International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering Engineering International Journal of Advanced Research in and Technology (IJARET) ISSN 0976

– 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 1, Number 1, Sep - Oct (2010), © IAEME and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 1, Number 1, Sep - Oct (2010), pp. 92-111 © IAEME © IAEME, http://www.iaeme.com/ijaret.html

IJARET

THE EFFECT OF GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS ON MIXING AND PARALLEL JETS MIXING IN A LIQUID STATIC MIXER
D.S.Robinson Smart School of Mechanical Sciences, Karunya University Coimbatore-641 114 E-Mail id: smart@karunya.edu

ABSTRACT
Experimental investigations and computational analysis were carried out to predict the effect of parallel, vertical liquid jets mixing and the geometrical parameters which are effecting the mixing in a liquid static mixer. The computer analysis was carried out by using commercially available CFD software package FLUENT computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods [7].An experimental set up was designed and investigations were carried out to evaluate the parallel and vertical fluid jets mixing in a static liquid mixer. Conductivity probe technique was used to evaluate the mixing [3]. The results obtained by experimental investigation and computer analysis were compared and discussed in detail to decide upon the effectiveness of parallel and vertical liquid jets mixing. The investigations and computer analysis revealed that the mixing efficiency increases with the opening of parallel ports and the primary fluid nozzle position reaches 50mm with mixing inserts.

Keywords: Parallel jets; Liquid mixing; Static mixing 1. INTRODUCTION
Mixing of two or more ingredients is essential in number of different process industries such as chemical, pharmaceutical petroleum, plastics, and food processing, water and waste water treatment plants. There are two major types of mixers are available namely dynamic and static mixers. The efficiency of mixing depends on the efficient use of energy to generate flow of the components .Stirred tanks perform the mixing by a motor driven agitator. This type of mixer is generally employed when the mixing are

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undertaken in successive batches. Static mixers are in-line mixing devices generally consisting of mixing elements inserted into a pipe. Mixer of this type is used in continuous operation, with the energy for mixing being derived from the pressure loss incurred in the process of fluid flow through the elements [7].Over the years there has been increasing emphasis in the process industries towards continuous type of liquid mixing wherever practical or feasible and innovative designs for mixing became apparent. Hence the process industries are in need of a mixing system, which mixes the liquids, which are having different properties to produce various liquid products with less power requirement. In the present work an experimental test facility is designed,

developed and the experimental investigations and computational analysis have been carried out to predict the efficiency of parallel, vertical liquid jets mixing, the effect of geometrical parameters such as position of driving nozzle, cone angle of divergent nozzle, position of mixing insert and position of secondary fluid inlet on mixing with a view to optimize them [10].

2. EXPERIMENTAL SET UP
The experimental set up consists of a centrifugal pump, reservoirs, rotameter, mixing nozzle, four U tube manometers, control valves and conductivity meter . The primary fluid is stored in a tank. A control valve is used to regulate the primary fluid discharge. A centrifugal pump is used to supply the primary fluid from the tank to the mixer.

Figure 1 Experimental set up of parallel and vertical jets mixing nozzle

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As the primary fluid passes through the driving nozzle the velocity of flow increases as the area of flow decreases as it passes through the driving nozzle. Consequently there is a decrease in pressure. This drop in pressure creates a suction pressure in the converging area and the secondary fluid will be drawn. The suction pressure at the inlet ports of secondary fluid is measured using the manometers. There are four sets of secondary fluid ports in the mixing nozzle. The ports which are on the left side of the converging portion are called parallel ports. Ports on the top of the converging portion are called top ports and ports on the bottom are called bottom ports. Ports which are normal to the plane of top and bottom ports are called side ports. The position of the various secondary inlet ports is shown in Figure 2.Three suction nozzles (convergent) are fabricated with different cone angle 21deg, 23deg and 25 deg. Top Ports TP1, TP2, TP3, TP4 Parallel Port P1 Side Ports 1,2,3,4 Parallel Port Parallel Port P4 Down Ports Parallel Port P3

Figure 2 Locations of parallel, vertical and circumference secondary fluid ports Two types of inserts are made and it is braced to a long screw in order to move the insert to the desired location. Conductivity probes are used to measure the conductivity of mixed fluid.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
The aim of the experiment is to find out the extent of mixing of the two fluids by providing parallel jets, varying the geometrical parameters like, position of the driving nozzle, position of the insert and position of the secondary suction inlet and to evaluate the effect in on mixedness of the mixing nozzle.

