FIELD STUDY REPORT ON WAJAALE HARGEISA AND BERBERA

BY SAYID SAID DIRIE STUDENT REG. NO: 00166 A REPORT SUBMITTED AT THE END OF YEAR TWO AND REPRESENTING EXAM II IN THE SECOND SEMESTER

Sheikh Technical Veterinary School (Stvs) Sheikh, Somaliland June/2012

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Declaration I am Sayid and I declare here every part of the Report that I have submitted is really my own work. I acknowledge that, if STVS examiners detect any sort of malpractice in relation to this report, STVS will not award me marks for my work.

Student signature: _____________________________________________ Dr: Sayid Said Dirie (East African livestock researcher)

Supervisor signature:____________________________________________ Mr. Jones K. Njoroge

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First, I would like to thank Allah who allowed me to achieve my goal and made easy formed to write this field work report in Wajaale, Hargeisa, and Berbera which I gained a lot of experience, practical knowledge and skills. I am also passing my virtue to my honorable tutors those devoted and took lions share improvement of my education and all TVS academic and administration personnel. In addition, I would like to give special thanks to Dr. Ahmed Hassan Bile to whom I was attached; He was mutual person and he helped me a lot. Lastly, my acknowledgment is to the owners and workers of the intuitions we visited for their hospitality and willingness to help us.
I would l like to give special thanks to the people who contributed in the preparation of this report and it will not be localized to them but extends to all individuals contributed to the preparation of this book and some of them mentioned below: 1. Dr.Nuh Hajji Abdulle Pharmacology. 2. Dr.Ahmed Hassan Bile 3. Dr.Adem 4. Dr. Ali Qudhanjo Wajaale Supervisor. Hargeisa Supervisor. Berbera Supervisor. English tutor Biochemistry tutor Tutor of Pathology and

5. Ms. Grace Mwangi 6. Mr. Jones K. Njoroge

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Contents
Declaration...........................................................................................................................2 Mr. Jones K. Njoroge ....................................................................................2 Contents............................................................................................................................... 4 SECTION I ............................................................................................................................. 5 1.0 Introduction................................................................................................................. 5 1.1 Background to the Study.............................................................................................5 1.2 Objectives .................................................................................................................. 6 1.3 Methodologies ............................................................................................................6 1.4 Expected outputs ........................................................................................................6 2.0 Introductions................................................................................................................ 6 2.1 Tog Wajaale................................................................................................................. 6 2.1.2 Wajaale livestock market ......................................................................................7 2.1.3 Challenges facing Wajaale livestock market .........................................................7 2.1.4 Inspection of specified animals..............................................................................7 2.1.5 Clinical examination, treatment, and vaccination of animal export.......................8 2.1.6 Veterinary institution in Wajaale...........................................................................9 3.0 Hargeisa activities carried out:....................................................................................9 3.1 Introduction................................................................................................................. 9 3.1.1 Maandeeq slaughterhouse....................................................................................9 3.1.2 Hargeisa butchery market.....................................................................................9 3.1.3 Main problems faced butchery............................................................................10 3.1.4 Hargeisa livestock market...................................................................................10 3.1.5 Hargeisa milk market..........................................................................................11 3.1.6 Main challenges faced milk market.....................................................................11 3.1.7 Ministry of livestock in Somaliland.......................................................................12 3.1.8 Green valley dairy farm.......................................................................................13 4.0 Berbera activities carries out.....................................................................................14 4.1 Introduction............................................................................................................... 14 4.1.1 Berbera quarantine station..................................................................................14 4.1.2 Animal and ship certification..............................................................................15 Section III Conclusion, Recommendation and Lessons learnt.............................................16 5.1 Conclusion................................................................................................................. 16 4

5.2 Recommendations ...................................................................................................16 5.3 Lesson learnt.............................................................................................................16 3.4 Annex........................................................................................................................17

