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**Punching of flat slabs: Design example
**

Stefan Lips, Aurelio Muttoni, Miguel Fernández Ruiz Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Switzerland, 16.12.2011

Lips / Muttoni / Fernández Ruiz / Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Switzerland

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6 kN/m 2 Lips / Muttoni / Fernández Ruiz / Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne.5 ⋅ 3 = 15.00 m and Ly = 5.5 32 mm Loads Steel B500S (flexural and transverse reinforcement) fyd Es Ductility class 435 MPa 200 GPa B Self-weight of concrete slab: Superimposed dead load: Live load: 6.35(6. Concrete C30 fck γc dg 1.3 30 MPa 1.1 Basic data Geometry (dimensions in [m]) Plan view Section trough slab and column Spans: Lx = 6.1 1.60 m Slab thickness h: Cover concrete c: 1. Switzerland 2 .25 + 2) + 1.2 Material 25 cm 3 cm The material properties can be found in chapter 5 of model code 2010.25 kN/m2 2 kN/m2 3 kN/m2 g d + qd = 1.

75 → k dg = 0.5 + 0. one can estimate the rotations.5.22 Ly = 0.65 Edge Column (C2. C3): Vd ≈ 93 kN Edge (C2): Vd ≈ 265 kN (C4 and C6 are not governing Vd ≈ 244 kN) Control perimeter The effective depth dv is assumed to be 200 mm.2 Inner: Corner: Edge: b0 = ke ⋅ ( 4 ⋅ bc + d v ⋅ π ) = 0.200 200000 1.70 ⋅ ⎜ 3 ⋅ 260 + 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎞ ⎟ = 440 mm ⎠ ⎞ ⎟ = 766 mm ⎠ Inner column (C5) ke=0.x = 0. Level I of approximation (preliminary design) Reaction forces Inner (C5): Vd ≈ 692 kN Corner (C1. The reaction forces in the columns are estimated by using contributive areas.6 1.6 = 1.0215 0.75 Lips / Muttoni / Fernández Ruiz / Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne.67 < 0.5 ⋅ = 1.5 ⋅ kψ = rs .227 ≤ 0.22 ⋅ 5.32 m rs .9 Corner Column (C1.2 The goal of the preliminary design is to check if the dimensions of the structure are reasonable with respect to the punching shear strength and if punching shear reinforcement is needed.5 ⋅ ψ y = 1.x f yd d Es rs .9 ⋅ 0. Eccentricity coefficient (ke) are adopted from the commentary of §7. C6) ke=0. By using the Level I approach.9 ⋅ψ ⋅ d ⋅ k dg 1.32 435 = 0. the distance to the point where the radial moment is zero rs can be estimated based on the spans.65 ⋅ ⎜ 2 ⋅ 260 + 4 ⎝ ⎠ 200 ⋅ π ⎞ ⎛ ⎟ = 0.7 Rotations rs .22 Lx = 0. C3) ke=0.5 ⋅ 1.23 435 = 0. C4. The maximum aggregate size of 32 mm leads to a factor kdg of k dg 32 32 = = = 0.0200 0.22 ⋅ 6.200 200000 governing 1 1 = = 0.90 ⋅ ( 4 ⋅ 260 + 200 ⋅ π ) = 1501mm d ⋅π ⎛ b0 = ke ⋅ ⎜ 2 ⋅ bc + v 4 ⎝ d ⋅π ⎛ b0 = ke ⋅ ⎜ 3 ⋅ bc + v 2 ⎝ 200 ⋅ π ⎞ ⎛ ⎟ = 0. y = 0.23m According to the commentary.0 = 1.0215 ⋅ 200 ⋅ 0. y f yd d Es = 1.3.75 16 + d g 16 + 32 ψ x = 1. Switzerland 3 .5 + 0.

