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The creation of this curriculum guide has become a reality due to the efforts of the Transitions Mathematics Curriculum Committee and the Pilot Teachers. Their efforts are acknowledged with sincere thanks from the Prince Edward Island Department of Education. Transitions Mathematics Curriculum Committee George Aiken - Kensington Intermediate Senior High School John Dunsford - Bluefield High School Edwin Hughes - Westisle Composite High School Dawn MacFadyen - Three Oaks Senior High School Carrie Watters - Three Oaks Senior High School Betsy O’Brien - Holland College Adult and Community Education Doug Kelly - Holland College Eric Gallant - Department of Education Brenda Millar - Department of Education Pilot Teachers Carrie Watters Elmer Arsenault Edwin Hughes Lorne Acorn Scott MacCormack

- Three Oaks Senior High School - Westisle Composite High School - Westisle Composite High School - Kinkora Regional High School - Charlottetown Rural High School

Table of Contents

1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 a. b. c. d. 2. 3. 4.

Environment for Learning and Teaching Mathematics . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Teaching Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Assessment and Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Adapting to the Needs of All Learners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Estimates of Instructional Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Curriculum Content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. Problem Solving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 1 - Income and Debt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 2 - Data Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 3 - Owning and Operating a Vehicle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 4 - Measurement Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 5 - Relations and Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 6 - Applications of Probability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 7 - Personal Income Tax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 8 - Preparing a Business Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 11 31 43 63 77 93 105 111

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Appendix

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

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Introduction

According to the 1999 Report of the Senior High School Transitions Advisory Committee, the goal of the Transitions initiative is “to encourage and foster an increase in the education attainment of students and to provide students with the opportunity to obtain academic, personal, social and experiential foundations that will sustain life long learning, the ability to access further training (either on the job or continuing their education) and to equip them in their role as citizens in our society.” It is the purpose of this Mathematics 531A Curriculum Guide to support this goal. It is a major commitment of the Department of Education.

Environment for Learning and Teaching Mathematics

It is recognized that the teacher is a key element to the success of this initiative. The information in this guide has been created by teachers for teachers with practical suggestions to support the delivery of this curriculum. The learning environment for grades 10-12 is: participatory, interactive, and collaborative inclusive, caring, safe, challenging inquiry based, issues oriented a place where resource-based learning which includes and encourages the multiple uses of technology, the media, and other visual texts as pathways to learning and as avenues for representing knowledge. The teacher structures the learning situation and organizes necessary resources. In assessing the nature of the task, the teacher may find that the situation calls for teacherdirected activities with the whole class, small groups of students, or individual students. Such activities include direct instruction in concepts and strategies and brief mini-lessons to create and maintain a focus. As students develop a focus for their learning, the teacher moves to the perimeter to monitor learning experiences and to encourage flexibility and risk taking in the ways students approach learning tasks. The teacher intervenes, when appropriate, to provide support. In such environments, students will feel central in the learning process. As the students accept more and more responsibility for learning, the teacher’s role changes. The teacher notes what the students are learning and what they need to learn, and helps them to accomplish their tasks. The teacher can be a coach, a facilitator, an editor, a resource person, and a fellow learner. The teacher is a model whom students can emulate, a guide who assists, encourages, and instructs the student as needed during

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the learning process. Through the whole process, the teacher is also an evaluator, assessing students’ growth while helping them to recognize their achievements and their future needs. Learning environments are places where teachers: • integrate new ways of teaching and learning with established effective practices • have an extensive repertoire of strategies from which to select the one most appropriate for the specific learning task • value the place of dialogue in the learning process • recognize students as being intelligent in a number of different ways and encourage them to explore other ways of knowing by examining their strengths and working on their weaknesses • value the inclusive classroom and engage all learners in meaningful activities • acknowledge the ways in which gender, race, ethnicity, and culture shape particular ways of viewing and knowing the world • structure repeated opportunities for reflection so that reflection becomes an integral part of the learning process The physical learning environment should not be restricted to one classroom. There should be ample physical space for students to use cooperative learning techniques as well as other learning styles. There should be access to other learning centers in the school building such as labs and gymnasiums. Learning should be extended to community facilities, allowing field trips and guest speakers to expand the learning environment, while appreciating the focus of the community in their education. The learning environment will be one in which students and teachers make use of manipulative materials and technology. In addition, they will actively participate in discussing, verifying, reasoning, and sharing solutions. This environment will be one in which respect is given to all ideas, and reasoning and sense-making are valued above “getting the right answer”. Students will have access to a variety of procedural skills, such as estimating routinely to verify the reasonableness of their work and computing in a variety of ways while continuing to place emphasis on basic mental computation skills. Teaching Strategies Learning theory research clearly indicates that teachers need to employ a wide variety of instructional strategies to address the learning styles of all learners. Moreover, the nature of certain content or processes can only be taught effectively if specific instructional strategies are employed. In order to achieve this objective, students must have an opportunity to co-operatively brainstorm, discuss, evaluate information and make informed decisions. Students often point to experiential activities as the best part of a program as they have the chance to work cooperatively and be actively involved in the learning process.

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Teachers are ultimately responsible for determining the best teaching methods for their students, the best way of grouping them, and the best way to present material to make it relevant and interesting. Exemplary teachers use a variety of instructional strategies and have the flexibility to call upon several different strategies both within one period and during a unit of study. Adolescent learners need a balance between practical work, listening, discussing, and problem-solving. The Mathematics 531 course should provide students with an activity-based, meaningful math course. The key is not what we teach, but how we teach. Content is important, but not as important as having students engaged in relevant learning. It is our belief that a motivated student who is actively learning will be more likely to stay on task, be less disruptive, and attend more regularly. Establishing a classroom climate that is student centered is of utmost importance for the success of this program. Assessment and Evaluation The terms “assessment” and “evaluation” are often used interchangeably. However, they are not exactly the same. “Assessment” refers to the process of collecting and gathering information about student performance as it relates to the achievement of curriculum outcomes. “Evaluation” refers to the systematic process of analyzing and interpreting information gathered through the process of assessment. Its purpose is to make judgements and decisions about student learning. Assessment provides the data. Evaluation brings meaning to the data. Assessment must reflect the intended outcomes, be ongoing, and take place in authentic contexts. Meaningful learning involves reflection, construction, and self-regulation. Students are seen as creators of their own unique knowledge structures, not as mere recorders of factual information. Knowing is not just receiving information but interpreting and relating the information to previously acquired knowledge. In addition, students need to recognize the importance of knowing not just how to perform, but when to perform and how to adapt that performance to new situations. Thus, the presence or absence of discrete bits of information - which has been the traditional focus of testing is no longer the focus of assessment of meaningful learning. Rather, what is important is how and whether students organize, structure, and use that information in context to solve problems. Evaluation may take different forms depending on its purpose. Diagnostic evaluation will identify individual problems and suggest appropriate corrective action. Evaluation may be formative in that it is used during the instructional process to monitor progress and to make necessary adjustments in instructional strategies. Summative evaluation is intended to report the degree to which the intended curriculum outcomes have been achieved. It is completed at the end of a particular instructional unit.

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Adapting to the Needs of All Learners The Foundation for the Atlantic Canada Mathematics Curriculum stresses the need to deal successfully with a wide variety of equity and diversity issues. Not only must teachers be aware of and adapt instruction to account for differences in student readiness as they enter the senior high setting and as they progress, but they must also remain aware of avoiding gender and cultural biases in their teaching. Ideally, every student should find his or her learning opportunities maximized in the mathematics classroom. The reality of individual student differences must not be ignored when making instructional decisions. While this curriculum guide presents specific curriculum outcomes, it must be acknowledged that all students will not progress at the same pace and will not be equally positioned with respect to attaining any given outcome at any given time. The specific curriculum outcomes represent, at best, a reasonable framework for assisting students to ultimately achieve the key-stage and general curriculum outcomes. As well, teachers must understand and design instruction to accommodate differences in student learning styles. Different instructional modes are clearly appropriate, for example, for those students who are primarily visual learners versus those who learn best by doing. Further, the practice of designing classroom activities to support a variety of learning styles must be extended to the use of a wide variety of assessment techniques, including: 6. journal writing/portfolios 7. projects 8. presentations 9. structured interviews 10. performance 11. paper and pencil 12. research 13. investigation 14. technology Students will be expected to address routine and/or non-routine mathematical problems on a daily basis. Over time, numerous problem-solving strategies should be modeled for students, and students should be encouraged to employ various strategies in many problem-solving situations. While choices with respect to the timing of the introduction of any given strategy will vary, strategies such as: • guess and check • make assumptions • use a data bank • look for a pattern • use logic • work backwards • use a formula 6

• interpret graphs • use a diagram or flow chart • solve a simpler problem • use algebra • use a table or spreadsheet • use estimation should all become familiar to students. Opportunities should be created frequently to link mathematics and career opportunities. During these important transitional years, students need to become aware of the importance of mathematics and the need for mathematics in many career paths. This realization will help maximize the number of students who strive to develop and maintain the mathematical abilities required for success in future areas of study. The unifying ideas of the mathematics curriculum suggest quite clearly that the mathematics classroom needs to be one in which students are actively engaged each day in the doing of mathematics. No longer is it sufficient or proper to view mathematics as a set of concepts and algorithms for the teacher to transmit to students. Instead, students must come to see mathematics as a vibrant and useful tool for helping them understand their world and as a discipline which lends itself to multiple strategies, student innovation, and quite often, multiple solutions.

Resources:

Mathematics 531A Curriculum Guide Essentials of Mathematics 11 - Student text Essentials of Mathematics 11 - Teacher Resource Book Choices and Decisions - Taking Charge of Your Financial Life - VISA Canada Teaching Taxes Program - Canada Customs and Revenue Agency Numeracy at Work - BC Construction Industry Skills Improvement Council Algebra To Go - Teacher Resource and Handbook

Tools:

TI-30X Scientific Calculators - one class set per school Vernier Calipers - one class set per school

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Estimates Instructional Time The following chart shows the estimated instructional time for each chapter expressed as a percentage of total time available to teach the course. Teachers should aim to spend no more than 2 ½ weeks per chapter. Chapter Problem Solving 1 - Income and Debt 2 - Data Analysis 3 - Owning and Operating a Vehicle 38-55 4 - Measurement Technology 5 - Relations and Formulas 6 - Applications of Probability 7 - Personal Income Tax 8 - Business Plan (Optional) 56-67 68-81 82-91 92-95 96-109 5- 10 10 - 15 10 - 15 10- 15 15 - 20 1 2 2 2- 3 1-2 pages in guide integrated throughout 12-27 28-37 % of Time integrated throughout 15 - 25 10 - 15 10 - 15 3- 4 2 3-4 Weeks

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Curriculum Content

Problem Solving is a key aspect of any mathematics course. Working on problems involving estimation, measurement, and constructing can give students a sense of the excitement involved in creative and logical thinking. It can also help students develop transferable real-life skills and attitudes. Multi-strand and interdisciplinary problems should be included throughout Essentials of Mathematics 10. Reinforce the concept that "problem solving" is more than just word problems and includes other aspects of mathematics. Introduce new types of problems directly to students (without demonstration) and play the role of facilitator as they attempt to solve such problems. Recognize when students use a variety of approaches; avoid becoming prescriptive about approaches to problem solving. Reiterate that problems might not be solved in one sitting and that "playing around" with the problem—revisiting it and trying again—is sometimes needed. Frequently engage small groups of students (two to five) in co-operative problem solving when introducing new types of problems. Have students or groups discuss their thought processes as they attempt a problem. Point out the strategies inherent in their thinking (e.g., guess and check, look for a pattern, make and use a drawing or model). Ask leading questions such as: a. What are you being asked to find out? b. What do you already know? c. Do you need additional information? d. Have you ever seen similar problems? e. What else can you try? Once students have arrived at solutions to particular problems, encourage them to generalize or extend the problem situation. Assessment Strategies for Problem Solving: Observe Have students present solutions to the class individually, in pairs, or in small groups. Note the extent to which they clarify their problems and how succinctly they describe the processes used.

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Question To check the approaches students use when solving problems, ask questions that prompt them to: a. paraphrase or describe the problem in their own words b. explain the processes used to derive an answer c. describe alternative methods to solve a problem d. relate the strategies used in new situations e. link mathematics to other subjects and to the world of work Collect On selected problems, have students annotate their work to describe the processes they used. Alternatively, have them provide brief descriptions of what worked and what did not work as they solved particular problems. Self-Assessment Ask students to keep journals to describe the processes they used in dealing with problems. Have them include descriptions of strategies that worked and those that did not.

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UNIT 1 INCOME AND DEBT

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General Curriculum Outcome: Students will be able to demonstrate an awareness of the different functions of a calculator. SCO: By the end of grade 11 students will: • demonstrate selected functions of the TI-30X calculator Elaboration - Instructional Strategies/Suggestions • • Reset the calculator Functions • fix button ( 2nd ) ( FIX ) • bracket buttons ( ) • replay button • delete button ( DEL ) • insert button ( 2nd ) ( INS ) • percent • exponent

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Worthwhile Tasks for Instruction and/or Assessment The matching of keys with functions should be completed in this section. The TI-30X IIS Guide for Teachers has a large number of worksheets to allow students to practice using functions.

Suggested Resources Internet Resource: ˜ Users Resource Guide Texas Instruments www.ti.com/calc ˜ Overview of the TI30X IIS scientific calculator http://education.ti.com/us/pr oduct/tech/30xiss/features/fe atures.html ˜ TI-30X IIS Quick Reference Guide (5 pages) http://education.ti.com/us/pr oduct/tech/30xiis/guide/30xii sguideqgus.html ˜ TI-30X IIS Guide for Teachers (118 pages) http://education.ti.com/us/pr oduct/tech/30xiis/guide/30xii sguideus.html ˜ Free download of Graphing Calculator to Computer http://www.geocities.com/the sciencefiles/graphcalc/graph calc.html ˜ Free download of Trig and Geometry Calculators http://www.wcsscience.com/c alculators/page.html Graphing calculator (TI-83) with screen for demonstration In-school Resource: - Poster for graphing calculator - Class set of TI-30X calculators

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General Curriculum Outcome: The student will be able to demonstrate an awareness of selected forms of personal income and debt. SCO: By the end of grade 11 students will: solve problems involving: • Straight Commission Straight Commission Straight Commission = (Total Sales) x ( %) Demonstrate steps using TI-83 calculator and overhead screen. Salary Plus Commission Salary Plus Commission = (Salary) + (Total Sales) x (%) Demonstrate steps using TI-83 calculator and overhead screen. Graduated Commission Graduated Commission is a sales incentive program using increased commission. (Level 1) x (%) + (Level 2) x (%) + (Level 3) x (%) Use a test tube with coloured layers to demonstrate the change in commission amount. Picture: Elaboration - Instructional Strategies/Suggestions

•

Salary Plus Commission

•

Graduated Commission

(Amount in Level 2) x (% rate)

(Amount in Level 1) x (% rate)

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Worthwhile Tasks for Instruction and/or Assessment Straight Commission Brainstorm careers/jobs using Straight Commission. Salary Plus Commission Brainstorm careers/job using Salary Plus Commissions. Graduated Commission Use the following example to teach this commission. $20,000 in Area x 6%

$ 20,000

Suggested Resources Straight Commission Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 14, Example 1 Notebook Assignment P. 18 # 1-3 In-school Resource: - Numeracy at Work P. 68 Activity # 1-3 Salary Plus Commission Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 14, Example 2 Notebook Assignment P. 18-19, # 4-6 ' OMIT Text P. 19 # 8 Graduated Commission Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 15, Example 3 Notebook Assignment P. 19-20, # 7, # 9-11

**$10,000 in Area x 4%
**

$10,000

Amount in Area x 2%

A person sells $40,000 worth of goods: SOLUTION $10,000 x 2% = $200.00 $10,000 x 4% = $400.00 $20,000 x 6% = $1,200.00 Graduated Commission is $ 1, 800.00 Other Questions 1) What are commissions? Possible Answer: A percent of sales that is paid to the salesperson. 2) Which jobs include commissions? Some Possibilities: real-estate agent, car salesperson, appliance salesperson, clothing salesperson, insurance salesperson 3) Why pay with a commission rather than an hourly wage or salary? Possible Answer: To encourage salespeople to work harder to sell the merchandise.

