Insulation Systems

Breaker Capacitances
-Parallel to interrupters or between phase and earth (on the line side): Delayed oscillation voltage (Δt =Z • Cu) -parallel to chamber of a multi-chamber switch: parallel multi chamber uneven voltage distribution (Versteuerung) U U1 U2 U1 CS U2 CS CS U1 CE CS CS U U CE CE CE CE CS U2 CE CE CE

Live Tank
(Säulenschalter)

Dead Tank
(Kesselschalter)

Metal Enclosed
(völlig gekapselt)

CS U2 U2 = = U U1 +U 2 2C s + C E
Typical values: Cs CE (substation) CE (SF6) Cgrading cap. = = = = 5-20 pF 5-10 pF 50-400 pF 100-2000 pF

Voltage distribution is better with increasing CS/CE Increasing of Cs through additional capacitors g grading capacitors (Steuerkondensatoren) g p )
Electric Power Systems Electric Power Systems

Uneven Voltage Distribution
De-gradationfactor σ (Versteuerungsfaktor) for n interrupters in series

Uneven Voltage Distribution
Breaker with four interrupters in series

σ =

ΔU

m

ΔU n

ΔU n
Equivalent circuit diagram (Ersatzschaltbild) of the open breaker
ΔU1 ΔU2 C2 ΔU3 C3 ΔU4 C4 Ub

Voltage over m th m-th Interrupter = ΔUm

C1 Ua

ΔU

m

=

ΔU (1 + σ ) n

Voltage across the breaker: ΔU = Ua + Ub ΔU = ΔU1 + ΔU2 + ΔU3 + ΔU4

Electric Power Systems

Electric Power Systems

Oil Circuit Breakers
Application:
Extinction medium:

Dead Tank Circuit Breaker

medium and high voltage
oil ⇒ H2 (70%), acetylene (20%), methane (10%) Low noise emissions, robust, low manufacturing requirements, high thermal extinction capability (no short-line fault problem)

Advantages:

Disadvantages:

Fire hazard, limited interruption capacity (ca. ( 170kV/30kA), aging effects of oil kV/ kA) i ff t f il

Principle: self-blast, for small, often forced flows self blast,
Design variations: 1) Minimum Oil Breaker (Ölarmer Schalter) 2) Dead Tank Circuit Breaker (Kesselschalter)
Electric Power Systems Electric Power Systems

Oil Breaker (1901)

The Minimum Oil Breaker: Principle

Stack of insulation plates

Electric Power Systems

Electric Power Systems

Dead Tank Oil Circuit Breaker

Oil Circuit Breaker Explosion

FILM

Electric Power Systems

Electric Power Systems

Minimum Oil Breaker

Cross Section of a Minimum Oil Extinction Chamber

Electric Power Systems

Electric Power Systems

The Air Blast Circuit Breaker
Application: 3 – 765kV, up to 80kA (generator circuit breakers up to 250kA) Extinction medium: air (N2) pressurized valves Principle:
air at 35 bar

AEG ‘‘Freistrahlschalter“ (obsolete, from 1950s)

expansion volume to atmosphere Valve system with axial arc blowout through supersonic flow

Thermal time constant: several 10 – several 100 μs Advantages: cheap extinction medium insensitive to low temperatures (-50°C) pressure chamber with very high pressures (regulatory requirements) Disadvantes: high h h noise emissions high chopping currents (chopping number up to 100 • 104) Maximum power per interrupter: ca. 140kV • 40kA (benchmark) Critical distance of a short line fault: 2 – 3 km short-line
Electric Power Systems Electric Power Systems

Air-blast Circuit Breaker (Druckluftschalter) 500kV (until 1970s)

Air-blast Circuit Breaker 550kV (until 1980s)

Electric Power Systems

Electric Power Systems

Development of Interruption Capacity of Pressurized Air and SF6 Circuit Breakers
GVA/ break SF6: -high dielectric strength (88kV/cm.bar) (88kV/cm bar) -good arc quenching properties -non-poisonous, odor free, non poisonous free inert

Phase diagram of SF6

20 15

10

SF6

5

Air blast
1960 1970 1980 1990
Electric Power Systems

1950

2000
Electric Power Systems

Live tank SF6 Puffer Circuit Breaker 300kV (Blaskolbenschalter)

SF6 Puffer Circuit Breaker 55 550kV with Closing Resistor g (Einschaltwiderstand)

Electric Power Systems

Electric Power Systems

auxiliary contacts
(Hilfskontakt)

Buildup of SF6 Puffer Circuit Breaker

Resistor
(Widerstand)

main interrupter
(Hauptschaltkammer)

grading capacitors
(Steuerkondensator)

insulation to earth
(Erdisolation)

Spring-hydraulic spring drive
(Feder Hydraulischer (Feder-Hydraulischer Antrieb)

SF6 Puffer Circuit Breaker 550kV kV
Electric Power Systems Electric Power Systems

SF6 Puffer Circuit Breaker: Opening

SF6 Puffer Circuit Breaker: Closing

Electric Power Systems

Electric Power Systems

SF6 Circuit Breaker 500kV

SF6 Dead Tank Circuit Breaker 245kV

Electric Power Systems

Electric Power Systems

550 kV SF6 Dead Tank Circuit Breaker

SF6 Dead Tank Circuit Breaker 145 kV

Electric Power Systems

Electric Power Systems

1000kV GIS Puffer Circuit Breaker

Electric Power Systems

Electric Power Systems

SF6 Generator Circuit Breaker (Generatorschalter)

Medium Voltage SF6 Breaker 24kV

;

Electric Power Systems

Electric Power Systems

SF6 Self Blast Circuit Breaker (Selbstblasschalter): Opening

SF6 Self Blast Circuit Breaker: Interruption of Small Currents

Electric Power Systems

Electric Power Systems

SF6 Self Blast Circuit Breaker: Closing

SF6 Double Motion Self Blast Circuit Breaker

Electric Power Systems

Electric Power Systems

Flow Conditions in a SF6 Puffer Circuit Breaker

Temperature Profile in a Switchgear

Electric Power Systems

Electric Power Systems

Gas Density during No-load Switching of a SF6 Puffer Circuit Breakers

Switchgear Design: Vacuum Tube (Vakuumröhre)

elements:
movable contact

condenser screen breaker contacts

bellows (Faltenbalg)
Electric Power Systems

Fixed contact vacuum
Electric Power Systems

insulation