HW #20

Haarin Kwon 11/27/11

AIM: How effectively did early political leaders govern the new nation? The United States in a Wider World, 1789-1796  Hamilton's financial program caused a political division between sides that favored industry/overseas business vs. famers, planters, small businesses, etc Spanish Power in Western North America  Winning Louisiana from France (1762) temporarily revived Spanish fortunes in N. America  The Spanish attempted to submit the Indians to their authority - Ironically, Spanish colonists depended on the Natives that had trade agreements w/ Americans through Louisiana and Mississippi  This led to truces between N. Americans and the Spanish  Spain's attempts in New Mexico + Texas were meant to counter other European rivals  Russians crossed the Bering Sea into N. America  Spaniards responded by establishing the province of Alta California but it failed to bring Mexican settlers - The Natives were receptive at first but the Spaniards imposed Catholicism, harsh work and diseases  Spain wanted to dominate between the Pacific and the Mississippi River but failed due to N. American resistance Challenging American Expansion, 1789-1792  Spain, Britain and the U.S. all desired the Mississippi River  The idea of peace improved when Spain opened N. Orleans to American commerce  1791-1796: The U.S. admitted Vermont, KY and Tennessee to the Union  Reason: they hoped to improve their resident's loyalty to the U.S.  Washington's western policy:  He attempted to decrease Spanish influence by neutralizing the Creek Indians  Treaty of New York: signed by Creek leader Alexander McGillivray, it permitted Americans to stay on Georgian lands while preserving it against further expansion  Washington also insisted on Georgia returning the lands of the Creeks' allies that Georgians had sold off to speculators  Washington adopted a harsher policy towards Natives resisting colonial efforts to inhabit the Ohio Valley - It failed twice and Spain convinced the Creeks to renounce the Treaty of NY France and Factional Politics, 1793  French Revolution supporters:  Jefferson considered it an assault on monarchy  Southern slave owners supported it and were inspired by the French Revolution  1791 - a slave uprising in St. Domingue made French planters flee to the U.S. telling how the British encouraged it - This increased anti-British hysteria  French Revolution dissenters:  Hamilton described France as a "mobocracy" and supported Britain in resisting its efforts  Northerners were appalled by the bloodshed - NE Protestants disliked the French for believing in reason instead of God - Middle Atlantic Federalists condemned the French radicals as inciting the poor against the rich  Economic reasons for French Revolution:

Northern merchants traded mostly w/ Britain and feared that an alliance w/ France would make the British retaliate against this  Members of Parliament seemed inclined to favor liberalizing trade w/ the U.S.  The South believed trade w/ Britain was a menace to national self-determination  Anti-Federalists wanted a tariff to reduce dependency on British goods - Federalists warned a tariff would lead the U.S. to war against Britain American neutrality was issued by Washington (April 22, 1793)  Enthusiasm for a Pro-French foreign policy increased in the southern + western states after France went to war w/ Spain+ Britain (1793) - They believed a French victory would lead to free U.S. navigation of the Mississippi and evacuation of British garrisons  France tried to bring the U.S. into the war but Washington declared neutrality Citizen Genet - a French minister sent to the U.S. to rally American support  He found volunteers for the American foreign legion who defied Washington's Neutrality Proclamation

Diplomacy and War, 1793-1796  Great Britain attempted to stop American support for the French  Nov. 6 1793 - the Privy Council ordered the confiscation of foreign ships trading w/ the French in the W.I.  The Royal Navy impressed (forced enlistment) of U.S. crewmen  They impressed American crews for British men who had fled but ended up taking Americans too - American argued that the gov't's willingness to protect their citizens were a sign of national character  Britain, Spain and N. Americans continued fighting for control over lands west of the Appalachians  The Canadian governor denied all U.S. claims north of the Ohio River - This encouraged Britain and Spain to build forts on American land  Washington tried to stop the drift towards war (1794) by:  Authorizing Gen. Wayne to negotiate a treaty w/ the Shawnees  Sending John Jay to Great Britain  Dispatching Thomas Pinckney to Spain  Treaty of Greenville (August 1795)  Shawnees + allies scoffed at the U.S.'s attempt at a treaty  Battle of Fallen Timbers - General Wayne and his troops destroyed Shawnee lands, forcing them to flee to their British allies at Fort Miami, where there denied entrance  Wayne signed a treaty w/ the Shawnees + allies which opened up most of modern day Ohio and some of Indiana to American settlement  Jay's Treaty  Wayne's victory at Fallen Timbers allowed Jay to get Britain to withdraw troops America  Americans gained access to W. Indian markets for small American ships in exchange for the U.S.'s right to load French cargo during wartime  This treaty was viewed as a failure - Britain violated America's neutrality and undermined profits by restricting U.S. trade w/ France - It did not end impressment - The South was not compensated for slaves taken away during the Revolution by the British  Effects: - War w/ Britain was diffused and British occupation ended - Trade was stimulated w/ Britain W. Indies and British controlled India  Treaty of San Lorenzo (1796)  Pinckney convinced Spain to allow unrestricted access to the world market through the Mississippi  Spain also promised recognition of the 31st parallel (Florida) and discouraged N. Americans from attacking