Chapter Project begins on P. 12

Students can complete the “Earning Commission” worksheet. See Appendix 1 Use small group discussion in Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 16

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SCO: By the end of grade 11 students will: • solve problems using performance-based income

Elaboration - Instructional Strategies/Suggestions Performance-Based Income Performance-based Income = (Units) x ($ per Unit) Example: A seamstress gets paid by the number of logos she sews on jackets. At 20¢ per logo, it is expected she will sew 100 logos per hour. What is her hourly rate? (100 units) x (.20¢ per unit) = $20.00 Discussion from newspapers: • Make $1,000.00 stuffing envelopes • Tree Planters pay rate is by $ per trees planted • Newspaper carriers

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Worthwhile Tasks for Instruction and/or Assessment Brainstorm careers/jobs based on this income. Use for discussion Notebook Assignment P. 25 # 1-2 Students can complete ‘Weekly Wages for Piecework’ worksheet. See Appendix 2.

Suggested Resources Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 23-24 Example 1-3 Notebook Assignment P. 25-27 # 1-12 In-school Resource: - Numeracy at Work P. 122 Activity 1- 4

' OMIT Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 25, # 4

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SCO: By the end of grade 11 students will: • solve problems using simple interest

Elaboration - Instructional Strategies/Suggestions Simple Interest I = Prt I = Interest, P = principal, r = rate, t = time Note: Rate can be entered as % or converted to decimal. TI -30X - review conversion. Time is always expressed in years, so students must multiply by 12 to calculate the number of months and multiply by 365 to calculate the number of days. A neat way of finding one unknown with this formula is to use the following diagram: To find the formula for I, just cover the I with a finger and because the P, r, and t are lined up horizontally, they are multiplied. To find P, cover it, and the I is over the r and t, so I is divided by r times t. Be careful to use brackets around the r x t! To find r, cover it and the resulting formula is I divided by P times t. And finally, to find t, the resulting formula is t =

I ( P × r)

.

If using a calculator to do Example 3 on page 30, have I P= students express the formula as: (r × t ) using the triangle method above. Then replace the values $300 for I, r, and t and get: P = remembering that (6% × 4) both the 6% and the 4 are divided into $300. This can be done differently, depending on the type of calculator used. (ie: Press 300 ÷ 6 % ÷ 4 = 1250 for any type of calculator or if using a scientific calculator, press 300 ÷ ( 6 % × 4 ) = 1250.) Note: 6% can be replaced by 0.06, anytime. Invite a guest speaker (ie: accountant, banker, financial planner) to address topics related to credit and borrowing. Students should prepare questions to focus on the underlying mathematics involved. 18

Worthwhile Tasks for Instruction and/or Assessment Students can complete “Calculating Simple Interest” worksheet. See Appendix 3. Worksheets to help students convert; • • • • • • months to years 6 months ÷ 12 = 0.5 years years to month 0.5 years x 12 = 6 months weeks to years 13 weeks ÷ 52 = 0.25 years years to weeks 0.25 years x 52 = 13 weeks days to years 30 days ÷ 365 = 0.08 years years to days 0.08 years x 365 = 30 days

Suggested Resources Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 29-31 Example 1 -5 Notebook Assignment P.32 - 33 #1-7

Teachers may wish to introduce students to using spreadsheets to calculate interest. Students who had Essentials of Mathematics 10 possibly had some practice in using spreadsheets already. A review, as a minimum, would be necessary. Quattro Pro is a tool for spreadsheets. The website cited gives an excellent tutor to teach the use of this spreadsheet program. It takes about one hour to complete the tutorial. Example for spreadsheet What rate does Phoebe have to get if she has $5000 to invest and she wants to get $5500 back after five years? Solution r = I / (Pt) I = $5500 – $5000= $500, P = $5000 , t = 5, r = 500 ÷ (5000 x 5) thus r = 500 ÷25 000 r = 0.02 = 2% Demonstrate other problems involving principal, time, and the interest as the variable. Internet Resource: ˜ http://electron.cs.uwindsor.c a/60-104/quattro.html#top

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SCO: By the end of grade 11 students will: • solve problems using compound interest • Formula

Elaboration - Instructional Strategies/Suggestions Compound Interest is a simple interest with a changing principal at the end of each interest period. Compound Interest Discuss the formula:

⎡ r⎤ A = P ⎢1 + ⎥ ⎣ n⎦

( nt )

where: A = total amount, including principal and interest P = the amount of principal, loan, or deposit r = rate expressed as a decimal n = number of compounding periods per year t = time in years * Formula is shortcut for Text P. 35 Example 1

• Rule of 72

Introduce the Rule of 72 as a quick way to estimate the time it takes for an investment to double in value for a specific rate of interest. To calculate the doubling time, divide 72 by the rate given. 72 r

where r must not be entered as a decimal.

The Math 431A curriculum contains a chapter on the use of spreadsheets, so students may recall their use and apply it to compound interest problems. Students need to understand the terms: • Annually ie: (n = 1) • Semi -annually ie: (n = 2) • Quarterly ie: (n = 4) • Daily ie: (n = 365)

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Worthwhile Tasks for Instruction and/or Assessment Compound Interest Provide students with descriptions of various financial situations (e.g., inheritance in trust, retirement plans, appreciating assets, a first vehicle purchase).

Suggested Resources Compound Interest Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 35 Example 1 Notebook Assignment P. 38 # 1 Formula: Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 36 Example 2 Notebook Assignment P. 38 # 1 Rule of 72: Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 37 Example 3 Notebook Assignment P. 38-39, # 7 -8

To show the difference between Simple Interest and Compound Interest use Essentials of Mathematics 11, P. 35, Example 1.

Spreadsheets could be used to find answers for any Compound interest calculation but recommended for Notebook Assignment P. 39 # 10.

' OMIT Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 39 Notebook Assignment # 10 (if no computer access)

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SCO: By the end of grade 11 students will: • solve consumer problems involving credit cards • • how to use them calculate the costs

Elaboration - Instructional Strategies/Suggestions Students should understand: • the difference between cash or debit versus credit • how to read a monthly statement • how to convert between annual and daily interest rates Annual = (daily interest rate) x (365) Daily = (annual interest rate) ÷ (365) • how to calculate minimum monthly payments • the benefits and drawbacks of using a credit card

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Worthwhile Tasks for Instruction and/or Assessment Cash or Debit versus Credit • • discuss actual cost of item when using cash or debit versus credit discuss difference between credit cards (ie. frequent-flyer miles or points, dividends, low interest rates, purchase insurance)

Suggested Resources Cash or Debit versus Credit CIBC has trained employees to discuss banking topics Internet Resource: ˜ http://www.cba.ca/en/viewD ocument.asp?fl=6&s1=111& tl=&docid=246&pg=1 Monthly Statement Essentials of Mathematics 11 Notebook Assignment P.44 #1-2 and p. 46 # 6 In-school Resource: - Choices and Decisions Binder CH. 8 “Credit Cards”

Monthly Statement • a good sample statement is provided in Choices and Decisions Binder CH. 8

Converting Interest Rates • use samples from the Text

Note: Periodic interest is the same as monthly interest rate if using Choices and Decisions Binder.

Converting Interest Rates Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 41- 42, Example #1- 2 Notebook Assignment P. 45 # 3- 4 In-school Resource: - Choices and Decisions Binder CH. 8 “Credit Cards” Minimum Monthly Payments Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 43 Example 4- 5 Notebook Assignment P. 46, # 6- 7 Benefits and Drawbacks In-school Resource: - Choices and Decisions Binder CH. 7 “About Credit”

Minimum Monthly Payments • mmp = ( balance ) x ( % )

Benefits and Drawbacks • use overhead in the Choices and Decisions Binder

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SCO: By the end of grade 11 students will: • calculate the actual costs of in-store promotions

Elaboration - Instructional Strategies/Suggestions Students should understand the difference between • installment buying • deferred payments Actual Costs include: • List price • GST = (list price) x (province % ) • PST = (list price ) x (province %) • HST = (list price) x (15 % ) • In P.E.I. - PST = (list price) + (GST) x (10 %) Example Jane is buying new golf clubs at the list price of $ 456.78 Solution (If purchased in PEI) ($ 456.78) x (7%) = $ 31.97 ($ 456.78 + 31.97) x (10 %) = $ 48.88 ($ 456.78) + ($ 31.97) + ($ 48.88) = $ 537.63 Solution (If purchased in Ontario) ($ 456.78) x (7%) = $ 31.97 ($ 456.78) x (8%) = $ 36.54 ($ 456.78) + ($ 31.97) + ($ 36.54) = $ 525.29 Solution (If purchased in Nova Scotia) ($ 456.78) x (15 %) = $ 68.52 ($ 456.78) + ($ 68.52) = $ 525 30 Hidden Costs include: • Administration fees • Delivery fees Note: PEI has exemptions for PST (ie. clothing, groceries) Web Site for PEI exemptions is on Section16 or page 16. http://www.gov.pe.ca/law/statutes/pdf/r-14.pdf

•

calculate taxes from different provinces

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Worthwhile Tasks for Instruction and/or Assessment Anita Chesterfield wants a new couch. Deon’s Furniture offers one for $899.99. (Anita lives in PEI ) • Using the Pay-Now Plan S she must pay the $899.99 S GST S PST S a delivery charge of $25 (taxes included) • Using the Pay-Later Plan S she must pay the taxes S a delivery charge of $25 (taxes included) S a $49.99 (plus taxes) administration fee S and $899.99 one year later. a) Calculate Anita’s Pay-Now price. b) Calculate Anita’s total Pay-Later price. c) How much more would she pay with the pay-later price? d) Express the difference as a percent rate of the total pay-now price. Solution a) Pay-now price: = $899.99 GST: $899.99 x 7% = $63.00 PST: ($899.99 + 63.00) x 10% = $96.30 Delivery = $25.00 Total pay-now price = $1084.29 b) Pay-later price: = $899.99 GST: $899.99 x 7% = $63.00 PST: ($899.99 + 63.00) x 10% = $96.30 Delivery = $25.00 Administration fee (including taxes) = $58.84 Total pay-later price: = $1143.13 c)$ 1143.13 – $ 1084.29 = $ 58.84 d)

Suggested Resources Installment buying Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 52- 53 Example 1 Notebook Assignment P. 56, # 2 Deferred payment Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 54 Example 2 Notebook Assignment P. 56, # 3-4

In-School Resource: - Choices and Decisions Binder CH. 11 “Consumer Awareness”

$58.84 × 100% = 5.43% $1084.29

Taxes different in Provinces: • Have students calculate the cost of a laptop, list price = $ 3500.00, purchased in several provinces

Taxes different in Provinces: Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 51 Notebook Assignment P. 56 #1

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SCO: By the end of grade 11 students will: • calculate the interest to pay on a loan

Elaboration - Instructional Strategies/Suggestions Students should be familiar with: • car loans • personal loans • personal line of credit • mortgages Student should understand the terminology in Essentials of Mathematics 11, P. 58: • amortization period • cost of borrowing • fixed rate • prime lending rate • term • variable rate Note: The Personal Loan Payment calculator in Essentials of Mathematics 11, P. 59 uses Compound Interest !Monthly Payment per $1000.00. Important: Use samples # 1 - 2 in Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 60 as your guide.

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Worthwhile Tasks for Instruction and/or Assessment Personal Loans Invite a guest speaker from a financial institution.

Suggested Resources Personal Loans Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 60- 61 Example 1- 2 Notebook Assignment P. 62- 63 # 1- 5 Loan Application Teachers Resource Book Blackline Master # 2 Personal Loan Payment Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 59 (Overhead) TI - 83 - TVM Solver Internet Resource: ˜ www.ti.com/calc

Loan Application Students complete a loan application.

Personal Loan Payment Calculator Use suggested resources.

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SCO: By the end of grade 11 students will: • convert Canadian money into a foreign currency convert foreign currency into Canadian dollars

Elaboration - Instructional Strategies/Suggestions Students should understand: • Selling Rate: (bank selling rate) x (foreign currency) = Canadian $ • Buying Rate: (bank buying rate) x (foreign currency) = Canadian $ Exchange Rate: • daily • different institutions

•

•

Note: Buying and Selling Rates are from the Bank’s perspective.

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Worthwhile Tasks for Instruction and/or Assessment Students could investigate the rate of exchange between Canadian Dollars and three countries they could visit. Selling Rate Have students take an amount of Canadian $’s to the bank and use this formula: (Canadian $) ÷ (bank selling rate) = foreign currency (C$) ÷ (bsr) = fc If you know the amount of foreign currency you want to purchase, the band uses this formula to calculate your cost. (foreign currency) x (bank selling rate) = Canadian $ (fc) x (bsr) = C$ Buying Rate Have students take an amount of foreign currency to the bank and use this formula; (foreign currency) x (bank buying rate) = Canadian $ (fc) x (bbr) = C$

Suggested Resources Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 66- 68, Example 1- 4 Notebook Assignment P. 69- 70, # 1- 7

r = Buying or Selling Rate

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30

UNIT 2

DATA ANALYSIS

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General Curriculum Outcome: The student will be able to analyse data with a focus on the validity of its presentation and the inferences made. SCO: By the end of grade 11 students will: Elaboration - Instructional Strategies/Suggestions The study of statistics enables students to extend and integrate previous knowledge by collecting and analysing data from real-life situations. A line plot is a means of displaying data one-dimensionally on a horizontal line. Students will: • construct an accurate line plot • display an accurate line plot

•

construct and display line plots

•

analyse data

Student will: • identify any cluster • identify any outliers • identify any gaps • state the range • decide if the line plot is appropriate for graphing this data

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Worthwhile Tasks for Instruction and/or Assessment Construct and Display Step 1. Draw a horizontal line with a ruler. Step 2. Using your ruler, put a scale below the line. To do this, find the smallest and largest values and determine a suitable scale. Step 3. Plot each value by placing an X above the line at the appropriate location. Note: For values that are approximately the same, you may want to place the Xs directly above each other in order to avoid cramming. From the plotted data, it is now possible to see features that were not apparent from the table. Step 4. Continue until you have plotted all the data. Example

Suggested Resources Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 82-85 Notebook Assignment P. 86-89, # 1, 2 Chapter Project begins on P. 86

Analyse Data (above example) • • • • • Clusters - 74 and 75 Outliers - 68 Gaps 69 through to 73 Range - 9 What does this line plot tell us about our data? ie: Which golfer’s score is questionable?

Suggested pair activity in Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 85.

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SCO: By the end of grade 11 students will: • calculate the three measures of central tendency • mean • median, and • mode

Elaboration - Instructional Strategies/Suggestions Mean Students often use the term average when referring to the mean of a group of numbers. Average and mean are interchangeable terms, though mathematicians use arithmetic mean as the measure of central tendency found by adding the set of data and then dividing by the number of values in the set. (Note: when “arithmetic” is used as an adjective, it is pronounced “a-rith-met’-tic” accent is on the “met”) Median The median, another measure of central tendency, is the middle value in a set if the values are arranged in order from smallest to largest. When there is an odd number of values, the median is the middle number. When there is an even number of values, then there are two middle numbers. In this case you need to find the mean of the two middle numbers. Mode It is possible that the mode is not necessarily a measure of central tendency. It is simply the value that occurs most often and could coincidently be near the centre. Sometimes there is more than one mode. If two values occur the same number of times, then there are two modes. If all the values occur the same number of times, then there is no mode.

•

use each of these measures appropriately

The measure that you use depends on the data and your purpose. • mean for sets of data with no unusually high or low numbers • median for sets of data with some points that are much higher or lower than most of the others • mode for sets of data with many data points that are the same

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**Worthwhile Tasks for Instruction and/or Assessment
**

Example On your first five math tests, you received the following scores: 70%, 94%, 82%, 96%, 70% a) Find the mean score of your test results. (70% + 94% + 82% + 96% +70%) ÷ 5 = 82.4% b) Find the median score of your test results. 70% 70% 82% 94% 96% c) Find the mode of your test results. 70% d) Suppose you wrote a sixth test and scored 5%. Calculate the new mean, median, and mode. How does this low mark affect the mean, median, and mode? Mean:(70% + 94% + 82% + 96% + 70% + 5%) ÷ 6 = 69.5% Median: 5% 70% 70% 80% 94% 96% (70% + 82%) ÷ 2 = 76% Mode: 70 Both the mean and the median dropped in value, but a lower outlier caused the mean to drop more than the median. The mode was unaffected. The hockey players salary or math test results in the Appendix of this guide is a sample that students can use to answer questions like: • compute the mean time in minutes • compute the median • compute the mode Students can complete “Mean / Median / Mode” worksheet. See Appendix 4. Pencil/Paper A survey of weekly television viewing time of 25 female and 26 male teenagers produced the following data: a) Find the measures of central tendency (mean, median and mode). b) What types of conclusions can you make about the survey? Note: Students might enjoy using the IT-83 after doing the problem by hand.

