Numerical simulation of the electron beam welding process

Piotr Lacki
a,⇑
, Konrad Adamus
b
a
Faculty of Civil Engineering, Czestochowa University of Technology, Akademicka 3, Czestochowa 42-218, Poland
b
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Computer Science, Armii Krajowej 21, Czestochowa 42-201, Poland
a r t i c l e i n f o
Article history:
Received 31 May 2010
Accepted 20 January 2011
Available online 4 March 2011
Keywords:
Electron beam welding (EBW)
Heat-affected zone
Numerical simulation
3D conical heat source
Thermomechanical coupling analysis
a b s t r a c t
Electron beam welding is a highly efficient and precise welding method that is being increasingly used in
industrial manufacturing and is of growing importance in industry. Compared to other welding processes
it offers the advantage of very low heat input to the weld, resulting in low distortion in components.
Modeling and simulation of the laser beam welding process has proven to be highly efficient for research,
design development and production engineering. In comparison with experimental studies, a modeling
study can give detailed information concerning the characteristics of weld pool and their relationship
with the welding process parameters (welding speed, electron beam power, workpiece thickness, etc.)
and can be used to reduce the costs of experiments. A simulation of the electron beam welding process
enables estimation of weld pool geometry, transient temperature, stresses, residual stresses and distor-
tion. However this simulation is not an easy task since it involves the interaction of thermal, mechanical
and metallurgical phenomena. Understanding the heat process of welding is important for the analysis of
welding structure, mechanics, microstructure and controlling weld quality.
In this paper the results of numerical simulation of electron beam welding of tubes were presented. The
tubes were made of 30HGSA steel. The numerical calculation takes into consideration thermomechanical
coupling (TMC). The simulation aims at: analysis of the thermal field, which is generated in welding pro-
cess, determination of the heat-affected zone and residual stresses in the joint. The obtained results allow
for determination both the material properties, and stress and strain state in the joint. Furthermore,
numerical simulation allows for optimization of the process parameters (welding speed, power of the
heat source) and shape of the joint before welding. The numerical simulation of electron beam welding
process was carried out with the ADINA System v. 8.6. using finite element method.
Ó 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
1. EBW characteristics
Electron beam welding, EBW, is a fusion welding process that
utilizes electrons as a source of energy which is used to join ele-
ments. Successful applications of electron in welding processes fol-
low from several of its traits [1]:
– Electrons occur in external atom shells, thus they can be easily
detached from atom and beam can be created.
– Electrons have negative electric charge (À1.6 Â 10
À19
C) and
they can be accelerated using electric field, the higher the elec-
tron speed the higher its kinetic energy which will be used to
melt metal.
EBW is performed in vacuum. The transport of electrons in vac-
uum is intended to eliminate electron collisions with much heavier
gas particles. The collisions would cause beam defocus and loss of
electron kinetic energy [2]. Additionally collisions would create air
ionization which in turn would destroy cathode [3]. There are also
EBW units that operate in atmospheric gases and in partial vac-
uum. However, due to beam defocus they achieve poorer perfor-
mance and can be treated as a supplementary method and not as
a replacement [4].
The weld creation mechanism during EBW process is not en-
tirely explained. Electron beam allows for achieving high power
density (5 Â 10
8
W/cm
2
) at a small area (10
À7
cm
2
). Depending
on accelerating voltage electrons themselves can penetrate
through external layer of material at depth of about 10
À2
mm.
Although electrons themselves can penetrate only such small dis-
tance known fusion zones are much deeper. Possible mechanism
behind creation of deep welds is described by Schultz [2]. After
electrons penetrate the external layer of element they start to heat
the metal. The metal melts and subsequently changes into vapor.
The high pressure vapor bubble bursts and destroys the external
layer of element. Once the vapor is released the beam is refocused
and starts to penetrate through next layers. The cycle repeats and
thin deep weld is created.
0045-7949/$ - see front matter Ó 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.compstruc.2011.01.016