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3.1. Experimentation and mixing efficiency
Conductivity or specific conductance is the measure of the ability of the water to conduct an electric current. Conductivity depends upon the number of ions or charged particles in water. The specific conductance is measured by passing a current between two electrodes (one centimeter apart) that are placed into a sample of water. In solution, the current flows by ion transport. Therefore, an increasing concentration of ions in the solution will result in higher conductivity values. The Conductivity Probe is actually measuring in ohms, conductance is measured using the SI unit, siemens (formerly known as a mho). Since the siemens is a very large unit, aqueous samples are commonly measured in micro siemens, or µS. Initially the discharge of primary liquid is kept as 2600 lit/hr by adjusting the ball valve and the 21º convergent portion is connected with the throat. Parallel port 1 is opened and all the other ports are closed. The secondary fluid discharge is obtained by noting down the time required for the suction of 500 ml of secondary fluid. The suction pressure is noted down from the manometer. Mixed fluid samples are collected from the samples points and the average electrical conductivity of the samples is measured. This is referred as the mixed fluid conductivity. Standard solution is prepared by taking a proportion of primary and secondary fluids which is having a ratio of the mixed fluid. This proportion of primary and secondary fluid will be well mixed by using a stirrer and the conductivity of mixed fluid is measured. This is referred as the standard conductivity. The closeness of mixed fluid conductivity with standard conductivity can be taken as a measure of mixing efficiency. Mixing efficiency is calculated as the ratio of mixed fluid conductivity and standard conductivity. The effectiveness of mixing of each port is obtained experimentally by finding out the mixing efficiency (mixing

efficiency=Conductivity of mixed fluid /Standard conductivity of mixed fluid). The experiment is repeated by opening the parallel ports P1,P2,P3,P4 individually, P1&P3 , P2&P4, P1&P2&P3&P4 combine and the down ports D1,D2,D3,D4 individually & D1&D2&D3&D4 combine .Samples are collected at the points 450mm,900mm & 1800mm from the throat entrance . The whole experiments were repeated by varying the discharge of secondary fluid as 3100lpm & 3600lpm and

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the distance between the tip of the driving nozzle and the throat entrance as 10mm, 20mm, 30mm, 40mm & 50mm.

5. COMPUTER MODELING AND ANALYSIS 5.1. Effect of Voticity and inserts on mixing
Different models have been created by varying geometrical parameters such as secondary fluid inlet position, cone angle (convergent) of suction nozzle and driving nozzle position [5,6]. Similarly Each case has been analyzed by keeping port open and other ports have kept closed and also by varying the position of driving nozzle away from the throat entrance. Another set of models have been created by providing an inserts in the throat of the nozzle. All these models have been created by using a pre-processor called ‘Gambit’. The computer analysis is done by exporting the meshed or grid generated model form GAMBIT software to the FULENT 6.0 [7]. The Figure 3 shows that the vorticity magnitude reaches the maximum value of 9.56(1/s) thus increases the mixedness, when the driving nozzle position DN is 50 mm & all the parallel ports are opened. The value of vorticity magnitude reduces to 8.08(1/s) when all the down ports are opened and leads to less mixing.

Figure 3 Contours of vorticity when all the parallel ports are open. It can be observed from the vorticity contours that the vorticity is more when the DN=50 mm and all the down ports are opened. The increase in vorticity leads to more interaction of mixing fluids and increasing the mixing efficiency. However near the

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inserts the values of vorticity is fluctuating and it is higher near the inserts and low without inserts .Hence the presence of inserts enhances the liquid-liquid mixing in a static mixing nozzle and the efficiency of mixing can be increased. The Figure 3 shows that the vorticity magnitude reaches the maximum value of 9.56(1/s) thus increases the mixedness, when the driving nozzle position DN is 50 mm & all the parallel ports are opened. The value of vorticity magnitude reduces to 8.08(1/s) when all the down ports are opened and leads to less mixing. Also the COV is nearing zero [3] due to more interaction of fluids and more mixing.

5.2. Effect of driving nozzle position on vorticity magnitude

Figure 4 Comparison of experimental, computational and literature results of Vorticity magnitude when DN=50 mm.

Figure 5 Contours of turbulent kinetic energy distribution with inserts (Lobes ).

