In the early of 18th century, there was industrial revolution that led us to the technological era.

This era has directed people to do everything easily on some aspects such as transportation, communication and also lifestyle. With all of those technologies, unconsciously we ignore our health. Therefore, the risk of serious disease is increasing highly, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, stroke and other body system problem. On the other hand, technology may be a good solution to cure the patients, for example : stem cell. This method was discovered in 1960s to find that some cells can generate into different types of cells. Stem cells are type of cells that can be cleaved and be differentiated into some specialized cells. So, this is the way it works. First, when a part of cells, tissues, organ is damaged, the researchers will examine the source of stem cells such as from umbilical cord blood, bone narrow, etc. After they find the stem cells suitable, they will put them into the damaged part and they will repair the damage. James Thompson from University of Wisconsin in 1998 found that isolated cells from early embryo can be better than adult stem cells. In addition, considering the basic principle of the technology is learning about how embryonic cells develop and how they are specialized, so we will also know how the birth defect happens and why cells go wrong through human development. To teach us more about birth defect, to understand the human development and to cure some diseases by the embryonic stem cells therapy, people should understand and use this technology. The first benefit of embryonic stem cells technology is to teach us more about birth defect. In the past, almost nobody knew why birth defect happened, but nowadays the scientists have been learning the reason. Therefore, they can prevent it by understanding every step of cleavage through the microscope after the fertilization by In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) method. Paul S. Knoepfler, an assistant professor of cell biology and human anatomy and an assistant investigator at Shriner’s Hospital for Children Northern California, has written some journals and researches which focus on the cause of birth defect. His studies will analyze how environment influences towards gene expression and

mutation (epigenetic studies) which may cause the birth defect. The long term objection of these researches is to invent a therapy for birth defect both pre-natal and post-natal. In other words, the main key to prevent the birth defect is also to understand the proliferation (cleavage step of a cell to become multiple cells to be a body tissue) and differentiation (specialization step to become certain function cell) of stem cell. The mistakes of proliferation or cleavage stage will conduct to the conjoined twins whereas the failure of differentiation directs us to the congenital defects such as atresia bilier, the disease that attacked a baby, Bilqis Anindya Passa (17 months) in 2010, which occurs because the bile duct of liver does not form properly. Another benefit of embryonic stem cells technology is to lead us to understand the human development. Watching the embryonic stem cells differentiate and proliferate into specialized cells and knowing how mutation affects the normal process through human development as the earliest development of human give other chances for the scientist to do research for every infection and disease step by step. Researchers of John Hopkins Institute of cells engineering have already found that their researches provide a model to study very early human development, for example placenta formation from the embryo itself. Besides that, they do not have to research by animal testing, such as mouse because of understanding every stage of human development. Consequently, it will be easier because in some cases, mouse is different from human body ways to work. Besides that, it will reduce the probability of experiment failure. The most important benefit of embryonic stem cells technology is to cure some diseases by embryonic stem cells therapy. Embryonic stem cells have some characteristic including self-renewal, differentiation and also unspecialized cells. After years of research, nowadays we can know how cells go wrong and become a disease such as cancer. Cancer is abnormal cells or tissues that divide out of control than the normal cells. Embryonic stem cells which are already put in culture dish become specific cells which can control the proliferation. Another example is organ transplantation which is rarely donated can be changed into

embryonic stem cells technology by putting specialized stem cells that are suitable for the organ such as heart muscle cells for heart attack or heart damage. Furthermore, embryonic stem cells cure Parkinson disease. Parkinson is a disease that attacks brain system by losing specific type of brain cells which controls the movement. Embryonic stem cells which are already specialized into nerve cells can be put to substitute the lost cells. In contrary, some people think that embryonic stem cells technology brings us to the controversial issues besides giving some advantages. People say that this method may cause other disease or infection when they get the stem cell from the other’s body. It may occur because of the immune system which forbids strange element outside the body to enter our body system including stem cells. However, I believe that before it is implanted to the disease area, the doctors already examine and put the stem cells in the culture dish. They grow it to be specialized until they find the suitable cells and also consider all of the risks. In addition, it will be no worth it anymore to prefer organ transplantation. The demand of the organ transplantation is quite high whereas the availability is low. Besides that, some organs such as brain cannot be transplanted yet. While others think about the risk, the social analysts think that this technology compromises the social rules of human right. They say that it discards the human right by using embryonic stem cells. However, embryo cannot live and become a human without the wombs, so I think this technology does not break the human right. Therefore, I personally believe that embryonic stem cells technology can be represented as a good alternative to heal every disease and will be more effective in our future. There are some ways to reach all of these objectives above. The first is to make people understand about this technology and also use it. The government and health department of nation should socialize what embryonic stem cells technology is and its benefit, through advertisement on TV, bulletin and seminar. The second is, to increase the quality and minimize the risk, the scientists have to improve the technology. The government should facilitate the scientists to learn and do some experiments as well as researches by giving scholarship, money

and rewards for them. The last but not least, the economic situation in Indonesia is highly variable, furthermore it creates a gap between the rich and the poor. The government have to cover the cost of embryonic stem cells technology for all citizens, regardless the financial condition. Government can cooperate with some local organization as well as organizations from foreign countries and also with giant enterprises by giving cross subsidy for the poor. Since Indonesia has a high density of population, we can also decrease the rate of the population by using this technology. The couple can donate their embryo wholeheartedly for the people who need to cure the diseases after they already have kids. Then, the government can appreciate them by giving rewards. Finally we can optimize the advantages of this technology. All in all, embryonic stem cells technology is the best option to cure every disease. Moreover, it also solves the problem of population density. This technology is a genius invention. Therefore, many experts state it as a “magic breakthrough” in medical field. Considering that it also raises some issues of human right, religion and the urgency of money, so it is up to you whether you will use it or not. But if you want, you have to be the next Bill Gates and save up your money !