c = kψ f ck γc f ck b0 d v = 0. VRd . Conclusions Inner column: Shear reinforcement is necessary and sufficient (accounting for the values of ksys) to ensure punching shear strength Corner columns: Shear reinforcement might probably not be necessary.227 b0 d v = 0.227 b0 d v = 0. Edge columns: Shear reinforcement might probably be necessary.5 Corner: VRd .227 30 1501 ⋅ 200 ⋅ 10 −3 = 249 kN ≤ Vd = 692 kN 1.09 VRd .Shear strength without shear reinforcement Inner: V Rd .c 127 γc b0 d v ≥ Vd → ksys ≥ kψ Vd f ck = b0 d v Vd VRd . Higher values (up to ksys = 2. Shear reinforcement To check if shear reinforcement and which system can be used. The thickness of the slab is sufficient if shear reinforcement is used.c 249 Vd 93 = = 1.5.5 30 440 ⋅ 200 ⋅ 10 −3 = 73 kN ≤ Vd = 93 kN 1.0 for system compliant with model code detailing rules (§7. Lips / Muttoni / Fernández Ruiz / Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne.c 73 Vd 265 = = 2.3).78 VRd . This has to be confirmed by a higher level of approximation. one can calculate the minimal needed value of factor ksys.13.8) can be used if more restrictive detailing rules are adopted and if the placing of the transverse reinforcement is checked at the construction site. The model code proposes a value of ksys = 2.27 VRd .c = kψ γc f ck γc The thickness of the slab has to be increased or the slab has to be shear reinforced.5 30 766 ⋅ 200 ⋅ 10 −3 = 127 kN ≤ Vd = 265 kN 1.c γc ksys depends on the performance of the used shear reinforcement system.max = ksys kψ f ck Inner: Corner: Edge: k sys ≥ k sys ≥ k sys ≥ Vd 692 = = 2.c = kψ Edge: V Rd . Switzerland 4 .

In this example. Reinforcement sketch The flexural strength can be calculated according to the Model Code. It was designed on the basis of the previous finite element analysis. however.y For a level II approximation.x Level II of approximation (typical design) Structural analysis and flexural design Rd [kN] 111 266 112 252 664 246 Md.and y-direction.x.3 3. the flexural strength has been calculated assuming a rigidplastic behavior of concrete and steel: ⎛ ρ ⋅ f yd ⎞ mRd = ρ ⋅ d 2 ⋅ f yd ⎜ 1 − ⎟ 2 f cd ⎠ ⎝ Flexural strength ø10 @200 mm ø10 @100 mm ø10 @200 mm / ø16 @200 mm mRd = 35 kNm/m mRd = 69 kNm/m mRd = 115 kNm/m d = 210 mm d = 210 mm d = 204 mm Lips / Muttoni / Fernández Ruiz / Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne. [kNm] 25 42 25 3 8 5 Md. The moment Md is the vector addition of the moments in x. Md = M 2 d . one has to know the flexural reinforcement. For the analysis.y [kNm] 22 0 22 36 1 34 Md [kNm] 33 42 33 36 8 34 Summary of the column reactions Column C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 +M 2 d .4 The moments and the reaction forces have been calculated with a finite element software. a linear-elastic model has been used. Switzerland 5 .

