Wireless Instrumentation
I/O Telemetry systems transmit analog or digital signals and replicate them exactly at another site. For instance, a 4-20mA loop current at the input of the Telemetry system at one site is reproduced as a 4-20mA loop current at the Telemetry system output at the other site. I/O telemetry can be: unidirectional or bidirectional

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point-to-point or point- to-multipoint digital, analog or both wireline or wireless Reasons for Using I/O Telemetry:

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remote I/O is required at a local hardware I/O interface I/O Telemetry is a more cost effective solution than PLC's and RTU's when the amount of I/O involved is very low. Below is an illustration of a typical Wireless End-to-End I/O Telemetry system . Here the Telemetry link is bidirectional; inputs/outputs on one side map respectively to outputs/inputs on the other side.

License Free Wireless I/O Offers Fast And Efficient Route To More Oil & Gas SCADA Use

Wireless Communications has been widely used in the oil and gas industry since it is either impossible or cost prohibitive to run hard wire to many remote locations. Licensed radio communication (VHF and UHF) has been the predominant media used. The limited availability of RF frequencies, licensing delays, and annual licensing costs have been a bottleneck to more widespread use of wireless SCADA and Telemetry in the oil and gas industry. Unlicensed radio communication offers a solution to this bottleneck. With no licensing delay, no annual licensing fees and channel availability, it opens up the opportunity for more widespread use of SCADA and Telemetry applications in the oil and gas industry. For more information please refer to the attached document from SKMM. What is Spread Spectrum Technology? The FCC and Industry Canada have allocated sections of the RF spectrum for unlicensed communications systems. These include the 902-928 Mhz bands and the 2.4 Ghz bands. These bands are offered on a "no interference - no protection basis". "No interference" means the RF equipment must not interfere with existing licensed users while "no protection" means that the RF equipment manufacturer is responsible for providing their own protection against other RF equipment operating in the band. The 902-928 Mhz and 2.4 Ghz bands utilize 2 types of spread spectrum technology:

there was a need to re-establish communications to these sites for status monitoring.Compressor solution replaces hardwired monitor An oil company monitored gas compressors using RTU systems connected by hard wire. The system was installed the next day and the site could be unmanned. To implement a system. With these techniques.transceiver hop through a pseudo-random pattern of frequencies. Their requirement was to get these signals back to the PLC at the injection header.transceiver simultaneously broadcast on multiple frequencies. the environment and trenching had taken its toll on the cables. In time. As the wiring deteriorated and communications to the RTU's was degrading.Solar powered radio modem answers injection well problem A major U. . then the site could be remotely monitored and unmanned. License-free operation was important in this application since RF channel allocation was difficult to obtain in this high density oilfield area.HMI . Transceivers having the same code can communicate with each other but a transceiver with a different code could not communicate with any of these. the option of putting the new system on the same frequencies as the existing SCADA systems may also not be desirable. The end result is that the system may be unnecessarily delayed or not implemented at all. The company was planning to replace the dated RTU systems with PLC's and selected radio modem for this application since in addition to providing license-free wireless communications.S.S. This required the site be continuously manned until it was rectified. Application 1 . MMI and SCADA   Frequency Hopping . Burying new cable would have been cost prohibitive and the radio modem was chosen as a cost effective wireline replacement. Over the years.however. it had I/O to which they could directly wire compressor alarms until they replaced the RTU's with PLC's. these problems don't exist so the system can be implemented immediately. all transceivers in the same system would be assigned the same pseudo-random pattern or coding. one would have to obtain radio frequency for the new sites or utilize the same radio channel as an existing field SCADA system. The license-free operation permitted immediate deployment. With the unlicensed system the customer could retain the existing system architecture. Annulus pressure switches were monitored via underground cable that was buried during construction of the injection pipeline. A new radio frequency allocation may be difficult to obtain since the area may be highly congested with other existing radio systems. The company felt that if the pressure switch alarm contact could be transmitted to an existing alarm callout at an oil battery seven miles away. This allows different systems to coexist without having to assign a unique licensed frequency to each system. save on trenching costs and quickly implement the required communication link. The existing licensed radio channels to the SCADA host could not be used since communication was required to the PLC near the injection header and not to the SCADA host. Application 2 . With unlicensed radio communications. The different pseudo-random patterns or codes effectively act to isolate one system from another.Fast solution to alarm monitoring request A U. the hardwired system had been damaged by excavation for new construction and became increasingly unreliable. oil producer had a requirement to monitor the annulus pressures of water/CO2 injection wellheads to ensure proper injection. Why use Spread Spectrum Technology? The traditional approach to SCADA has been to package a Remote Terminal Unit (RTU) with a licensed radio or radio modem. Application 3 . Direct Sequence . On the other hand. oil producer had a gas locking problem in an oil pipeline which shut down production on high pressure. Typical Oil & Gas applications using the radio modem The following examples demonstrate typical oil and gas SCADA and Telemetry applications in which the radio modem provided a cost effective solution.

