

We can interpret this equation such that if we have a box containing a distur-

bance energy similar to m, then a force f is needed to give it an acceleration a = ˙ v,

provided that the property m, which we could call the mass of radiation, is kept

constant.

When the box is accelerated from zero velocity

6

, however, we have got to add

energy to it given by

dE = f · ds,

= f ds,

if ds is in the direction of f. By the equations above we can develop this equation

further into

dE =

d(mv)

dt

ds

=

d

dt

E

c

2

v

ds

=

1

c

2

v · dE + E · dv

dv,

dE

E

=

1

c

2

v · dv

1 −v

2

/c

2

,

6

The situation is considerably more complicated if the box and the observer have an initial

velocity, say v

0

. To address that question, one ﬁrst has got to assume that the phenomenon

is observed in a Lorentz frame that makes the equations above invariant for the change of the

observer’s coordinate system, as Lorentz showed already in the fall of the nineteenth century.

That would make the observation fully relativistic, and v

0

could be set to zero from where the

deduction could proceed as shown.

17

which can be solved

ln E = ln

1

1 −v

2

/c

2

+ ln C

= ln

C

1 −v

2

/c

2

,

E =

E

0

1 −v

2

/c

2

,

m =

m

0

1 −v

2

/c

2

. (2.35)

Equations (2.34) and (2.35) bring the dynamics of conﬁned disturbance energy in

line with Newton’s second law of motion and the relativistic mass increases with

velocity. Equation (2.33) is of course like the famous Einstein energy/mass relation.

3. Summing up

In this paper we have seen that the four equations (2.7) through (??) correspond

to James Clerk Maxwell’s (1831–1879) electrodynamic equations. Provided that

there are free moving sinks and sources in the spatial continuum, Equation (2.10)

demonstrates that they will generate a ”drag” just like Lord Kelvin postulated

for moving electrons in 1890 [2, page 247]. The energy ﬂow vector in Equation

(2.13) is formally like Poynting’s vector after John Henry Poynting (1852-1914).

In a notation introduced by Hermann Minkowski (1864–1909), the ﬁeld tensor

F

αβ

in Equation (2.21) is like the Electromagnetic tensor, and the Elastodynamic

stress-energy tensor, T

αβ

, corresponds exactly to the Electromagnetic stress-energy

tensor. Note also that the spatial stresses, σ

xy

, correspond exactly to Maxwell’s

stress tensor that represent the mechanical stresses caused by electromagnetic ﬁelds

in space. Finally it is possible to describe deformation ﬁelds as a vector potential

in the spatial continuum. In this notation the ﬁelds, like electromagnetic ﬁelds,

are invariant by transformations between diﬀerent Lorentz frames, after Hendrik

Antoon Lorentz (1853–1928), in rectilinear motion relative to each other. A moving

weightless box containing an amount of disturbance energy will have a momentum

corresponding to the energy in a material body with the same energy content. The

force needed to change its velocity corresponds to Newton’s second Law of motion,

and moreover, to increase the velocity of such a box towards the propagating speed

c of transversal waves will increase its energy towards inﬁnity.

References

1. S. Fl˝ ugge (ed.), Mechanics of solids ii, Encyclopedia of Physics, vol. VIa/2, Springer, 1972.

2. Sir Edmund Whittaker, A history of the theories of aether and electricity, vol. I and II, Philo-

sophical Library, 1951.

E-mail address: ukarlsen@online.no

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