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5.3. Effect of Turbulent kinetic energy

Figure 6 Contours of turbulent kinetic energy when parallel ports are opened

Figure 7 Contours of Turbulent kinetic energy when all the down ports are open It can be seen that the turbulence kinetic energy is maximum in case when the parallel ports P1 &P2 & P3 & P4 are opened simultaneously and the driving nozzle position DN is 50mm as it can be observed in Figure 5&6 From the contours of turbulent kinetic energy it is observed that the turbulent kinetic energy is 1.87x10 m2/s2 when the DN=50 mm and all the parallel ports are opened and 1.27x10 m2/s2 when DN=50 mm & down ports are opened. The turbulent kinetic energy is found to be still reducing when any ports is opened individually or combines with any other port.

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The computational analysis of Belovich [25] also proved that ,the parallel jets mixing is more effective .The increase of turbulent kinetic energy and vorticty are responsible for good mixing of fluids. Hence the mixing efficiency increases when DN=50 mm and all the parallel ports are opened.

5.4. The effect of DN position & LDNP on mixing efficiency when down ports are open.
Down Ports VS Efficiency
100

95

90

D1 open

Mixing Efficiency %

85

D2 open

80

D3 open

75

D4 open

70

D1,D2,D3&D4 open

65

60 -45 -40 -35 -30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

LDNP ( Distance between tip of the DN to port side wall ) in mm

Figure 8 The effect of DN position & LDNP on mixing efficiency when down ports are open Experiments were conducted as mentioned in the section above by opening the ports alternately by changing the distance between the tip of the driving nozzle to the

entrance of the throat (DN) as 10 mm, 20 mm, 30 mm, 40 mm & 50 mm. When the DN is changed the distance between tip of the driving nozzle to side wall entrance which is facing the entrance of the throat(LDNP) also changes as -40 mm(as it is behind the driving nozzle), -30 mm, -20 mm, -10mm and 0 respectively. Negative sign indicates that the corresponding port is behind the tip of the driving nozzle.

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It is clear that the mixing efficiency increases with decrease in LDNP when the D1, D2 opens .Further the LDNP increases and becomes more than 20 mm the mixing efficiency starts reduces. The mixing efficiency is found to reduce when the D3 & D4 opens and the LDNP becomes 31 mm ,35mm & 45mm as the chance of interaction of secondary fluid with primary fluid becomes very less (since the tip of the driving nozzle becomes away from the port side wall). When the down ports D1, D2, D3 & D4 are opened simultaneously as the area of contact of the secondary with primary fluid becomes more, the mixing efficiency is found to be more than the efficiency when individual ports are opened. When the driving nozzle position (DN) is adjusted to at 10mm, only port D4 is partially open and exposed to the main stream of primary fluid, hence the efficiency is found to be low. As the DN is adjusted to 20mm, port D4 is fully exposed to the primary fluid stream and there is an increase of efficiency. Further there is an increase of mixing efficiency when the DN becomes 30mm, and the ports D3 and D4 are fully exposed to the primary fluid stream .When the DN is changed to 40mm, efficiency has increased more than above said three conditions, as the ports D3&D4 are exposed fully and D2 is partially exposed to the stream of primary fluid. The mixing efficiency has reached to 95.4% when the ports D2, D3, D4 are fully exposed and D1 is partially exposed the stream of the primary fluid and the DN is adjusted to 50mm.From the above analysis it is clear that the mixing efficiency is increasing when the LDNP is between 0-20mm.

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5.5. The effect of driving nozzle position (DN) & LDNP on Mixing Efficiency when Parallel ports are open

Figure 9 Effect of DN position & LDNP on mixing efficiency when parallel ports are open Parallel ports discharges the secondary fluid, parallel to the primary fluid stream. When the parallel ports P1, P2, P3 & P4 are opened alternately one by one, it was observed that the efficiency is all most same. When the distance between the tip of the driving nozzle to exit of the secondary fluid parallel ports(LDNP) increases the mixing efficiency reduces and it is increasing with the decrease of LDNP .The increase of efficiency occurring due to the more contact of secondary fluid with the primary fluid in all the four direction when the LDNP decreases. The mixing efficiency decreases with increase in LDNP as the contact between the primary and secondary fluids getting reduces due the increase of distance between the tip of the driving nozzle to the exit of secondary fluid outlet. efficiency is inversely proportional to the LDNP. Hence the mixing

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Table.1. Parallel Port 1(PP1) , 2(PP2), 3(PP3) & 4(PP4)are Open &Driving Nozzle position, DN=50mm. Discharge Mixing efficiency Mixed fluid conductivity Std Q1 ηm ( mS/cm) Conductivity (lph) (mS/cm) [%] 2600 3100 5.45 6.89 6.1 7.3 89.4 94.5

DN (mm) 50 50

50 3600 9.1 9.4 96.7 Table.1 shows that the conductivity of mixed fluid nearing the conductivity of standard mixed fluid and which leads to the maximum efficiency when the parallel ports P1, P2, P3&P4 are opened simultaneously when the driving nozzle position DN is 50mm.Figure 9 shows that, when the LDNP reduces from 60mm to 12mm the mixing efficiency reaches 96.7 at DN is 50mm.