x yd ⋅ ⎜ sd d Es ⎜ mRd .300 ≤ 0.x and rs.91 Vd M d . x ⎝ 1.204 + π = 0.2042 π = 0.21 = 661 kN Control perimeter In case of inner columns.x = 1. kψ = 1 1 = = 0. y yd ⋅ ⎜ sd d Es ⎜ mRd .26 ⋅ 0.262 + 2 ⋅ 0.98 1 + eu bu 1 + 12 513 b0 = ke ⋅ b1 = ke ⋅ ( 4 ⋅ bc + d v ⋅ π ) = 0.5 ⎞ 1. y = 1. Therefore.23 = 1.3.204 200000 ⎝ 115 ⎟ ⎠ ⎠ 1.6 ⋅ 0.32 m rs .5 r f ⎛ m ψ x = 1.91 1.23 435 ⎛ 83 ⎞ ⋅ = 0. x ⋅ rs .9 ⋅ψ ⋅ d ⋅ k dg 1. Δe = 0 ke = eu = Md 8 ⋅106 − Δe = − 0 = 12 mm 661 ⋅103 Vd bu = 4 π Ac = 4 π 206 ⋅103 = 513mm 1 1 = = 0.32 ⋅1.6 1.21 m 2 4 4 Vd = N d − ( g d + qd ) ⋅ Ac = 664 − 15.0133 ⎟ = 1.5 ⋅ 1. Switzerland 6 .32 435 ⎛ 85 ⎞ ⋅⎜ = 0.5 ⋅ s . the centroid of the column corresponds to the centroid of the control perimeter.23m bs = 1.5 governing r f ⎛ m ψ y = 1. rs . y − Vd ⋅ Δey 661 1 + = + = 83kNm/m 8 2 ⋅ bs 8 2 ⋅1.204 200000 ⎜ 115 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎠ 1. Ac = bc2 + 2 ⋅ bc ⋅ d v + dv 2 0.5 Shear design inner column C5 Design shear force The design shear force Vd is equal to the column reaction force Nd minus the applied load within the control perimeter (gd + qd)·Ac.y are the same as for the Level I approximation. x − Vd ⋅ Δex 661 8 + = + = 85 kNm/m 8 2 ⋅ bs 8 2 ⋅1.98 ⋅ ( 4 ⋅ 260 + 204 ⋅ π ) = 1642 mm Rotations The distances rs. y = 1.5 ⋅ s .5 ⋅ rs .75 Lips / Muttoni / Fernández Ruiz / Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne.0121 ⎟ = 1.5 ⋅ ⎟ 0. y ⎝ kdg is calculated at Level I.5 + 0.5 ⎞ 1.x = msd . y = Vd M d .5 + 0.5 ⋅ ⎟ 0.91m msd .9 ⋅ 0.0133 ⋅ 204 ⋅ 0.

out 661 ⋅ 10 3 30 0.35 ⋅ 204 − ( 0. V Rd . This is done assuming ksys=2.5 ke = = 3468 mm γc b0 3468 = = 552 mm 2π 2π b0 3468 = = 3505 mm 0.99 ke 1 1 + eu 2rout = 1 = 0.c (661 − 367 ) = 690 mm 2 = k eσ swd sin α 0.5 ⋅ Vd 0.max = k sysVRd .0133 ⎛ 3 204 ⎞ ⋅ ⎜1 + ⋅ ⋅ ⎜1 + bd ⋅ ⎟ = ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ f ywd φ w ⎠ 6 ⎝ 435 8 ⎠ ⎝ σ swd = 521 MPa > f ywd = 435 MPa Asw = Vd − VRd . The bond strength is taken as fbd = 3 MPa (according to MC 2010 for corrugated bars).300 30 1642 ⋅ 204 ⋅ 10 −3 = 367 kN ≤ Vd = 661 kN 1.35d v − ( 0.Punching strength without shear reinforcement The punching shear strength of the concrete is not sufficient.98 ⋅ 435 ⋅ sin (90°) Asw.300 174 1. the outer perimeter need to have a minimal length. factor ke can be estimated as detailed in the right hand side column. Possible shear reinforcement layout: b0 = kψ rout = bout = Vd f ck = d v . VRd.c = kψ f ck γc b0 d v = 0.13. The design shear force Vd is below the maximum punching strength VRd.5 Punching strength with shear reinforcement Firstly.max = 734 kN ≥ Vd = 661kN σ swd = E sψ 6 ⎛ f d ⎞ 200000 ⋅ 0. shear reinforcement is necessary.98 ⋅ 435 ⋅ sin (90°) 0.35 ⋅ 204 ) ⋅ π ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ 2 2 Asw = 1263mm > 774 mm bout = 4 ⋅ 800 + 174 ⋅ π = 3746 mm > 3505 mm Lips / Muttoni / Fernández Ruiz / Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne.005 ⎡ 4 ⋅ 260 ⋅ 204 + 2042 ⋅ π − 4 ⋅ 260 ⋅ 0. The design shear force can be reduced to account for the loads applied inside the outer perimeter.50% 2 Asw = ρ w ⎡ 4 ⋅ bc ⋅ d v + d v2 ⋅ π − 4 ⋅ bc ⋅ 0. Switzerland 7 .out = d − c = 204 − 30 = 174 mm Assuming a circular control perimeter for the estimation of the eccentricity. the calculating value of the effective depth dv is equal to the effective depth d minus the concrete cover c on the bottom surface of the slab: d v . the slab can be reinforced with shear reinforcement complying with detailing rules defined in subclause §7. Consequently. In this example.5 ⋅ 661 = 779 mm 2 = k eσ swd sin α 0.99 1 + 12 (2 ⋅ 552) ρ sw = ∅8@100@100 = 0. This effect is neglected as a safe estimate.max.min = governing To avoid a failure outside the shear reinforced area. one has to check if the design shear force Vd is smaller than the maximum punching strength VRd.5. Therefore.c = 2 ⋅ 367 = 734 kN ≤ f ck γc b0 d v = 1223 kN VRd.3.max.35d v ) ⋅ π ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ 2 Asw = 0.