SECTION I
1.0 Introduction
This section entails the background to the field study and the study area that includes Wajaale, Hargeisa and Berbera. In this section, the main aim, objectives, methods used in data collection and the expected outputs are highlighted. 1.1 Background to the Study. The studying courses are system based on such as integrated system. The courses operate both theoretical and practical, the theory part were taken in classes through lectures and practical demonstrations in the school premises and surrounding areas. However at the end of every academic year, field work activities is carried out since the practical sessions in the school are not enough according to the requirements of the study and also there is need to know how veterinary activities operate outside of STVS and also to collect data from different sites that were visited. Therefore second year students are always sent to three different areas: Tog Wajaale, Hargeisa and Berbera with supervisors. Initial planning of the fieldwork, student were divided into three groups of 9 members each. However; all groups visited the same place within a same time by taken special interview. The report contains a lot of information about the veterinary infrastructures, institutions and the general activities of the attached areas. Thus this report represents the activities that were conducted in three weeks. Figure 1: The map showing the study areas

Wajaale

Hargeisa

Berber

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1.2 Objectives
Overall objectives The overall objectives of the field activities are to demonstrate what have been learnt in the second year and the different ways of date collection, processing and preparation of reports.

Specific Objectives
 To identify the various livestock and livestock product facilities found in the attached areas,  Identify the presence of sick animals through clinical examination and treat procedure.  Examine the procedures used in livestock inspection and certification.  Examine and explain the challenges faced by livestock stakeholders in all three areas.

1.3 Methodologies
Information was gathered from key informants including livestock producers, livestock traders, inspector personals, regional veterinary doctors and other pertinent persons who have deep knowledge about livestock sector. Observation /Examination: to observe different livestock facilities in the attached areas. Document Review and Secondary Data Collection: this includes reviewing of relevant materials such as reports available at ministry of livestock and other non-governmental organizations.

1.4 Expected outputs
 Field report including photos  Activities carried out in the attached areas  Lessons learnt Section II: presentation and discussion of field activities

2.0 Introductions
2.1 Tog Wajaale
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Is a major city situated on the border between Ethiopia and Somaliland: It is among the busiest cities of the country some of imports destined to Ethiopia from the major port of Berbera go through this strategic border. This place is situated in Gebilay northwest of Somaliland; its Geographical coordinates are 9° 34' 0" North, 43° 29' 0"east. It is one of the main sources of revenue for Somaliland Kalbeydha and Jijiga,Wajaale people are mainly agro-pastoralists who involved both farming and rearing of animals especially cattle and small number of sheep, goats and camel. Wajaale is an important source of Cattle exported from the region (Gebiley) and its neighbors. Veterinary activities including inspection, vaccination and treatment are common in Wajaale district. During four days visit in Wajaale, activities carried out include analyzing Wajaale livestock market, Vaccination of Cattle bulls for export, clinical examination and treatment of animals that were on question. 2.1.2 Wajaale livestock market The market is located in the eastern side of Wajaale district. It is one of the largest livestock markets in Somaliland. The majority of cattle exported through Berbera port originates from this market. Wajaale is an important market for the key pastoral live hoods of the Somaliland- Ethiopian regions. More than 75% of animals in the market are mainly cattle from different palaces in Ethiopia such as Babili, Jilacsani and Jigjiga. Allay-baday, Geed-baladh and Kalabaydh are also important sources of animals in the market. The animals in Wajaale livestock market are generally two categories: Animals for export those are mainly male cattle and they are taken by Livestock exporting companies to Arabian countries such as Yemen, Saudi Arabia and Oman. The other category is Slaughtered animals those include both male and female and slaughtered for local consumption. 2.1.3 Challenges facing Wajaale livestock market  The shading facilities are not sufficient to host thousands of animals in the market  Producers are likely to be some distance away from consumers they may also be highly depressed. Both conditions affect nature of the marketing and distribution process in the market  Lack of properly organized livestock marketing channel and poor facilities  Market uncertainty and vulnerability to external market shocks: crisis in Yemen in this year greatly reduced the demand of cattle in Yemen hence the supply in the market. 2.1.4 Inspection of specified animals Inspection is the first technique used to identify the sick animals from the herd, before the vaccination the whole animals are inspected by the veterinary officers by observing the body condition and health status are focused during inspection. The easily observable signs are rough hair coat, poor body condition (emaciation), discharge, profuse salivation, dullness and depressed appearance, lack of rumination, diarrhea, and coughing, heavy infestation of ecto-parasites and swelling of external lymph anodes.

