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Let R be a commutative Noetherian ring and M a non-zero ﬁnitely generated R-module. Let I = Ann(M ). The case M = R/I is of particular interest. We sketch the theory of associated prime ideals of M , following Matsumura (pp 39-40) and, in particular, of the height of ideals. The height of a prime ideal P is the Krull dimension of the localization RP , that is the maximal length of a chain of prime ideals contained in P . The height of I is the minimum of the heights of P , where P ranges over the prime ideals that contain I (or, equivalently, are minimal among the prime ideals that contain I). Deﬁnition 0.1. The support of M , Supp(M ), is the set of prime ideals such that the localization MP is non-zero. A prime containing a prime in Supp(M ) is also in Supp(M ). For example, the support of R/I is V (I). Deﬁnition 0.2. The associated primes of M are those primes P that coincide with the annihilator of some non-zero element x ∈ M . Observe that I ⊂ P for any such P since I = Ann(M ) ⊂ Ann(x). The set of associated prime ideals of M is denoted Ass(M ) or, when necessary for clarity, AssR (M ). The deﬁnition of localization implies the following obervation. Lemma 0.3. MP is non-zero if and only if there is an element x = 0 in M such that Ann(x) ⊂ P . Therefore Ass(M ) is contained in Supp(M ). Proposition 0.4. Let S be the set of ideals of the form Ann(x) for some x = 0 in M . An ideal P that is maximal in the set S is prime. In particular, Ass(M ) is non-empty. Proof. Let rs ∈ P , where P = Ann(x) and s ∈ P . Then r ∈ Ann(sx) ⊂ Ann(x). / By the maximality of P , Ann(sx) = Ann(x) and therefore r ∈ P . Corollary 0.5. The set of zero-divisors for M is the union of the primes in Ass(M ). Proof. Clearly, any element of an associated prime is a zero-divisor for M . If rx = 0, then (r) ⊂ Ann(x), and Ann(x) ⊂ P for some P ∈ Ass(M ) by the proposition. Proposition 0.6. If S is a multiplicative subset of R and N is a ﬁnitely generated RS -module, then AssR (N ) = AssRS (N ), where we view Spec(RS ) as contained in spec(R). Therefore AssR (MS ) = AssRS (MS ). Proof. Inspection of the deﬁnitions. See Matsumura, p. 39. Corollary 0.7. P is in AssR (M ) if and only if P RP is in AssRP (MP ). Proposition 0.8. If 0 −→ M ′ −→ M −→ M ′′ −→ 0 is exact, then Ass(M ) ⊂ Ass(M ′ ) ∪ Ass(M ′′ )

1

2

ASSOCIATED PRIME IDEALS

Proof. If P = Ann(x), then Rx is a copy N of R/P contained in M . Since P is prime Ann(y) = P for any non-zero y ∈ N . If N ∩ M ′ = 0, this implies P ∈ Ann(M ′ ). If N ∩ M ′ = 0, then N is isomorphic to its image in M ′′ and P ∈ Ann(M ′′ ). Proposition 0.9. There is a chain of submodules 0 = M0 ⊂ M1 ⊂ · · · ⊂ Mn = M such that Mi /Mi−1 ∼ R/Pi for some prime ideal Pi . = Proof. Proceed inductively, starting with M1 = Rx where Ann(x) is prime. If Mi = M , choose Pi ∈ Ass(M/Mi−1 ) to obtain a copy of R/Pi in M/Mi−1 . Theorem 0.10. Ass(M ) is a ﬁnite subset of Supp(M ), and the minimal elements of Ass(M ) and Supp(M ) coincide. Proof. The set of prime ideals containing any non-zero proper ideal in a commutative Noetherian ring is ﬁnite, by consideration of the topology on Spec(R). But we have a diﬀerent proof here: the ﬁniteness of Ass(M ) follows inductively from the previous two propositions. Let P be a minimal element of Supp(M ). Then MP = 0 and, by minimality and results above, ∅ = AssR (MP ) = AssR (M ) ∩ Spec(RP ) ⊂ Supp(M ) ∩ Spec(RP ) = {P }. Therefore P ∈ Ass(M ).

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