Suggested Resources Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 90-93 Notebook Assignment P. 93-95, # 1- 8 In-school Resource: - Algebra To Go, A Mathematics Handbook, pages 333-338

- Algebra To Go, Teacher’s Resource Book, pages 190196

Internet Resource: ˜ www.ti.com

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SCO: By the end of grade 11 students will: • solve problems involving mean, median, and mode

Elaboration - Instructional Strategies/Suggestions The major focus of this section is on how different individuals or groups use mean, median, or mode to represent a particular point of view. There should be some exploration of the factors that influence these three measures of central tendency. In solving problems involving mean, median, and mode, you will look at adjusting data, predicting or calculating values, and identifying questionable values. The opportunity to use spreadsheets to find mean, median, and mode would bring technology into the math class.

36

Worthwhile Tasks for Instruction and/or Assessment Use examples 1, 2, and 3 as best worthwhile tasks.

Suggested Resources Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 96-99 Notebook Assignment P. 100-101, # 1- 5

Internet Resource: ˜ http://www.edu.pe.ca/journe yon/student_files.html

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SCO: By the end of grade 11 students will:

Elaboration - Instructional Strategies/Suggestions Statistics can be used by advertisers, the media, and governments to give information. They can also be used to influence. Graphs can be drawn and statements made to create false impressions. Students should know that when stats are used to support an opinion or to influence a decision, then they should study the data and the graph carefully so that they are not misled.

•

construct and analyse bar graphs

Students are expected to be able to manipulate a bar or line graph to represent a particular point of view. These manipulations could include changing the horizontal scale, changing the vertical scale, or changing the starting point of the scale. The data described in Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 105 108, Examples 1, 2, and 3 is the same but presented differently to create different impressions. Manipulation of the vertical axis on bar graphs allows for the change in appearance of the information displayed. While students are working with data, circulate, ask questions, observe, and check to see how effectively they are able to: • design and collect data from simple surveys • represent data effectively using tables, charts, plots, and graphs • make predictions and inferences based on graphs • identify, analyse, and explain the misuse of statistics • use appropriate terminology Students may use their spreadsheet programs to produce bar graphs. Some students become very good at using spreadsheets and can be a good resource to teach others.

•

construct and analyse misleading bar graphs

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Worthwhile Tasks for Instruction and/or Assessment Research Have students find examples of advertising that try to convince consumers to buy their products. Pencil/Paper 1)

Suggested Resources Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 105-109 Notebook Assignment P. 110-112, # 1- 4 In-school Resource: - Algebra To Go, A Mathematics Handbook P. 339-349

This graph displays the result of a taste test between Popsie and Slurpie soft drinks given to 300 consumers.

a) Looking only at the heights of the bars, how many times more popular does Popsie seem to be over Slurpie? b) Which company appeared to have created the graph? What three techniques were used to create a false impression? c) Create a new graph that would more fairly compare consumer differences. 2) In a school, 200 out of 400 grade 12 students and 100 out of 150 grade 11 students attended the musical. Draw a graph to give the impression that a) Grade 12 students are better supporters of the musical. b) Grade 11 students are better supporters of the musical.

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SCO: By the end of grade 11 students will: • construct and analyse circle graphs

Elaboration - Instructional Strategies/Suggestions A circle graph shows how a whole is broken into parts. It makes it easier to see how the size of each part compares to the whole. Some students refer to circle graphs as “pie charts”. Each “piece of the pie” is called a sector. Each sector of the circle represents the part belonging to a certain category. Use a protractor to help draw a central angle with the degree measure assigned to each category. Students will need a review in the use of a protractor.

When using a protractor, students need to review changing from degree measure to % of the circle and vice versa.

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Worthwhile Tasks for Instruction and/or Assessment Example A sector with a central angle measure of 126° on the protractor represents 35% of the circle. This is found by dividing 126 by 360 and multiplying by 100 to get the percentage.

Suggested Resources Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 114-119 Notebook Assignment P. 120-122, #1- 3 In-school Resource: - Numeracy at Work P. 285

126 × 100 = 35% 360

If the problem asks you to convert a percentage to degrees ie: 35% of 360° to get 126° 0.35 x 360° = 126° If the problem states that 40% of the data is to be represented by a sector, then the central angle should measure 144° . Found by taking 40% of 360° to get 144°. 0.40 x 360° = 144°

Example Four pizza companies operate in the city. The percentage of business for each company is shown below. Grecoo 35% Piizzaa Deeliight 30% Doomiinoos 20% Piizzaa Huuut 15%

Piizzaa Huuut (15.00%) Grecoo (35.00%) Doomiinoos (20.00%)

Piizzaa Deeliight (30.00%)

•

Survey your class to get data on a topic (ie: type of vehicle they drive, brand of sneakers they wear, etc.) and create a circle graph.

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42

UNIT 3

OWNING AND OPERATING A VEHICLE

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General Curriculum Outcome: The student will learn the costs involved in owning and operating a vehicle. SCO: By the end of grade 11 students will: • calculate GST and PST when purchasing a vehicle Elaboration - Instructional Strategies/Suggestions New Vehicle In PEI, to find the total cost of a vehicle after taxes the GST must be added to the price before you calculate the PST. Most questions ask for the taxes separately, but the easiest way to find the total cost is: price × 1.177 = total cost The 1 in 1.177 represents 100% of the cost and the 1.177 represents the GST and PST combined. Note: When students check their answers for Essentials of Mathematics 11, P. 139 - 140 questions 5-10, taxes are calculated differently for PEI, so if teachers choose to use PEI sales, then answers need to be adjusted accordingly. These answers are provided on the next page of this guide. A reoccurring theme should be for students to calculate the monthly income required for various purchases. ie: Total Monthly Debt Repayment, Essentials of Mathematics 11, P. 136 Example 1. Used Vehicle In PEI, if trucks up to but not including one ton or cars are purchased privately, then the buyer must pay 12.5% PST when registering it, but no GST. Motorcycles, ATV’s, snowmobiles, and trucks one ton or greater purchased privately, have a 10% PST. All vehicles purchased privately, have a 10% PST. All vehicles purchased from a dealer have PST (10%) and GST (7%) when registering. Note: GST and PST must be paid on a newer or used vehicle purchased from a dealer. In Manitoba and British Columbia, a vehicle purchased privately requires payment of only PST. GST is 7% for all provinces and territories in Canada. Refer to Essentials of Mathematics 11, P. 52 for the map to find the PST rates for the provinces and territories.

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Worthwhile Tasks for Instruction and/or Assessment Examples New Vehicle A new car total purchase price is $32, 000.00. Solution In Ont: GST = 7%, PST = 8% Total = 15% 15% of $32,000 0.15 x 32,000 = $ 4,800 Total cost = $32,000.00 + $4,800.00 = $36,800.00 In BC: GST = 7%, PST = 7.5% Total = 14.5% 14.5% of $32,000 0.145 x 32,000 = $4,640 Total cost = $32,000.00 + $ 4,640.00 = $ 36,640.00 In PEI: GST = 7%, PST = (GST + Price) x 10% 7% of $32,000 = $ 32,000 X 0.07 = $2,240 $ 32,000 + $ 2,240 = $ 34,240 $34,240 x .10 = $ 3,424 Total cost = $32,000.00 + $2,240.00 + $ 3,424.00 = $37,664.00 Used Vehicle A privately sold used vehicle total purchase price is $ 15,000.00 In PEI: PST = 12.5% 12.5% of 15,000.00 = 15,000 x .125 = $1,875 Total Cost = $15,000 + $ 1,875 = $16,875.00

Suggested Resources Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 136-137 Notebook Assignment P. 139-140, # 1- 9 Chapter Project begins on P. 134 The following are Answers for PEI purchases in the Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 139-140 questions 5-9 for PEI purchases: 5) GST= $27480×0.07=$1923.60 PST= (1923.60+27480)×0.10 = $2940.36 Total taxes = $1923.60+$2940.36 = $4863.96 Total cost = $27480+$4863.96 =$32343.96 6) GST = $8500×0.07=$595.00 PST = (595+8500)×0.10 = $909.50 Total taxes = $595.00 +$909.50 = $1504.50 Total cost = $1504.50+$8500 = $10004.50 7) No GST, therefore PST= $25500×0.125 = $3187.50 Total cost = $3187.50+$25500 = $28687.50 8) PST= $8300×0.10 = $830 Total cost = $9130 9) GST = $32500×0.07 = $2275 PST = ($2275+$32500)×0.10 = $3477.50 Total cost = $38252.50

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SCO: By the end of grade 11 students will: • calculate fuel costs for operating a vehicle.

Elaboration - Instructional Strategies/Suggestions Discussion Questions 1. Discuss what expenses there are to keep a car on the road: • licence • tires • insurance • repairs • gasoline • routine maintenance b) How much does it cost to buy 30 litres of gas at 78.4¢ per litre? Solution 30 x $0.784 = $23.52 c) The bill for a tank of gas is $52.50. If the cost is 68.9¢ per litre, how many litres did you buy? Solution $52.50 ÷ $0.689 = 76.2 litres d) You buy 39.25 litres of gas for $23.51. How much does each litre cost? Solution $23.51 ÷ 39.25 = 59.9¢ Fuel economy is expressed as the number of litres of fuel required to travel 100 kilometres.

fuel economy =

litres of fuel used × 100 kilometres driven

Students need to understand the difference between fuel economy and litres of fuel used when doing the Notebook Assignment on pages 146-148. This formula can be used to find the number of litres of fuel used.

litres of fuel used =

fuel economy × km driven 100

These formulas can convert litres of fuel used to mpg. US Gallons Imperial Gallons

235.2 = mpg L / 100km

282.5 = mpg L / 100km

46

Worthwhile Tasks for Instruction and/or Assessment Example Jane travels 567 km and then fills up her car with 40 litres of gas. The cost per litre is 68.4¢. Find: a) the cost of filling the tank b) the fuel economy c) the cost per 100 km driven Solution a) 40 x $0.684 = $27.36 b) (40 ÷ 567) x 100 = 7.05 litres/100km 40 × $0.684 × 100 = $4.83 or FE x cost per litre c) 567 7.05 x 68.4 = 482.2¢ or $4.82 Note: Car Dealers will provide the following information when purchasing a car. City Highway Litres / 100 km 12.9 8.8 Miles / gal. 22 32 For fuel economy (litres/km), less is better. For mileage (miles/gal), more is better. Pencil/Paper Have students set up a spreadsheet to calculate fuel economy.

Suggested Resources Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 142-143 Notebook Assignment P. 146-148 In-school Resource: - Choices and Decisions Binder Lesson 9 “Cars and Loans”

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SCO: By the end of grade 11 students will: • understand the cost of maintaining a vehicle

Elaboration - Instructional Strategies/Suggestions Learning to make sound decisions about acquiring a motor vehicle helps students to make connections between needs and personal budgets. Acquiring and operating a vehicle involves costs that will have an impact on the present and future budgets of students. In PEI, when calculating the total costs for maintaining a vehicle, GST and PST are charged to all parts and labour. Note: PST is a provincial tax and in other provinces may not apply to labour. All cars at one time or another have to go into a garage, either for maintenance or for fixing something that is wrong. At this point, the class could discuss the different prices for a foreign car versus a North American model. In general, costs would be more for a foreign car than for a North American car.

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Worthwhile Tasks for Instruction and/or Assessment Example Ann takes her car in for servicing. She needs two new tires plus her transmission needs some work. Each tire will cost $87.50 and the parts to fix her transmission will cost $226.75. What will her total bill be if labour costs $61 per hour and the work requires 3.2 hours? There is an environmental levy of $2.80 per tire. Solution In PEI: Parts Tires 2 @ $87.50 $175.00 Tire Valves 2 x $2.80 5.80 Transmission 226.75 Total Parts 407.35 Labour $61 x 3.2 195.20 Subtotal 602.55 Tax — GST $602.55 x 0.07 42.18 Tax — PST ($602.55 + 42.18 ) x 0.10 64.47 Total 709.20 In Nunavit: Parts Tires 2 @ $87.50 $175.00 Tire Valves 2 x $2.80 5.80 Transmission 226.75 Total Parts 407.35 Labour $61 x 3.2 195.20 Subtotal 602.55 Tax — GST $602.55 x 0.07 42.18 Total $647.73 Students can complete the “Vehicle Expenses” worksheet for practice maintenance, operating, and repair costs. See Appendix 5. Pencil/Paper Have students find out how much it would cost to repair or replace a door in the following cars: • Sunfire • Dodge Dakota • Subaru Outback

Suggested Resources Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 149-150 Notebook Assignment P. 152-153, # 1-6

Note: #6 - suggest replace BC with PEI

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SCO: By the end of grade 11 students will: • understand how vehicle insurance works

Elaboration - Instructional Strategies/Suggestions Invite a local insurance agent to speak to students about insurance for vehicles. Understanding the costs of vehicle acquisition and operation can help students make rational economic decisions.

•

calculate the costs for insuring and registering your vehicle

Discuss the meaning of the new terms Essentials of Mathematics 11, P. 155 - 156: • at fault claims • basic coverage • collision insurance • comprehensive insurance • premium • rate class • rate group • third part liability • deductible • safe driver discount Discuss why it is important to have car insurance. Discuss the following issues that have an impact on car insurance: • age • gender • driving record • years of experience • type and age of vehicle • daily average driving distance • security features on vehicle • geographics • driver’s education • number of claims Contact Motor Vehicle Registration office or website for registration and licence plates costs.

50

Worthwhile Tasks for Instruction and/or Assessment Have students contact insurance agents to determine costs of insurance for various classes of vehicle and types of driver (e.g., age of vehicle, age of driver, and type of vehicle). Assessment should focus on students’ abilities to estimate, predict, research, calculate (using appropriate technology), and compare costs in the acquisition and operation of a vehicle. Students should be able to verify the reasonableness of their conclusions. Have students research the cost of operating a vehicle for a year. Ask students to prepare a report suitable for class presentation that includes all anticipated costs (e.g., fuel, oil, tires, tune-ups, registration, and insurance). Have students convert the overall cost to cost per kilometre. Note: Copies of Teacher Resource Blackline Masters are needed for the above exercises.

Suggested Resources Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 154-158 Notebook Assignment P. 158-159, #1-9 In-school Resource: - Teacher Resource Book, Appendix C, Blackline Masters #4- 10

Internet Resource: ˜ https://www.gov.pe.ca/mvr/i ndex.php3 ˜ Insurance quotes available. A PEI location will not be accepted so it is suggested using a NB or NS Postal Code. Moncton’s is E1A 3A1 http://www.kanetix.com

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SCO: By the end of grade 11 students will: • calculate the total costs for purchasing a new vehicle

Elaboration - Instructional Strategies/Suggestions Discuss new terms on P. 160: • basic price • documentation fee • freight charges • optional equipment • preferred equipment • package • sticker price • trade-in allowance

Provide students with newspapers or other advertisements that show the price of purchasing a new vehicle. Contact individual dealers to acquire fact sheets on new vehicle costs (base price + options) or visit web sites for various makes of cars.

