Cooling towers The cooling tower cools the hot water with cool air by crosscurreentflow of two fluids

that is air and water past each other in a tower filled with packing .this involves both mass and heat transfer .the water surface which exists on the tower packing is covered with an air film assumd to be saturated at water temperature .The heat is transferred between this film and the main body of air by diffusion and convection .the packing or fill is arranged to prevent a droplet of water from falling the full heigt of the tower .As it falls in hits a packing member ,spases forms afilm ,drops off and falls to hitsa packing member.The cross -current air streams of air sweeps across these drops and films to effectively cool the water and humidify the air .As the water flow down through the tower its temperature may drop below the dry bulb temperature,it can just only approch one of the controoling features in tower design and performance is how close the inlet air wet bulb temperature and outlet water are expected to operate . Common app y large hyperboloid structures that can be up to 200 metres tall and 100 metres in diameter, or rectangular structures that can be over 40 metres tall and 80 metres long. Smaller towers are normally factory-built, while larger ones are constructed on site Principles of heat transfer conduction Conduction is the transfer of heat by direct contact of particles of matter. The transfer of energy could be primarily by elastic impact as in fluids or by free electron diffusionas predominant in metals or phonon vibration as predominant in insulators. In other words, heat is transferred by conduction when adjacent atoms vibrate against one another, or as electrons move from atom to atom. Conduction is greater in solids, where atoms are in constant contact. In liquids (except liquid metals) and gases, the molecules are usually further apart, giving a lower chance of molecules colliding and passing on thermal energy. Heat conduction is directly analogous to diffusion of particles into a fluid, in the situation where there are no fluid currents. This type of heat diffusion differs from mass diffusion in behaviour, only in as much as it can occur in solids, whereas mass diffusion is mostly limited to fluids. To quantify the ease with which a particular medium conducts, engineers employ the thermal conductivity, also known as the conductivity constant or conduction coefficient, k. In thermal conductivity k is defined as "the quantity of heat, Q, transmitted in time (t) through a thickness (L), in a direction normal to a surface of area (A), due to a temperature difference (ΔT) [...]." Thermal conductivity is a material property that is primarily dependent on the medium's phase, temperature, density, and molecular bonding.


Convection is transfer of heat by movement of a heated fluid. Unlike the case of pure conduction, now currents in fluids are additionally involved in convection. This movement occurs into a fluid or within a fluid, and cannot happen in solids. In solids, molecules keep their relative position to such an extent that bulk movement or flow is prohibited, and therefore convection does not occur. In natural convection a fluid surrounding a heat source receives heat, becomes less dense and rises. The surrounding, cooler fluid then moves to replace it. This cooler fluid is then heated and the process continues, forming a convection current. The driving force for natural convection is buoyancy, a result of differences in fluid density when gravity or any type of acceleration is present in the system. Forced convection, by contrast, occurs when pumps, fans or other means are used to propel the fluid and create an artificially induced convection current. Forced heat convection is sometimes referred to as heat advection, or sometimes simply advection for short. But advection is a more general process, and in heat advection, the substance being "advected" in the fluid field is simply heat (rather than mass, which is the other natural component in such situations, as mass transfer and heat transfer share generally the same equations). In some heat transfer systems, both natural and forced convection contribute significantly to To calculate the rate of convection between an object and the surrounding fluids, engineers employ the heat transfer coefficient, h. Unlike the thermal conductivity, the heat transfer coefficient is not a material property. The heat transfer coefficient depends upon the geometry, fluid, temperature, velocity, and other characteristics of the system in which convection occurs. Therefore, the heat transfer coefficient must be derived or found experimentally for every system analyzed. Formulae and correlations are available in many references to calculate heat transfer coefficients for typical configurations and fluids. It should be noted that convection does not occur in a perfect vacuum due to the lack of media to transmit heat. This mode of heat transfer does not occur in space where there is no atmosphere in the surroundings of the system to be analyzed. It only occurs where gases are present. Radiation Radiation is the transfer of heat energy through empty space. All objects with a temperature above absolute zero radiate energy at a rate equal to their emissivity multiplied by the rate at which energy would radiate from them if they were a black body. No medium is necessary for radiation to occur; radiation works even in and through a perfect vacuum. The energy from the Sun travels through the vacuum of space before warming the earth. Also, the only way that energy can leave earth is by being radiated to space.