Corresponding author. Fax: +48 34 3250609.
E-mail address: piotr@lacki.com.pl (P. Lacki).
Computers and Structures 89 (2011) 977–985
Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
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j our nal homepage: www. el sevi er . com/ l ocat e/ compst r uc
Chattopadhyay [5] lists advantages of EBW. EBW is the pre-
ferred welding method because of the following reasons:
– Application of vacuumallows for welding of materials that react
with atmospheric gases, for instance welding of titanium.
– Does not require preheating of materials that are characterized
by high melting point.
– Capability of welding materials that have high thermal conduc-
tivity and tend to reflect laser beam.
– Capability of welding both large and small elements since elec-
tron beam parameters can be easily controlled and modified.
The main drawback of EBW is the size of the welded elements
that must fit into the vacuum chamber. Another factor is the high
cost of vacuum generation.
1.1. EBW unit used during experiments
Experimental work was performed using polish SE10/60 EBW
unit which is presented in Fig. 1. The main components of EBWunit
are electron beam gun, working chamber and vacuumpumps. Elec-
tron beamgun comprises cathode emitting electrons, anode that at-
tracts electrons and through which beam is transported, and the
system focusing electron beam. Working chamber has the shape
of cuboid with dimensions 1200 Â 710 Â 850 mm. The chamber is
made of acid resistant steel. It is equipped with system that allows
for moving welded objects in XY plane and also for their rotation.
One of the vacuum pumps is used for empting working chamber
and the other for empting chamber containing electron beam gun.
Pumps are controlled by system dedicated for measuring pressure.
The following parameters can be controlled in the specified
ranges:
– accelerating voltage: 10–60 kV;
– beam current: 0–250 mA;
– cathode heating current: up to 30 A;
– beam power: up to 15000 W,
– vacuum in working chamber: 610
À5
h Pa;
– vacuum in chamber containing electron beam gun: 610
À5
h Pa;
– chamber empting time: ca. 30 min.
1.2. Experiment
During experimental research a series of welded joints was per-
formed using different input parameters. One of the weldments
was selected for the purpose of comparison with numerical calcu-
lation results. Fig. 2 presents the selected specimen. The specimen
comprises two tubes joined together. Tubes are made of 30HGSA
steel. Specimen dimensions used during numerical simulation
are the same as in the actual experiment.
The following parameters were used for the selected specimen:
accelerating voltage was set to 60 kV, beam current was set to
165 mA, specimen revolution time was set to 10 s. Pulsed mode
was selected with pulse width set to 27 ms and pulse pause time
set to 111 ms. Sample application of pulsed mode is presented in
[6].
In order to determine the size and shape of heat affected zone,
HAZ, microsection was created at weld cross section. Fig. 3 pre-
sents microsection of the weld joint. The changes resulting from
material heating can be seen. Three zones corresponding to differ-
ent heat change rates during welding process can be distinguished.
The parting line can be clearly determined between different
zones. The zone in the upper part of weld corresponds to additional
post-weld cosmetic pass which was performed with lower values
of beam power in order to smooth out the external surface of joint.
The two other zones correspond to main pass during which joint
was created. The knowledge of size and shape of particular zones