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Worthwhile Tasks for Instruction and/or Assessment Pencil/Paper Find the cost of a new car when trading in your current vehicle. Erwin wishes to buy a Dodge Ram truck. The price is $29,600. He wants an option package for $3000 that includes A/C; freight is $685. The dealership is willing to give him a trade-in allowance of $5500 for his old car. What is the total price for this new vehicle purchased on PEI? Solution Price $29 600.00 Option Pkg. $ 3 000.00 Freight $ 685.00 Tire Tax $ 14.00 A/C Tax $ 100.00 Administration Fee $ 195.00 Sticker Price $33 594.00 Trade-in $ 5 500.00 Subtotal $28 094.00 GST $ 1 966.58 = $28 094 x 7% PST $ 3006.06=(28094+1966.58)x10% Total Price $33066.64=28094.00+1966.58+3006.06

Suggested Resources Essentials of Mathematics 11 P.160-162 Notebook Assignment P. 163-164, #1 - 7

Have students select a new vehicle of their choice and calculate the cost to: • purchase (with options) • insure • licence • register

53

SCO: By the end of grade 11 students will: • calculate the resale value of a vehicle after depreciation

Elaboration - Instructional Strategies/Suggestions Most vehicles depreciate in value every year. Note: Cars, trucks, SUV’s, etc. depreciate at different rates. If a vehicle is in demand, even when it is older it will not depreciate as fast as a less desirable vehicle. When unknown, the 20% rule of depreciation is suggested. Each year, the vehicle depreciates by 20% of its value. Example How much is a $20,000 car worth after three years? Solution 1 Year 1: Depreciation $20,000 x 20% = $4000 Value: $20,000 – $4000 = $16,000 Year 2: Depreciation $16,000 x 20% = $3200 Value $16,000 – $3200 = $12,800 Year 3: Depreciation $12,800 x 20% = $2560 Value $12,800 – $2560 = $10,240 Total worth after 3 years is $10,240 • Car worth is now 51% of the original purchase price. Note: Total depreciation after 3 years is $4000 + $3200 + $2560 = $9760. Solution 2 Extension formula for the same problem: Purchase Price x 0.8t (where t = # of years) 20,000 x 0.83 = $10,240

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Worthwhile Tasks for Instruction and/or Assessment Pencil/Paper Have students create a spreadsheet to calculate a car’s value each year.

Suggested Resources Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 166-168 Notebook Assignment P. 168-169, # 1- 4 Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 170-171 The “Problem Analysis” offers students a break from the content in this chapter.

Have students calculate the resale value of their personal/family vehicle.

55

SCO: By the end of grade 11 students will: • calculate the total costs of buying a used vehicle from a dealer and privately

Elaboration - Instructional Strategies/Suggestions In PEI, if trucks up to but not including one ton or cars are purchased privately, then the buyer must pay 12.5% PST when registering it, but no GST. Motorcycles, ATV’s snowmobiles, and trucks one ton or greater purchased privately, have a 10% PST. All vehicles purchased from a dealer have PST (10%) and GST (7%) when registering. Note: GST and PST must be paid on a new or used vehicle purchased from a dealer. In Manitoba and British Columbia, a vehicle purchased privately requires payment only of PST. GST is 7% for all provinces and territories in Canada. Refer to map on p. 51 to find the PST rates for the provinces and territories. Note: Six Step Approach to buying a used vehicle privately on P. 173 of Essentials of Mathematics 11. Note: The history of all used vehicles can be researched by using the VIN (Vehicle Identification Number) at the following web site: www.carfax.com. Purchasers can check red book values at the Provincial Library or Access PEI.

56

Worthwhile Tasks for Instruction and/or Assessment Pencil/Paper Have students calculate the cost of purchasing a used vehicle by gathering information from the newspaper or Auto Trader Magazine, etc.

Suggested Resources Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 172-174 Notebook Assignment P. 175-177, #1 - 11

Internet Resource: ˜ www.carfax.com

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SCO: By the end of grade 11 students will: • calculate the monthly payment, the total paid, and the finance charge when purchasing a vehicle

Elaboration - Instructional Strategies/Suggestions In Essentials of Mathematics 11, P. 179-180, Examples 12 should be used. Personal Loan Payment Calculator chart needed for this SCO is in the Essentials of Mathematics 11, P. 59.

58

Worthwhile Tasks for Instruction and/or Assessment Students can complete the “Buying Cars” worksheet to gain practice in buying new and used vehicles. See Appendix 6. Note: Must use Personal Loan Payment Calculator on Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 59

Suggested Resources Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 178-180 Notebook Assignment P. 182-183, # 1- 9

In-school Resource: - Numeracy at Work P. 8

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SCO: By the end of grade 11 students will: • understand the concept of leasing calculate the cost of leasing a vehicle compare the cost of buying to the cost of leasing

Elaboration - Instructional Strategies/Suggestions Advantages of Leasing: • lower monthly payments • new vehicle more often Disadvantages of Leasing: • never owning vehicle (renting) • buying out the lease, pay more for the vehicle • restrictions on mileage • extra costs for interior and exterior appearance at the end of the lease • stipulations regarding insurance

•

•

60

Worthwhile Tasks for Instruction and/or Assessment Pencil/Paper Have students calculate the costs of owning and of leasing a vehicle of a given price using information from newspapers, dealerships, web sites, etc.

Suggested Resources Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 184-186 Notebook Assignment P.187-188, # 1 - 8 In-school Resource: - Numeracy at Work P. 9-11 and P. 14-15 Internet Resource: ˜ Information on whether to lease or buy a vehicle is accompanied by a questionnaire. http://www.learner.org/exhi bits/dailymath/car/

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62

UNIT 4

MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGY

63

General Curriculum Outcome: to make measurements in both the metric and imperial systems. SCO: By the end of grade 11 students will: • explore the history of measurement systems Elaboration - Instructional Strategies/Suggestions Measurement experiences are a powerful application of mathematical theory to everyday phenomena. Take time to discuss the development of measurement systems. Students should realize that there are more systems than the SI and imperial. However, this unit will focus on these two.

64

Worthwhile Tasks for Instruction and/or Assessment Have students complete the Classroom Activity from Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 196. Introduce students to measurements by using the “Earth Facts” worksheet. See Appendix 7. Students can complete the “ Metric Prefixes” worksheet for practice. See Appendix 8. In groups, students give a situation in which using one particular measuring device is preferable to another. They should give examples of situations in which a most appropriate device for measurement exists (ie: ruler vs odometer to measure the distance from North Cape to East point). Pencil/Paper Identify suitable units of linear measure in the SI and imperial systems.

Item length of a pen distance from Metric–SI Imperial

Suggested Resources Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 195-197 Notebook Assignment P. 198-200 #1 - 7 In-school Resource: - Numeracy at Work P. 155 - Numeracy at Work P. 156 Chapter Project begins on P. 194

Souris to Tignish

thickness of a coin diameter of a car tire dimensions of a duotang

Line measurements to emphasize include: 1. SI: mm, cm, m, km 2. Imperial: inches, feet, yards, miles

65

SCO: By the end of grade 11 students will: • measure lengths in both the metric and imperial systems and solve problems

Elaboration - Instructional Strategies/Suggestions Emphasis should be placed on the rationale of the SI system (multiples of 10 to match our number system) and its advantages over other systems. Advantages of SI system are: • multiples of 10 for easier conversion within the system • consistent terminology • universal use Note: It may be necessary to review the basic units of linear measure in both systems by using the Chart in Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 209 as your guide. Adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing fractions are skills that are used in this chapter. These skills can be b simplified using the A button on the TI-30X Scientific c Calculator. The opportunity is here to review and introduce perimeter, area, and volume of geometric shapes. Note: Volume is not covered in this section. There is a small section in Exploration 4 that deals with volume.

66

Worthwhile Tasks for Instruction and/or Assessment Students can practice using a ruler to complete the following worksheets: • “SI Measure” See Appendix 9. • “ Imperial Measure” See Appendix 10. Divide the class into small groups and provide students with a ruler, measuring tapes, and/or metre sticks. Assign objects to be measured to each group and have students report to the class their choice of measuring device, the ease or difficulty of measurement, and the precision of the resulting measurement. Have students check each other’s work using appropriate measuring systems. Review students’ written work in using measurement technology for evidence that they can: • give a situation in which using one particular measuring device is preferable to another • give examples of situations in which a most appropriate device for measurement exists Pencil/Paper 1. Estimate the height of a door in both SI and imperial units. 2. Identify an object that measures approximately: a) 15 inches b) 6 cm 3. Give three examples of where you use the imperial system of measurement in your daily life. Possible Answers 1. 2 m; 6.5 ft. 2. a) length of a long file folder b) diameter of a soft-drink can 3. a) height (e.g., 5' 8" tall) b) weight (e.g., 125 pounds) c) baking (2½ cups of flour)

Suggested Resources Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 201-204 Notebook Assignment P. 205-208 # 1- 8 In-school Resource: - Teacher Resource Book Blackline Master 13. rulers can be produced by photocopying on overheads - Numeracy at Work P. 331

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SCO: By the end of grade 11 students will: • perform conversions within both imperial and metric systems of measurement

Elaboration - Instructional Strategies/Suggestions Use the sentence below to help teach students to remember the metric system. King Henry Drank My kilo hecto deca Delicious Chocolate Milk centi milli

metre deci

Each word in the sentence represents one decimal place. For example, 57.3 hectometres = 573000 centimetres because centi is four spaces to the right, therefore you move the decimal four places to the right. Note: Decametre is dam and decimetre is dm.

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Worthwhile Tasks for Instruction and/or Assessment Have students create posters that display conversion factors or simple instructions for conversions within each measurement system. Have students use the posters to practice conversion problems. Have students demonstrate their knowledge of measurement concepts by generalizing about strategies and performing basic conversions. While students are working on measurement activities, circulate and provide feedback on: • their abilities to use the correct measuring devices and measurement units • the extent to which they consider the reasonableness of their answers • their overall understanding of measurement concepts in solving problems Pencil/Paper

Convert each of the following units of linear measure as indicated. a) 3m = ________ cm b) 53 cm = ________ mm c) 25 mm = ________ cm d) 450 cm = ________ m e) 0.65 m = ________ mm f) 7.4 mm = ________ cm g) 3.5 km = ________ m h) 560 m = ________ km Solutions a) 300 cm e) 650 mm

Suggested Resources Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 209-212 Notebook Assignment P. 213-214 #1-9

Internet Resource: ˜ Conversion tool http://www.onlineconversio n.com/ ˜ Conversion tool http://ts.nist.gov/ts/htdocs/2 00/202/conv.htm

b) 530 mm f) 0.74 cm

c) 2.5 cm g) 3500 m

d) 4.50 m h) 0.560 km

Convert each of the following units of linear measure as indicated. a) 5 ft. = ________ in. b) 3 yd. = ________ ft. c) 2 ft. = ________ in. d) 36 in. = ________ ft. e) 18 in.= ________ ft. f) 27 in. = ____ ft. +_____ in. g) 4 ft. 4 in. = ________ in. h) 2 yd. 8 in. = ________ in. Solutions a) 60 in. b) 9 ft. e) 1.5 ft. f) 2 ft. + 3 in.

c) 30 in.

d) 3 ft.

g) 52 in. h) 80 in.

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SCO: By the end of grade 11 students will: • convert units from the metric system to the imperial system, and from the imperial system to the metric system of measurement

Elaboration - Instructional Strategies/Suggestions The skill to convert units of linear measure from SI to Imperial and vice versa is one that can be difficult for students. Conversions between SI and imperial are extremely important for students interested in a trade career. The use of the Conversion Table is a must.

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Worthwhile Tasks for Instruction and/or Assessment Have students measure the diameter of a round table in metres. Have them convert the distance to feet, then measure again in feet to check their work. Again students can create posters this time that display conversion factors or simple instructions for conversions between Imperial measures and corresponding SI measures. Using rulers and tape measures, students should measure various objects to the nearest millimetre and to the nearest 1/16th inch. For some objects, it may be appropriate to use either one of the systems (SI or imperial), or both. Pencil/Paper Estimate, in both SI and imperial units, the length and width of each of the following objects. Use a metre stick, ruler, tape measure, or any other suitable device, to determine the actual measure of each object (rounded to the nearest mm or 1/16th of an inch).

Item desktop textbook classroom window door SI Estimate Imperial Estimate Actual SI Actual Imperial

Suggested Resources Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 215 - 217 Notebook Assignment P.218-219 #1-6

In-school Resource: - Teachers Resource Book Blackline Master 14. - Numeracy at Work P. 158

For introducing the need to understand conversion between systems in Trade Careers use the “Changing Units Between The Metric and Customary Systems Charts”. See Appendix 11.

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SCO: By the end of grade 11 students will: • use Vernier calipers to make accurate measurements

Elaboration - Instructional Strategies/Suggestions It takes a little practice using Vernier calipers. Schools have been provided a class set of 30 calipers for student use.

Thickness Separate the outside jaws and place object between the teeth and tighten the teeth just enough to firmly hold the object. The thickness is read on either the metric scale as 3 5mm or the imperial scale as inch. Be careful not to 16 confuse the two scales as the numbers are close to each other. Inside diameter Use the inside jaws of the calipers and read scale the same way. Depth The depth gauge (wire that comes out the end of calipers) is pushed out and placed on the bottom of the object and the foot of the calipers is pushed down until it touches the top of the object. The depth is read where the outside jaws are separated the same way the thickness was measured. Note: A good way to demonstrate difficulty of accurate measurement is in Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 225, Example 2 as the solution is 4.61 cm NOT 4.68 cm as given.

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Worthwhile Tasks for Instruction and/or Assessment Divide the class into small groups and provide students with Vernier calipers to measure the thickness of a variety of objects, such as pencils, books, desk tops, desk legs, door knobs, hand rails, marbles, dice, etc. Use the calipers to measure the inside diameter of different sized pipes, paper cups (tops and bottoms), rings, washers, and other similar objects. Use the calipers to measure the depth of test-tubes, desk drawers, paper cups, etc. Have students use this Vernier caliper applet that can be found at Westminister College web site. This java applet helps students learn to read a vernier caliper. Pencil / Paper 1. Give a situation in which using a ruler would be preferable to using a vernier caliper and vice versa. 2. State the following vernier caliper measurement. Be sure to include the units.

Suggested Resources Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 222-225 Notebook Assignment P. 227-229 #1-4 In-school Resource: - A class set of 20 Vernier calipers - Numeracy at Work P. 211215 Internet Resource: ˜ http://www.people.westmins tercollege.edu/faculty/ccline/ vernier/vernier.html ˜ http://www.wcsscience.com/ vernier/caliper.html

Solution 3.9 cm or 39 mm

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SCO: By the end of grade 11 students will: • read a micrometer

Elaboration - Instructional Strategies/Suggestions Micrometers are more precise than Vernier calipers because they can measure to a smaller unit (one hundredth of a mm). They could be used to measure thickness or diameter of small objects such as coins, paper, a washer, the wall of a pipe, a dime, rings, etc.

Note: The physics lab at your school may have micrometers that may be borrowed for this section.

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Worthwhile Tasks for Instruction and/or Assessment Have students use the suggested website which shows an applet of the measurement scale of a micrometer. Pencil/Paper 1. State the following micrometer measurement. Be sure to include the units.

Suggested Resources Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 230-234 Notebook Assignment P. 235-237 #1-5

Solution 10.23 mm

Internet Resource: ˜ http://members.shaw.ca/ron .blond/Micrometer.APPLE T

2. Give examples of situations in which the most appropriate device for measurement is: a) a micrometer b) vernier caliper c) a ruler Justify your choice.

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76

UNIT 5

RELATIONS AND FORMULAS

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General Curriculum Outcome: The student will examine linear relations by expressing them in words, with a table of values, as a graph, and as a formula. SCO: By the end of grade 11 students will: Elaboration - Instructional Strategies/Suggestions Using graphs of linear relations to represent real-life situations, and interpreting graphs of relations are key components of many problem solving situations. It is important for students to be able to make appropriate conclusions and interpretations based on graphical data. • examine linear relations whose graphs pass through the origin (y = mx form) by expressing them in words, as a table of values, as a graph, and as a formula Be familiar with the following terms: • Relation is simply a mathematical sentence describing how quantities are related. • Variables are the quantities. • Graphs are convenient ways to visualize the relation. • Table of values gives several numerical examples that satisfy the mathematical sentence. All three are ways of showing how variables are related. For our purposes, only linear relations will be studied. When introducing the terms dependent variable and independent variable, the vertical axis (y-axis) contains the dependent variable because the “y” values “depend on” the “x” values, represented on the horizontal axis. Note: Most often time is on the horizontal axis and distance is on the vertical axis. • interpolate and extrapolate values from the graph of a linear relation Finding unknown values between points you already know is called interpolation. If your graph shows a trend, then you may be able to predict values beyond your graph. This is called extrapolation. It is assumed that students know how to plot points on a coordinate plane. A review would be appropriate.