Both reflectivity and emissivity of all bodies is wavelength dependent. The temperature determines the wavelength distribution of the electromagnetic radiation as limited in intensity by Planck’s law of black-body radiation. For any body the reflectivity depends on the wavelength distribution of incoming electromagnetic radiation and therefore the temperature of the source of the radiation. The emissivity depends on the wave length distribution and therefore the temperature of the body itself. For example, fresh snow, which is highly reflective to visible light, appears white due to reflecting sunlight with a peak energy wavelength of about 0.5 micrometres. Its emissivity, however, at a temperature of about -5C, peak energy wavelength of about 12 micrometres, is 0.99. Gases absorb and emit energy in characteristic wavelength patterns that are different for each gas. Visible light is simply another form of electromagnetic radiation with a shorter wavelength than infrared radiation. The difference between visible light and the radiation from objects at conventional temperatures is a factor of about 20 in frequency and wavelength; the two kinds of emission are simply different "colors" of electromagnetic radiation.

Principle of cooling tower
The cooling tower is totally an orphan product,and as the word cooling is associaed with it . ACRpeople have taken that word for granted. Water cannot be cooled with less than a 3C approach .Hence the cold water temperature achievable shall be 3C.i,e. more than the wet bulb temperature of air.the wet bulb temperature considered should be the actual wet bulb temperature of air entering into a cooling tower not atmosperic wet bulb . The actual wet bulb temperature entering a cooling tower is affected due to many factor .That is heat source near the cooling tower ;the air movement to the cooling tower should not be hindered;Recycling because o size of the tower;and orientation of the tower is respect to wind flow.

Wet-bulb temperature The thermodynamic wet-bulb temperature is the temperature a volume of air would have if cooled adiabatically to saturation at constant pressure by evaporation of water into it, all latent heat being supplied by the volume of air. The temperature of an air sample that has passed over a large surface of liquid water in an insulated channel is the thermodynamic wet-bulb temperature – it has become saturated by passing through a constant-pressure, ideal, adiabatic saturation chamber. Meteorologist and others may use the term "isobaric wet-bulb temperature" to refer to the "thermodynamic wet-bulb temperature". It is also called the "adiabatic saturation temperature". It is the thermodynamic wet-bulb temperature that is plotted on a psychrometric chart. The thermodynamic wet-bulb temperature is a thermodynamic property of a mixture of air and water vapor. The value indicated by a simple wet-bulb thermometer often provides an adequate approximation of the thermodynamic wet-bulb temperature. For an accurate wet-bulb thermometer, "the wet-bulb temperature and the adiabatic saturation temperature are approximately equal for air-water vapor mixtures at atmospheric temperature and pressure. This is not necessarily Dry-bulb temperature The dry-bulb temperature is the temperatureof air measured by a thermometer freely exposed to the air but shielded from radiation and moisture. In construction, it is an important consideration when designing a building for a certain climate. Nall called it one of "the most important climate variables for human comfort and building energy efficiency the rate of heat transfer.

Humidity is the amount of water vapor in the air. In daily language the term "humidity" is normally taken to mean relative humidity. Relative humidity is defined as the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor in a parcel of air to the saturated vapor pressureof water vapor at a prescribed temperature. Humidity may also be expressed as absolute

humidity and specific humidity. Relative humidity is an important metric used in forecasting weather. Humidity indicates the likelihood of precipitation, dew, or fog. High humidity makes people feel hotter outside in the summer because it reduces the effectiveness of sweating to cool the body by preventing the evaporation of perspiration from the skin. This effect is calculated in a heat index table.

