Applications of Electronic Science in Sugar industries

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Chapter 1
Introduction:
The Objective behind drafting of this dissertation Report is to fulfill the course requirement in Final Semester for successful completion of the course. This topic gives a major land mark to achieve & enhance the knowledge of application of electronics in real world scenario, so our visit to sugar factory is decided that to a leading factory world known and best managed. The technology used in the various stages of production in the extraction of juice, evaporation, concentration of the juice, options for improvement towards increasing the efficiency and reducing the cost of sugar production as well as options to increase yield of sugar and utilizations of bagasse as identified in sugar industry. We visited Shree Renuka Sugars Limited factory unit-4 situated at Burlatti (Kokatnur), taluka-Athani district-Belgaum. On 22nd june 2011. along with my classmates and our guest lecturer G.M.Nimbal. So as to study the electronic technology applied in this factory and process flow steps in manufacturing the sugar and its byproducts, However the visit took place during the offseason and although many aspects of sugar factory technology were discussed at length to
S.B. Jagadal KARNATAKA STATE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY BIJAPUR 1

Applications of Electronic Science in Sugar industries
gain a clear view of the way in which extensive application of electronic automation is applied in the industry. Shree Renuka Sugars Limited: India's largest sugars refiner and ethanol producer based in Karnataka & Maharashtra, with refining capacity of 4000 tonnes/day and distillery capacity of 600 Kilo liter/day It has 21% market share in India's fuel ethanol market and has an aggressive growth plan of increasing its ethanol production capacity to 900 Kilo liter/day by Dec 2009 . It also accounts for 20% of India's international sugar trade. The company was founded by Mr Narendra Murkumbi and his mother Mrs Vidya Murkumbi in 1998 not just dreamer but doers in their own right the company is currently 5th largest sugar producer in the world. It has significant presence in Brazil. Shree Renuka Sugars LTD is a translational agribusiness and bio-energy corporation. It focuses on three businesses: viz., Sugars, Bio fuels and Renewable energy. Several steps are usually followed to produce sugar. As explained by The Unit Head /The Vice president Mr. K. Suresh Babu: these are..

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Mrs Vidya Murkumbi

chairperson, Renuka Sugars. Limited

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  

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 

Extracting juice by pressing sugarcane Boiling the juice to obtain crystals Creating raw sugar by spinning crystals in extractors Taking raw sugar to a refinery for the process of filtering and washing to discard remaining non-sugar elements and color. Crystallizing and drying sugar Packaging the ready sugar

Head of the unit Mr Suresh babu presented a detailed overview of the fatory process flow and Fact and figures in the production. He introduced Mr. Udayakumar.A.Payappanvar Sr. Manager(C&I) and Mr.Sanjay.D Head of electrical department Mr.Udayakumar discussed regarding the electronic instrument such as temperature sensors, weighing machines, pressure gage, strain gage flow meter, temperature sensors, PLCs, liquid level monitoring controllers etc in the morning session. The next minute Mr.Sanjay explained about the electrical component of the factory. Factory generates 23 M watts of power and it consumes 16 M watts only and remaining power is exported to KEB at the cost of Rs.3/unit. They produce electrical energy by using steam. A home steam system consists of a boiler with a furnace to turn water to steam, a steam
S.B. Jagadal KARNATAKA STATE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY BIJAPUR

Mr .Suresh Babu
Head of the Unit 4 Renuka sugars Limited

Mr. Sanjay. .and Mr Suresh babu ..

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engine to convert the steam energy to rotary motion to drive a generator, and a system to recirculate the water once the steam has turned back into water. During the re-circulation of the water utilizing the exhaust steam heat (providing hot water and heating the home itself) increases the efficiency of the system. The staff gave us the valuable information that all the byproducts of the factory are utilized by the factory itself and there is very less wastage. The concept of cogeneration has enhanced the value of bagasse as a main source of raw material for generation of power and increasing efficiency of operations and reducing power consumption in all areas of the Renuka Sugar Factory. Potential for energy conservation in sugar industry is immense because of the fast developments that are taking place in the industry This highlights the importance of energy conservation to enhance the viability of operations of sugar industry and also to prepare the industry to meet the requirements of the concept of energy Cogeneration and energy conservation.