Parties and Politics, 1793-1800  Controversies over domestic and foreign policies led to the formation of two political parties: Federalists and Republicans Ideological Confrontation, 1793-1794  Federalists  Horrified by 'mob rule' and artisans in PA + NY rallied around Pro-French politicians (EX: Jefferson)  Citizen Genet encouraged opposition to Washington's administration  Equated democracy w/ mob rule  Believed in elected officials ruling in the people's name  Republicans  Believed that a gov't dominated by a few would lead to corruption - Power had to split between the property holders (voters)  Southerners supported Republicanism while denying their slaves the same right  Political division  Political ambition made men like Jefferson and Madison rouse the public about civic affairs  Washington as president decreased complaints against Federalists and their policies  Jefferson (Anti-Federalist) resigned due to being overruled at everything - His resignation from the cabinet solidified the split  Anti-Federalists began organizing Democratic (Republican) societies in port cities and the South and West - These societies included farmers, merchants, artisans, etc but not clergymen, the poor, etc The Republican Party, 1794-1796  1794 - Washington openly sided w/ Federalist policies  Republicans attacked the Pro-British Federalist stance and became the majority in the House of Representatives  These local elections signified the change from Democratic (Republican) societies to the Republican Party  Federalists and Republicans used the newspapers to mold public opinion  The two parties' accusations stimulated citizens to become politically active  Washington's Farewell Address  He grew tired of the [political division and retired after two terms  His address, written by Hamilton, advised the U.S. to: - Not split into political parties - Not to get caught up in foreign affairs, especially wars  The address created an image of an isolated America free from foreign affairs The Election of 1796  Republicans cultivated many supporters  They targeted Democratic societies and immigrants  Many French and Irish immigrants came over - The Irish in PA + NY would tip the balance towards the Republicans  The candidates were John Adams and Thomas Jefferson  The crucial states were PA + NY - Republicans took PA, Federalists took NY - Adams (Federalist) became president, Jefferson (Republican) became vice-president The French Crisis, 1798-1799  XYZ Affair  The French knew Jay's Treaty assisted the British against France

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With Jefferson's defeat, they started seizing American ships carrying goods to British ports Adams sent a peace commission to France but the foreign minister Charles de Tallybrand sent three agents (X, Y,Z) who said peace talks could begin after he received $250,000 and France received $12 million Quasi War (1798-1800)  Republican's foreign policy views were discredited but they still defended France  Congress sent U.S. forces to seize French privateers in the Caribbean  Britain extended its protection to American merchant ships  Congress tripled the army in case of a civil wear caused by French and Irish immigrants

The Alien and Sedition Acts  Four measures designed to protect national security  Republicans opposed all of them  1) Alien Enemies Act - It was a procedure for determining whether citizens of a hostile country were a threat to the U.S. - If so, they would be deported/jailed  2) Alien Friends Act - It authorized the deportation of foreign citizens w/o proof of guilt  3) Naturalization Act - It increased the residency requirement for U.S. citizenship from 5 to 14 years - It was meant to reduce Irish voting  4) Sedition Act - It was enforceable against American citizens - It was meant to distinguish free speech from attempts to overthrow the gov't - It only interfered w/ free speech, especially newspapers criticizing political activity  Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions  Virginia and Kentucky militia signed petitions denouncing the Alien and Sedition Acts  Republicans realized since they controlled all three branches of gov't, none of their policies (Bill of Rights, checks and balances, etc) protected individual rights  The resolutions were adopted by both states legislatures  Madison's Virginia Resolutions - Declared that state legislatures never surrendered their right to judge Federal actions and they had interposition (an authority to protect their liberties) - Jefferson's resolution for KY declared states to have ultimate sovereignty and could 'nullify' federal laws  The acts divided the country  Jefferson hinted at Southern secession  State militias were purchasing muskets for civil war The Election of 1800  The two parties rallied around Federalist Adams and Republican Jefferson again  Both sides did not resort to political slander like last time  Adams signed a peace treaty w/ France in 1799  As the possibility of a French war disappeared, Federalist credibility disappeared  Taxes and the national debt increased for nothing  Jefferson beat Adams due to decreased Federalist support + increased Republican support and voter turnout  Jefferson and his running mate, Aaron Burr, were tied  The constitution failed to anticipate ties between the candidate and running mate - Hamilton chose Jefferson over Burr, making Jefferson president