Reservation in India is a form of affirmative action designed to improve the well-being of perceived backward and under-represented

communities defined primarily by their 'caste' (quota-system based on 'gender' or 'religion') is a phenomenon that commenced with the coming into force of the Indian Constitution (the Constitution initially provided reservation to Christians, with the proviso that it would automatically reduce gradually with the efflux of time) – however, lately preferential treatment on regional basis has either been nonstatutorily introduced in the educational institutes (e.g. eligibility conditions for candidates from outside the State are 5% higher than that for the 'locals', as per local rules prescribed by certain Universities) or is being advocated in both jobs and lowly professions like autorickshaw-drivers. These are laws (both Constitutional and statutory) or merely local rules/regulations/practices (not derived from any Act passed by the Parliament or State-Legislature) wherein a certain percentage of total available vacancies in educational institutes and government jobs are set aside for people from backward communities and others. Scheduled Castes (SC), Scheduled Tribes (ST) and Other Backward Classes (OBC) are the primary beneficiaries of the reservation policies under the Constitution — with the object of ensuring a level playing field (without defining the benchmark that determines which particular individual player has reached the said 'level'; the Supreme Court's recent concept of 'creamy layer' requires a caseby-case determination as to who has ceased to deserve protection of these Laws). The reservation system has been a matter of contention ever since it was first introduced in the British occupied India and remains a point of conflict—nay, a form of protectionism [placing a 'handicap' upon certain communities] such as one introduced by the Mughals who levied 'jazia' tax against the Hindu traders. Many citizens belonging to the perceived upper classes find the reservation policy of the government biased and oppose it, because they feel that it infringes their right to equality. Moreso, not everyone who comes from the underprivileged communities, supports the system the main argument being that it makes one feel disadvantaged. This makes the reservation system a controversial subject matter.

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1 Background of caste based reservation 2 Present Caste based reservation system of Union Government 3 Beneficiary Groups of the Reservation System o 3.1 Caste o 3.2 Gender o 3.3 Religion  3.3.1 Controversy o 3.4 Status as a Domicile o 3.5 Other 4 Government funding allowing reservations in colleges/universities 5 Reservation in promotion o 5.1 Background o 5.2 2007 Reservation in promotion in Uttar Pradesh 6 Excluded from the reservation system o 6.1 Institutions kept out of the purview of reservation

the labor force. one's caste is solely defined by one's birth and not by one's achievements or deeds in his/her life. and other 'public' institutions.[7] This period was routinely extended by the succeeding governments. even upto now. within humanity. Nothing herein contained shall preclude the State from providing special facilities for educationally backward sections (not "communities") of the population. schools.‖ [Emphasis and parentheses added. the Executive Organ of the Union (Centre) and States."[3] However. which is outlawed by the Constitution of India. Scheduled Castes (SCs) are the primary targets of this medieval practice—a practice. during the Vedic period a person's 'Varna' (not 'caste') was defined by his/ her socio-economic duties (broadly classified into four classes or Varnas) – these duties were either voluntarily performed or were assigned by the local administrator etc.] It also states that ―The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of society (in particular. But later on this changed and throughout centuries.] The Article further states that nothing in Article 15(4) will prevent the nation from helping SCs and STs for their betterment ['betterment' up to the level enjoyed by the average member of other communities]. and 'varna' was initially not defined by one's birth into any particular family. "impure or a lesser human." [Emphasis added.[citation needed] The main objective of the Indian reservation system is to increase the opportunities for enhanced social and educational status (in the sense better than the previous—until it becomes equal to that enjoyed by an average member of other communities) of the underprivileged communities and.[8][The basis for laying down a particular percentage would not pass the acid-test of rationality if it were to mean not more than 50% of the 'vacancies' – even if the total number of competing candidates from the 'weaker sections' formed 70% proportion of the total number of competing applicants!] However. in India is the practice of untouchability.      7 History of the Reservations System 8 Advances under the Reservations System 9 Critiques of the Reservations System 10 See also 11 References 12 External links Background of caste based reservation A common form of discrimination.5% of vacancies in public sector and government-aided educational institutes as a quota reserved for the SC and ST candidates respectively for a period of five years. thus. The Supreme Court of India ruled that reservations cannot exceed 50% (which it judged would violate equal access guaranteed by the Constitution) and put a cap on reservations. there are state laws that exceed this 50% limit and these are under litigation in the . enable them to take their rightful place in the mainstream of Indian society. of the scheduled castes and aboriginal tribes).[4] The reservation system exists to provide opportunities for the members of the SCs and STs to increase their representation in the State Legislatures.[5] The Constitution of India states in Article 15(4): "All citizens shall have equal opportunities of receiving education. and shall protect them from social ''injustice'' and all forms of exploitation. after which the quota system would be reviewed..[1][2] An untouchable person is considered. colleges. the Constitution specified 15% and 7.[6] In 1982.