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2.1.5 Clinical examination, treatment, and vaccination of animal export Clinical examination is a fundamental part of the process of veterinary diagnosis. Without a proficient clinical examination and an accurate diagnosis it is unlikely that the treatment, control, prognosis and welfare of animals will be optimized. Clinical examination comprises: history taking, visual appraisal or observation, physical examination and collateral diagnose. During observation we observe animals are very emaciated because the owners tell us there is long drought in town and the neighboring areas. After clinical examination we concluded that animals are needed for support therapy, Albandazole and antibiotic (ox tetracycline) for animals that are appear sick to protect secondary bacterial infection and vaccination for health animals for FMD special those are exported. Most animals that we are treated: small ruminant (170 ) , by given three drug : Albandazole is used to control worms)and is given for orally administered , Ox tetracycline(is used for bacterial infection) for Intramuscular , and Ivermectin (is used to control endoparasites and ectoparasites ) is given for Subcutaneous . The amount of drug given is almost depending on the body weight of animals. Treated numbers of cattle were 30 by suspected bacterial disease and are used only ox tetracycline drugs. Table 1 shows the number of small ruminant treated and drugs that are giving. Species Sheep Goat Cattle No of animals 85 85 30 Drug used Albandazole and OXY Ivermectin and oxy ox tetracycline Route of administration Orally and IM SC and IM IM

FMD is an acute infectious viral disease which causes severe disease in animals. It is highly contagious disease that is spread rapidly. Before vaccination inspection is carried to know the infected animal, because the sick animals are not treated so we made first inspection, then we treated UN infected animals, the main disease that is vaccinated in Wajaale is FMD. Fotivax vaccination: is the general trade name of FMD inactivated vaccine which is produced by Kenya agricultural research institute (KARI) veterinary vaccine production center. This vaccine is safe and potent and confers immunity for duration of at least one year. Table 2 Vaccinated cattle in Wajaale Date 9/06/2012 10/06/2012 Species Cattle Cattle No of animals 73 74 Dosage rate 3ml per animal 3ml per animal Rout of administration Subcutaneous Subcutaneous

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2.1.6 Veterinary institution in Wajaale Veterinary institution in Wajaale consist of two doctors and five assistant, all of them are employed of Ministry of Livestock , The facilities in Wajaale institutions include one crush for restraining during vaccination, one ramp for loading and de-loading, one Store used to store the drugs and the vaccine. Main responsibility of veterinary institution include: inspection of animals that are exported from the country, vaccination of animals, and treatment of sick animals if they have the appropriate drug. Main challenges that are faced in Veterinary institution in Wajaale include: insufficient of veterinary and crushes, insufficient of drugs, disinfectants, and there is no laboratory in the town they are carried into the Hargeisa.

