Limits at Infinity Here we consider limits at infinity using Maple.

Recall that the definition of x lim f x = L is that given e O 0, there is an /N

M O 0 such that if x > M, then f x K ! e. Graphically, L this means that if x is large enough, the graph off x lies in the horizontal strip LK L C e . See the following graph: e,



y 1.4



0.8 10 20 x 30 40

We see that for x bigger than, say, 19, the graph lies entirely in the blue strip. Moreover, the oscillations seem to (and really do) dampen out and the graph gets arbitrarily close toy = 1. We can investigate limits at infinity with the computer or

1 C t sin t a) e t = t sin t b) f x = t 2 x3 C 7 x c) g x = x2 Solution: a) The plot of the first function for large values of t is: . we consider the following example. For the graphical approach. Of course. or (2) using built-in commands to calculate the limit. you also need to be able to calculate limits at infinity without the use of technology.calculator by (1) graphing the function for large x and inspecting the graph to make a conjecture about the limit. (ii) Use the plot to conjecture the limitof the function as x goes to N (iii) Determine precisely the limit of the function as x goes to N. Example 3 For each of the following functions: (i) Plot each function for large vlaues of x.

)Question: Can you carefully verify that there is no limit? b) The plot of the function in part b for large values of t is: .5 0 10 20 x 30 40 50 K 0.1. Therefore we do not expect that there is a limit.5 K 1 Clearly (why?) this function does not approach a horizontal line as x increases without bound. (And there is none.5 1 0.

8 0. via the sandwich theorem.0.2 K 0. we have. Since % . . and since t t 1 lim = 0 (why?).2 0 50 t 100 150 K 0.6 0. for large x. t /N t sin t lim = 0. t /N t c) The plot of the function is.4 We expect that the limit of this function is zero as t increases sin t 1 without bound.4 0.

e. We can calculate limits without appealing to a graph as well. There is a built-in command "limit" that will calculate just . we may write = = 2 xC and 2 x x x from the last expression it is easy to see that because x grows 2 7 without bound as x increases and because gets arbitrarily x small as x increases without bound.60 50 40 30 20 10 5 10 15 x 20 25 30 It seems clear that there is no horizontal asymptote here. the function grows like2x. it does not have a limit. i. In 2$x 3 C 7$x 2 x2 C 7 7 fact.

x=N . e10 (2) . x=N . All we 3 /N 9 Cx need to do is O limit 23$xCx 9 Cx x 3 ..) For example.. let's calculatex lim x .about every limit we're interested in. 0 (1) As another example we calculate x lim /N O limit 5 1C x 2$x 5 1C x 2$x : . (Though it sometimes has 23$xCx trouble.