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Worthwhile Tasks for Instruction and/or Assessment A trucker charges a rate of $10.50/km when transporting goods. (Fractions of a kilometre are rounded to the next whole number.) 1. Create a table of values showing number of kilometres driven and amount of money paid to the driver. (If being done in the classroom discuss with students some mental math strategies such as “add $21.00 for every 2 km.) 2. State the dependent and independent variables, then plot points to represent the relationship. 3. Explain why you should or should not join the points

plotted on the graph.

Suggested Resources Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 247-251 Notebook Assignment P. 254-255 #1-7

Chapter Project begins on P. 246

4. Ask students to describe in writing a pattern in the table that they would use to predict the answer to the cost of travelling 9km, 21km, and 30km. 5. Represent the relationship given with an equation. 6. Use the equation to predict the cost for a 25km taxi ride; a 5.5 km ride. 7. What is the rate of increase in cost as you travel? Note: Keep tables of values simple and easy to read. All graphs should have labels on both axes. Make sure the dependent variable is on the vertical axis and the independent variable on the horizontal (comes from horizon) axis. Identify the dependent variable: a) distance walked versus calories burned b) gas consumed versus distance driven c) test marks versus hours of studying d) driving speed versus value of ticket received

A copy of the above “Graph Paper” is available for photocopying or making an overhead. See Appendix 12.

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SCO: By the end of grade 11 students will: • learn to calculate the slope of a line describe the slope in words and interpret its meaning in a problem context interpret the graph of a relation and describe it in words construct a graph of a relation from its description in words

Elaboration - Instructional Strategies/Suggestions The slope of a line can be described in several ways. It is described as the “steepness” or the “rate of incline” of the line.

•

slope =

rise run

•

The slope may be expressed as a fraction, a whole number, or a decimal. For purposes of this curriculum, only graphs that are in the first quadrant will be studied.

•

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Worthwhile Tasks for Instruction and/or Assessment Pencil/Paper Provide students with graphs showing the wages earned versus hours worked for jobs typically held by young temporary workers (e.g., cashier, server). Ask students the following questions: 1. What is the hourly wage? 2. Can the wages earned be predicted for a point on the graph? 3. How would the graph change if a raise were incorporated into the hourly wage? Example Slope

Suggested Resources Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 256-261 Notebook Assignment P. 262-264 #1-5

Daily Earnings

Hourly Wage

300 250 Dollars ($) 200 150 100 50 0 0 5 10 Time (hrs.) 15 20

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SCO: By the end of grade 11 students will: • determine the formula of the linear relation if a line passes through the origin

Elaboration - Instructional Strategies/Suggestions It makes sense that if the line passes through the origin, the y-intercept must be 0. All linear equations that pass through the origin have the equation y = mx , where m is the slope of the line. So, the line with equation y = 7.5x has a slope of 7.5.

•

evaluate formulas

The dependent variable is y and the independent variable is x. The general formula is: dependent variable = (slope) x ( independent variable).

Just by looking at this graph, the equation can be found by finding the slope using rise over run. Choosing any two points of convenience, the rise is 4 and the run is 3, therefore 4 the equation is y = x 3

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Worthwhile Tasks for Instruction and/or Assessment Pencil/Paper State the slope of each line using rise over run.

Suggested Resources Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 265-271 Notebook Assignment P. 273-275 # 1-5

Questions a) Which car uses more fuel? b) State the slope of both lines? Solutions 1. Car B uses more fuel than Car A. The line on the graph is much steeper. b) For Car A, the rise (vertical change) from the origin (0,0) to the first data point is 10, and the run (horizontal change) is 200. 10 1 or The slope is 200 20 For Car B, the rise from the origin to the first data point is 20, and the run is 100. 20 1 or The slope (rise/run) is 100 5

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SCO: By the end of grade 11 students will: • graph lines that do not pass through the origin

Elaboration - Instructional Strategies/Suggestions The y-intercept touches the vertical axis and the symbol for the y-intercept is “b”. The y-intercept or “b” represents the fixed value. The equation of a line that does not pass through the origin looks like y = mx + b where “b” is the y-intercept and “m” is the slope. The following formula should be used: dependent variable = (slope) x (independent variable) + fixed value

•

express a linear relation of the form: y = mx +b

Example Cost + (rate per hour) x (number of hours) + service fee Formula is C = mx + b A repairman works for 2 hours at $20.00 per hour fixing your plumbing. He charges a service fee of $50.00. What is the cost of the repair before taxes? m= $20.00, x = 2 hours, b= $50.00 Cost = ($20.00) x (2) + $50.00 = $90.00

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Worthwhile Tasks for Instruction and/or Assessment Pencil/Paper Many situations in life involve “fixed” costs, plus a constant amount per item (hours, people, etc.). Renting a car usually costs a fixed amount per day, plus a constant amount per kilometre driven. This graph shows the cost of renting a hall. The fixed amount is $500, plus $2.50 per person.

Suggested Resources Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 278-281 Notebook Assignment P. 282-284

Questions a) What is the cost to rent the hall if nobody shows up? b) Determine the slope? c) What does the slope represent? Solutions a) $500.00 b) $2.50 ÷ 100 = 2.5 c) cost per person Example: Slope and y-intercept

Daily Earnings

Salary Plus Hourly Wage

350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 5 10 Time (hrs.) 15 20

Students may complete the “Slope” worksheet. See Appendix 13.

Dollars ($)

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SCO: By the end of grade 11 students will: • understand the real-world relationships depicted by graphs, tables of values, and/or written descriptions determine the slope of a linear relation and describe it in words and interpret its meaning in a problem context interpolate and extrapolate values from the graph of a linear relation

Elaboration - Instructional Strategies/Suggestions Two graphs can be drawn on the same coordinate plane for the purpose of comparing two sets of data. Different slopes and y-intercepts allow for comparing two companies offering the same service. For example, comparing two taxi companies offering different flat rates and different rates per km travelled will show two graphs with different slopes and y-intercepts. Note: Keep in mind the point of intersection represents where the costs for both companies are equal.

•

•

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Worthwhile Tasks for Instruction and/or Assessment When students are solving problems involving real-life applications, note whether they: 1. choose appropriate axes for given quantities 2. scale and label axes appropriately, and title the graph 3. plot data correctly and determine the slopes of linear relationships 4. can make predictions (e.g. extrapolate or interpolate) about other values based on their equations or graphs 5. correctly interpret the graph of a relation and describe its intent in words 6. make appropriate conclusions and interpretations of slope and y-intercept in problem situations (e.g. car rental problems where there is an initial cost and a rate charge) Pencil/Paper The Griswald family arrived in Europe for their holiday. At the car rental agency, they are offered two options: Option 1: $25/day plus $0.05 per kilometer Option 2: $60/day with unlimited number of kilometers Ask students to use graph paper or a spreadsheet to examine the costs of two options for various driving distances. 1) At what distance per day would option 2 become a better option? 2) If the rate per kilometer was $0.12 and they planned to travel an average of 450 km every other day for 5 days, which option should the family choose? Explain. As a review, have students research in newspapers, trade reports, and the Internet to collect graphs or tables of data for graphing. Ask them to define the variables, determine the appropriate scaling of axis, plot the data, and draw conclusions.

Suggested Resources Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 285-289 Notebook Assignment P. 290-291 # 1- 4

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SCO: By the end of grade 11 students will: • interpret graphs that are not linear

Elaboration - Instructional Strategies/Suggestions This exploration does not get into the equations of nonlinear relations. It simply expects students to interpret nonlinear graphs and describe it in words. Students will also be expected to draw a graph given its word statement. Example Draw a graph of the following situations. Be sure to identify the dependent and independent variables and label the axes appropriately. Independent variable is time and the dependent variable is height. 1. The height of a rose bush over time. Solution

2. The height of a particular seat on a ferris wheel for three revolutions. Solution

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**Worthwhile Tasks for Instruction and/or Assessment
**

By extracting meaning from linear relations, graphical representations and using graphs to represent data, students can use these skills throughout their lives. Assessment in this area should focus on the real-world applications of these skills. 1. Erica saves $2 in one week, $4 the following week, $6 the next week, and so on for a number of successive weeks. Ask students to: a) complete the table

Suggested Resources Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 293-297 Notebook Assignment p. 299-304 # 1- 6

In-school Resource: - TI-83 Ranger from MAT 421A course.

b) d Savings (t) versus Week (w). c)

raw the graph of Total

Determine if the graph is linear and explain why or why not?

Graphs should include labels, appropriate scales, and data points. 2. Write a scenario for the following graph. Be sure to identify the independent and dependent variables.

Students may complete the “Distance-Time Graphs” worksheets. See Appendix 14. Students may complete the “Hot Air Balloon” worksheet. See Appendix 15. Using the TI-83 Ranger (motion detector) will demonstrate the distance versus time relationship for students. See Appendix 16.

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SCO: By the end of grade 11 students will: • evaluate formulas

Elaboration - Instructional Strategies/Suggestions Students are expected to use formulas to answer questions. They will not be expected to manipulate formulas to have the unknown part isolated. All exercises have the unknown already isolated. Evaluate formulas by substituting known values into the right-hand side of the formula, and determine the value for the unknown value on the left-hand side.

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Worthwhile Tasks for Instruction and/or Assessment Example Find the area of a trapezoid with bases of 8 cm and 12 cm, and a height of 7 cm.

Suggested Resources Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 305-306 Notebook Assignment P. 307-310 # 1 - 6, 8 - 9 1) OMIT Question # 7

Solution a=8, b=12, & h=7

Example The amount of energy required to separate charges depends on the voltage developed and the amount of charge moved. If W is the energy in joules (J), Q is the charge in coulombs (C), and V is the resulting voltage in volts (V), then

If it takes 35 J of energy to move a charge of 5 C from one point to another, what is the voltage between the two points? Solution

91

92

UNIT 6

APPLICATIONS OF PROBABILITY

93

General Curriculum Outcome: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the applications of probability in real world situations and learn how to calculate probability, odds, and how to use probabilities to calculate expected gains and losses. SCO: By the end of grade 11 students will: • express probabilities as ratios, fractions, decimals, percent, and in words Elaboration - Instructional Strategies/Suggestions Applications of probability that connect the real world with students’ mathematical knowledge will help students understand the importance of probability. The study of applications of probability enables students to explore how probability affects our daily decision making. For example: • A weather forecaster says there’s a 60% chance of rain. • A sports reporter says that a team has a 50-50 chance of winning the championship. The above statements are about probability and odds. Know the following terms: • Probability and odds are ways of telling how likely it is that an event or series of events will or won’t happen. • An event is something that may or may not happen. The probability of an event can be any number 0 through 1. • Probability is a measure of likelihood. It is the ratio of favourable outcomes to all possible equally-likely outcomes. Probability can be written as a fraction, decimal, percent or in words. There are many real-life applications of probability: • science • medicine • commerce • sports

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Worthwhile Tasks for Instruction and/or Assessment At the start of the unit, have students note in their journals what they already know about this field of mathematics and what else they would like to know. Example If a die is a fair one, it is equally likely that one of six possibilities will turn up when it is rolled. The probability that a 5 would be rolled can be expressed in many ways: P(5): 1 Fraction: 6 Decimal: 0.1666. .17% Percent: In words: “One out of six” Pencil/Paper

Suggested Resources Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 322-323 Notebook Assignment P. 324-325 #1 - 8

Chapter Project begins on P. 321

Fraction

Decimal 0.75

Percent

In Words

25%

1. Fill in the table above. 2. One out of three students went to the movies last weekend. In a class of 24 students, how many went to the movies?

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SCO: By the end of grade 11 students will: • use probability to predict the result in a given situation

Elaboration - Instructional Strategies/Suggestions If an event is impossible, it has a probability of 0. If an event is certain, its probability is 1. The more unlikely an event is, the closer its probability is to 1. A probability cannot be greater than 1 because an event can’t be more likely than certain.

Examples 1. Elvis Presley died in 1977. So it’s impossible for Elvis Presley to give a concert at your school. The probability of the original Elvis Presley performing at your school is 0. 2. The weather forecaster says that there’s a 10% chance of rain today in Souris, PEI. This means that it is unlikely to rain. It doesn’t mean it won’t rain today in Souris or that it will rain for 10% of the day. 3. When you toss a quarter, the chance of tossing heads is ½ or 50%. Tossing heads is as likely as unlikely. 4. In a deck of playing cards, there are 52 cards: 36 number cards, 12 face cards, and four aces. The chance 36 of picking a number card is , or about 69%. This 52 means that if you pick a card at random from a full deck, picking a number card is more likely than picking a card that is not a number card. 5. Every week, it is certain that Monday will follow Sunday. The probability of Monday following Sunday is 1, or 100%.

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Worthwhile Tasks for Instruction and/or Assessment Pencil/Paper Students may complete the “Chances of a Shark Attack” worksheet. See Appendix 17. Presently, if you are living in Canada, suppose the probabilities for having a certain hair colour are given in the following chart.

Suggested Resources Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 326-330 Notebook Assignment P. 331-333 #1-8

Colour Brown Blonde Black Red

Fractions 7/10 1/7 1/10 1/17

Decimal

Percent

Complete the chart by calculating the probabilities as decimals and percent. Given the population of Canada is 32 million, theoretically how many people should have the following hair colour: • Brown • Blonde • Black • Red

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SCO: By the end of grade 11 students will: • determine the odds for and against a particular event occurring

Elaboration - Instructional Strategies/Suggestions Odds and probability are two different ways of expressing the same thing, likelihood. The important difference between probability and odds is: a) Probability is always expressed as a fraction, percent or decimal. b) Odds are expressed as a ratio.

The probability of the spinner stopping on “B” is 1 because, out of four possible events, there is one 4 favourable event. The odds in favour of the spinner stopping on “B” are 1 to 3 (1:3) because of the four things that can happen, one is favourable and three are unfavourable. The odds against the spinner stopping on “B”are 3 to1 (3:1) because of the four things that can happen, three are unfavourable and one is favourable. The odds in favour of an event and the odds against an event are reversed: 1:3, 3:1. 1 When an event has a probability of , it has odds of 1:1. 2 odds in favour = favourable outcomes:unfavourable outcomes odds against = unfavourable outcomes:favourable outcomes probability = (# of desired outcomes) ÷ (total possible outcomes) Note: Total # of outcomes = (# of favourable outcomes) + (# of unfavourable outcomes)

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Worthwhile Tasks for Instruction and/or Assessment Pencil/Paper “If you are like most Islanders, you eat a hamburger every eight meals”.

Suggested Resources Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 334-336 Notebook Assignment P. 337-339 #1 - 10

1.

Suppose the claim is true. Find the odds in favour of eating a hamburger at your next meal. 2. Find the odds against eating a hamburger at your next meal. Hint For each eight meals, there is one meal with hamburger. So, there are seven meals that have no hamburger. The odds in favour of eating a hamburger at your next meal is1:7 or 1 to 7. Question A random survey shows that 7 out of 10 voters will vote for Lewis as Premier. Find the odds against a voter voting for Lewis. Solution

odds against = unfavourable outcomes: favourable outcomes

odds against = 3:7 Question There are 50 people at a sports registration evening. Fifteen people registered for basketball, 23 people registered for volleyball, and the rest registered for badminton. One person is chosen at random, find the following: a) the odds against the person playing badminton b) the odds in favour of the person playing basketball c) the odds against the person playing either volleyball or basketball

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SCO: By the end of grade 11 students will: • compare experimental observations with theoretical predictions

Elaboration - Instructional Strategies/Suggestions Know the following terms: • Theoretical probability is when you find the probability of an event without doing an experiment or analysing data. Theoretical probability is used to predict the results of a probability experiment. Usually, as the number of attempts in an experiment increase, experimental probability gets closer to theoretical probability. Suppose you toss a die. The theoretical probability of the die landing on four is

P ( 4) = # of sides with four # of sides

therefore,

P(4) =

1 6

•

**Experimental probability is when you do an experiment or collect data and analyse data to find probability.
**

# of favourable outcomes in exp eriment # of trials

Experimental probability =

100

Worthwhile Tasks for Instruction and/or Assessment Pencil/Paper Students should be able to complete experiments and record results. Students may complete the “ Shove A Coin” worksheet. See Appendix 18. Have students complete the 7 station “ Applications of Probability: Theoretical and Experimental Probability” project. This project activity will take 2 days to complete. See Appendix 19.

