bill of materials (BoM

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Reprints A bill of materials (BoM) is a list of the parts or components that are required to build a product. The BoM provides the manufacturer's part number (MPN) and the quantity needed for each component. At its most complex, a BoM is a multi-level document that provides build data for multiple subassemblies (products within products) and includes for each item: part number, approved manufacturers list (AML), mechanical characteristics and a whole range of component descriptors. It may also include attached reference files, such as part specifications, CAD files and schematics. Originally used internally within a company, the BoM served as a way to track product changes and maintain an accurate list of required components. As manufacturing has become increasingly distributed, however, the BoM has taken on even greater importance. It serves as the primary reference file for product data when transferring product information from the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) to the electronic manufacturing services (EMS) provider and from the EMS to its vendors and suppliers. As outsourcing expands the number of companies involved in the manufacturing process for a particular product, the need for accuracy in the BoM is critical. According to theInternational Electronics Manufacturing Initiative, BoM errors typically fall within three categories: completeness, consistency and correctness.

Completeness - Incomplete data is the most common BoM defect. Critical pieces of information that are often omitted include quantity, part description, reference designation and approved manufacturers list (AML). Missing AMLs reportedly cause the majority of problems.

Consistency - Information in the BoM sometimes conflicts with information provided in engineering drawings and design files. For example, quantities may not match -- there may be 10 locations for a particular component indicated on a board, but the BoM only specifies nine. Another consistency problem is format. The format of the BoM, even though it is from the same customer, can change from one transmission to the next, making it difficult to match and confirm data. Language is another stumbling block because it, too, can vary from BoM to BoM.

Correctness - Incorrect data is a serious problem. Common errors include invalid manufacturer or supplier information, obsolete data and incorrect part numbers (i.e., the manufacturer's parts number (MPN) given does not match the description of the part, or the MPN is not recognized by the manufacturer/supplier). Again, approved manufacturer's lists (AML) seem to be the predominant problem. Additional errors can result from receipt of information in hard copy format, which requires manual re-entry of data, an error-prone and time-consuming task.

What is a manufacturing BOM?
The manufacturing BOM, also referred to as the manufacturing bill of materials or MBOM, contains all the parts and assemblies required to build a complete and shippable product. This includes packaging materials like colored boxes, CDs and printed quickstart guides. It also incorporates items that are used in the assembly process, like liquid adhesives or tape. Both off-the-shelf (OTS) components and custom, made-to-specification (MTS) parts belong on a manufacturing bill of materials, as well as non-tangible items like firmware. Any item that can be found in the final boxed product needs to be included at some level of the manufacturing BOM. Some parts require processing—like pad printing, painting or programming—before they are ready to be assembled into a final product. While only the altered part is assembled into the final product, both the pre-processed base part and the finished part are represented on the manufacturing BOM. The manufacturing team needs to know about all the processing steps in order to make critical decisions about which steps will be performed in-house and which will get outsourced to a separate vendor. The location of the processing may be changed during the life of the product to reduce costs, improve quality or increase flexibility.

Why is the manufacturing BOM important?
The manufacturing BOM enables the final transition from product concept to a concrete, touchable object. The more accurate and complete the contents of the manufacturing bill of materials are, the better the decisions you can make about how to get the product efficiently and cost-effectively into the customer’s hand. How and where a part will be made impacts the purchasing of components and processed parts, the availability of inventory and the contents of build kits on the manufacturing line. It determines what steps happen on the assembly floor during the production run and what happens ahead of time (possibly at another vendor). Options like these create trade-offs between time, money and control, and those decisions need to be managed as part of the new product introduction (NPI) process. The accuracy and completeness of a manufacturing bill of materials allow a company to make better tradeoffs and improve its ability to successfully ramp, build and introduce a new product. The manufacturing bill of materials drives manufacturing, operations, purchasing and logistics for a product. The information from the MBOM feeds the business systems used to order parts and build the product. These include enterprise resource planning (ERP), materials resource planning (MRP) and manufacturing execution system (MES) solutions.

Inaccuracies in a manufacturing BOM lead to problems: If the wrong parts or wrong quantities of parts are ordered, a company will not be able to build enough product—or any product at all. This leaves the company with unusable components that need to be returned or extra parts that tie up money in inventory. For manufacturing and operations departments that are already running lean, cleaning up these mistakes is a

hassle that wastes time and money. Depending on the size of the original mistake, the amount of money lost could be large enough to impact the company’s bottom line. How does an MBOM differ from an EBOM? Manufacturing Bill of Materials (MBOM) vs. Engineering Bill of Materials (EBOM) MBOM
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Organized into subassemblies that reflect the manufacturing process Represents the physical product, packaging and included documentation Contains all components required to build the product — MTS, OTS, mechanical, electrical, software & firmware EBOM

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Organized according to CAD/EDA tool and engineers’ preferences and processes Represents only the physical product being “engineered,” not the packaging or manufacturing consumables Often includes items for a single engineering discipline only, summarizing or excluding items from other disciplines The major differences between the manufacturing bill of materials (MBOM) and theengineering bill of materials (EBOM) are in their structure and depth. Manufacturing BOMs must contain all the parts and assemblies. If an item needs to be purchased, processed or inventoried to make the product then it needs to be represented on the MBOM. All these parts are structured into the manufacturing bill of materials based on how the product is assembled. For instance, if a product has ten 6-32 screws, each screw is listed in the manufacturing BOM in the subassembly where it is used. On the other hand, the engineering BOM for this product may only have one line item that lists the 632 screw with a quantity of 10. The engineering BOM may not provide any information about how parts relate to each other.

