Proofs Arguments

Properties of Equality

Addition: Subtraction:

If a = b, then a + c = b + c. If a = b, then a − c = b − c.

c c Multiplication: If a = b, then a g = b g . Division: Distributive: Reflexive: Symmetric: Transitive: Substitution: If a = b and c ≠ 0, then a b = . c c

If a (b + c ), then ab + ac. For any real number a, a = a.

If a = b, then b = a. If a = b and b = c, then a = c.
If a = b, then a may be replaced with b in an equation or expression.

Properties of Equality for Segments and Angles

Segment Length Reflexive Symmetric Transitive

Angle Measure For any angle A, m∠A = m∠A.

For any segment AB, AB = AB. If AB = CD, then CD = AB.
If AB = CD and CD = EF, then AB = EF.

If m∠A = m∠B, then m∠B = m∠A.
If m∠A = m∠B and m∠B = m∠C, then m∠A = m∠C.

Segment Addition Postulate: If B is between A and C, then AB + BC = AC. If AB + BC = AC, then B is between A and C. Angle Addition Postulate If P is in the interior of ∠RST , then m∠RSP + m∠PST = m∠RST Right Angle Congruence Theorem: All right angles are congruent.

Congruent Supplements Theorem: If two angles are supplementary to the same angle (or to congruent angles) then they are congruent. Congruent Complements Theorem: If two angles are complementary to the same angle (or to congruent angles) then they are congruent.

Definitions
Point: A small dot that has no dimension. Line: An extension in one dimension; represented by a straight line with two arrows. Plane: An extension in two dimensions; represented by a shape that looks like a wall. Collinear Points: Points that lie on the same line. Coplanar Points: Points that lie on the same plane. Line Segment: Consists of endpoints and all points that are between A and B. Ray: Consists of an initial point and all points on a straight path in one direction. Opposite Rays: Two rays with the same initial point facing opposite directions on the same path. Congruent Segments: Segments that have the same length. AB = AD Angle: Two different rays that have the same initial point. Congruent Angles: Angles that have the same measure. m∠ABC = m∠DEF
∠ABC ≅ ∠DEF

AB ≅ AD

Adjacent Angles: Two angles that share a common vertex and side, but have no common interior points Midpoint: The point that divides, (bisects) a segment into two congruent segments. Segment Bisector: A segment, ray, line, or plane that intersects a segment at its midpoint. Angle Bisector: A ray that divides an angle into two adjacent angles that are congruent. Vertical Angles: Two angles whose sides form two pairs of opposite rays. Linear Pair: Two adjacent angles whose non-common sides are opposite rays.

Complementary Angles: When two angles have a sum measure of 90º. Supplementary Angles: When two angles have a sum measure of 180º. Perpendicular Lines ( ⊥ ): Two lines that intersect to form a right angle.