5.6. Effect of driving nozzle position (DN) & LDNP on Mixing Efficiency when the down ports, side ports & upper ports are open.
Mixing efficiency VS Circumference ports 95 90 85 80 75 70 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 LDNP(Distance between tip of the driving nozzle to side wall of the ports) in mm D1,SF1,UP1 & SB1 ports open D2,SF2,UP2 & SB2 ports open D3,SF3,UP3 & SB3 ports open D4,SF4,UP4 & SB4 ports open

Figure 10 Effect of driving nozzle position (DN) & LDNP on Mixing Efficiency when the down ports, side ports & upper ports are open. The Figure 10 shows that the mixing efficiency reduces to 94.3% when all the down ports and the circumference ports are opened. But the efficiency is increasing to

M ix in g e f f ic ie n c y %

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95.4% when all the parallel ports open. Hence it is clear that the parallel jets jets mixing improve the performance of the static liquid mixer.

5.7. Effect of sample location and l/d ratio on mixing.
Samples were collected at l/d = 18, l/d = 36 and l/d = 72 i.e. .450mm, 900mm & 1800mm from the entrance of the throat during the experiments. The Conductivity of mixed fluid was found out and the mixing efficiency calculated. Figure 11 shows the results.

Figure 11 Effect of mixing length (l/d ratio or sample point) on mixing efficiency It can be observed that there is only a slight increase as l/d ratio changes [10] from 35 to 72 and there is an increase of efficiency only 5% as there is no mechanism available to increase the energy for mixing or to add the energy for mixing.

5.8. Effect of discharge of primary fluid (Q1) on mixing.

Figure 12 Effect of primary fluid discharge on mixing efficiency when parallel ports are open 103

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Figure 13 Effect of primary fluid discharge on mixing efficiency when the down ports are open Mixing experiments were conducted by varying primary fluid discharge as 2600 lph ,3100 & 3600 lph for various conditions . From the Fig.12 & 13 it is clear that the mixing efficiency increases with increase in secondary fluid and primary fluid

discharge (Q1&Q2) as the velocity increases more energy being added to the mixed stream and leads to more mixing and the mixing of fluids take place with greater impact. The experimental analysis of Ahmed [17] also proved that the velocity and discharge influences the mixing of coaxial and parallel liquid jets.

5.9. Influence of primary fluid discharge Q1 on Coefficient of variationExperimentation
The mean value and standard deviations are calculated for every set of mixed fluid density values. And the COV calculated (COV=standard deviation of concentration measurements/mean concentration). This is also called the intensity of mixing or degree of segregation

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Figure 14 Influence of primary fluid discharge Q1 on Coefficient Experimentation

of

variation-

At least three samples of mixed fluid were collected by changing the primary fluid discharge Q1, driving nozzle position DN and opening the various ports during the experiments. Densities of samples were measured. The Figure 14 shows that the mixing efficiency increasing gradually as the COV reducing when the DN=40mm and D3 opened=50mm and P2 and P4 are open, all the down ports are opened simultaneously and DN=50mm and opening all the parallel ports. From the experimental result shown in Figure 14 it is clear that COV is a function of primary fluid discharge Q1[1] and driving nozzle position DN. When the Q1 increase from 2600 lph to 3600 lph, DN is 50mm and all the parallel ports are opened, COV decreases from 0.001169 to 0.000441 as the fluids interacts more and increase in efficiency. Similarly the density distribution found to be more uniform and the COV is nearing zero when the DN=50 mm & all the parallel ports are opened. Hence there is an increase of mixing efficiency.