In fact, there may be more than one engineering BOM because different engineering departments each create their own. The structure of the mechanical BOM is generally derived from the mechanical CAD model. That BOM is organized according to the engineers’ design process and often contains groups of unassociated parts collected together for the engineers’ convenience in working with the model. Mechanical BOMs commonly list printed circuit board assemblies (PCBAs) as a single item because adding hundreds of tiny components is tedious, slows work on the CAD model and adds little value to the mechanical design process. Electrical BOMs, on the other hand, only show all the components that make up the PCBAs; they don’t deal with the rest of the product at all. And the firmware required for a product may not be listed on either the mechanical or the electrical BOM! In addition to being more complete, MBOMs tend to have more levels to describe each stage of the assembly process in more detail. For example, the lens subassembly that needs time to cure will be called out separately with its own part number and manufacturing work instructions (MWI). In the EBOM, the individual lenses and mounts would exist, but they would be included in a larger optical assembly. For the mechanical engineers, the many subassemblies needed by manufacturing add layers of complexity to the structure and make it harder to work with the CAD model. Better manufacturing BOMs enable better decisions A detailed manufacturing bill of materials is critical to the successful management of manufacturing resources. With a deep and accurate MBOM, the new product introduction (NPI) process is smoother, and the ramp to full production is more controlled. With knowledge about ALL components and steps in the manufacturing process, the operations team can make appropriate trade-offs throughout the life of a product.

Are there different type of BOM ?
The different types of BOMs depend on the business need and use for which they are intended. In process industries, the BOM is also known as the formula,recipe, or ingredients list. In electronics, the BOM represents the list of components used on the printed wiring board or printed circuit board. Once the design of the circuit is completed, the BOM list is passed on to the PCB layout engineer as well as component engineer who will procure the components required for the design.

How they are structured ? BOMs are hierarchical in nature with the top level representing the finished product which may be a subassembly or a completed item. BOMs that describe the sub-assemblies are referred to asmodular BOMs. An example of this is the NAAMS BOM that is used in the automotive industry to list all the components in an assembly line. The structure of the NAAMS BOM is System, Line, Tool, Unit and Detail. The first hierarchical databases were developed for automating bills of materials for manufacturing organizations in the early 1960s.

Implosions and Explosions
A bill of materials "implosion" links component pieces to a major assembly, while a bill of materials "explosion" breaks apart each assembly or sub-assembly into its component parts. A BOM can be displayed in the following formats:    A single-level BOM that displays the assembly or sub-assembly with only one level of children. Thus [4] it displays the components directly needed to make the assembly or sub-assembly. An indented BOM that displays the highest-level item closest to the left margin and the components [1] used in that item indented more to the right. Modular (planning) BOM

A BOM can also be visually represented by a product structure tree, although they are rarely used in the [1] workplace.

Engineering bill of materials
An engineering bill of materials (EBOM) is a type of bill of materials (BOM) reflecting the product as designed by engineering, referred to as the "as-designed" bill of materials. The EBOM is not related to modular BOM or configurable BOM (CBOM) concepts, as modular and configurable BOMs are used to reflect selection of items to create saleable end-products. The EBOM concept aligns to sales BOMs (as sold), service BOMs (as changed based on changes due to field service). This BOM includes all substitute and alternate part numbers, and includes parts that are contained in drawing notes.

Configurable BOM
A configurable bill of materials (CBOM) is a form of bill of materials (BOM) used by industries that have multiple options and highly configurable products (e.g. telecom systems, data-center hardware (SANS, [1] servers, etc.), PCs, autos). The CBOM is used to dynamically create "end-items" that a company sells. The benefit of using CBOM structure is it reduces the work-effort needed to maintain product structures. The configurable BOM is most frequently driven by "configurator" software, however it can be enabled manually (manual maintenance is infrequent because it is unwieldy to manage the number of permutations and combinations of possible configurations) The development of the CBOM is dependent on having a modular BOM structure in place. The modular BOM structure provides the assemblies/sub-systems that can be selected to "configure" an end-item. While most configurators utilize top-down hierarchical rules syntax to find appropriate modular BOMs, maintenance of very similar BOMs (i.e., only one component is different for various voltages) becomes highly excessive. A newer approach, (Bottom-Up/Rules-Based Structuring) utilizing a proprietary search engine scheme transversing through selectable componentry at high speeds eliminates the Planning [citation needed] Modular BOM duplications . The search engine is also used for all combinatorial feature constraints and GUI representations to support specification selections.