Prime Minister V. 7. 6% for STs and 4% for Muslims. 35% of educational institutes and 45% of government jobs for SC. being based on local demographics. and 10% Muslim). For example. 15% for SCs. Religion The Tamil Nadu government has allotted 3.5%. confidently and honestly demonstrate that he/ she has indeed reached a 'level playing field'. The exact percentages differ from state to state:  o o o In Tamil Nadu.[9] Present Caste based reservation system of Union Government Beneficiary Groups of the Reservation System Enrolment in educational institutions and job placements are reserved based on a variety of criteria. Those not belonging to the designated communities can compete only for the remaining positions. For example. 25% of educational institutes and government jobs for OBCs. This is not an anomaly. This ratio is followed even in Parliament and all elections where a few constituencies are earmarked for those from certain communities (which keeps rotating as per the Delimitation Commission).[10] by including an additional 27% reservation for OBCs.5% of seats each to Muslims and Christians. the percentage of reservation is 18%[10] for SCs and 1% for STs. the caste-based reservation stands at 69% and the same is applicable to about 87% of the population in the State of Tamil Nadu. In Andhra Pradesh. but a proof that some individual members of a community (a community that has been collectively classified as 'underprivileged') do voluntarily. those who have served in the Army can compete both in the General Category as well as in the specific quota.ST. while members of the designated communities can compete for all positions (reserved and open). 22.[15] .5% already set aside for the SCs and STs. Seats are reserved for people under the following criteria:- Caste In central government funded higher education institutions.[11] In West Bengal.[10] This reservation percentage has been raised to 49. 12% ST. Singh announced that 27% of government positions would be set aside for OBC's in addition to the 22.P. In 1990. The quota system sets aside a proportion of all possible positions for members of a specific group.5% for STs).Supreme Court. when 1 out of 10 clerical positions in railways are reserved for ex-servicemen. thereby altering the OBC reservation to 23% from 30% (since it excludes persons belonging to Other Backward Castes who are either Muslims or Christians).5%[10] of available seats are reserved for Scheduled Caste (SC) and Scheduled Tribe (ST) students (15% for SCs.(25% SC. and OBC.

Andhra Pradesh High Court quashed the sub-quota. "In fact. The government would not have been able announce it due to the model code of conduct. The reasoning given is that those Muslim communities that have been granted OBC status are unable to compete with Hindu OBC community. (contested in court) Kerala Public Service Commission has a quota of 12% for Muslims. (Note : NRI reservations were removed from IIT in 2003) Candidates sponsored by various organizations Those who have served in the armed forces ('ex-serviceman' quota—because the age of superannuation in the Military Service is much shorter than that in the Civil posts.) criticized the government decision saying. . Religious minority status educational institutes also have 50% reservation for their particular religions. we must express our anguish at the rather casual manner in which the entire issue has been taken up by the central government. all jobs under certain State governments are reserved for those who are domiciled within the jurisdiction of that government. These people are making tall claims just to win elections".[18] On 28 May 2012. Other Some reservations are also made for:         Terrorist victims from Kashmir.g. The Central government has listed a number of Muslim communities as backward Muslims. the government should focus on basic issues of improving administration and governance. He suggested that instead of making promises to give reservation. Justice Sachar who headed Sachar Committee (which was commissioned to prepare a report on the latest social. Election Commission stayed implementation of this decision for violation of model code of conduct.5% for minorities within the existing 27% reservation meant for the Other Backward Classes. in Punjab Engineering College (Chandigarh) 85% of seats were earlier reserved for Chandigarh-domiciles—now it is 50%.Andhra Pradesh's administration has introduced a law enabling 4% reservations for Muslims."[19] Status as a Domicile With few exceptions.[16] It was alleged that the decision was announced as the Election Commission announced Assembly elections in five states on 24 December 2011. For example. Controversy The Government of India on 22 December 2011 made an announcement of the establishment of a sub-quota of 4. There are also some seats reserved for the Jammu and Kashmir 'migrants' in every Government-aided educational institute. e. On 12 January 2012. The court said that the sub-quota has been carved out only on religious lines and not on any other intelligible basis. "Such promises will not help the backward section of minorities. in Punjab Single Girl-Child (in Punjab) Sons/daughters/grandsons/granddaughters of Freedom Fighters Physically handicapped Sports personalities Non-Resident Indians (NRIs) have a small percentage of reserved seats in educational institutions. The court criticised the decision saying.[17] Later. economic and educational condition of the Muslim community of India. It is like befooling them. making them eligible for reservation.

