# Statistical Process Control

Copyright  2002 PQ Systems Inc

AGENDA Introduction Pretest Operational Definition Control Charts Histogram Capability Analysis Post Test

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SPC - Introduction
Statistical Process Control (SPC) techniques are used by various organizations to convert their data into meaningful information

Copyright  2002 PQ Systems Inc

Why do SPC ?
• • • • • Improve products & services Reduce waste & rework Improve productivity Reduce cost Increase profits

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SPC Tools • • • • Control Charts Histogram Capability Analysis Pareto Charts Copyright  2002 PQ Systems Inc .

Exercise – Operational Definition Copyright  2002 PQ Systems Inc .

Operational Definition Clear & concise definition of a measure. Ensures that everyone understand and collects data in the same manner. Copyright  2002 PQ Systems Inc .

Select the instrument Describe the method of inspection /test State the decision criteria Document the operational definition Test the operational definition Copyright  2002 PQ Systems Inc .Steps to develop Operational Definition Identify the characterestic of interest.

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Copyright  2002 PQ Systems Inc .

Control Charts • Purpose – To help people manage systems to make the right decisions. Copyright  2002 PQ Systems Inc . • Benefits : – Prevents over control – Prevents under control – Shows how the system reacts to the change.

Copyright  2002 PQ Systems Inc .

Copyright  2002 PQ Systems Inc .

Exercise – Average & Range Chart Copyright  2002 PQ Systems Inc .

Copyright  2002 PQ Systems Inc .

3. b. up or down. b. Any non-random pattern. Cycles. 2. Run of seven points: a. including the following typical cases: a. Seven or more points in a row going in one direction. Too close to the average. Copyright  2002 PQ Systems Inc . Too far from the average. Any point lying outside the control limits. c.Basic rules for interpretation 1. Seven or more points in a row above or below the centre line.

Copyright  2002 PQ Systems Inc . Any points outside the control limits.1a.

Copyright  2002 PQ Systems Inc . Run of seven points.1b. (i) In a row above or below the average.

Run of seven points. (ii) In a row going in one direction. Copyright  2002 PQ Systems Inc . up or down.1b.

1c. nonWhat is expected? 1/2 the data is either side of average 2/3 of the data is contained in the centre 1/3 Copyright  2002 PQ Systems Inc . Any non-random patterns.

Copyright  2002 PQ Systems Inc . Any non-random patterns.1c. non(i) Too close to the average.

Copyright  2002 PQ Systems Inc .1c. non(ii) Too far from the average. Any non-random patterns.

Copyright  2002 PQ Systems Inc . non(iii) Cycles. Any non-random patterns.1c.

Exercise – Chart interpretation Copyright  2002 PQ Systems Inc .

Copyright  2002 PQ Systems Inc .Histogram • It’s a bar graph of raw data • Purpose : • The shape. mean & spread of the histogram gives additional information about the process and guides the managers to take the right decision to improve the process.

Characteristics of normal distribution Mean = Median = Mode Distribution is symmetrical Copyright  2002 PQ Systems Inc .Compare to the normal distribution.

Normal distribution. Most common distribution. Bell shaped. Copyright  2002 PQ Systems Inc .

Copyright  2002 PQ Systems Inc .

Exercise .Histogram Copyright  2002 PQ Systems Inc .

Class Width = 2 Classes 34-35 36-37 38-39 40-41 42-43 44-45 46-47 Frequency Total 8 25 31 35 20 5 1 Copyright  2002 PQ Systems Inc .

Copyright  2002 PQ Systems Inc .

Exercise – Capability Analysis Copyright  2002 PQ Systems Inc .

A Is Cp < = > Cpk? Copyright  2002 PQ Systems Inc .

B Is Cp < = > Cpk? Copyright  2002 PQ Systems Inc .

C Is Cp < = > Cpk? Copyright  2002 PQ Systems Inc .

Cpk gets? B C Copyright  2002 PQ Systems Inc .A In these three charts the process variation is the same. but as the process becomes more centred.

A Is Cp < = > Cpk? Copyright  2002 PQ Systems Inc .

B Is Cp < = > Cpk? Copyright  2002 PQ Systems Inc .

C Is Cp < = > Cpk? Copyright  2002 PQ Systems Inc .

but as the process variation is reduced. Cpk gets? B C Copyright  2002 PQ Systems Inc .A In these three charts the process average is the same.

Can only calculate Cpk (Cpu or Cpl) Copyright  2002 PQ Systems Inc . Only one specification is used So can only calculate Zupper or Zlower Cp cannot be calculated. Complete as for the normal method.One-sided specifications Can be either a maximum or a minimum.

Complete analysis as before but use actual standard deviation instead of estimated standard deviation. Copyright  2002 PQ Systems Inc . with data collection. Complete control chart and histogram. Trial run. Little data.For Trial Runs New product or service.

Trial Runs Calculate the actual standard deviation. σ= ∑ (x − x) n −1 2 Copyright  2002 PQ Systems Inc .

New process Take a sample of at least 50 consecutive parts Complete a variables control chart Find and remove special cause(s) SPC for manufactured parts .1 Is the process stable? Yes Complete a capability study using Pp and Ppk No Improve process Is the process capable? No Yes Copyright  2002 PQ Systems Inc .

Yes Complete an ongoing control chart Find and remove special cause(s) Is the process stable? Yes Complete a capability study using Cp and Cpk No SPC for manufactured parts .2 Improve process Yes Is the process capable? No Copyright  2002 PQ Systems Inc .