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Figure 15 Influence of primary fluid discharge Q1 on Coefficient of variation & Comparison between experimental and computational results Table 2 Coefficient of variation- COV by computational Opened port P2 & P4 open D1, D2, D3, & D4, open P1, P2, P3 & P4 open 50 50 DN, mm COV 0.0017661 0.0008814

50

0.0004417

Figure 15 and Table 2 shows the comparison of COV obtain by experiment and computational .In both the cases it is clear that the COV approaches zero hence increase in mixing efficiency when the parallel ports are opened and parallel jets are getting mixed. There is a good agreement between COV obtained from the computational and experimental results.

5.10.Effect of mixing insert on mixing efficiency
To evaluate the influence and effect of mixing insert on mixing efficiency, helical and plate type of mixing inserts have been provided at 900 mm (l/d=36 mm) away from

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the entrance of throat and the experiments were repeated for the few best conditions which were obtained during the experiments.
Driving Nozzle position(DN) VS Mixing efficiency with & with out insert
D1 to D4 open & without insert D1 to D4 open & with insert P1 to P4 open & with out insert P1 to P4 open & with insert 0 10 20 30 40 50 60

100

95

Mixing efficiency %

90

85

80

75

70

DN position in mm

Figure 16 Effect of mixing insert on mixing efficiency The samples are collected at the outlet and whose conductivity was measured. The Figure 15 shows the trend of mixing efficiency with and without inserts. The

mixing efficiency is found to be increased by 2 to 3 % by addition of helical type of mixing insert. Hence it can be concluded that the addition of mixing insert improves the mixing efficiency. The sample points can be changed as l/d=18 mm, l/d=36 mm & l/d=72 mm (mixing length as 450mm, 900mm & 1800mm). The absence of mixing insert does not have much influence on mixing efficiency even though there is an increase of mixing length (l/d ratio or sample point). By introduction of mixing insert the mixing efficiency is found to be increase as it adds more energy for mixing when fluid flow through the helical path of insert. Hui Hu [24] has studied the effect of mixing insert on mixing experimentally and proved that ,mixing inserts improves the mixing.

5.11.Effect of driving nozzle position on vorticity magnitude
The Figure 6.10 shows the comparison between the vorticity magnitude obtained by the computation and literature data’s. The vorticity magnitude reaches the maximum value of 9.56(1/s) thus increases the mixedness, when the driving nozzle position DN is 50 mm & all the parallel ports are opened and due to the inserts.

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Figure 17 Vorticity magnitude when DN=50 mm Also the COV is nearing zero due to more interaction of fluids and more mixing The value of vorticity magnitude reduces to 8.08(1/s) when all the down ports are opened and leads to less mixing. The results were found agreeing with the literature data.

6. FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS
In the present work a mixing nozzle was designed, fabricated and its performance was evaluated experimentally. Theoretical analysis is also carried out by using CFD method. The influencet of geometrical parameters on mixing and the parallel jets mixing were evaluated. The mixing efficiency was evaluated by using conductivity which is simple and reliable technique to evaluate the mixing efficiency of the mixing nozzle. The effect parallel jets mixing in a static mixing nozzle on various conditions have been analyzed and the results are reported. An experimental set up was fabricated and experiments were carried out to predict the performance on the mixing by varying the locations of secondary fluid inlet to 5mm, 15mm, 20mm&40mm, driving nozzle position 10mm, 20mm, 30mm, 40mm&50mm, cone angle of the suction nozzle to 21deg, 23deg & 25deg and the location of the insert to 50mm, 100mm&150mm from the entrance of the throat. The investigations revealed that the change in sample point (l/d) does not have much effect on mixing efficiency without adding mixing insert. The addition of mixing insert improves the mixer performance. The mixing efficiency depends on the direction of fluids entry. The increase of primary fluid discharge Q1 influences the suction of secondary fluid which in turn has an effect on mixing efficiency. When the driving

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nozzle was kept at 50mm and the all the parallel ports are opened and the parallel jets mixing taking place the mixing efficiency was increasing as vorticity magnitude and the turbulent kinetic energy are increasing and the fluids interaction becomes more which intern increases the mixedness. Computational modeling and the analysis shows that COV is found to be minimum and gives more effective mixing when all the parallel ports ie., P1, P2, P3 & P4 are opened at DN = 50 mm. The COV obtained by the experimentation and computation were compared and found to be in good agreement.

7. SCOPE OF FURTHER WORK
Further this study can be extended by studying the effect of temperature, viscosity of fluids and twisting angle of inserts on mixing. Mapping methods can be used to study the distributive mixing processes. Further the standard models can be developed to predict the drop size evolution during the flow in the static mixer.

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