per annum for: 1. Their purpose is to help universities implement the reservation policy in the student admissions and staff recruitment processes at teaching and non teaching levels.. PSU schools.[22] The 81st amendment was made to the Constitution that inserted clause (4B) in Article 16 to permit the government to treat the backlog of reserved vacancies as a separate and distinct group. Tiruthani Murugan (Balaji) temple) Seat reservation for Senior citizens/ PH in public (bus) transport. for the children of their own employees (e.     moreso. recruitment. Essentially. 77th amendment to the Constitution was made to insert clause (4A) to Article 16 before the five-year period expired to continue with reservations for SC/STs in promotions. Tirupathi Balaji]Temple. the contract for Short-Service Commission is merely 8 years) Dependents of armed forces personnel killed-in-action Repatriates Reservation in special schools of Government Undertakings/ PSUs. e. SC/ST cells like these have been set up in 109 universities. 00. Travelling Allowances & Dearness Allowances for field work Data Collection Analysis and evaluation of statistical data New Computer and Printer (once in a plan period)" The UGC provides financial assistance only up to the end of the Xth Plan period ending on 31 March 2007. to which the limit of 50 percent ceiling on reservation may not apply. in its 16 November 1992 judgment in the Indra Sawhney case. It provides the universities with assistance worth "Rs.[20] In 1995. etc. its goal is to ensure that the SC/ST Cells are established in the universities. The UCG provides financial assistance to universities and affiliated colleges for implementation of the Special Cells.[21] Clause (4A) was further modified through the 85th amendment in order to give the benefit of consequential seniority to SC/ST candidates promoted by reservation. ruled that reservations in promotions are unconstitutional.[5] Reservation in promotion Background The Supreme Court. The work undertaken by the SC/ST Cells is reviewed at the end of Xth plan. hostels. allotment of staff quarters. They also help the SC/ST categories integrate with the university community and remove the difficulties which they may have experienced. 4.g.1. etc.[23] The 82nd .g. 2. but allowed its continuation for five years as a special case. 3.) Paid pathway reservations in places of worship (e. The Xth plan is proposed to ensure that there is an effective implementation of the reservation policy in admissions.000/.g. Army schools. certain intakes are tenure-based. Government funding allowing reservations in colleges/universities There is a University Grants Commission (UGC) set up that provides financial assistance to universities for the establishment of Special Cells for SC/STs.