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Mr .udaya kumar giving lecture on electronic instruments and automation

Mr sanjay giving lecture on power generation

Mr Uddaya kumar

Giving lecture

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Chapter 2
 Overview of sugar industry: India has been known as the original home of sugar and sugarcane. India is the second largest producer of sugarcane next to Brazil. Presently, about 4 million hectares of land is under sugarcane with an average yield of 70 tonnes per hectare. India is the largest single producer of sugar including traditional cane sugar sweeteners, khandsari and Gur equivalent to 26 million tonnes raw value followed by Brazil in the second place at 18.5 million tonnes. Even in respect of white crystal sugar, India has ranked No.1 position in 7 during last 10 years. The sugar industry in Karnataka is also a major employer of millions of people in the state. Almost one million people are involved in the Karnataka Sugar Industry both directly and indirectly. Apart from generating employment for a huge section of the rural population, the sugar factories in the state also act as community Welfare Centers. These Welfare Centers offer scope for the foundation of educational institutions, transport facilities and hospitals.

G.M,Nimbal
(Lect)

& KSWU students

Factory Manager Mr. Sanjay and Mr Suresh babu .

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 Sugar manufacturing process. Sugar: Sugar (sucrose) is a carbohydrate that occurs naturally in every fruit and vegetable. It is a major product of photosynthesis, the process by which plants transform the sun's energy into food. Sugar occurs in greatest quantities in sugarcane and sugar beets from which it is separated for commercial use. The natural sugar stored in the cane stalk or beet root is separated from rest of the plant material through a process known as refining.
 sugar factory process

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.
Mr. sanjay and Mr suresh babu ..

Mr.Udayakumar (centre), factory
executive & Miss Seema Msc Student

The process of making sugar contain a lot of step

Mature cane is transported to factory. Stalk are thoroughly washed and cut when reached to sugar Mill. After cleansing process, a machine led by a
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Series of rotating knives, shreds the cane into pieces. Juicing: The shredded pieces of sugar cane travel on the conveyer belt through a series of heavy duty rollers, which extracts juice from pulp. The pulp that remains or “bagasse” is dried and used as fuel. The juice moves on through the mill to be clarified. Carbon dioxide and milk of lime are added to the liquid sugar mixture and it is heated to the boiling point, as the process of clarifying begins. As the carbon dioxide travels through the liquid it forms calcium carbonate, which attracts non-sugar debris (fats, gums, and wax) from the juice, and pulls them away from the sugar juice. The juice is then pushed through a series of filters to remove any remaining impurities. 12 CO2 + 11 H2 O = C12 H22 O11 + 12 O2 carbon dioxide + water = sucrose + oxygen Sugar cane is a genus of tropical grasses which requires strong sunlight and abundant water for satisfactory growth The purified syrup is then concentrated to super saturation and repeatedly crystallized under vacuum to produce white refined sugar. As in a sugar mill, the sugar crystals are separated from the mother liquor by centrifuging. To produce granulated sugar, in which the individual sugar grains do not clump together, sugar must be dried.  Byproducts:  Molasses is a viscous by-product of the processing of sugarcane into sugar.  Power: the power generation of the factory is also a byproduct.  Fuel Ethanol: Dehydrated ethyl alcohol, which contains at least 99.5% ethyl content. This is used for blending in petrol.  Bagasse: A fibrous residue obtained after the crushing and extraction of juice from sugarcane used as fuel in boilers.

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 Schematic diagrams of process measurement and control

Process flow snaps Juice purification process

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Applications of Electronic Science in Sugar industries

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Lime milk preparation

Operator Panel

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KARNATAKA STATE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY BIJAPUR

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 Process overview 1

Process overview 2

Sugar drying and cooling
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Electrical power generation

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Applications of Electronic Science in Sugar industries

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A-centrifugal

Batch pan-B

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Chapter 3
Application of electronic science in sugar industry.
 Process control application: Renuka sugar factory utilizes maximum number of electronic instruments and technology compared to other sugar industry. It use different kinds of temperature sensors electronic weighing meters Pressure gauges etc, plc’s are used and well adapted in the factory to a range of automation task. We have seen a number of PC’s which are interfaced with industrial I/O hardware using “soft PLCs” while executing programs within a version of commercial operating systems adapted for process control needs. LCs may include logic for single-variable feedback analog control loop, a "proportional, integral, derivative" or “PID controller”. Distributed Control Systems (DCSs) are custom designed processors as controllers used to control manufacturing processes such as oil refining, petrochemicals, central station power generation, fertilizers, pharmaceuticals, food and beverage manufacturing, and papermaking. DCSs are connected to sensors and actuators. Local communication is handled by a control network with transmission over twisted pair, coaxial, or fiber optic cable. A server and/or applications processor may be included in the system for extra computational, data collection, and
S.B. Jagadal KARNATAKA STATE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY BIJAPUR 13