unknowingly . Control room footprint is much smaller (below). . Each card can typically accommodate 8 channels. Wireless eliminates the need/cost for building in spare I/O capacity. Malaysian_Spectrum _Allocations_Chart. The EKG tells your child's doctor if his heart is beating correctly. Telemetry technicians watch the monitor 24 hours a day.Medical & Hospitals. The police responded by tracking the fleeing robbers locations via the radio modem. Electricity and energy. Application 3 . Five EKG electrodes (small sticky patches with thin wires) will be placed on your child's chest and stomach areas. Application 1 – Remote tracking solution to alarm monitoring request A gold smith or a pawn shop required constant monitoring of their goods where about during a robbery heist . The recording shows up on a computer monitor and can be printed on paper. I/O cards and power for a 350-field device installation. Traditional DCS I/O cards consist of digital input. The monitor works both inside and outside of his room. MMI and SCADA Other possible application . The electrodes do not hurt your child.They will be connected to a small box that sends a pattern of the heart’s rhythm to a computer monitor. Pro and contra PROS:-Reduce space . Because an RTU or a traditional SCADA are too large to fitted inside a gold bars miniature radio modem does the job well. Water .pdf Application 2 – Utility billing . digital output. Wireless I/O with native support for wireless further reduces the amount of physical wires. The robbers swept the gold bars (that embedded with a radio modem and gps) together with their loots . Telemetry monitoring is a continuous electrocardiogram (EKG) reading that shows the electrical activity (rhythm) of your child's heart.HMI . and analog input cards.

. windows steel frames and cements . Databridge Wireless I/O module Typical circuit application from starman electrical Databridge module. MMI and SCADA Contra:-Limited range in congested city area due to thick concrete walls .HMI .

MMI and SCADA Energy Harvesting and beaming (wireless energy transfer) Radio wave from unintended or intended RF source to DC Example of RF Signal energy harvesting circuit.HMI . .

This is done to monitor the levels of radiation as a result of industrial activity and provides early warning capabilities to safeguard against exposure to potentially hazardous radioactive environment.00) Solar power system panel are costly but more efficient than RF energy harvesting.HMI . . Example of our customer product usage Astronautic Technology (M) Sdn Bhd ERMS Environment Radiation Monitoring System (ERMS) For the ERMS project. MMI and SCADA Wireless ambient power energy harvesting can be cost effective in they are manufacture in volume which is less than USD 2.00(RM 6. Na-I sensors are placed throughout the country to monitor levels of background radiation.

Automatic Continuous Air Monitoring Stations typically include:-     Measurement instrumentation (for both pollutant gases and meteorological parameters). and Data acquisition system (to collect and store data) Stesen CAQM Miri Stesen CAQM Banting Stesen caqm shah alam Picture 1: Continuous Air Quality Monitoring Station SOURCE: http://www. calibration equipment).doe. 2% background and 13% PM10 stations. MMI and SCADA The Department of Environment (DOE) monitors the country’s ambient air quality through a network of 51 stations. and Effects of any specific topography CAQM design Automatic monitoring is designed to collect/measure data continuously (24 hours a day) during the monitoring period. Criteria The CAQM monitoring locations are chosen based on the following criteria:-       Results of past and current monitoring. Support instrumentation (support gases.HMI . 2% traffic. These monitoring stations are strategically located in residential. The CAQM stations are divided into five (5) categories. Security. telephone line etc. traffic and industrial areas to detect any significant change in the air quality which may be harmful to human health and the environment. Out of 51 stations established in Malaysia. Availability of support services (power.). 26% are industrial stations. 57% are residential. Parameters measured in 4 categories of CAQM stations:Category Industrial Residential Traffic Background PM10 Sulphur Dioxide X X X X Nitrogen Oxides X X X X Carbon Monoxide X X Ozone X X X Hydrocarbon X X X X PM10 X X X X X UV X X - Data from all CAQM stations are pooled hourly and telemetrically by DOE to calculate the Air Pollutant Index (API) . Instrument shelters (temperature controlled enclosures). Accessibility.