the state has to collect quantifiable data showing backwardness of the class and inadequacy of representation of that class.amendment inserted a proviso in Article 335 to enable states to give concessions to SC/ST candidates in promotion.[29] Excluded from the reservation system The following people are not entitled to reserved seats. inadequacy of representation and overall administrative efficiency. Government of Uttar Pradesh introduced reservation in promotions. 2622 of 2011 and many other. 77th.[24] The validity of all the above four amendments i. 82nd and 85th was challenged in the Supreme Court through various petitions clubbed together in M Nagaraj & Others vs.e.[27][28] The apex court reiterated the law laid down through various judgements by the Constitution benches in the M Nagaraj. Indra Sawhney and other cases wherein it was declared that reservation in promotions can be provided only if there is sufficient data and evidence to justify the need.[25] 2007 Reservation in promotion in Uttar Pradesh In 2007. The policy specified reservation for SC/ST employees in the first stage of their promotion and that of the benefit of consequential seniority in successive promotions. this policy was challenged through a spate of petitions and subsequently Allahabad High Court on 4 January 2011 struck down the policy terming it as unconstitutional. the High Courts Chairman. the members of Union Public Categories for Rule of Exclusion Constitutional Posts . mainly on the ground that these altered the Basic Structure of the Constitution. Meaning that people cannot take advantage of the reservation system if they fall under the following categories: Rule of Exclusion Applies to the following: The sons and daughters of the President of India. the Vice-President of India. Judges of the Supreme Court. If a state government wishes to make provisions for reservation to SC/STs in promotion.[25] On 19 October 2006. The court further held that these provisions are merely enabling provisions. Union of India & Others. before making provisions for reservation. upheld the high court judgement. The bench consisting of Justice Dalveer Bhandari and Justice Dipak Mishra rejected the government's argument on the ground that the UP government failed to furnish sufficient valid data to justify the move to promote employees on caste basis. the Supreme Court upheld these four amendments but stipulated that the concerned state will have to show in each case the existence of compelling reasons which include backwardness.[26] The Allahabad High Court verdict was challenged in the Supreme Court through various petitions namely Civil Appeal No. However. 81st. The Supreme Court on 27 April 2012.s 2608 of 2011.

the Air Force. sports professional. But that will hold true provided that1. this will not be taken into account for applying the rule of exclusion unless she falls in the service category under item No. or both parents are Class I or Class II officers but one of them dies or suffers permanent incapacitation. If the husband .[30] Service Category: Those who are considered Group ‗A‘/Class I officers of the All India Central and State Services (Direct Recruits) or those who are considered Group 'B'/ Class II officers of The Central and State Services (Direct Recruitment) or those who are employees in the Public Sector. engineer.. chartered accountant. Comptroller AuditorGeneral of India or any person holding positions of a constitutional nature. Chief Election Commissioner. computer specialist. financial or management consultant.Service Commission. "the service ranks below Colonel of husband and wife shall not be clubbed together" 3. members of the State Public Service Commission. "the wife of an armed forces officer is herself in the armed forces (i. income tax consultant.II in which case the criteria and conditions"[30] Armed forces including Paramilitary Forces (Persons holding civil posts are not included). sports person. architect. dental surgeon. media professional or any other vocations of like status. lawyer. film artist or other film professional. Professional class and those engaged in Trade and Industry If a person has a high paying job such as physician. "if the wife of an officer in the armed forces is in civil employment. playwright.[30] The sons and daughters of parents either or both of whom is or are in the rank of colonel and above in the army or in equivalent posts in the Navy. author. Those who have parent(s) that are Class I or Class II officers.e. and the Paramilitary Force. For more visit Pgs 7-8 of [1]. the category under consideration) the rule of exclusion will apply only when she herself has reached the rank of Colonel." 2. The criteria used for sons and daughters of Group A and B are the same for the employees of the Public sector.

In some state the reservation within reservation has been made but creamy layer as such is applicable in OBCs only.etc.[31][32] 1. hence they are not covered under reservations. Institute of Physics. Kolkata. Harish-Chandra Research Institute. Mumbai and its ten constituent units. Chennai 9.5 lakh Rs. ST's and OBC's and if a family's income is high already it is considered that it raises their social status as well. Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics. Though the efforts are also being made to do so. Institute for Plasma Research.[30] Sons and daughters of those who have irrigated land area which is equal to or more than 85% of the statutory ceiling area will be excluded from reservation. Kolkata 6. Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology. Indore 4.tea. or more annually for three consecutive years are excluded from reservation. Institute of Mathematical Sciences. Homi Bhabha National Institute.The income of the family as a whole will be taken into account because the whole point of the reservation system is to raise the social status of the people that belong to the SC's. Institutions kept out of the purview of reservation The following institutions have been kept out of the purview of Central Educational Institutions (Reservation in Admission) Act. Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre. industrial or commercial purposes. Those with vacant buildings can use them for residential.). 2006:. Tata Memorial Centre.[30] Son(s)/daughter(s) of those who earn 4. namely: 1. Bhubaneshwar 8. Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research.holds one of the above jobs and the wife doesn't then the husband's income will be taken into consideration and if the wife holds one of the above jobs then the wife's income will be taken into consideration. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre.rubber. Trombay 2. Mumbai .[30] Property owners. 7. They would only be under reservation if the land is exclusively unirrigated. Gandhinagar 5. Kalpakkam 3. Plantations (Coffee. Vacant land and/or buildings in urban areas Creamy layer The creamy layer is only applicable in the case of Other Backward Castes and not applicable on other group like SC or ST.Agricultural. Allahabad 10.