Shree Renuka Sugars Limited
Instrumentation department

inside factory ,in front of the factory

Applications of Electronic Science in Sugar industries
reporting capability. The DCS largely came about due to the increased availability of microcomputers and the proliferation of microprocessors in the world of process control. Computers had already been applied to process automation for some time in the form of both Direct Digital Control (DDC) and Set Point Control. Panel board display is done using DCS. To control industrial system SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition) is used in computer systems l industrial, infrastructure, or facility-based processes, industrial process include those of manufacturing, production, power production, fabrication, and refining, and may run in continuous, batch, repetitive, or discrete modes.  Human machine interface (HMI): HMI is the apparatus which presents process data to a human operator, and through which the human operator controls the process. The HMI system usually presents the information to the operating personnel graphically, in the form of a mimic diagram. This means that the operator can see a schematic representation of the plant being controlled. For example, a picture of a pump connected to a pipe can show the operator that the pump is running and how much fluid it is pumping through the pipe at the moment.

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M.Sc student in power house ,explanation by Mr.Udayakumar

Computer systems in power house I/O device SCADA performance

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Programmable logic controller:

A programmable logic controller (PLC) or programmable controller is a digital computer used for automation of electromechanical processes, such as control of machinery on factory assembly lines, amusement rides, or lighting fixtures. PLCs are used in many industries and machines. Unlike general-purpose computers, the PLC is designed for multiple inputs and output arrangements, extended temperature ranges, immunity to electrical noise, and resistance to vibration and impact. Programs to control machine operation are typically stored in battery-backed or non-volatile memory. A PLC is an example of a hard real time system since output results must be produced in response to input conditions within a bounded time, otherwise unintended operation will result.

Contol panel and plc and cards showing ,explaing by Mr.Udayakumar

Control panel with PLC (grey elements in the center). The unit consists of separate elements, from left to right; power supply, controller, relay units

Computer systems in power house I/O device on arrays of almira

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Applications of Electronic Science in Sugar industries
 PID
A proportional–integral– derivative controller (PID controller) is a generic

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controller:

control loop feedback mechanism (controller) widely used in sugar industrial control system– a PID is the most commonly used feedback

Inside factory photoes

controller. A PID controller calculates an "error" value as the difference between a measured process variable and a desired set point. The controller attempts to minimize the error by adjusting the process control inputs. The PID controller calculation (algorithm) involves three separate constant parameters, and is accordingly sometimes called three-term control: the proportional the integral and derivative values, denoted P, I, and D. heuristically these values can be interpreted in terms of time: P depends on the present error, I on the accumulation of past errors, and D is a prediction of future errors, based on current rate of change. The weighted sum of these three actions is used to adjust the process via a control element such as the position of a control valve or the power supply of a heating element. Practically all PID controllers made today are based
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on microprocessors. This has given opportunities to provide additional features like automatic tuning, gain scheduling, and continuous adaptation. Difference Between and PLC and DCS
Initial costs Configuration Migration Overall Costs PLC Lower More challenging Difficult Tends to be lower but must calculate in programming costs to have same features More readily supported systemhouse or by third parties Traditionally engineered for maximum integratability Limited From device simplicity Available More complex DCS Higher More pre-configured Possible Tends to be higher particularly if you do not need all included features Usually supported by manufacturer Typically engineered to work best with devices from same manufacturer More From component compatibility Available & built in some dcs Yes,can be configured on line

Support Standards

CPU memory capacity Reliability Redundancy On-line configuration and programming Hotswap I/O Troubleshooting

No Straightforward with simple PLC configurations; but can be challenging in complex control configurations Yes, but limitations.* Discrete and batch production with less I/O's Available with limited features

Yes Multiple intelligent units hence easy to troubleshoot

Interface to ERP/MIS/IT Traditionally for Scada Interface

Yes Suitable for continuous production and for higher I/O's More features with many tools and liabrary functions

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Chapter 4
Process Control Equipments and Measurements  Sacchariometer: A sacchariometer is a hydrometer used for determining the amount of sugar in a solution It consists of a large weighted glass bulb with a thin stem rising from the top with calibrated markings. The sugar level can be determined by reading the value where the surface of the liquid crosses the scale. It works by the principle of buoyancy. A solution with higher sugar content is denser, causing the bulb to float higher. Less sugar results in a lower density and a lower floating bulb. Degrees Brix (symbol °Bx) sugar content of an aqueous solution the °Bx has traditionally been used in the wine, sugar, fruit juice, honey and other industries.