26 ⋅ 0. x ⎝ governing Lips / Muttoni / Fernández Ruiz / Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne.x yd ⋅ ⎜ sd .144 V 110 + = + = 31kN < d = = 55 kN 8 8 0.52 m msd . In case of corner columns.262 + 0.6 Shear design corner column C1 and C3 Design shear force The design shear force Vd is equal to the column reaction force Nd minus the applied load within the control perimeter (gd + qd)·Ac.32 435 ⎛ 55 ⎞ ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ = 0.52 2 2 bs 1.5 r f ⎛m ψ x = 1.5 ⋅ ⎟ 0.91m bsr = 2 ⋅ bc = 2 ⋅ 0.x d Es ⎜ mRd . x ⋅ rs .13 = 110 kN Control perimeter Δex = Δey = dv 3⎛ ⎜ bc + 2 4⎝ 3 ⎞ ⎞ bc 1 ⎛ ⎟ − 2 = 4 ⎜ bc + 2 d v ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎠ Δex = Δey = 1⎛ 3 ⎞ 1⎛ 3 ⎞ ⎜ bc + 2 d v ⎟ = 4 ⎜ 260 + 2 210 ⎟ = 144 mm 4⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ Δe = Δex ⋅ 2 = 144 ⋅ 2 = 203mm eu = ke = Md 33 ⋅106 − Δe = − 203 = 97 mm Vd 110 ⋅103 1 1 = = 0.y are the same as for the Level I approximation.32 m rs .2102 + π = 0.13 m2 2 16 16 Vd = N d − ( g d + qd ) ⋅ Ac = 112 − 15. rs .21 200000 ⎝ 69 ⎠ ⎠ 1.52 2 2 bs Vd M d .5 ⋅ rs .26 = 0.x and rs.32 ⋅1. y = 1. y − Vd ⋅ Δey 110 22 − 110 ⋅ 0.5 ⋅ 1.6 ⋅ 0.81 1 + eu bu 1 + 97 408 bu = 4 π Ac = 4 π 131 ⋅103 = 408mm d ⋅π ⎞ π⎞ ⎛ ⎛ b0 = ke ⋅ b1 = ke ⋅ ⎜ 2 ⋅ bc + v ⎟ = 0. the width of the support strip may be limited by the distance bsr.x = 1. y = governing Vd M d . Switzerland 8 .210 + π = 0. Ac = bc2 + 2 ⋅ bc ⋅ dv dv 2 0.5 ⎞ 1.144 V 110 + = + = 25 kN < d = = 55 kN 8 8 0.x = msd .5 ⋅ s .23 = 1.3. y = 1.81 ⋅ ⎜ 2 ⋅ 260 + 210 ⋅ ⎟ = 554 mm 4 ⎠ 4⎠ ⎝ ⎝ Rotations The distances rs.23m bs = 1.0146 ⎟ = 1. x − Vd ⋅ Δex 110 25 − 110 ⋅ 0.