North Eastern Indira Gandhi Regional Institute of Health and Medical Sciences. The notification of 1902 created 50% reservation in services for backward classes/communities in the State of Kolhapur. Space Physics Laboratory. In 1882. comprising the Presidency areas and the Princely states south of the Vindhyas. He also made sure everyone got suitable employment no matter what social class they belonged. Manesar. Mahatma Jyotirao Phule made a demand of free and compulsory education for everyone along with proportionate representation in government jobs. Reservations in favor of Backward Classes (BCs) were introduced long before independence in a large area. further classifying 1. Hunter Commission was appointed. Thiruvananthapuram 8.[6] There were many other reforms in favor of and against reservations before the Indian Independence itself. and recommended changes to the existing quotas.[6] In 1891.[34] The commission did not have exact figures for a sub-caste. Mumbai 3. He provided free education to everyone and opened several hostels in Kolhapur to make it easier for everyone to receive the education. who will live where.[33] In 1908. Maharaja of Kolhapur in Maharashtra introduced reservation in favour of nonBrahmin and backward classes as early as 1902.[35] In 1980 the commission submitted a report. Present Reservation system has a long history and has been debated before and after Indian Independence from the British in 1947. Indian Institute of Remote Sensing.Not only that even who will get education or not. Shillong 4. One of the most important occurred in 1979 when the Mandal Commission was established to assess the situation of the socially and educationally backward classes. who will be allowed to avail social amenities or not was also determined by birth.[6] In 1901. SCs and OBCs.[34]As of 2006 number of castes in Backward class list went up to 2297 which is the .5%.257 communities as backward. increasing them from 22% to 49. there was a demand for reservation of government jobs with an agitation (in the princely State of Travancore) against the recruitment of non-natives into public service overlooking qualified native people. This is the first official instance (Government Order) providing for reservation for depressed classes in India. Dehradun History of the Reservations System The social reservation in Indian continent is an age-old traditional system sometimes mentioned as equivalent to apartheid. Physical Research Laboratory. Ahmedabad 7.2. Even after the Indian Independence there were some major changes in favor of the STs.[6] Chatrapati Sahuji Maharaj. known as the Other Backward Class(OBC). reservations were introduced in favour of a number of castes and communities that had little share in the administration by the British. Tata Institute of Fundamental Research.The British understood their psyche very well and gave it a legal and constitutional acknowledgement. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research. to estimate the OBC population at 52%. Gurgaon 5. and used the 1930[35] census data.reservations were introduced in Maharashtra (in the Princely State of Kolhapur) by Shahu Maharaj. Every person's occupation or job status was fixed by birth. National Brain Research Centre. Bangalore 6. He also appealed for a class-free India and the abolition of untouchability.