Suggested Resources Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 340-345 Notebook Assignment P. 345 #1-3

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SCO: By the end of grade 11 students will: • use probabilities to calculate expected gains and losses

Elaboration - Instructional Strategies/Suggestions Expected value is an estimate of the average return (or loss) one would have in along series of trials. Expected value = (probability of winning) x (gain) (probability of losing) x (loss) In general, the following statements are true: • If you play a game for money with an expected value < 0 (less than 0), you can expect to lose. • If you play a game for money with an expected value = 0 (equal to 0), you can expect to break even. • If you play a game for money with an expected value > 0 (greater than 0), you can expect to win. Example A bag contains 10 marbles. There are five red, three black, and two white. The game costs $2.00 to play. You draw one marble from the bag. If it is red you win $1.00, black you win $2.00, and white you win $5.00. Calculate the expected value.

Solution EV = 0.5(–$1.00) + 0.3($0.00) + 0.2($3.00) = $0.10 or a gain of 10¢. In a series of plays of this game, you could expect to win an average of 10¢ for each time you play.

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Worthwhile Tasks for Instruction and/or Assessment Discuss how casinos are designed to make a profit. Discuss gaming and lottery expected values. Discuss advantages and disadvantages of all the above.

Suggested Resources Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 348-352 Notebook Assignment P. 353-354 #1-7

103

104

UNIT 7 PERSONAL INCOME TAX

105

General Curriculum Outcome: The student will learn how to prepare an income tax return for a single, employed person with no dependents. SCO: By the end of grade 11 students will: Elaboration - Instructional Strategies/Suggestions It is recommended teachers use the following free program: The Teaching Taxes Program includes the following: • Teacher’s Manual • Student Workbook (class set) • General Income Tax and Benefit Guide (class set) • T1 Special Form (class set) • T1 General Prince Edward Island Forms (double class set) All forms may be ordered at: • www.ccra.gc.ca • 1-800 -959-2221 (toll free number) • Client Services Directorate 400 Cumberland, Room 2014 Ottawa, ON K1A 0L5 Fax: 613 -941 -5100 Note: Order in June for delivery in September, or mid-October for delivery by January. • gain an understanding of the Canadian Taxation System Discuss the following: • what is income tax • what do taxes fund • how does the government distribute the money • why should people prepare their own income tax return When students calculate the amount of provincial (PEI) taxes to be paid, they must be careful to multiply the tax rate by the first $30,574 and then any earnings above $30,574 and up to $59,180 has a rate of 13.8%, and all amounts greater than $61,510 has a rate of 16.7%. Note: Rates will change yearly.

•

consider the effect of marginal tax rate on the amount of income tax paid

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Worthwhile Tasks for Instruction and/or Assessment Pencil/Paper Joanne works in a PEI seafood processing plant for $14.80 per hour. She works 40 hours per week and gets paid time and a half for hours worked above that. She works 47 weeks each year. 1. What are her earnings at regular pay? 2. What are her overtime earnings if she averages 4 hours of overtime each week? 3. What is her total earnings? 4. What taxes would she pay without her overtime earnings? 5. What taxes does she pay on her total earnings? 6. Calculate her actual pay per hour after taxes. Solution 1. Regular earnings = $14.50 × 40 × 47 = $27824.00 2. Overtime earnings = 1.5 × $14.50 × 4 × 47 = $4089 3. $27824.00 + $4089.00 = $31930.00 4. PEI taxes = $27824.00 × 0.098 = $2726.75 Federal taxes = $27824.00 × .16 = $4451.84 5. She pays PEI taxes of 0.098 × $30574.00 = $2996.25 on the first $30574 earned and federal taxes of $30754 × 0.16 = $4920.64 on the first $30754 earned. She pays PEI taxes of 0.138 × ($31930 $30574) = $187.13 and federal taxes of 0.22 × ($31930 - $30754) = $298.32 on the remainder because her tax rate jumped from 9.8% to 13.8% provincially and from 16% to 22% federally on earning above $30574 and $30754, respectively. This gives a total of $2996.25 + $4920.64 + $187.13 + $298.32 = $8402.47 paid in taxes. 6. Pay after taxes = $31930.00 - $8402.47 = $23527.53, so to calculate actual pay per hour, you divide this amount by 40 and then by 47 to get $23527.53 = $12.51 per hour. 40 × 47 Students may complete the Income Tax” worksheet. See Appendix 20.

Suggested Resources Teaching Taxes Program Chapter Project begins on P. 363 Internet Resource: ˜ www.ccra.gc.ca

107

SCO: By the end of grade 11 students will: • complete simple income tax return

Elaboration - Instructional Strategies/Suggestions Examine a sample T4 slip and review the following deductions: • CPP • El • income tax • union dues • pension Discuss the purpose of these deductions. Recommended Use the outline below as a guide for teaching this Unit. 1) Highlight and use examples in Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 364-367, Complete Notebook Assignments P. 367 - 368, # 1 - 9 2) Highlight and use examples in Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 369-380 Use the T4 and Tax return found here. Complete Notebook Assignment P. 381, # 1 on an overhead. Note: Use a TI-Special Form as it is a simplified version of the TI -General. 3) Complete the Notebook Assignment P. 385 , # 1 - 8. Divide students into grous of 2 - 3 and have them complete 4 - 5 questions per group as assigned by you from the Teaching Taxes Student Workbook P. 8 - 11, Exercises A, B, C, and D. 4) Complete the Teaching Taxes Student Workbook 6 returns using information on P. 12 - 21. Note: Overheads of all forms you are teaching is recommended.

•

evaluate tax implications and lifestyle choices

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Worthwhile Tasks for Instruction and/or Assessment Have student report on the effects of the levels of taxation if: • a given income is increased or decreased substantially • a change in marital status • dependents versus no dependents • living in a northern community Pencil/Paper Give students job descriptions, including wages, and have them choose an occupation and complete an income tax form for a single individual without dependents. OR Ask students to research their dream job and prepare an income tax return for this job. OR Have students bring in their own tax information and complete their own income tax return. Note: This activity could be their final assessment for this unit.

Suggested Resources Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 364-367 Notebook Assignment P. 367-368 # 1 - 8 Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 369-380 Notebook Assignment P. 385 #1 Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 384 Notebook Assignment P. 385, #1 - 8

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110

UNIT 8 PREPARING A BUSINESS PLAN

111

General Curriculum Outcome: The student will prepare a business plan. SCO: By the end of grade 11 students will: Elaboration - Instructional Strategies/Suggestions Realistic activities involving the research and design of a business plan enable students to recognize the connections between mathematical skills they have learned and the concrete situations these skills represent. An understanding of procedures and applications of mathematics can help students make reasonable business decisions.

•

develop an understanding of the importance of a business plan

Discuss with students the characteristics needed to be an entrepreneur. Students may investigate if they are an Entrepreneurial Type. See Internet Resource Site. Discuss why a Business Plan is an important first step to starting a business. Explain the following terms: • Retail industry sells goods to the general public. • Service industry provides services to customers. • Manufacturing industry make a product to sell to businesses. Brainstorm business in your area which fit the above three industry sectors.

•

select and name a business; determine product/services and customer base

Recommended Use examples # 1-3. Note: As a teaching tool for this Unit, it is recommended that you use the Project Activity in each of the Explorations. Keep in mind you may wish to do selected Notebook Assignments as a lead-in for the Project Activity work.

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Worthwhile Tasks for Instruction and/or Assessment Project Activity After covering the three industry sectors, assign students the Project Activity in Essentials of Mathematics 11, P. 398. Note: Students may wish to work as individuals or small groups throughout this Unit. Pencil/Paper Have students choose a business in their community where they might like to work, and complete the “Interview with a Entrepreneur” worksheet with the owner or manager. See Appendix 21.

Suggested Resources Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 394-397 Notebook Assignment P. 399 # 1-5 Internet Resource: ˜ Canadian Bankers Association which gives an excellent template for a business plan http://www.cba.ca/en/view Pub.asp?fl=6&sl=23&doci d=40&pg=7 ˜ Canada Business Service Centres has information specific to PEI http://bsa.cbsc.org/gol/bsa/ interface.nsf/engdoc/0.htm l ˜ Junior Achievement Program http://www.ja.org/progra ms/programs_high_overvi ew.shtml ˜ Background information for teachers http://www.entreworld.org /

˜ Am I the Entrepreneurial Type? www.potentielentreprene ur.ca/client/questionnaire section1en.asp

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SCO: By the end of grade 11 students will: • develop a space plan for the business and research leasing costs

Elaboration - Instructional Strategies/Suggestions Discuss with the students the need for selecting the correct space for their business. This will provide a good understanding of the costs associated with renting or leasing space. Contact local mall manager or real estate agent to get local costs on the rental of space.

114

Worthwhile Tasks for Instruction and/or Assessment Project Activity Students should visualize a room in the school equal to the space they feel would be needed for their business (including Inventory Space). Ask students to measure this room and determine the square footage. Upon returning to the classroom, students should determine the monthly cost of the space. Note: May use your information or the Chart in Essentials of Mathematics 11, P. 401.

Suggested Resources Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 400-402 Notebook Assignment P. 403-404, # 1 - 9 Complete Project Activity in Essentials of Mathematics 11, P. 403

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SCO: By the end of grade 11 students will: • evaluate existing competition; research and prepare a collage of competitor’s ads

Elaboration - Instructional Strategies/Suggestions Discuss the importance of Market Share and demand for their business. Discuss the different types of customers that would use the services of a typical business. Discuss the different types of fast food restaurants in their community. Make the point that not all competition is bad for business.

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Worthwhile Tasks for Instruction and/or Assessment Project Activity Use the yellow pages from the telephone book to identify competition for the students’ selected businesses.

Suggested Resources Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 405-407 Notebook Assignment P. 408-409, # 1- 5 Complete Project Activity in Essentials of Mathematics 11, P. 408

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SCO: By the end of grade 11 students will: • describe marketing activities and distribution

Elaboration - Instructional Strategies/Suggestions Discuss the advantages of advertising. Discuss the techniques used in a Marketing campaign. Use Essentials of Mathematics 11, P. 411 - 414, examples # 1 - 4 to examine the costs of various marketing techniques.

•

develop an advertisement strategy

Bring in examples of different media advertisements: • TV • radio • flyers • newspaper ads

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Worthwhile Tasks for Instruction and/or Assessment Project Activity After students develop their advertisement campaign, have students perform, present, or display their advertisement in the class. Note: Story boarding is an excellent technique to teach students for this activity.

Suggested Resources Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 410-415 Notebook Assignment P. 416-417, # 1 - 6, 8 Complete Project Activity in Essentials of Mathematics 11, P. 415

In-school Resource: - Choices and Decisions Binder Lesson 10 “ The Influence of Advertising”

119

SCO: By the end of grade 11 students will: • develop a staffing plan

Elaboration - Instructional Strategies/Suggestions Discuss staffing, work schedules, and payroll responsibilities. Use examples #1 - 2.

120

Worthwhile Tasks for Instruction and/or Assessment Students may complete the “Problem Analysis” activity in Essentials of Mathematics 11, P. 424 as a warm-up for their Project Activity. Project Activity Have students examine the staffing needs for their business. They should prepare a work schedule for their employees with a brief job description. Also, they should research the wages they would be expected to pay their employees based on their job description. Invite a business owner and/or operator to discuss with the class how he or she manages the business. Have students prepare questions related to the topic beforehand.

Suggested Resources Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 418-420 Notebook Assignment P. 422- 423, # 1 - 6 Complete Project Activity in Essentials of Mathematics 11, P. 421

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SCO: By the end of grade 11 students will: • develop a financial plan

Elaboration - Instructional Strategies/Suggestions Explain to students that the purpose of establishing a business is to generate revenues that are greater than expenses, creating a profit. Students should be familiar with the following terms: • Operating expenses are the expenses incurred regardless of sales (ie; leasing, insurance and wages). • Overhead costs are the general operating costs of a business. • Capital expenses are long term expenses such as, buying buildings, tools, or equipment. • Financial charges are charges to repay loans. • Gross profit is the difference between what a business pays for the products or services it sells and what it charges in return. • Net profit is the profit remaining after all operating costs is deducted from their gross profit. Use examples # 1 - 4.

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Worthwhile Tasks for Instruction and/or Assessment Project Activity Have students prepare a monthly statement of expected revenue and expenses to show if they expect to make a profit. Note: The use of spreadsheets may be useful in organizing a financial plan. Recommended The completed Business Plan based on the Project Activity assignments may be the assessment tool for this Unit. In closing, discuss the following questions as a class: • What are the advantages and disadvantages of operating your own business? • What are the advantages and disadvantages of working for others? • What mathematical skills do you need to operate your own business? Have students investigate real-world situations by comparing their business plans with the plans of established businesses.

Suggested Resources Essentials of Mathematics 11 P. 426-431 Notebook Assignment P. 432-434 # 1 - 8

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124

APPENDIX

125

126

Appendix 1. Earning Commission Worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Weekly Wages for Piecework Worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 Calculating Simple Interest Worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 Mean /Median / Mode Worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 Vehicle Expenses Worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 Buying Cars Worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 Earth Facts Information Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 Metric Prefixes Worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 SI Measure Worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 Imperial Measure Worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 Changing Units Between the Metric and Customary Systems Chart . . . . . 148 Graph Paper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 Slope Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 Distance Time Graphs Worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 Hot Air Balloon Worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 T1 - 83 Ranger Worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 Chances of Shark Attack! Worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 Shove a Coin Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162

2)

3)

4) 5)

6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14)

15) 16) 17)

18)

127

128

19)

Applications of Probability: Theoretical & Experimental Probability Stations 19-1 through 19-7 Project Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 Income Tax Worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 Interview with an Entrepreneur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171

20) 21)

Note: All Appendix are on the Mathematics 531A CD for teachers use.

129

Appendix 1 Example:

Earning Commission Sandra sells furniture. She earns 10% commission on her sales up to her quota of $2,500. She earns a 14% commission on all sales beyond $2,500. Last week her sales were $4,966. How much did Sandra earn?