Relative humidity
Relative humidity is defined as the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor in a gaseous mixture of air and water vapor to the saturated vapor pressure of water at a given temperature. Relative humidity is expressed as a percentage and is calculated in the following manner: RH=P(H2O)\P^*(H2O) Where P(H2O) is the partial pressure of water vapor in the gas mixture; P^*(H2O) is the saturation vapor pressure of water at the temperature of the gas mixture; and RH is the relative humidity of the gas mixture being considered. Relative humidity is often mentioned in weather forecastsand reports, as it is an indicator of the likelihood of precipitation, dew, or fog. In hot summer weather, it also increases the apparent temperature to humans by hindering the evaporation of perspiration from the skin as the relative humidity rises

Dew point
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The dew point is the temperature to which a given parcel of air must be cooled, at constant barometric pressure, for water vapor to condense into water. The condensed water is called dew. The dew point is a saturation point. When the dew point temperature falls below freezing it is often called the frost point, as the water vapor no longer creates dew but instead creates frost or hoarfrost by deposition. The dew point is associated with relative humidity. A high relative humidity indicates that the dew point is closer to the current air temperature. Relative humidity of 100% indicates that the dew point is equal to the current temperature (and the air is maximally saturated with water). When the dew point stays constant and temperature increases, relative humidity will decrease. At a given barometric pressure, independent of temperature, the dew point indicates the mole fraction of water vapor in the air, and therefore determines the specific humidity of the air. The dew point is an important statistic for general aviation pilots, as it is used to calcu late the likelihood of carburetor icing and fog, and estimate the height of the cloud base Performance The effect of wet bulb temperature ,approach and range on indced draft cooling tower size are indicated as curves ,these curves are necessarily the approximate midrange

of a spread or brand of the magnitude of respective influences on the ground area.that is , the information a good for guidance as to the direction .Certain changes will take in the final selection. In examine the tower perfomance it is no the air temperature that sets the capacity ,but the heat content or enthalpy of the air .Although the air temperature and wet bulb at inlet may be different inlet air condition, it is still possible for the air to have the same enthalpy .thereforetwo different conditions can produce the same effect on tower performance .The heat content or enthalpy of all air with the same wet bulb temperature is the same ,therefore,it is clear that the wet bulb temperature is important and sets performance of all commonly used commercial high voidage packings can be correlated by KaV/L’=0.07+AN(L’/Ga)*_n This relates the tower characteristics to the number of packings decks in the tower and L’/a raio The simultanious solution of equation involving the approach and cooling range and equation involving the number of packing decks yields the L’/Ga which satisfies the specified perfomance .The accuracy of this combined with the data is within 5%.equation is essentially a straight line on log-log paper , so tow points are sufficient to determine the position . The tediousness is involved in integrating the expression for the several enthalpy conditions involving approach and range that could satisfy the problem . The economics of forced and induced draft cooling tower operation require a study of fan and water pump horsepwer and usually dictate a fan static pressure requirement not to exceed 0.75-1.0 inch of water .This means that the ground area must be so selected as keep the height down while not dropping the unit rates so low that performance becomes poor .this then ,is a balance of ground area versus total deck height .Prichard presents an estimating curve inicating that as packed height varies from 12-40 feet ,beig slightly less than a straight line function. THE PRESSURE LOSSES ARE: 1.Tower packing or fill(70-80 % of loss ) 2.Air inlet if induced draft 3.mist eleminators at top 4.air direction change losses and entrance to packing on forced draft units These losses are a unction of air velocity ,number and spacing of packing decks ,liqid rate and relaion between L’&Ga. P’=NBGa(0.0675/pg) Pressure drop values per individual deck P’/N range from 0.003-0.006 inch of water for low L’and Ga rates to 0.03-0.06 inch of water for high L’ and Ga rates.Pressure losses through wooden mist eliminators based on 0.0675lb/cu.ft.air varies from 0.01 inch water at Ga 800to 0.07at Ga=2000as almost a straight line function . These loses are based on the face area of the eleminators . FAN HORSE POWER FOR MECHANICAL DRAFTTOWER can be calculated by using the equation: BHP=Fps/(6356)*(0.50)