12 12.III.88 17. helped in eradicating "casteism". and the Class IV employees take up 27. Class III (or Group C) and Class IV (or Group D). Hence. The Class I employees take up 2. Chhatrapati Shahu ji Maharaj and others. therefore the identification of oppressed classes was difficult to carry out.2% of the public sector workforce.36 13.82 8.95 17. the Class II employees take up 3. two sub-parts).26 (excludes sweepers) 1995 The above table shows that over time as the new laws for the reservation systems were passed employment of SC's in Class I.[37] Continuous efforts of some of the social reformers of the country like Rettamalai Srinivasa Paraiyar. certain castes or communities. Advances under the Reservations System The public sector jobs are divided into 4 categories: Class I (or Group A). these reserved seats are not inter-changeable between the sub-categories of the ‗reserved‘ category! .[36] The concept of untouchability was not practiced uniformly throughout the country. the practice of segregation and untouchability prevailed more in the southern parts of India as opposed to in Northern India.64 2.2 10. and IV public sectors increased substantially. considered "untouchable" in one province were not in other provinces. Babasaheb Ambedkar.2% of the public sector workforce. the Class III employees take up 66.98 20.increase of 60% from community list prepared by Mandal commission.[38] Below are the percentages of the SC employees in the Central government[38]: Class I II III IV 1.24 (excludes sweepers) 1959 1965 1.75 1974 3. Allegedly.3% of the public sector workforce.6 1984 6. Critiques of the Reservations System Though the concept is reasonable yet its irrational formulation makes the whole principle of ‗reservation‘ a serious drain on extremely scarce National resources. in a University with 20 Teachers as ‗approved‘ Guides (having a total of 20x8=160 ‗vacancies‘) about 50% are earmarked for the candidates from the ‗reserved‘ category— incidentally. Ayothidas Pandithar.67 16.II.3 18.38 6. But it wasn't until the 1990s that the recommendations of the Mandala Commission were implemented in Government Jobs by Vishwanath Pratap Singh.92 10.6 10.2 4. Furthermore.15 21.8% of the public sector workforce. Jyotiba Phule. For example: Certain Universities have sub-divided the ‗vacancies‘ under each PhD Guide also into ‗open‘ and ‗reserved‘ categories (the reserved category is again split into. Class II (or Group B). at least.18 2.

] . every Guide is paid the same Pay and Perks even if he/she has no student allotted to him against the 50% ‗reservation‘ quota under him. of which they have been deprived. and reviewing the number of ‗reserved‘ seats downwards on the basis of past 5 years‘ intake of candidates from the ‗reserved‘ category (the tenure of a PhD student normally ends after 5 years).Recently (year 2012) it was noticed from the official website of a reputed University that there were only about 10 candidates who had qualified the Written Tests and.20 per cent of the population and the STs were 8. 150 candidates (from the ‗open‘ category) qualified the Written Exams. there are no competitors. On the other hand. all of them were allotted Research Centres and Guides—without appearing for any Interview at all. obtain loans from the ‗public‘ sector banks in order to pay hefty fees abroad for a PhD programme—whereas within India highly paid National resources (College Teachers who are approved PhD Guides) remain underutilized! This anomaly can be rectified. and 70 of them will have to be rejected admission—because the total number of vacancies in the ‗open‘ category is only 80. in India. to some extent. They view political power as a way to get economic benefits. under the aforesaid misconceived or irrational implementation of an otherwise reasonable concept.[40] [We need a thorough. in order to find out whether the above argument is supported by facts. for the balance 70 vacancies {(160/2)-10=70}. from the reserved categories. the students who. and equality of opportunity is being eroded from the point such 'level' ground was reached by individual members of a community that is only collectively labelled as 'underprivileged'. on the other hand.[39] Some of the arguments/ counter-arguments put forth by AntiReservationists and Pro-Reservationists.[40] Opponents are unhappy because they believe that an arbitrary socio-economic injustice is being committed against them and in favour of those who have already reached (or even gone beyond) a 'level' playing field. hence. According to the 2001 census. by pooling the ‗reserved‘ vacancies at the level of each Research Centre—rather than under each Guide individually. argue that they should get a greater share in administrative positions because political power resides in India‘s administrative positions. funded research on the quantum of change in the economic condition of 'dalits' during the 5-year tenure of a dalit leader in Uttar Pradesh. lower position in the social hierarchy and lack of respect from members of higher castes are a ―given‖ in their social existence.[40] The OBCs. Hence. but further promotions are also made on the basis of mere membership of a community – not considering the fact that the individual is. Thirdly.10 per cent. Secondly. fail to get admission locally. Pro-Reservationists 'Men should remain in the same occupation and station of their life as their forefathers' was a part of religious precepts and social customs long ago. the SCs represented 16. are: Anti-Reservationists Lower castes no longer accept that their lower economic status. They are against the reservations because not only appointments are made on the basis of membership in a caste.