6 1.5 kdg is calculated at Level I.5 ⎞ 1. kψ = 1 1 = = 0.r f ⎛m ψ y = 1. the design load can be reduced.280 30 554 ⋅ 210 ⋅ 10 −3 = 119 kN > Vd = 110 kN 1.08 ⋅ sin (20°) f ck (g d + qd )acc = 1.1kN/m 2 Vd .21 200000 ⎝ 69 ⎠ ⎠ 1.5 + 0. As = Vd . Thus. integrity reinforcement needs to be provided.25 + 2) + 0.5 Vd . y ⎝ 1. two restrictions should be fulfilled: -the integrity reinforcement should at least be composed of four bars -the diameter of the integrity bars øint has to be chosen such that øint ≤ 0.5 ⋅ s .5 Integrity reinforcement Since no shear reinforcement has been used and msd < mRd. the accidental load case can be used.12d res = 0. thus αult = 20°.9 ⋅ψ ⋅ d ⋅ k dg 1. y d Es ⎜ mRd .6 ⋅ 3 = 10.acc = (g d + qd )acc g d + qd 10.23 435 ⎛ 55 ⎞ ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ = 0. Switzerland 9 .5 + 0.c = kψ f ck γc b0 d v = 0.12 dres π 2 d res = 2 ⋅ 100 + π 2 ⋅ 168 = 464 mm φint = 12 mm ≤ 0. no shear reinforcement will be necessary VRd .1 ⋅ Vd = ⋅110 = 71kN 15.acc ≤ γc bint d res = 30 ⋅ 464 ⋅ 168 = 285 kN 1.280 ≤ 0.0146 ⋅ 210 ⋅ 0. y yd ⋅ ⎜ sd .0136 ⎟ = 1. With respect to integrity reinforcement.12 ⋅ 168 = 20 mm Lips / Muttoni / Fernández Ruiz / Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne.0(6.08 It is assumed that only straight bars will be used. Thus.acc 71 ⋅ 103 = = 442 mm 2 f yd ⋅ ( f t f y )k ⋅ sin α ult 435 ⋅ 1.6 2x2 ø12 As = 452 mm2 (2 in each direction with a spacing of 100 mm) d res = h − 2 ⋅ c − φtop − φbottom = 250 − 2 ⋅ 30 − 10 − 12 = 168 mm bint = 2 ⋅ sint + The material properties can be found in chapter 5 of model code 2010. Ductility class B : (ft/fy)k = 1. For the design of the integrity reinforcement.5 ⋅ ⎟ 0.9 ⋅ 0.75 Punching strength without shear reinforcement The punching shear strength of the concrete is sufficient.