Rate Sales Bonus Rate 10% $4,966 14% Regular Commission - $2,500 x .10 = $250 Amount for Bonus Commission - $4,966 - $2,500 = $2,466 Bonus Commission - $2,466 x .14 = $345.24 Regular Commission + Bonus Commission = Total Commission $250.00 + $345.24 = $595.24 So, Sandra earned $ 595.24 Compute the total commission for each example below. Add the Bonus Commission to the Regular Commission. Quota 1) $5300 2) $8700 3) $1600 4) $5600 5) $9400 6) $4500 7) $8800 8) $4600 9) $2500 10) $1900 11) $4600 12) $8800 13) $4400 14) $7000 15) $7800 Rate 11% 6% 11% 8% 10% 5% 4% 2% 8% 8% 9% 3% 5% 9% 8% Sales $5783 $14536 $1889 $9490 $11447 $7730 $10317 $7377 $1795 $2021 $8365 $3848 $8161 $9471 $7754 Regular Commission Bonus Rate 21% 17% 13% 15% 14% 13% 7% 4% 10% 10% 15% 10% 11% 13% 11% Bonus Commission Total Commission

Quota $2,500 Step 1: Step 2: Step 3: Step 4:

130

Answers Quota 1) $5300 2) $8700 3) $1600 4) $5600 5) $9400 6) $4500 7) $8800 8) $4600 9) $2500 10) $1900 11) $4600 12) $8800 13) $4400 14) $7000 15) $7800 Rate 11% 6% 11% 8% 10% 5% 4% 2% 8% 8% 9% 3% 5% 9% 8% Sales $5783 $14536 $1889 $9490 $11447 $7730 $10317 $7377 $1795 $2021 $8365 $3848 $8161 $9471 $7754

Earning Commission Regular Commission $583 $522 $176 $448 $940 $225 $352 $92 $143.60 $152 $414 $115.44 $220 $630 $620.32 Bonus Rate 21% 17% 13% 15% 14% 13% 7% 4% 10% 10% 15% 10% 11% 13% 11% Bonus Commission $101.43 $992.12 $37.57 $583.50 $286.58 $419.90 $106.19 $111.08 $0.00 $12.10 $564.75 $0.00 $413.71 $321.23 $0.00 Total Commission $684.43 $1514.12 $213.57 $1031.50 $1226.58 $644.90 $458.19 $295.08 $143.60 $164.10 $978.75 $115.44 $633.71 $951.23 $620.32

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Appendix 2

Weekly Wages for Piecework

Compute the Weekly Wages for each example below: Daily Production Monday 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 37 10 16 31 9 8 19 13 14 17 12 6 22 15 28 16 54 101 83 95 Tuesday 38 11 14 32 10 6 18 14 13 20 16 7 20 16 29 14 49 97 80 98 Wednesday 34 11 15 33 10 7 18 11 13 21 17 6 19 14 26 16 45 106 85 90 Thursday 38 9 14 34 8 6 18 13 12 19 16 7 21 17 28 16 46 100 86 91 Friday 35 12 14 34 8 9 15 11 14 20 15 7 17 17 25 13 48 110 88 89 Piece Rate $1.00 $3.12 $3.01 $1.05 $2.91 $4.25 $2.50 $2.72 $3.68 $1.88 $2.76 $3.66 $2.44 $1.76 $1.77 $2.62 $0.75 $0.60 $0.80 $0.95 Wages

132

Answers

Weekly Wages for Piecework

Compute the Weekly Wages for each example below: Daily Production Monday 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 37 10 16 31 9 8 19 13 14 17 12 6 22 15 28 16 54 101 83 95 Tuesday 38 11 14 32 10 6 18 14 13 20 16 7 20 16 29 14 49 97 80 98 Wednesday 34 11 15 33 10 7 18 11 13 21 17 6 19 14 26 16 45 106 85 90 Thursday 38 9 14 34 8 6 18 13 12 19 16 7 21 17 28 16 46 100 86 91 Friday 35 12 14 34 8 9 15 11 14 20 15 7 17 17 25 13 48 110 88 89 Piece Rate $1.00 $3.12 $3.01 $1.05 $2.91 $4.25 $2.50 $2.72 $3.68 $1.88 $2.76 $3.66 $2.44 $1.76 $1.77 $2.62 $0.75 $0.60 $0.80 $0.95 Wages $182.00 $165.36 $219.73 $172.20 $130.95 $153.00 $220.00 $168.64 $242.88 $180.48 $209.76 $120.78 $241.56 $139.04 $240.72 $196.50 $181.50 $308.40 $337.60 $439.85

133

Appendix 3 1)

Calculating Simple Interest

Calculate the interest paid on each of the following: Principal $400.00 $1,200.00 $650.00 $7,000.00 $425.00 $3,400.00 $6,500.00 Rate per year 8 1/2% 400.00% 5 3/4% 9.00% 7.50% 1.04% 3 1/4% Time 3 years 7 months 115 days 90 days 5 years 9 months 230 days Interest Paid

2)

Find the unknown quantities for each of the following: Principal $900.00 $700.00 $4,000.00 $300.00 $1,500.00 8% 11 1/4 $640.00 $2,400.00 10% Rate per year 5 1/2% 8% 9% Time 60 days days months 2 years 4 months 200 days 5 years days 120 days $40.04 $658.00 $30.00 $55.00 $16.00 $250.00 $19.93 $98.63 Interest Paid

134

Answers

Calculating Simple Interest

1)

Calculate the interest paid on each of the following: Principal $400.00 $1,200.00 $650.00 $7,000.00 $425.00 $3,400.00 $6,500.00 Rate per year 8 1/2% 4% 5 3/4% 9% 8% 1% 3 1/4% Time 3 years 7 months 115 days 90 days 5 years 9 months 230 days Interest Paid $102.00 $280.00 $11.78 $155.34 $170.00 $25.50 $133.12

2)

Find the unknown quantities for each of the following: Principal $900.00 $700.00 $4,000.00 $300.00 $1,500.00 $365.00 $444.44 $640.00 $2,400.00 Rate per year 5 1/2% 8% 9% 5% 11% 8% 11 1/4 10% 13% Time 60 days 261 days 22 months 2 years 4 months 200 days 5 years 114 days 120 days Interest Paid $8.14 $40.04 $658.00 $30.00 $55.00 $16.00 $250.00 $19.93 $98.63

135

Appendix 4

Mean/Median/Mode

The following table contains test results for the students in Mrs. Jones’ mathematics class. The test has a maximum of 30 marks and a passing grade is 50%. Calculate the mean, median, and mode for the class.

Student Susan Adams Elliot White John Buchanan Dave Moore Jeff Black Dana Gallant Gloria Gillis Ross Hill Kim Walsh

Mark 19 15 19 25 26 24 18 16 12

Student Sara Wall Peter Williams Sarah Gaudet Joe MacMillan Jason Profit Melanie Taylor Lynden Stewart Bryon Sorrie Stan Peardon

Mark 21 23 15 18 19 20 27 30 2

Student Adam Smith Sally Swanson Barbara Wilson David Vincent Basil Vessey Randall Tozer Steven Simmons Jack Randall Harvey Arsenault

Mark 28 22 25 18 17 23 18 19 16

136

Appendix 5

Vehicle Expenses

Use the information in the tables to answer the questions on the following page. (The data in this table is invented for the purpose of this exercise) Numbers are based on one year’s driving. Vehicle Maintenance, Operating, and Repair Information

Type of Vehicle

# of Type of Fuel Fuel Cylinders Used Efficiency regular regular regular 4 6 8 regular supreme supreme 57 km/L 47 km/L 40 km/L 13 km/L 11 km/L 15 km/L

Oil Efficiency 1L/6500km 1L/4800km 1L/3200km 1L/1500km 1L/4000km 1L/8000km

Tune-up Costs $22.50 $24.50 $26.50 $34.88 $39.88 $49.98

Lube & Oil Change $18.50 $19.50 $19.50 $21.88 $23.88 $25.88

Repairs per year $65.00 $75.00 $100.00 $225.00 $325.00 $250.00

Depreciation per year 12% of value 15% of value 22% of value 11.7% of value 16.2% of value 21.8% of value

Insurance per year 12% of value 12.8% of value 14.2% of value 12.9% of value 14.5% of value 18.0% of value

Moped Motorbike Motorcycle Subcompact car Compact car Intermediate car

Typical Fuel and Oil Costs Gasoline Regular Supreme Oil 76.5¢ per litre 85.4¢ per litre $2.90 per litre 137

Appendix 5

Vehicle Expenses

Student Name_________________

1. John drives his subcompact car about 12,000 km per year. How much gas will he use in an average year? How much oil? __________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Cindy has purchased a compact car. What will it cost her for gasoline and oil to drive this car 8,300 km this year? __________________________________________________________________________________ 3. The intermediate car Warren has just bought will probably be driven 24,000 km in the next year. How much will Warren have to spend on gasoline and oil for the car during this time? __________________________________________________________________________________ 4. The subcompact car M.J. drives runs about 15,000 km per year. What will be the cost of gasoline and oil for the car during the year? __________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Damian wants to know the annual fuel and oil costs for three kinds of cars—a subcompact, a compact, and an intermediate—if each car is to be driven a total of 32,000 km this year. Subcompact________________________________________________________________________ Compact___________________________________________________________________________ Intermediate________________________________________________________________________ 6. Tanya knows that she normally drives 25,000 km per year. What would be the cost of gasoline and oil for each one of the three kinds of cars mentioned in question 5? Subcompact________________________________________________________________________ Compact___________________________________________________________________________ Intermediate________________________________________________________________________ 7. Tony wants to estimate the costs of driving his subcompact car for the coming year. He wants to include the costs of gasoline, oil, tune-ups (one per year), and lube and oil changes (one per year). What costs should Tony plan on if he expects to drive 17,000 km? __________________________________________________________________________________ 8. If Tony were to buy an intermediate car, what would be the costs of operating this car for one year? Include the same costs as those mentioned in Question 7 for 17,000 km of driving. __________________________________________________________________________________ 9. Lori wants to know the total estimated cost of driving her intermediate car a total of 18,500 km in the coming year. At the beginning of the year, the estimated value of her car was $6500. __________________________________________________________________________________ 10. A compact car will be driven 37,500 km in the coming year. Its current estimated value is $7250. What are the total estimated costs for this car? __________________________________________________________________________________ 11. Gar’s older subcompact car is expected to have about three more years of good driving left. Its current value is $4950. What expenses can he expect for this car for the coming 12 months? He expects to drive the car 42,000 km in that time (12 months). __________________________________________________________________________________ 12. What are the total estimated driving expenses for each of these cars that will have to travel 42,500 km in the coming year? Subcompact (value is $4500)__________________________________________________________ Compact (value is $3600)_____________________________________________________________ Intermediate (value is $6550)__________________________________________________________

138

Answers 1. Gas = $706.15

Vehicle Expenses

2. Gas + Oil = $644.38 + $6.02 = $650.40 3. Gas + Oil = $1366.40 + $8.70 = $1375.10 4. Gas + Oil = $882.69 + $29.00 = $911.69 5. Subcompact: Compact: Intermediate 6. Subcompact: Compact: Intermediate: Gas + Oil = $1883.08 + $61.87 = $1244.95 Gas + Oil = $2484.36 + $23.20 = $2507.56 Gas + Oil = $1821.87 + $11.60 = $1833.47 Gas + Oil = $1471.15 + $48.33 = $1519.48 Gas + Oil = $1940.91 + $18.15 = $1959.04 Gas + Oil = $1423.33 + $9.06 = $1437.39

7. Gas + Oil + Tune-up + Lube & Oil Change = $1000.38 + $32.87 + $34.88 + $21.88 =$1090.01 8. Gas + Oil + Tune-up + Lube & Oil Change = $967.87 + $6.16 + $49.98 + $25.88 =$1049.89 9. Gas + Oil + Tune-up + Lube & Oil Change + Repairs + Depreciation + Insurance $1053.27 + $6.71 + $49.98 + $25.88 + $250.00 + $1417.00 + $1170.00 = $3972.84 10. Gas + Oil + Tune-up + Lube & Oil Change + Repairs + Depreciation + Insurance $2911.36 + $13.59 + $39.98 + $23.88 + $325.00 + $1174.50 + $1051.25 = $5539.56 11. Gas + Oil + Tune-up + Lube & Oil Change + Repairs + Depreciation + Insurance $2471.54 + $81.20 + $34.88 + $21.88 + $325.00 + $579.15 + $638.55 = $4152.20 12. Subcompact: Gas + Oil + Tune-up + Lube & Oil Change + Repairs + Depreciation + Insurance $2500.96 + $82.17 + $34.88 + $21.88 + $225.00 + $526.50 + $580.50 = $3971.89 Compact: Gas + Oil + Tune-up + Lube & Oil Change + Repairs + Depreciation + Insurance $3299.55 + $30.81 + $39.88 + $23.88 + $325.00 + $583.20 + $522.00 = $4824.36 Intermediate: Gas + Oil + Tune-up + Lube & Oil Change + Repairs + Depreciation + Insurance $2419.67 + $15.41 + $49.98 + $25.88 + $250.00 + $1427.90 + $1179.00 = $5367.74

139

Appendix 6 Note: Refer to Textbook P. 59

BUYING CARS NAME:________________________

New Cars: The tax rate is_____________ Used Cars: The tax rate is ______________ 1. You wish to buy a new car for $45,000. You trade in your old car for $5,000. The dealership offers a loan for 2% per year to be paid monthly over 4 years, compounded semi-annually. a. What is the tax on the new car? What is the cost of the new car?

b. What is the amount borrowed?

c. What is the monthly payment?

d. What is the total payment over 4 years?

e. What is the finance charge?

2.

You wish to buy a new car for $60,000. You trade in your old car for $10,000. The dealership offers a loan for 1.5% per year to be paid monthly over 5 years, compounded semi-annually. a. What is the tax on the new car? What is the total cost of the new car?

b. What is the amount borrowed?

c. What is the monthly payment?

d. What is the total payment over 5 years?

e. What is the finance charge?

140

3.

You wish to buy a new car for $70,500. You trade in your old car for $12,000. The dealership offers a loan for 0.9 % per year to be paid monthly over 4 years, compounded semi-annually. a. What is the tax on the new car? What is the total cost of the new car?

b. What is the amount borrowed?

c. What is the monthly payment?

d. What is the total payment over 4 years?

e. What is the finance charge?

4.

You wish to buy a new car for $120,000. You trade in your old car for $20,000. The dealership offers a loan for 1.8% per year to be paid monthly over 3 years, compounded semi-annually. a. What is the tax on the new car? What is the total cost of the new car?

b. What is the amount borrowed?

c. What is the monthly payment?

d. What is the total payment over 3 years?

e. What is the finance charge?

141

5.

You wish to purchase a used car for $10,000. You have a $3,000 down-payment. You borrow from the bank at 6.8% to be paid monthly over 5 years, compounded semi-annually. a. What is the tax on the car you wish to purchase? What is the total cost?

b. What is the amount borrowed?

c. What is the monthly payment?

d. What is the total payment over 5 years?

e. What is the finance charge?

6.

You wish to purchase a used car for $8,000. You have a $1,000 down-payment. You borrow from the bank at 8.8% to be paid monthly over 3 years, compounded semiannually. a. What is the tax on the car you wish to purchase? What is the total cost?

b. What is the amount borrowed?

c. What is the monthly payment?

d. What is the total payment over 3 years?

e. What is the finance charge?

142

7.

You wish to purchase a used car for $15,000. You have a $4,000 down-payment. You borrow from the bank at 7.5% to be paid monthly over 4years, compounded semi-annually. a. What is the tax on the car you wish to purchase? What is the total cost?

b. What is the amount borrowed?

c. What is the monthly payment?

d. What is the total payment over 4 years?

e. What is the finance charge?

8.

You wish to purchase a used car for $6,000. You have no down-payment. You borrow from the bank at 5.5% to be paid monthly over 2 years, compounded semiannually. a. What is the tax on the car you wish to purchase? What is the total cost?

b. What is the amount borrowed?

c. What is the monthly payment?

d. What is the total payment over 2 years?

e. What is the finance charge?

143

Appendix 7

EARTH FACTS

Average Distance from Sun About 150,000,000 kilometers (90,000,000 miles) Diameter Through Equator 12,756.32 kilometers (7653.8 miles) Circumference Around Equator 40,075.16 kilometers (24,045.1 miles) PEI from outer space Surface Area Land area: about l48,300,000 sq. kilometers, or about 30% of total surface area Water area: about 361,800,000 sq. kilometers, or about 70% of total surface area Rotation Period 23 hours, 56 minutes, 4.09 seconds Revolution Period Around Sun 365 days, 6 hours, 9 minutes, 9.54 seconds Temperature Highest: 58oC at Al Aziziyah, Libya Lowest: –90oC at Vostok, Antarctica Average surface temperature 14oC Highest and Lowest Land Features Highest: Mount Everest, 8848 meters above sea level Lowest: shore of Dead Sea, 396 meters below sea level Ocean Depths Deepest: Mariana Trench in Pacific Ocean; 11,033 meters below surface Average ocean depth, 3795 meters

144

Appendix 8

Metric Prefixes

Record the Metric Prefixes in the spaces provided. Below each, describe what the prefix means. One prefix is done for you.

145

Appendix 9

146

Appendix 10

147

Appendix 11

148

Appendix 12

149

Appendix 13

SLOPE ACTIVITY

a) State the slope of each line using rise over run. b) State the y-intercept c) Determine the equation for each graph.

A

B

C

D

E

F

150

Appendix 14

Distance - Time Graphs

Each of the graphs in this exercise represents distance from an object as a function of time. 1. On the following graphs, distance, as labeled on the y-axis, refers to distance from an amusement park. Which graph best matches the following sentence? Hugo walked at a steady pace toward the amusement park. A B C D

2. Describe a situation involving distance and time that could match each of the graphs that you did not choose as the answer to problem 1. 3. Each of the following graphs depicts the relationship between distance from a ride and time elapsed for two people. Each person walks at a steady rate directly toward or away from the ride or stands still. For each graph, describe the relationships and make observations and comparisons. A B C D

In addition, answer the following questions for each example: Which person is walking faster? What is the significance of the x-intercept? The y-intercept?