pp. 4. Retrieved 4 November 2011. Introduction to the Constitution of India. 2. 3. ^ "India's "Untouchables" Face Violence. where they have been used extensively. Nagpur: LexisNexis Butterworths Wadhwa. Retrieved 27 November 2011. ^ "Education Safeguards". Retrieved 20 October 2011. They also believe that reservations are used for political benefits (caste-based politics) rather than social benefits. ^ Basu. ISBN 978-81-8038-559-9.[40] The 'pro-reservationists' believe that they should get reservations because they had been victims of the Brahmin-dominated caste system. "Rethinking Reservation in Higher Education in India". ^ a b c d e Laskar. ^ November 2011 "Reservations Policy Revisited". University Grants Commission. while harming more. and look up to reservations as a part of the struggle against this oppression—towards changing India‘s social structure. Mehbubul Hassan.][41] "India will remain trapped in the caste paradigm. Discrimination"." The Reservation Policy is helping less. Durga Das (2008). [The percentage of reservation under each category is being constantly reviewed in these States (supra). National Geographic. hold certain positions or get those positions because of reservations—this could lead to deterioration in the efficiency of public services. 5. ILI Law Review. ^ "Untouchability in the Far East". and those who do not deserve. Retrieved 4 November 2011. ^ a b "Financial Support". Government of India. 98. . India.[40] They believe that reservations do not take into account merits and achievements. 7.upon being appointed to the aforesaid 'public' post.[41] See also         Court Cases Relating to India's Reservation System Women's Reservation Bill India Dhangar Scheduled tribe issue Nationalization Socialism Caste politics in India Reservation policy in Tamil Nadu Self-immolations in India References 1.[40] Supporters of quotas have argued that reservations have been successful in Southern states. 6. Department of Education. no longer "socially or economically handicapped".

org/publication/raising-female-leaders namely. 23 December 2011. Etc.5% sub-quota in poll states". ^ Viswanathan. 20. 9. Tata McGraw-Hill 13. 11. pp.nic. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag. Retrieved 28 May 2012.nic. inadequacy of representation and overall administrative efficiency are all . Retrieved 5 November 2011. 12. The Times Of India. Lori. Rohini Pande. on 8 August 1991. ^ "Govt trying to befool minorities with quota: Sachar". IndianKanoon. ^ "Indra Sawhney Etc. vs Union Of India And Others. ""(4) Reservation being extreme form of protective measure or affirmative action it should be confined to minority of seats. and Esther Duflo. ""We reiterate that the ceiling-limit of 50%. vs Union Of India (UOI) And Ors. The Times Of India. see the help page. 19.D (2010).virginia. 16. 18. "A step forward". ^ Indra Sawhney And Ors. ^ "Eighty Fifth Amendment". Raghabendra. 2006". Esther Duflo. Indiacode. ^ "HC Quashes Centre's 4. 24..5% quota fails to impress Muslims in Uttar Pradesh".8." . no text was provided for refs named The_Struggle_for_Equality:Caste_in_Indian_Politics_Also_would_like_to _thank_Anjana_Burke. ^ "Election Commission stalls 4. N.nic. Even though the Constitution does not lay down any specific bar but the constitutional philosophy being against proportional equality the principle of balancing equality ordains 1991. Virginia University. Retrieved 2011-11-19. ^ Chattopadhyay. Raghabendra Chattopadhyay.povertyactionlab. the concept of creamy layer and the compelling reasons. Political Science for Civil Services Main Examination. Retrieved 2011-11-19. Indiacode. ^ Beaman. ^ "Seventy Seventh Amendment". not to exceed 50%. "Women as Policy Makers: Evidence from a Randomized Policy Experiment in India.Kapadia. 2004. ^ "Raising Female Leaders" J-PAL Policy Briefcase April 2012. once the advantaged and disadvantaged are made equal and are brought in one class or group then any further benefit extended for promotion on the inequality existing prior to be brought in the group would be treating equals unequally. 28 May 2012. 2002-01-04. and Petia Topalova. "M. http://www. Retrieved 20 February 2012. 17. ^ Arora.pdf "Affirmative Action and Peer Effects: Evidence from Caste Based Reservation in General Education Colleges in India"]. "Powerful Women: Does Exposure Reduce Bias?" The Quarterly Journal of Economics 124(4): 1497-1540. Retrieved 2011-11-19." Econometrica 72(5): 1409-43. Retrieved 28 May 2012.Nagaraj & Others vs Union Of India & Others on 19 October. 23. on 16 November.povertyactionlab."" 21. Retrieved 1997-08-29. 19 February 2012. It would not be eradicating the effects of past discrimination but perpetuating it. Frontline 24 (22)."Reservation in promotion is constitutionally impermissible as. ^ "Eighty Second Amendment". 1992". New Delhi: Supreme Court of India.Virginia. Indiacode.H. of any manner. ^ "4. 19.5% Sub-Quota for Minorities". (16 November 2007). 10. 25. Indiacode.nic. ^ a b Justice S. http://www. 2009. Retrieved 22 August 2012.2C_a_student_of_Sishya_school_in_Chennai_for_publ ishing_this_article.povertyactionlab. 12 January 2012. S. ^ a b c d [people. ^ "Eighty First Amendment". Retrieved 22 August 2012.