and the corresponding zone development conditions can be used
to validate numerical model.
2. Heat source models
Goldak and Akhlaghi [7] described several basic heat source
models that can be used during weld process simulations. Three
basic heat source models were presented in Fig. 4.
Point heat source is placed on the top surface of the welded ob-
ject. It is used to model shallow welds. Line heat source which is
perpendicular to the top surface of the welded object and occupies
space inside object. It is used to model deep welds.
Disk heat source is the extension of point heat source. Heat flux
is assigned to the object top surface represented by a disk. It has
uniform or Gaussian distribution. Gaussian distribution is de-
scribed using the following function which corresponds to Fig. 4a:
qðrÞ ¼ qð0Þe
ÀCr
2
ð1Þ
where q(r) is the heat flux for radius r, q(0) the maximal value of
heat flux in the center of disk, C the heat flux distribution coefficient Fig. 1. EBW unit used for experiments.
Fig. 2. EBW welded specimen selected for comparison with numerical analysis
results.
Fig. 3. Weld microstructure in the selected specimen.
978 P. Lacki, K. Adamus / Computers and Structures 89 (2011) 977–985
and r is the distance from disk center. Disk heat source is extended
by 3D hemi-spherical heat source which is placed beneath the top
surface of the welded object.
Disk heat source and hemi-spherical heat source assume the
symmetry of weld pool with regard to axis going through the mid-
dle of heat source. Thus they fail to reflect the shape of weld pool
created by a moving heat source. This problem is solved by double
ellipsoid heat source. Initially single ellipsoid was taken into ac-
count as the moving heat source produces oval weld pool at the
surface of the welded object. Whole power was assigned to the half
of ellipsoid beneath the top surface and the half of ellipsoid above
the top surface was ignored. Since temperature gradient in the
front part of weld pool is lower than in the rear part two different
ellipsoids were used to represent heat source. The quarter of one
ellipsoid represents heat distribution in front part and the quarter
of the other ellipsoid represents heat distribution in rear part. Heat
distribution is described by the following equation which corre-
sponds to Fig. 4b:
qðx; y; z; tÞ ¼
6
ffiffiffi
3
p
fQ
abc
ffiffiffiffi
p
p
p
e
À3x
2
a
2
e
À3y
2
b
2
e
À3ðzþvtÞ
2
c
2
ð2Þ
where Q is the overall input power, f the fraction of power assigned
to ellipsoid quarter, a,b,c the ellipsoid semi-axes, v the heat source
speed and t is the time from the beginning of weld process.
Double ellipsoid is relatively accurate for description of heat
distribution in shallow welds that are produced by electric arc
welding process. On the other hand conical heat source is used
for the purpose of heat distribution description in deep welds
occurring during laser welding and electron beam welding. Conical
heat source assumes Gaussian heat distribution in radial direction
and linear heat distribution in axial direction. Conical heat source
model is presented in Fig. 4c.
2.1. Analytical temperature distribution model for EBW processes
Ho et al. [8] suggested analytical model describing temperature
distribution in cavity created during electron beam welding. The
solution presented by authors offers results accuracy similar to
the existing analytical models. What distinguishes this model from
other is that the predicted temperature at the bottom of the cavity
does not approach infinity. The modified parabolic coordinate sys-
tem is used to describe heat source:
x ¼
2
ffiffiffiffiffiffi
ng