151

4. The graphs below show motion away from the park for three different mothers. Jane moves at a steady pace, Angela speeds up as she walks away, and Kathy slows down as she moves away. Which graph matches which woman’s motion? Explain your reasoning? A B C

5. In the following two graphs, distance in metres from the main exit is graphed as a function of time in seconds. Describe the motion using the coordinates shown as end points of the line segments. Determine the rate at which the person walks for each segment. Assume that the person is moving directly toward, or away from the exit, or is standing still. A B

6. Which of the following tables best describes the graph?

152

7. Choose the sentence that best describes the following table: A Kirk walked away from the Water Slide at a rate of 6 feet per second. B Kirk was 42 feet away from the Water Slide and walked toward it at a rate of 7 feet per second. C Kirk was 42 feet away from the Water Slide and walked toward it at a rate pf 6 feet per second. D Kirk walked away from the Water Slide at a rate of 7 feet per second. 8. For each answer that did not describe the table in question 7, make a table that could correspond to it. Give entries for each second from 0 to 6.

9. Hugo was standing 9 feet from the hot-dog stand. He walked away, and after 3 seconds he was 21 feet away. Which of the following graphs corresponds to this situation? A B C D

153

10.

Make tables that correspond to the graphs on question 9.

154

Answers 1. 2. B Answers can vary: A C D

Distance - Time Graphs standing still at a distance from the park walking at a steady pace away from the park walking to the park and then walking further away at a steady pace in both directions, leaving a little faster

3. A Ann is farther from the ride and walks quickly to it, passing Bob on the way. Bob is closer to the ride and walks slowly toward it but not all the way. B Carl walks quickly toward the ride meeting Dianne on the way. Dianne is closer to the ride than Carl, walks away from it at a slightly slower speed than Carl. C Both Elmer and Francis are walking toward the ride. Elmer is farther away and, walking faster, arrives at the same time as Francis. D George is standing still at a distance from the ride and Helen, being closer to the ride, walks by him as she walks away from the ride. The x-intercept indicates the time to reach the ride and the y-intercept the beginning distance from the ride. 4. A is Jane as the graph is a line, indicating a steady pace B is Kathy because the curve’s slope is decreasing indicating slowing down as she moves away - the distance is less for more time C is Angela because the increasing slope of the curve indicates speeding up - the distance is greater for more time 5. A The person is 15 metres from the exit and is moving toward it at 3 metres per second (it takes the person 5 seconds to cover 15 metres, thus, 3 metres per second), then stands still for 6 seconds (5 seconds to 11 seconds), and finally moving away from the exit at 2 metres per second (12 metres in 6 seconds). B This person is 9 metres from the exit and takes 4 seconds to move 6 metres, so is moving at 1.5 metres a second. Then walks toward the exit at 3 metres a second (3 seconds to cover 15 metres). 6. Table B best describes the graph. The line indicates the rate as being steady or constant. It decreases at 6 metres every 2 seconds on the table. 7. C describes Kirk’s movement best. Every second he moves 6 feet toward the Water Slide, until he is at 0 distance from it.

155

8.

9. C because (0,9) indicates that Hugo is 9 feet from the hot-dog stand at 0 time and (3,21) indicates that he is 21 feet away after 3 seconds.

10.

156

Appendix 15 Hot Air Balloon The altimeter on a hot-air balloon recorded the following altitudes over a period of time.

a) State the dependent and independent variables in this problem. b) Plot these points on the following grid.

c) Calculate the slopes of the line segments from (use a negative sign if necessary): i) 12:00 – 15:00 ii) 15:00 – 17:00 iii) 17:00 – 20:00 d) In words, describe the flight of this hot-air balloon from 12:00 to 20:00.

e) Determine the formula that describes each of the following portions of the balloon’s flight: i) 12:00 – 15:00 ii) 15:00 – 17:00 iii) 17:00 – 20:00 f) Use the graph to determine the missing information:

157

Appendix 16

T1 - 83 Ranger Activity

Use the ranger program (see Use of Ranger) to allow students to match their distance from a wall to a given graph on the T1-83. Example: Press PGRM, choose Ranger, press enter and enter Choose 2: Set Defaults The following settings will be fine. Real Time : Yes Time(s): 15 Display: Dist Begin on: Enter Smoothing: None Units: Meters Note: Before a standard graph is shown, have someone do a walk in front of the CBR and have a discussion analysing the graph. This could be done a number of times to see various types of graphs. To Get A Standard Graph now cursor up to the top of the screen and over to MAIN MENU and press enter now press 3: APPLICATIONS and 1: Meters 1: Dist Match now press enter and a graph is displayed. Set the CBR on a table and with the T1-83 connected to the view-screen and aim the CBR directly at a wall. Position a student in front of the CBR, press enter and walk towards and/or away from the CBR so it matches the graph shown. To try again, press 2: New Match.

158

Appendix 16

Use of Ranger

A. Check to what programs are in your T1-83. PRGM, if RANGER is not displayed then B. To enter the RANGER program < connect the Ranger to the T1-83 using the cable provided 2) 2nd LINK press Enter 3) open the pivoting head on the Ranger (CBR) and press 82/83 calculator should display RECEIVING. When the transfer is complete, the green light on the Ranger flashes once, the CBR beeps once and the calculator displays DONE 4) disconnect the cable 5) press 2nd quit Transferring the Ranger Program to Other calculators Use the short cords that came with the T1-83 to connect the calculator with the Ranger Program to one that doesn’t have the program. 2nd LINK 3: PRGM and Ranger then press 1: Transmit (enter) For the second T1-83 that will be receiving the program: 2nd LINK, Receive, enter and it will say done when the program has been transferred. Check to se if the Ranger Program is in the second calculator.

159

Appendix 17

CHANCES OF SHARK ATTACK!

The man who collects shark attack data from all over the world has messages for the public. The odds of being attacked by a shark are 11 million to 1. “Your chances of dying while driving from your house to the beach are a lot greater than they are of being killed by a shark,” George Burgess, director of the International Shark Attack File, said at a shark attack conference in Tampa. “You’re also more likely to die of skin cancer than a shark attack,” he said. Burgess calculated his 11 million-to-1 odds this way: In 2000, when 264 million people went to beaches in the United states, 23 were attacked by a shark. Not one died. Volusia County, on Florida’s east coast, has more shark attacks than any other place in the world. The deputy chief for the county’s beaches said 22 people were bitten by sharks in the county last year. No one died, and most injuries were minor. STUDENT EXERCISE 1. Without performing any calculations, do you think that the author’s odds of 11 million to 1 were the “odds of being attacked by a shark”? 2. If 23 people out of 264 million were attacked by a shark in 2000, were the odds against being attacked 11 million to 1? 3. Of the Volusia County shark-attack data were for 2000 also, what would have been the probability that a US shark-attack victim in 2000, chosen at random, was attacked in Volusia County? 4. To learn more about your risk of a shark attack, what questions might you ask? 5. Comment on the statement, “You are also more likely to die of skin cancer than a shark attack.”

160

ANSWERS

SHARK ATTACKS!

1. Since shark attacks are relatively rare, the author probably meant the odds against being attacked by a shark. 2. Actually the odds are somewhat higher: 264,000,000 − 23 = 11,478,259.87 23 So the odds are 11,478,259.87 to 1, or approximately 11.5 million to 1. 3. Almost certain—

22 , or about 96%. 23

4. Questions might include the following: • What percent of US beaches could be expected to have sharks? • What percent of the population frequents these beaches? • How was the number 264 million obtained? • The data for Volusia County was for 2001. What were the actual data for 2000? 5. The statement assumes that every person has an equal chance of getting skin cancer or of being attacked by a shark. It does not consider other factors that increase an individual’s risk, for example, spending time in the sun without protection or swimming in shark-infested waters.

161

Appendix 18

Shove a Coin

Objective: To determine experimentally whether a coin pushed on the chart will or will not stop on one of the lines. Game Setup: Use a sheet of paper with lines 4 cm apart as the game board. Line up the end of the game board with the edge of the desk. Balance the coin on the desk edge. Hit the coin with the butt of the hand. The starting line is the end of the sheet where the coin is balancing. Starting the Game: Hit the coin (start with a quarter) and record whether the coin stops between the lines or touches a line. Repeat this procedure for at least twenty trials to establish an experimental probability. No score is recorded if the coin goes beyond the chart. From the data recorded, predict the probability that the coin will stop between the lines if a looney is used, and then if a dime is used. Experiment to find the experimental probability using each coin.

**exp erimental probability =
**

Coin

**# of times coin stops between lines # of trials
**

# of times coin stopped between lines experimental probability

# of trials

Quarter Looney Dime

162

Appendix 19-1

APPLICATIONS OF PROBABILITY THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL PROBABILITY

BIRTHDAYS

In front of you, you have a bag containing numbers from 1 to 31, representing the 31 days in a month. Suppose one number is picked out of the bag. Before actually selecting a number, find the probability that: 1) The number is 17. 2) The number is an odd number. 3) The number is a one-digit number. Now draw a number from the container and write it down. Return the number to the container, shake it up, and draw again. Repeat this process 20 times. 4) Find the fraction of odd numbers among the 20 numbers selected. Compare your answer with your answer to question 2. 5) Find the fraction of one-digit numbers among the 20 numbers selected. Compare your answer with your answer to question 3. 6) What is your birth month and birthday? For example, if your birthday is August 12, August is the month and 12 is the day of the month. What is the probability that one number selected from the container matches your birthday?

163

Appendix 19-2

**THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL PROBABILITY TWO DICE DOUBLES
**

In this activity, you will determine the theoretical probability of rolling doubles with two dice. Then you will conduct an experiment and compare your experimental probability with the theoretical probability. Use a chart such as the one below to record all possible outcomes for rolling a pair of dice.

Die 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 2 3 4 5 6

APPLICATIONS OF PROBABILITY

Circle all the combinations with doubles in your chart. You should find a total possible number of doubles to be 6 out of a total of 36 possible combinations. So, the theoretical probability is 1/6, or about 17%. This means, for every six rolls, we can expect one set of doubles. Now, conduct an experiment to determine the experimental probability. 1. Use a chart such as the one below to record your data. Roll the two dice a total of 20 times. Record “Yes” or “No” depending on whether you roll doubles or not.

Roll 1 2 3 Doubles

2. Count the total number of doubles rolled, and find the experimental probability of rolling doubles. 3. Compare your results with the theoretical probability. Are they the same? Why? What might happen if you roll the dice 600 times?

164

Appendix 19-3

APPLICATIONS OF PROBABILITY THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL PROBABILITY

TOSSING TWO COINS

In front of you are two coins of different denominations.

S

Toss the two coins 50 times. Tally the results of each toss in a chart like the one below.

Two Heads

One Head and One Tail

Two Tails

Total

S

In what fraction of the tosses did you obtain two heads? Two tails? One head and one tail?

S S

Were these results expected? Why or why not?

Using the results of this experiment, are the three events “two heads,” “two tails,” and “one head and one tail” equally likely events?

S

What is your estimate of the probability of obtaining a head and a tail on the toss of two coins?

165

Appendix 19-4

APPLICATIONS OF PROBABILITY

THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL PROBABILITY STONE, SCISSORS, PAPER

In a fair game, each player has the same probability of winning. In an unfair game, players do not have the same probability of winning. Stone, Scissors, Paper is a game for two players. At the same time, each player uses a hand to represent a stone, a pair of scissors, or a piece of paper. For each possible pair of objects, points are scored using the following rules. • • • • If player shows the same object, no points are scored. Because stone breaks scissors, stone gets 1 point. Because scissors cut paper, scissors gets 1 point. Because paper covers stone, paper gets 1 point.

1. Play 15 rounds of Stone, Scissors, Paper. Record the points scored for each player. 2. The table below shows two possible outcomes of the game. 3. Player A stone stone Player B stone paper

Copy the table. Complete it by including the other possible outcomes. How may possible outcomes are there? 4. Use the table to find the probability that: 1. no points are scored 2. player A wins 3. player B wins 5. Is the game fair? Explain. 166

Appendix 19-5

APPLICATIONS OF PROBABILITY

THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL PROBABILITY

PENNY TOSS

In front of you are 10 pennies and a cup. One partner is to spill the pennies onto the desktop, and the other will record the number of heads that show.

a) Using your knowledge of theoretical probability, how many heads should show when you toss 100 pennies? Write this as a probability statement. b) Use a table like the one below to record your data. Flip the 10 pennies and record the number of heads you see. Repeat this activity 10 times.

Number of pennies tossed 1 2 3 4

Number of heads observed

c) Determine the number of heads when you tossed the 100 pennies. Write this as an experimental probability statement. d) Compare your experimental probability with the theoretical probability.

167

Appendix 19-6

APPLICATIONS OF PROBABILITY THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL PROBABILITY EXPERIMENT IN ESP

Do you have ESP (extrasensory perception)? Try this experiment and see. In front of you are 40 cards of the same size with 4 different symbols.

A. Ask your partner to face away from you. B. Mix the cards well. C. Turn over a card and concentrate on the symbol it shows. D. Ask your partner to read your mind and tell you what is written on the card. E. Record the answer without telling him or her whether or not it is correct. F. Repeat the procedure and tally the results until you have recorded a total of 20 answers.

Right Answer

Wrong Answer

Total

1. Do you think your partner has ESP? Why or why not? 2. If your partner is just guessing, what is the probability of his or her guessing correctly on any one trial? 3. If you were to run this experiment again for 100 trials, about how many answers do you predict would be correct?

168

Appendix 19-7

APPLICATIONS OF PROBABILITY THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL PROBABILITY PLAY YOUR CARDS RIGHT

In front of you is a deck of 52 playing cards. Mix them well and count out 25 cards (without looking at them). Put aside the remaining cards. You are going to perform an experiment to estimate the probability of drawing a club, a diamond, a heart, and a spade from your deck of 25 cards. 1. Mix the 25 cards well. Draw one card. Record its occurrence in the appropriate box below. 2. Replace the card and shuffle the deck of 25 cards. 3. Draw another card and record its suit. 4. Repeat the above steps until you have recorded a total of 25 draws. Clubs Diamonds Hearts Spades Total

Use your data to answer the following questions. 1. What is your estimate of the probability of drawing a club from the deck of 25 cards? 2. What is your estimate of the probability of drawing a diamond from the deck of 25 cards? 3. What is your estimate of the probability of drawing a heart from the deck of 25 cards? 4. What is your estimate of the probability of drawing a spade from the deck of 25 cards? 5. Now look at your 25 cards. Count the number of cards in each suit. 6. What is the theoretical probability of obtaining a club? a diamond? a heart? a spade? 7. How do these theoretical probabilities compare with the estimated probabilities obtained in the experiment? 8. Suppose you had recorded a total of 2,500 draws (instead of 25) in your experiment. How would the estimated probabilities compare with the theoretical probabilities then?

169

Appendix 20

Income Tax Worksheet

Student Name_____________________

1. A student made $6000.00 last summer working at Lobster Suppers. She also collected $1100.00 in tips. What is her total income? Write the numbers of the lines where she would enter this information.

2. Another student earned $7.00 per hour and worked 320 hours. He received $750.00 in tips. He contributed $850.00 to his RRSP. Find his net income. Write the numbers of the lines where he would enter this information.

170

Appendix 21

Interview With An Entrepreneur

Interview someone who has started a business, and, if possible, a member of the entrepreneur’s family. Use the questions below to help you outline your interview. 1) Did your background influence your decision to start a business?

2) What motivated you to become an entrepreneur?

3) What risks and rewards did you consider before you began your venture?

4) Do you have the following entrepreneurial characteristics? 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) the ability to take risks total commitment and determination patience initiative persistence self-confidence leadership abilities creativity reliability

5. Which of these characteristics are the most important?

171

6. What was the single biggest problem in starting your business?

7. In what ways did your family help you start your venture?

8. Outside of your family, who helped you the most? In what way?

9. How many hours a week do you presently work? How does this compare to the start-up period of your business?

172

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