Surface Texture: It is the variation in the surface in the form of roughness, waviness, lay, and flaws.

Roughness: It refers to the finest of the irregularities in the surface. They are caused by the process(es) used to smooth the surface.

Figure 2.1 Surface texture characteristics Roughness Height: It is the average deviation from the mean plane of the surface (micrometers, or micro inches). Roughness Width: It is the width between successive peaks and valleys of the roughness. Roughness width cutoff: It is the largest spacing of irregularities including average roughness height.

How one may indicate different surface finish requirements is indicated by some the other versions of the symbol: The Basic Surface Texture Symbol indicates that the surface may be produced by any method. It is assumed that the roughness is superimposed on a surface that is wavy in nature.e. Contact Area: It is the surface that will make contact with a mating surface. scratches etc. This means that a material allowance has to be made to make this possible. These defects can be such things as cracks. . Waviness width: It is the wave length i. that occur more or less at random over the surface. Figure 2.1 at the bottom indicating where one may indicate the magnitude of the different surface texture characteristics plus the orientation of the Lay. A tolerance on this number may be indicated in a note. Lay: It is the orientation of the surface pattern. the way the surface texture symbol should be drawn relative to the text's character height. Material Removal Allowance: Symbol indicates the amount of stock that one should remove by machining. Material Removal by Machining: Symbol (with the horizontal bar closing the V opening) indicates that machining is required to achieve the desired surface finish. or irregularities. distance from crest to crest or from trough to trough. or inches) exceeding the roughness width cutoff.2 shows. Flaws: These are defects. Waviness height: It is the crest to trough height variation of the waves.Waviness: It is the widely spaced variation (millimeters. This is determined by the manufacturing processes used. in the upper left hand corner. blow holes. The Surface Texture Symbol: It is shown in figure 2. ridges.

die casting. 5.Material Removal Prohibited: Symbol with circle in the V.2 Surface control symbols 4. The lay symbol may be: 1. or powder metallurgy. The X symbol indicates that the Lay is angular in two directions relative to the line representing the surface. The M symbol indicates a multidirectional Lay. . The maximum roughness may also be specified right next to the Lay symbol. The C symbol indicates that the lay is approximately circular relative to the centre of the surface. forging. injection molding. Figure 2. The = symbol which indicates that the lay direction is parallel to the line. 2. 3. indicates that the surface must be produced by processes like casting. Perpendicular symbol shown in figure 2. hot finishing.1 indicating that the lay direction is perpendicular to the line to which the symbol is applied. cold finishing.

html 7:37 am 19/11/2012 . non-directional. The P symbol indicates that the Lay is particulate. Reference: http://www.engr. or protuberant. The R symbol indicates that the lay is approximately radial relative to the centre of the surface.