cos /
Pe
; y ¼
2
ffiffiffiffiffiffi
ng

sin/
Pe
; z ¼
ðn ÀgÞ
Pe
ffiffiffi
S
p ð3Þ
where Pe is the Peclet number and S is the convection coefficient
defined as S = a/a
z
. Parameters a, a
z
denote liquid diffusivity and en-
hanced diffusivity in vertical direction z. Dimensionless tempera-
ture H was introduced:
H ¼
T ÀT
1
T ÀT
m
exp
ffiffiffiffiffiffi
ng

cos /

ð4Þ
where T
m
is the melting point temperature and T
1
is the ambient
temperature.
At the walls of cavity the balance between incident flux and
conduction was assumed:
@H
@g
À
H
2
ffiffiffi
n
g

cos /

g¼g
0
¼
À3Q
ffiffiffi
S
p
pPe
exp
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
ng
0

cos / À
12ng
0
Pe
2

ð5Þ
where Q is the dimensionless electron beam power and g
0
is the va-
lue of g corresponding to the cavity walls.
The temperature predicted by model is the highest at the bot-
tom of cavity, 2200 °C, and decreases linearly toward upper part
of the cavity, 1500 °C. At the upper part of cavity temperature is
higher than experimental values measured by Schauer and Giedt
[9,10]. The discrepancy is probably caused by heat dissipation to
ambient air. In the model heat dissipation was ignored as it was as-
sumed that it is negligibly small compared to heat flux carried by
electrons. Temperature predicted by model at the bottom of cavity
is too high and temperature in the middle part of cavity is too low
compared to empirical data. The possible explanation of these dif-
ferences is that the model does not take into account plasma
absorption and multiple reflections.
Most of beam power focuses at the bottom of cavity as power
has Gaussian distribution. This is the reason for high temperature
at cavity bottom.
High value of convection parameter S, and thus low value of li-
quid diffusivity in vertical direction, corresponds to higher temper-
ature at the bottom of cavity and greater cavity depth. Similar
effect can be produced by increasing value of Peclet number,
increasing beam power or using material that has greater heat
absorption. In case of low beam power temperature tends to de-
crease more rapidly toward the upper part of cavity than in case
of high beam power.
2.2. Heat source model generations
Goldak and Akhlaghi [7] suggested division of heat source mod-
els into five generations. Consecutive generations extend their
predecessors.
First generation of models uses simple geometric objects like
point, line and disk to describe heat sources. Specified amount of
a1
a2
x
x
x
z
z (a)
(b)
(c)
z
y
y
y
b
c
Power density
Power density
Power density
Fig. 4. Heat source models: (a) disk source, (b) double ellipsoid source and (c)
conical source [6].
P. Lacki, K. Adamus / Computers and Structures 89 (2011) 977–985 979
heat is assigned to geometric object and it has uniform distribution
and constant value. This approach gives good results for prediction
of temperatures that are far from weld pool. Since these models as-
sume constant operating conditions they cannot describe initiali-
zation and finalization of welding process.
Second generation extends heat source description with func-
tion representing power density within geometric object. More
complex objects are introduced such as double ellipsoid for arc
welding and cone for electron beam welding. In case of ellipsoid
power is assigned to volume and appropriate function describes
power distribution in such a way that power value is highest in
the ellipsoid center and decreases to a certain value at ellipsoid
border. Shape of weld pool and its temperature distribution are
approximation of actual values. If calculated shape of weld pool
is significantly different from the actual shape then temperatures
in the area of actual weld pool have fictitious values. Despite these
disadvantages second generation models can relatively accurately
predict temperature distribution outside weld pool.
In third generation shape of weld pool is a result of calculations
and not as it is in case of second generation input data. In order to
determine the shape of liquid–solid interface Stefan problem must
be solved. The curvature and velocity of liquid–solid interface must
be taken into account during definition of melting temperature.
Additionally, these models include hydrostatic stress in weld pool,
pressure on the weld pool surface from the arc, surface tension
forces and flow of mass into and out of weld pool. From the numer-
ical point of view these methods are moderately more computa-
tionally complex than first and second generation models. On the
other hand they offer more reliable results.
Fourth generation of models extends third generation with
equations describing fluid dynamics inside weld pool. Macroscopic
fluid dynamics is described with Navier–Stokes equations. These
equations take into account buoyancy and Lorentz forces acting
on the weld pool. Additionally fourth generation models take into
account Marangoni effect, arc pressure and shear forces impact on
the surface of weld pool. Some of the models take into account also
the transport of molten material from electrode but only for cur-
rents below 100/150 A. For higher values of current fluid motion
description problems occur.
Fifth generation combines the model of electric arc and the
model of heat source. This is achieved by introduction of mag-
neto-hydrodynamics equations. Due to high complexity of fourth
and fifth generation models they require complicated mathemati-
cal apparatus. Currently it often cannot be proofed that solution
exist or it is unique. For these reasons the application of these
models to prediction of weld pool geometry in industry is limited.
2.3. Deep penetration welding model
Goldak and Kazemi [11] present 3D FEM model describing laser
beam welding process. From numerical point of view laser beam
welding is similar to electron beam welding. The suggested model
produces temperature distribution and shape of weld pool. Heat
source comprises surface source and inner source. Surface source
is represented by disk model using Gaussian power distribution.
Inner source is represented by a line divided into segments. Within
one segment the value of produced heat is constant. The amount of
heat is the function of segment depth relative to top surface of
welded object.
Authors used empirical equation suggested by Lankalapalli et al.
[12] to determine the amount of heat produced by laser beam at
specified depth. This equation defines power as a function of ther-
mal conductivity, temperature and Peclet number:
P
z
¼ kðT
v
ÀT
0
Þð2:1995 þ6:2962Pe À0:4994Pe
2
þ0:0461Pe
3
Þ
ð6Þ
where P
z
is the power produced at depth z, k the thermal conductiv-
ity, T
v
the heat source temperature, T
0
the initial temperature and Pe
is the Peclet number.
It was assumed that cavity created by laser beam has the shape
of a cone. Peclet number at a specified depth was defined as a func-
tion of Peclet number at the top surface of workpiece, penetration
depth and distance from top surface:
Pe ¼ Peð0Þ 1 À
z
d