3.0 Hargeisa activities carried out:
3.1 Introduction It is the capital city of Somaliland and located in a valley in the western section of the country. The city is in a mountainous area because it is situated in an enclosed valley of the Galgodon (Ogo) highlands, at an elevation of 1,334 meters (4,377 ft) above sea level. This altitude gives Hargeisa and the surrounding area a milder climate than the Gulf of Aden coastal area (one of the hottest areas on earth) and the Hargeisa region has fairly equable climate. The temperature ranges between 13 and 32 degrees Celsius. Hargeisa receives larger amounts of rain, and used to be surrounded by forest when the city was smaller but the countryside around the city still has small juniper forests. Hargeisa is the financial hub to many entrepreneurial industries ranging from food processing, gem stonecutters, construction, retail, import and export, Internet cafes. 3.1.1 Maandeeq slaughterhouse Maandeeq slaughterhouse is located in the Eastern part of Hargeisa. It is a private enterprise and it was founded on March 25th, 2005 by two Somaliland citizens who were interested and devoted to the improvement of the socio-economic situation of the country. Since livestock is the backbone of Somaliland’s economy a lot of people get employed in this slaughterhouse, the total number of workers is 95 with around 350 independent worker, all these workers has different roles. Maandeeq slaughterhouse workers include the men who buy the animals from the livestock market, those who look after them in Hargeisa, those who check the animals when they arrive at the slaughterhouse also the men and women who slaughter the animals, those who transport the meat and distribute throughout the city, the men who own the trucks in which water is brought, technicians, cleaners and those who keep the slaughterhouse security. 3.1.2 Hargeisa butchery market Hargeisa butchery lies in the center of the market Hargeisa, it was established 1960, the main meat that was sells in this market includes: camel, cattle, sheep, and goat meats. The most common are camel and small ruminant. The main source of the butchery is Maandeeq slaughter house. The price of the meat varies according to the species of animals, the highest price is camel meat, then cattle, sheep and lowest is goat.
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The price is highest in Friday, because Somali people that eat more meat in Friday that is why is increased, and when there is lower of animals like drought. Table 3 shows price of meat in the butchery Species Camel Cattle Sheep Goat Weight of meat 1kg 1kg 1kg 1kg Price in USD 5 3.5 2 1.5

3.1.3 Main problems faced butchery  Poor hygiene.  High taxation.  There is no subsidize  Lack of shelters.  Insufficient of equipment that is store of meat 3.1.4 Hargeisa livestock market Hargeisa livestock market is a second largest livestock market of Somaliland which was established by former regime of Somalia in 1984. It is located south east direction of the city and market occupied area of 1km, livestock market of Hargeisa has six shades which are built by the government and also have two modern ramps that is built in 2011 by project founded EU and AU IBAR implement by TERRA NOUVA, although there were no real borders between the market segment but there were different site which are as follows:
 Camel market  Cattle market

 Goat and sheep market The price is determined by different factors of which the main one is the demand, when the demand is high the price will go high, also body condition is another factor which can influence the price for example the good body conditioned animals are higher price than the poor conditioned ones.

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Table 4 prices of animals by grades Camel Grade1 Grade2 Grade3 USD 750-800 600 550 Cattle Grade1 Grade2 Grade3 USD 550-600 400 250 Shoats Grade1 Grade2 Grade3 USD 50-55 40-45 35

3.1.5 Hargeisa milk market There are two common milk markets in Hargeisa; one is in the center of the town and it is known WAAHEEN, the other one is located the north of the city and is nmed GOBANIMO. Both of them are highly crowded and operate between 9:00AM and5:00PM, by considering species it is understandable that there is difference between the regions of the country, mainly camel and cattle milk are sold in Hargeisa markets, although goat milk may be found thus they are view and are merely consumed. While the eastern regions of Somaliland camel and goat milk are the most abundant types used and cattle milk rarely consumed. Source of milk in the market were transported from areas away from Hargeisa; some of them were from the northwest like Geed-ballaar, Gebilay and Alla-ibaday others from the north ward such as Illimaha, Faraweyne and Balligacas. In the west it transported from Quraca abriin , Waddo miikaahiil., Balligubadle of the south ward and Haro-haadlay. Handling of milk to the market in large halls with sufficient sheds to protect it from the sun light unfortunately, the selling milk was stored in open vessels and exposed to the dust and the other environmental contaminants. Whole of the milk are consumed by Hargeisa and were priced according to the demand and their availability. Mostly cattle and camel milk are highly consumed, compared to milk of small ruminant. Table 5 prices of milk in the market Milk type Camel milk Cattle milk Goat milk Price/milk cup 3000 S/L shillings 3000 S/L shillings 1500 S/L shillings Price/liter 4000 S/L shillings 4000 S/L shillings 2000 S/L shillings

3.1.6 Main challenges faced milk market

 Poor transport of milk from rural area.  Improper handling of milk  Insufficient of materials hold of milk  High taxes.
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3.1.7 Ministry of livestock in Somaliland Livestock are the main source of livelihood for the Somaliland people, job opportunities for more than 70% of the population and accounts for about 60% of GDP. Ministry of Livestock (MOL) was established in 1993 in Somaliland. The MOL adopted policies which would allow the privatization of certain functions and tasks of the veterinary services. The first veterinary department in Somaliland was established in 1924. Since 1991, the Ministry of Livestock is responsible for the overall regulations of the veterinary services, but aspects of livestock husbandry also fall within the purview of the Ministry of Rural Affairs and the Ministry for Agriculture.
 Ministry of livestock carried out under these activities

 Certification of livestock health for export animals.  Provision of livestock movement permits.
 Vessel certification for export animals.