2 63.010 0. Watts and voltage in a 50 ohm system.4 28.040 0.0040 0.6 100 126 159 200 252 317 399 .016 0. dBm / millivolts / milliWatts conversion table This conversion table charts the values for dBm against milliwatts and the relevant voltage expressed in millivolts.peak to peak in a 50Ω system.2 31. MMI and SCADA dBm & Voltage Conversion Table . When working with RF power.0063 0. The table below provides a chart to convert between dBm.025 0.40 20 25. the voltages are often used in other calculations.0 89.2 17. Three tables have been included.7 56.0016 0.16 0.100 0.4 112 142 -30 -28 -26 -24 -22 -20 -18 -16 -14 -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 0. Also as the milliwatts change to watts. It is applicable to many lower power applications. These have been chosen because the voltages move from readings measured in millivolts to those in volts. it is often useful to know the voltage level for a given power.2 79.0 50.HMI .conversion table to convert between dBm. watts and voltage .25 0.8 22.4 71.0010 0. the change in the table is made.063 0.9 11.5 44.2 35.1 8. Although voltage levels are unlikely to rise to significant levels which might cause damage for power levels measured in dBm.2 14.7 40.0025 0. DBM MILLIWATTS VOLTAGE MILLIVOLTS (P-P) VOLTAGE MILLIVOLTS (RMS) 7.

41 1.24 2.milliwatts .1 100 158 25.42 0.17 3.0 12.224 282 1.51 3.99 5.00 1.56 0.Volts conversion table:This conversion table charts the values for dBm against milliwatts and the relevant voltage expressed in volts. DBM MILLIWATTS VOLTAGE VOLTS (P-P) VOLTAGE VOLTS (RMS) 0.82 3.32 7.1 39.98 6.00 1.26 1.63 1.78 2.00 1.59 2.HMI .796 4.6 .45 0. It is applicable to many medium power applications.8 25. MMI and SCADA DBM MILLIWATTS VOLTAGE MILLIVOLTS (P-P) VOLTAGE MILLIVOLTS (RMS) 178 224 282 1420 -2 0 2 4 0.58 2.31 10 15.48 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 1.1 398 0.51 502 632 796 4000 dBm .632 0.95 10.00 2.89 1.55 4.12 1.52 3.02 6.71 0.58 2.8 63.

10 8.3 14.00 1.2 35.98 6.64 7.7 dBm .0 50.4 112 142 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 1.Watts .94 11.8 22.1 17.4 28.0 89.5 44.6 100 126 159 200 252 317 399 . MMI and SCADA DBM MILLIWATTS VOLTAGE VOLTS (P-P) VOLTAGE VOLTS (RMS) 5.HMI .58 2.10 8.4 71.9 20. It is applicable to many high power applications.1 100 159 251 398 20 25.2 79.8 63.51 3.0 25.Volts conversion table This conversion table charts the values for dBm against milliwatts and the relevant voltage expressed in volts.2 31.9 25.1 39.2 28 30 32 34 631 1000 1585 2510 15.2 63.2 31.94 11.7 56.0 15.7 40.31 10. DBM WATTS VOLTAGE MV (P-P) VOLTAGE MV (RMS) 7.

MMI and SCADA DBM WATTS VOLTAGE MV (P-P) VOLTAGE MV (RMS) 178 224 282 58 60 62 631 1000 1585 502 632 796 Example design:- .HMI .