F=actual cfm at fan inlet Ps =total static pressure of fan, inches of water This relation includes a 50% static efficiency of the fan and gear losses assuming a gear drive .If belt driven the difference wil not begreat. The conditions for actual inlet conditions for an induced draft fan must be obtainened from equation .economical tower sizes usually require fan horse power between 1.05and 0.08 horse power per square foot of ground plan area and motors largerthan 75HP are not often used due toinability to obtain the proper fans and gears in the space required . Water disribution must give uniform water flow over the tower packing .many towers use a gravity feed system discharging the water through throughs and ceramic ,metal or plastic nozzles .Other systems use pressure nozzles discharging upward, before falling back over the packing head due to the pressure rates usually run from 1to 3.5 gpm/ft^2of ground plan area . PERCENT BLOWDOWN This is useful in making material balances around a tower . It shows how much of the makeup water is being wasted by going to the sewer or leaving the tower as wind age loss and how much is being usefully useby being evaporated. ppm calcium in makeup water(100) Percent Blowdown = Ppm calcium in circulating water CYCLES OF CONCENTRATION. In a sense ,this value is the inverse of the lowdown . it is quite useful in calculating the treatement dosage .The higher its value ,the more efficiently the water is being used. Cycles=ppm calcium in the circulating water /ppm calcium in makeup water PERMISSIBLE CONCENTRATION The limit to which the circulating water can be concentrated is governed by the hardness of the circulating water higher than 70% of the precipitation concentration . HEAT LOAD: This is the amount of heat dissipated by the tower in a unit lenth of time .It is based on the fact 1000BTU are required to evaporate 1 pounds of watermust be cooled 10^0 to furnish this amount of heat .Thus ,the evaporation loss is 1% of the tower circulation for each 10^0 temperature drop through the tower .The heat load can be calculated from this data . MAKEUP WATER REQUIRED:

This value is simply the sum of the water evaporated and water blown down . AIR REQUIRED: Enough air must be drown or forced through the tower to evaporate the amount of water .Two additional mesurements are needed :the wet bulb temperature and dry bulb temperature of the inlet air .Psychometric table or chart will show that the water water content of such air .It has been that the temprature of the outlet air is very close to the average of the inlet and outlet water temperature. The dry bulb and dry bulb temperatures of the outlet air is same,i.e., saturated .again from a psychometric chart,The water content of this air is found .The difference between thse two values will give the amount of water vapour.The dry air required to remove this quantity of water is evaporation rate devided bythis value. WATER EFFICIENCY: The lowest temperature to which water can be cooled by its own evaporation is the wet bulb tempertature of the air with witch I is in contact.The water efficiecy of a cooling towerwould be the ratio of the actual cooling to the theoritical cooling. (hot water temperatue-cold water temperature) WATER EFFICIENCY= (hot water temperature-wet bulb temperature)

THERMAL EFFICIENCY: The thermal efficincy of a cooling tower is the percent of evaporation of the water supplied to the tower. Now we calculate the performance of te cooling tower in the sulpuric acid plant .After calculating the performance we can improve the performance of the cooling tower. PERFOMANCE CALCULATION DATA Cooling water inlet temperature of the cooling tower =45 Cooling water outlet temperature from the cooling tower=33 Wet bulb temperature of the inlet air =29 Water volumetric flow rate per cell =200m^3/hr Number of cells in the tower =4

Ground plan area of the tower Number of decks Types deck used is deck ‘J Recirculation

=16*6m^2 =40 =3%

CALCULATION Tin=45 Tout=33 Twet=29 Total volumetric flowrate in to the cooling tower=800m^3/hr Mass flow rate =800*1000 =80000Kg/hr Ground plan area=16*6m^2 Range=Tin-Tout=45-33 =12k Since the circulation is 3% the actual ambient wet bulb temperature is to be corrected. HEAT LOAD The water flow rate is Cooling water inlet temperature Cooling water outlet temperure The evaporation loss will be

This is equivalent to Heat load is

AIR REQUIRED Enough air must be drawn or forced through the cooling tower to evaporate the water .Two additional measurements are needed ; the wet bulb and dry bulb temperature of inlet air.

The wet bulb temperature=84.2 The dry bulb temperature= A psychometric table or chart will show that the water content of such air will be Kg of water per Kg of dry air It has been found that the temperature of the outlet air is very close to the average of the inlet and outlet temperature .The wet bulb and dry bulb temperatures of the outlet air are the same ,i,e saturated The inlet water temperature The outlet water temperature The average is which is assumed to be the outlet air temperature Again from the psychometric chart or table ,the water content of this