 Advice on management of rangelands

Figure 2: shows structure of ministry of livestock

3.1.7.1 Main challenges faced Ministry of Livestock  Insufficient of veterinary Doctors  Insufficient of drugs

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3.1.8 Green valley dairy farm A Green Valley Dairy Farm is an international non-government organization that has been envisioned by Somaliland entrepreneurs and established 2008 July by Diaspora share holders, Due to fast growing urbanization process and environmentally erosion of grazing lands, the animal numbers are invariably decreasing, this causing the procurement of milk to the city of Hargeisa with 350,000 inhabitants. Farm: - The farm is fenced and parts of the farm are used to plant different feeds for dairy cows such as forage, Sudan grass, and alfalfa. , Cow shed: This shed was intended for housing and conditioning the dairy cow with all the feeding requirements. Animals are fed on the spot without moving from the shed, and since the dairy cows are exotic and sensitive to fluctuation of the environment. Milking parlor is the milking sector and is used for various purposes.  Milking machine for milking.
 Cooling tanker for cooling after milking immediately at 4 degrees.

 Control panel and power supply.  Disinfectant tanker for disinfecting the milk parlor. Milking processing plant Milk goes through different processes here as follows:  Pasteurizations
 Homogenization.

 Cooling.  Packaging. The green valley dairy farm has 100 crossbred cows from Ethiopia. In the field 4 cows were lactating and approximately 1/2 liter was milked from each cow though some of the animals show poor body condition and loss of hair (alopecia) due to poor feeding system. 3.1.8.1 Challenges of Green Valley Dairy Farm  Lack of feed and feed management.  Lack of permanent veterinary doctors (animal husbandry officers.).  Lack of good management of the resource.  Lack of veterinary drugs and good record keeping.  Lack of professional workers in the dairy farm.

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4.0 Berbera activities carries out
4.1 Introduction As the capital city of Sahil region and the main port of Somaliland, Berbera is one of the significant livestock areas. It lies in the northern side of the country; and it borders Gulf of Aden. It is the only seaport, with the only sheltered harbor on the south side of the Gulf of Aden; its population in 2000 was approximately 100,000. The weather of Berbera is very dry, hot and wet during the rainy season. The landscape around Berbera, along with Somalia's coastal lowlands, is desert or semi-desert where the temperatures in the summertime can approach upwards of 45°C.Most of the city residents are forced to seasonally migrate to the cooler inland cities during these hot times. Berbera is the terminus of roads from Hargeisa and an airport now adds to its accessibility. Berbera port exports sheep, goats, camels, cattle, gum Arabic, frankincense, and myrrh. Its seaborne trade is chiefly with Aden in Yemen 240km/150 mi to the north. Berbera city is the site for livestock export in Somaliland. The infrastructure for livestock export in Berbera city includes the quarantine station, private enclosures and exportation port. 4.1.1 Berbera quarantine station Quarantine station lies on an area of about 4000m2.It are surrounded by a wall of 2.5m high made of bricks. It can hold up to 300,000 sheep and goats and 150,000 cattle. The quarantine station is fully operational consists of two main sections one part is for the suspected animals after general examination of the inspectors, the other part is for the grossly inspected animals which have no clinical signs but they will be confirmed with laboratory test if there is required disease to detect. Each section has shades, long water troughs for the irrigation of the animals, feeding systems and other facilities. The quarantine station also has crush pens and two large ramps for loading and unloading of the animals. Reception area is intended for all animals that are meant to pass through clinical inspection whereby, samples are taken and they are there after vaccinated of specific disease like FMD, LSD and RVF Pens are the second part of the quarantine meant to keep animals for a particular period of time in accordance with the requirements of the importing country. The laboratory of the quarantine station contains one building which contain two departments: one is for serology and the other for bacteriology tests. The common diseases diagnosis in the lab is FMD, RVF, and PPR. And bacteriology the mostly widely diagnose were brucellosis detection and those animals free from those disease required by importing country will be intended for export. The livestock exporting to Saudi-Arabia, Emarates, Qatar, Kuwait, Bahrain, and Oman is obligatory to inspect, investigate and quarantine according to their requirement. Like Saudi-Arabia animals are detected from brucellosis while Oman does not accept if the animal is castrated. The period of the quarantine ranges from 7 to 21 days.