23 = 1. y − Vd ⋅ Δey V 263 0 263 + = + = 33kN < d = = 66 kN 8 2 ⋅ bs 8 2 ⋅1.5 ⋅ 1.17 = 263 kN Control perimeter 1 d d d + d v ) ⋅ ⎛ bc + v ⎞ + 2 ⎛ bc + v ⎞ ⋅ ⎛ bc + v ⎜ ⎜ 2⎟ 2 ⎟ 2⎜ 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ Δex = ( bc + dv ) + 2 ⎛ bc + dv 2 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 2 1 2b + 6bc d v + 3d v Δex = ⋅ c 4 3bc + 2d v (b c ⎞ ⎟ b ⎠− c 2 Δex = 1 2bc2 + 6bc d v + 3d v2 1 2 ⋅ 2602 + 6 ⋅ 260 ⋅ 210 + 3 ⋅ 2102 ⋅ = ⋅ = 124 mm 4 3bc + 2d v 4 3 ⋅ 260 + 2 ⋅ 210 Δe = Δex = 124 mm bu = 4 Δey = 0 mm eu = ke = Md 42 ⋅106 − Δe = − 124 = 35 mm 263 ⋅103 Vd 1 1 = = 0.x and rs.32 ⋅1.x = 3 ⋅ bc = 3 ⋅ 0. y = 1.78 Vd M d .91 + = + = 1.23m bs = 1.09 4 4 Lips / Muttoni / Fernández Ruiz / Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne. y = 1.260 1.x = msd .91m bsr .212 + π = 0.78 m bsr . y = governing governing bc bs 0.x − Vd ⋅ Δex 263 42 − 263 ⋅ 0.17 m 2 2 8 2 8 Vd = N d − ( g d + qd ) ⋅ Ac = 266 − 15.6 ⋅ 0. the width of the support strip may be limited by the distance bsr.7 Shear design edge column C2 Design shear force The design shear force Vd is equal to the column reaction force Nd minus the applied load within the control perimeter (gd + qd)·Ac. y = Vd M d .5 ⋅ rs .26 ⋅ 0.124 + = + = 45 kN bs 8 8 0.3. In case of edge columns.93 1 + eu bu 1 + 35 461 π Ac = 4 π 167 ⋅103 = 461mm d ⋅π ⎛ b0 = ke ⋅ b1 = ke ⋅ ⎜ 3 ⋅ bc + v 2 ⎝ π⎞ ⎞ ⎛ ⎟ = 0. Switzerland 10 .y are the same as for the Level I approximation.x = 1.09 m 2 2 2 2 msd .21 + π = 0. Ac = bc2 + 3 ⋅ bc ⋅ dv dv 2 3 0.26 = 0.262 + 0.93 ⋅ ⎜ 3 ⋅ 260 + 210 ⋅ 2 ⎟ = 1031mm ⎝ ⎠ ⎠ Rotations The distances rs.32 m rs . x ⋅ rs . rs .

c = kψ f ck γc b0 d v = 0. x ⎝ r f ⎛m ψ y = 1.5 + 0.5 Lips / Muttoni / Fernández Ruiz / Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne.5 ⋅ ⎟ 0. VRd .r f ⎛m ψ x = 1. Switzerland 11 .011 ⎟ = 1.018 ⋅ 210 ⋅ 0.5 ⎞ 1. kψ = 1 1 = = 0.5 ⋅ s .x yd ⋅ ⎜ sd .75 Punching strength without shear reinforcement The punching shear strength of the concrete is not sufficient.5 ⋅ s .32 435 ⎛ 45 ⎞ ⋅ = 0. y d Es ⎜ mRd .9 ⋅ψ ⋅ d ⋅ k dg 1.9 ⋅ 0.x d Es ⎜ mRd .6 1.5 ⎞ 1.5 + 0. Since the strength seems to be rather close to the design load.5 1.247 30 1031 ⋅ 210 ⋅ 10 −3 = 195 kN < Vd = 263 kN 1.21 200000 ⎝ 69 ⎠ ⎠ 1. y ⎝ 1.5 ⋅ ⎟ 0. a level III approximation will be performed.23 435 ⎛ 66 ⎞ ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ = 0.247 ≤ 0.21 200000 ⎜ 69 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎠ 1.018 ⎟ = 1. y yd ⋅ ⎜ sd .5 governing kdg is calculated at Level I.