Praxis. 8 April 2006. 193–225(Myron Weiner). Amit. National Commission for Backward 25 May 2006.". 2012". ^ "SC quashes quota benefits in promotions". ^ a b "We have a few reservations". 1203–1207. ^ "Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes Population 2001 Census . 31. Retrieved 10 August 2012.Reservation as Reparation. ^ a b "Chapter 3. Apr 28. pp. 30. Retrieved 20 October 2011. 40. (28 February 2008)(On Right to Education) Radical Notes . ^ "Supreme Court upholds High court's decision to quash quota in promotion". The Times of India.Artificial and Arbitrary Shortages of Vacancies Created by. Parliament of India. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 17 November 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2011. inter alia. 41. The Success of India's Democracy.pdf 33.Common School System and the Future of India.P.1992)".India". ^ "The Untouchables of India"."" 26. 38. Atul (2001). A (6 June 1992). Economic and Political Weekly. IndianKanoon. Retrieved 19 April 2006. "Who are the OBCs?".gov. Archived from the original on 30 December 2005. By V. the impugned provision is an enabling ^ http://india. The Times of India.Power Corp. 2012.930 of 1990 – Indira Sawhney Versus Union of India And others (16. ^ "U. Irrational Implementation of Reservation Principle Central List of Other Backward Classes Why reservation for OBCs is a must. 36. 35. Times of India. Planning Department. 37. Retrieved 5 November 2011. 29. Archived from the original on 27 June 2006. 2012.aspx?relid=23895 32. 39. 2011. Retrieved 4 November 2011. Bahujan Samaj Party. "As stated above.Beyond the Judiciary ."Shri Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj".in/newsite/erelease. News. Dalit Bahujan Media. The State is not bound to make reservation for SC/ST in matter of promotions. Retrieved 5 November 2011. Retrieved 10 August 2012. 27. B. Archived from the original on 10 August 2012. ^ Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj. By Sheetal Sharma Radical Notes . The Hindu. ^ a b Bhattacharya. Jan 5.nic. April 2012 PhD Admissions . External links        "Raising Female Leaders" J-PAL Policy Briefcase. pp.constitutional requirements without which the structure of equality of opportunity in Article 16 would collapse. Retrieved 10 August 2012. Rawat The Myth of Inefficiency. ^ http://pib.11. Retrieved 10 August 2012. ^ a b c d e f "Judgement Writ Petition (Civil) No. Saswat Pattanayak (19 April 2007) . The Economist. Retrieved 27 May 2006. "Identifying Other Backward Classes" (PDF). 28.An Assessment of Reservations (Pg 32)". April 28. ^ "Implementation of Recommendations of Mandal Commission". ^ a b c d e f Kohli. on 27 April. ^ a b Ramaiah. 34. Retrieved 20 October 2011. ^ "Promotion quota not legally sustainable: HC". vs Rajesh Kumar & Ors.Ltd. Anil Sadgopal. History.

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