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Channel coding is a method to reduce information rate through the channel and increase reliability.

This goal is achieved by adding redundancy to the information symbol vector resulting in a longer coded vector of symbols that are distinguishable at the output of the channel.

Frequency reuse is a technique of reusing frequencies and channels within a communications system to improve capacity and spectral efficiency. Frequency reuse is one of the fundamental concepts on which commercial wireless systems are based that involves the partitioning of an RF radiating area (cell) into segments of a cell. One segment of the cell uses a frequency that is far enough away from the frequency in the bordering segment that it does not provide interference problems. Frequency re-use in mobile cellular systems means that each cell has a frequency that is far enough away from the frequency in the bordering cell that it does not provide interference problems. The same frequency is used at least two cells apart from each other. This practice enables cellular providers to have many times more customers for a given site license.

Cell splitting is the process of splitting a mobile cell into several smaller cells. This is usually done to make more voice channels available to accommodate traffic growth in the area covered by the original cell.

A Interface This is the interface within the GSM network architecture between the BSS (Base Station Subsystem) and an MSC (Mobile Switching Centre). The interface supports standard 64Kbps channels for signalling and traffic. The primary protocols on this interface are DTAP (Direct Transfer Application Part) and BSSMAP (Base Station Subsystem Management Application Part). Abis Interface

The interface within the GSM architecture, between the BTS (Base Transceiver Station) and BSC (Base Station Controller). This interface is usually configured using a 16Kbps slot structure. The A1 interface Carries signaling information between the Call Control and Mobility Management functions of the MSC (Mobile Switching Center) and the call control component of the BSC (Base Station Controller). A9 Interface The A9 interface carries signaling information between the BS (Base Station) and the PCF (Packet Control Function).

LAPD - Link Access Protocol on the D Channel Link Access Protocol on the D channel is a Layer 2 protocol used on the ISDN D channel. LAPD was derived from the LAPB (Link Access Protocol Balanced) protocol and was designed to satisfy the signaling requirements of ISDN basic access. LAPD is defined in the ITU-T (International Telecommunications Union-Telecommunication Standardization Sector. The LAPD, protocol is used to convey messages between layer3 entities across the GSM radio interface. LAPDm - Link Access Protocol on the Gm Channel LAPDm is a modified version of LAPD(Link Access Protocol in the D channel), the Data link layer protocol. The modifications make it suitable for transmission across a radio interface. It is used in GSM to support the transport of information between the mobile and the network.

Wi-Fi Protected Setup (WPS) is a standard for easy and secure establishment of a wireless home network, created by the Wi-Fi Alliance .The goal of the WPS protocol is to simplify the process of configuring security on wireless networks.

17. What is MAP?

MAP - Mobile Application Part A protocol which enables real time communication between nodes in a mobile cellular network. A typical usage of the MAP protocol would be for the transfer of location information from the VLR(Visitor Location Register) to the HLR(Home Location Register).

A mobile allocation index offset (MAIO) refers a time delay separating traffic channels. When a GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) mobile phone is served by a cell that is hopping over a set of frequencies, the separate traffic channels hop over the allocated frequencies according to a hopping sequence number (HSN). The traffic channels with the same HSN hop over the same frequencies in the same order but are separated in time by a mobile allocation index offset (MAIO). The smallest amount of interference on a site is achieved if it is possible to synchronize all channels on the site and separate the channels using the MAIO.

Frequency hopping is defined as continuous changing the frequency from one slot to another Each burst is transmitted on a different frequency Both mobile and base station follow the same hopping sequence Base Band Hopping (BBH) The TCUs transmit always the same frequency Number of frequencies for hopping = Number of carriers Synthesiser Frequency Hopping (SFH) The TCUs change (retune) the frequency every burst Number of frequencies for hopping > Number of carriers TCUs can hop over a range of 64 different frequencies

The average speed of mobile stations within a cell is determined or estimated using a variety of techniques. If the average speed is below a predetermined threshold, then a cyclic FH sequence is used to achieve superior frequency diversity and therefore combat small-scale fading. If the average speed is above a predetermined threshold, then a random FH sequence is used to achieve superior interference averaging and therefore combat co-channel interference