5 rs .5 + 0.8 msd.y at the support regions are negative.2 ⋅ kψ = rs .0 -35.y [kNm/m] -56.0(6.26 = 0.52 m 3 1.x [kNm/m] -11.5 ⋅ 0.9 ⋅ 0. y ⎝ governing 1 1 = = 0.64 ⋅1.x need to be subtracted so that the absolute value of msd.18 435 ⎛ 43 ⎞ ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ = 0. x = 24 kNm/m rs .7-53.x = 0.18 m rs . y = 43kNm/m (average value on support strip) 2 bsr .64 m msd .xy y bsr.6 Lips / Muttoni / Fernández Ruiz / Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne.0-54.x and md. xy msd .2 ⋅ ⎟ 0. the absolute value of the twisting moment md.x = 0.x = 0.0073 ⎟ = 1. y = md . Thus the design load can be reduced.1 -20. As = Vd .x = md .acc 171 ⋅ 103 = = 1064 mm 2 f yd ⋅ ( f t f y )k ⋅ sin α ult 435 ⋅ 1.21 200000 ⎝ 69 ⎠ ⎠ 1.9 -32. For the design of the integrity reinforcement.5 ⎞ 1.30 m bsr .18 = 1.0073 ⋅ 210 ⋅ 0.52 m 3 2 bsr . msd . x ⋅ rs .0016 ⎟ = 1.2 ⋅ s . the accidental load case can be used.7 my=0 Level III of approximation (detailed design or assessment of existing structure) rs .4 The Level III calculations are based on the results of the linear-elastic finite element analysis.5 ⎞ 0. From the results of the flexural analysis. y = bc bs 0.5 + 0. y = 1. one can obtain the distance between the center of the column and the point.5 Integrity reinforcement Since no shear reinforcement has been used and msd < mRd.5 -bsr.21 200000 ⎝ 69 ⎠ ⎠ 1.9 -36.x 2 -17.395 30 1031 ⋅ 210 ⋅ 10 −3 = 312kN > Vd = 263 kN 1.acc = (g d + qd )acc g d + qd ⋅ Vd = 10.x = 3 ⋅ bc = 3 ⋅ 0.18 m > r f ⎛ m ψ x = 1.30 + = + = 0.accs ≤ γc bint d res = 30 ⋅ 861 ⋅ 166 = 522 kN 1. at which the bending moments are zero. no shear reinforcement will be necessary VRd . The average moment in the support strip can be obtained by the integration of the moments at the strip section.78 m 2 2 2 2 mx=0 rsy=1. Since the flexural moments md.0 -17.26 1.1 -25.y will be maximized.4 -29.25 + 2) + 0. Thus.08 ⋅ sin (20°) f ck Vd .18 m rsx=0. y f yd ⎛ msd ⋅⎜ d Es ⎜ mRd .x − md . y = 1.0 -51.x yd ⋅ ⎜ sd d Es ⎜ mRd .64m > msd.9 ⋅ψ ⋅ d ⋅ k dg 1.395 ≤ 0.64 435 ⎛ 24 ⎞ ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ = 0.9 -42.6 ⋅ 3 = 10.64 m bs = 1. Switzerland 12 .2 ⋅ ⎟ 0.x 2 ψ y = 1.8 -30.5 ⋅ rs . y = 1.y x msd . y = 0.1kN/m 2 3x3 ø14 As = 1385 mm2 (3 in each direction with a spacing of 100 mm) d res = h − 2 ⋅ c − φtop − φbottom = 250 − 2 ⋅ 30 − 10 − 14 = 166 mm Vd . y − md .x and msd.4 0 bs.1 ⋅ 263 = 171kN 15.3 -31.6 -34.c = kψ γc b0 d v = 0.5 (g d + qd )acc = 1.75 f ck The punching shear strength of the concrete is sufficient.6 1.8 -48.x ⎝ 1.78 m bsr . integrity reinforcement needs to be provided to prevent a progressive collapse of the structure.7 -11.

12 ⋅ 166 = 20 mm Corners of walls should be checked following the same methodology. Luca Tassinari The authors would also like to thank Carsten Siburg (RWTH Aachen. Germany) for the independent check of the example he performed. Acknowledgements: The authors are very appreciative of the contributions of Dr. Lips / Muttoni / Fernández Ruiz / Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne.08 It is assumed that only straight bars will be used.12d res = 0. Ductility class B : (ft/fy)k = 1. Juan Sagaseta Albajar and Dr. Switzerland 13 . With respect to integrity reinforcement. thus αult = 20°. two restrictions should be fulfilled: -the integrity reinforcement should at least be composed of four bars -the diameter of the integrity bars øint has to be chosen such that øint ≤ 0.12·dres bint = 3 ⋅ sint + π 2 d res = 3 ⋅ 200 + π 2 ⋅ 166 = 861 mm φint = 14 mm ≤ 0.The material properties can be found in chapter 5 of model code 2010.

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