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4.1.2 Animal and ship certification It is necessary to certify that the exporting animals were inspected either in Berbera quarantine or any other points like Wajaale and they are examined according to Somaliland rules and the requirement of the exported countries. There are three types of certification as detailed below. Inspection form: - This declares that the animal was examined according to veterinary rules and regulations of the republic of Somaliland and it has neither signs of infectious diseases nor reports of infectious disease notified in the area of the origin of the animal. In this certificate, it is mentioned inspection point, region, trader name, previous certification numbers if any, origin of the animals and supplementary sheet is used if required other identifications. The inspection form is not sent to the exported countries, the original sheet is given to the livestock owner and other two copies are left from the inspection book and regional veterinary co-coordinator office. Heath certificate: - By referring the inspection form the port veterinary officer inspects the animals and attaches with health certificate which is mentioned that he examined the livestock and the animal has neither signs nor report of infectious diseases in the place of the origin of the animal and port area. If the animals were vaccinated or detected from specific diseases, a supplementary letter is attached. The name of the port, the name of the vessel, destination and the number of the animals, the species and sex are listed in the certificate. Vessel certificate It is used to certify that the vessel according to the spaces, design, feeding and drinking water, construction materials of the pens and disposal system is suitable for carrying the livestock. The name and the type of the vessel, the name and address of the owner and the agent and the number of animal schedule for this particular voyage are mentioned. Both health and vessel certificate are signed by port veterinary officer and received by the owner or agent of the livestock owner

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Section III Conclusion, Recommendation and Lessons learnt
5.1 Conclusion
The desired result of this field work were successfully achieved and a gained a lot of experiences like; how to interact with the society particularly veterinary stake holders, learning how to vaccine animals like FMD vaccine, ear tagging of bulls meant for exportation, restraining of heavy bulls and how to inspect animals in Wajaale. On the other hand, skills on how to carry out an ante- mortem and postmortem of many animals in a few hours were gained. While through assessment of the quarantine in Berbera, experience was gained on its operation and procedures in handling animals for exportation.

5.2 Recommendations
 The authority should increase the number of veterinarians and also reinforce their capacity both

in Wajaale and Berbera workers since those areas are involved in the inspection and vaccination large numbers of animals.
 The government should increase the number of the crushes in Wajaale to cover the need of the

veterinarians.
 NGOs and government should train and sensitize pastoralists on basic of animal health treatment

and adverse effects of incorrect usage of veterinary drugs.
 Authority should provide to the butchers of Maandeeq slaughterhouse on hygienic practices so as

to prevent or reduce on the level of meat contamination and food borne diseases  Local municipality should supply enough water to Maandeeq slaughterhouse.
 The local government should construct milk market centers in both Wajaale and Hargeisa.  The government should increase the capacity of Berbera quarantine station in order to cover the

increased work load during Hajj time.

5.3 Lesson learnt
 It was the first time that we have handled a case of sick animals and treated them without supervision or teacher.  Restraining of cattle and vaccinated it.  Drug administration and weight estimation.  Practicing of setting the automatic syringes.  We learned how vaccine is stored and administered into animals  Learning how the Berbera quarantine operates.
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 Enhancing the knowledge of group working.

3.4 Annex

Figure1: Wajaale livestock market

Figure2: Berbera port and exported animals

Figure3: FOTIVAX VACCINE

figure4: Maandeeq slaughter house

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