MSc student in power house ,explaination by Mr.Udayakumar

Computer systems in power house I/O device SCADA performance

Figure Automatic Saccharimeter Purity: The percentage of sucrose in total solids is a sugar product.

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Density and concentration measurement: The density measuring system is used for noncontacting, continuous density measurement of liquids or bulk materials in pipes and vessels. It is easily installed on existing pipelines without process downtime. Therefore a subsequent installation is possible without problems. The measurement is reliable and unaffected by color, temperature, pressure or chemical properties of the measurement product. The density system provides high levels of operational safety and requires virtually no maintenance, even under extreme environmental conditions.

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Microwave measuring device

Infrared thermometer

The density and concentration measuring system

Density meter

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Moisture Measurement:

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Using the microwave measuring systems technology concentration, dry substance, moisture and water content can be measured during the ongoing process in a wide variety of sugar products.

Neutron Moisture Measurement For the continuous determination of moisture in bulk solids, the neutron moisture measurement gives a representative moisture signal in sugar and bagasse. The neutron moisture measurement is based on the principle that fast neutrons are slowed down (or moderated) through their collision with hydrogen nuclei. Thus, a cloud of slow neutrons is created around a source of fast neutrons coming from an americium/beryllium source, while the concentration of slow or thermal neutrons depends only on the hydrogen content in the measuring volume. The Nuclear measurement will not change the products being measured. The measurement is independent of High temperature High pressure or vacuum Volatile and biohazard material Corrosive material pH value and color of the product
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The level measurement system: is used for the non-contacting, continuous measurement of liquids and bulk materials in reactors, vessels and bunkers. Chemical and physical properties of the product do not affect the measurement. The level measurement is adapted to the specific geometry of the vessel. The evaluation unit incorporates state of the art microprocessor technique with 32-bit processor for high computing MSc student in performance and high accuracy together with most instrumentation department simple operation. The software is tailor-made to the explaination by measuring principle. Mr.Udayakumar
Figure 1 level suitch

Observing instrument in instrumentation department

level meter

level switch
Flow meter

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Magnetic flow meter:

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Principle of operation:Electromagnetic flow meter is based on faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction. In a electromagnetic flow meter, magnetic field is generated by a set of coils. As the conductive liquid passes through the electromagnetic field, an electric voltage is induced in the liquid, which is directly proportional to its velocity. This induced voltage perpendicular to both the liquid flow direction and the electromagnetic field direction. The voltage sensed by the electrode is further processed by the transmitter to give standardized output signal or displayed in appropriate engineering units on LED display. This meter is more suitable to those fluids which present difficulties in handling, Fluids such as effluents, slurries, pulps, brines & other highly corrosive liquids, acids bases, wash, fermentermolasses etc.

Magnetic flow meter The meter offers no resistance to flow hence the pressure drop is almost negligible. The measurement being based on Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction is independent of viscosity, density, pressure & temperature of flowing medium.

Ball valve
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Applications of Electronic Science in Sugar industries
Magnetic Flow Meter Diagram (insertion probe)

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Pressure gauge:

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Elastic elements when subjected to pressure get

deformed. This deformation when measured gives an indication of the applied pressure. These elements may be in the form of Diaphragm, Bourdan Tube, Capsules, Bellows, Helical Tube. Etc. These deformations can be measured by mechanical means It is an instrument for measuring the condition of a fluid (liquid or gas) that is specified by the force that the fluid would exert, when at rest, on a unit area, such as pounds per Pressure gauge & Differential pressure gauge square inch or Newton’s per square centimeter. BOURDEN TYPE PRESSURE GAUGE: These types of pressure gauges are mainly using in power plant, sugare industry, refineries and other Industrial Process Applications. It ranges from 1 kg/cm² to 2000 kg/cm²

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Applications of Electronic Science in Sugar industries
Temperature Sensors &Gauges: Different types of temperature sensors are used in Sugar factory among them are Infrared thermometers, laser thermometers, bimetallic strip Temperature gauges bolometer, gardon gauge, heat Flux sensors etc
Bimetal & Mercury Temperature Gauges:

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Thermocouple sensor for high temperature measurement Integral type flow meter

Temperature guage

Remote type Flow m eter

Temperature in process material can goes up to 1000deg.C. or more for certain applications. Suitable sensors for high temperature or ambient conditions are used in sugar mill. A sensor is a device which receives and responds to a signal.

Remote type Flow m eter and pressure guages in intromentation department

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Microwave measuring technology for the sugar industry: The microwaves used for measuring systems in the sugar industry typically have frequencies of approximately 2.5 GHz and are not very powerful. The components of a product stream are polarized at varying strengths during microwave transmission through the product, resulting in the microwave signal losing speed and energy. The speed reduction brings about a phase shift in the signal, and the weakening of the energy affects an attenuation of the microwave If free charge carriers or polar materials like water molecules are present in the product, this effect is disproportionately increased. The water influence on the signal is around 40-times greater than the influence of other components such as sugar. Hence, it is clear how selectively sensitive the measurement is to water concentration. The correlation between water content and dry substance enables a very precise measurement of the concentration, brix and density in all stages of sugar production. In measuring the dry substance of magma, the microwave measurement technique accounts for the dry substance of the crystals in a similar manner to
S.B. Jagadal KARNATAKA STATE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY BIJAPUR

Microwave measuring device in the factory

The density and concentration measuring system

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Applications of Electronic Science in Sugar industries
the dry substance of the solution. For calibration, the microwave signals (phase and attenuation) are referenced to the laboratory analyzed value of the sample. If crystals are present in the sample, these must be initially dissolved (by dilution) and the total solids content of the solution determined. Thus, the microwave system always measures the actual dry substance content, regardless of whether the sugar is in solution or partially crystallized. This results in a simple calibration process as well as a high reliability for use in crystallization. Calibration samples can be taken evenly spread over the entire crystallization process, regardless of whether the sugar is in solution or in the magma phase. Two samples are sufficient to determine the calibration equation, which is mostly linear. PH measurement: During carbonation, the pH must be high enough to remove lime in the form of calcium carbonate (limestone). But if the pH becomes too high in the first carbonation then the calcium will actually complex with the sucrose and negatively affect yields. The pH sensor is inserted directly into the process extraction house. The high pH prevents the sugar from becoming starch or reverting to non-sucrose forms. Organic acids are changed into salts for later removal by precipitation. Foreign matter is kept in suspension for removal by filtration. To prevent scale buildup in subsequent stages, the mill must remove the excess
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Instruments

The calibration of measuring system

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lime via carbonation. One way to improve pH control is to connect the fresh water flow as the main disturbance variable with the output value of the pH controller (13). As a result, a specific acid quantity is added to a specific volume of water, to achieve a defined ratio. The pH controller then influences the process by only changing the acid quantity. The continuously measured values (pH and Brix degree in the middle of the extraction tower, Brix degree of press water) allow for continuous monitoring of the extraction value and early recognition of disturbances.

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Machineries In the factory

Flow meter

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Sugar Mill Accessories:

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Industrial Automation Systems, Process Control Instruments, Temperature Sensors, Thermocouples, Temperature Scanners, Recorders, Digital Temperature Indicators, Controller, Scanners, Automation Systems, Instrumentation Panels, Data Acquisition System, Switches, Proximity Switches, Safety Switches, PID Controller, Electronic Instrument for sugar Industry, Counters, Preset Counter, Timers, Sequential Timers, Programmable Counter, Controllers, Signal Transmitters, Signal Isolator, Signal Converter, Industrial Control Switches, Drives (A/C, D/C ), Variable Frequency Drive, Level Controllers, Indicators, Level Switches, Float Switches, RF Capacitance level instruments, Microprocessor based Instruments, Microprocessor Temperature Systems, Microprocessor Length Counter, Photo Electric Sensor, Photo Sensor, Switch Mode Power Supply, CVT, UPS, Servo Stabilizers, SCADA System, PLCs Packing & Packaging Machines

Meter board display

Simulation of process flow and monitoring using SCADA software

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Conclusion:
This dissertation report is a sincere effort to give the overview of electronic Technology applied in the process of automation of sugar factory, and gives a brief account of electronics instruments in the process flow of sugar production and explanations of sugar factory accessories which we have seen during the visit to Renuka Sugar Factory. This report contains, the principles of operation of the different electronic devices, measuring instruments and circuits. These have been discussed in brief and a set of simulated demonstration using process flow diagrams are included wherever possible for the understanding of concepts of sugar production. This dissertation visit testifies that everything learned in theory during this course is applied in the real life situation. The theory gives the fundamentals of a subject, to see how these Fundamentals put in practice is a good experience for us by this visit to sugar factory.

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