ð7Þ
where Pe(0) is the Peclet number at top surface, z the distance from
top surface and d is the penetration depth. Based on Lampa and
Kaplan work [13] Peclet number at top surface was defined as a
function of weld width, welding speed and thermal diffusivity:
Peð0Þ ¼
va
2km
ð8Þ
where v is the welding speed, a the radius of surface source, j the
thermal diffusivity of liquid material and m is the user defined coef-
ficient representing multiple of thermal diffusivity.
Integrating Eq. (6) and using Eq. (7) to change the variable of
integration from z to Pe the authors defined the amount of power
absorbed by inner source P
l
as:
P
l
¼ tðak
liq
ÞðT
v
ÀT
0
Þð2:1995 þ3:1481Peð0Þ
À0:16647Peð0Þ
2
þ0:01152Peð0Þ
3
Þ ð9Þ
where t is the plate thickness, k
liq
the liquid metal conductivity, a
the user defined parameter taking into account impact of welding
velocity on thermal conductivity and Pe(0) is the value of Peclet
number at top surface. The amount of absorbed power by surface
heat source P
c
is calculated as product of laser beam power and
absorption coefficient g specific to laser welding which was defined
using Bramson’s formula [14]:
gðTÞ ¼ 0:365
R
l
1
2
À0:0667
R
l

þ0:006
R
l
3
2
ð10Þ
where R is the electrical resistivity of material and l is the is the la-
ser beam wavelength. Whole power absorbed by welded object is
defined as P
t
= P
c
+ P
l
.
Thermal conductivity and specific heat were assumed to be a
function of temperature.
The model allows for prediction of weld pool shape. Good re-
sults were obtained for prediction of weld width at the top surface
and at the bottom of weld. Model fails to predict accurately weld
width in depth near the top surface. From calculations it follows
that three parameters have the largest impact on the results: Peclet
number, thermal conductivity and absorption coefficient of mate-
rial used for surface heat source.
3. EBW numerical model
EBW numerical model was built using ADINA System v8.6.1
[15,16]. The program utilizes Finite Element Method. The basic fi-
nite element procedures used in ADINA System were described in
[17].
Fourier-Kirchoff equation was used to describe heat propa-
gation:
@T
@t
¼ ar
2
T þ
q
v
qc
p
ð11Þ
where a is the thermal diffusivity, q the density, c
p
the specific heat
and q
v
is the efficiency of inner volume heat source.
The conical heat source model with uniform power distribution
was assumed. The assumed shape of heat source follows from pen-
etrative motion of electron beam. As the electron beam penetrates
980 P. Lacki, K. Adamus / Computers and Structures 89 (2011) 977–985
through material it creates cavity called keyhole. Heat is being gen-
erated inside keyhole thus in the model it was assumed that heat is
generated in the volume elements. Electron beam produces key-
holes of several millimeters to several centimeters deep and heat
is generated inside the weld.
In order to map the conical heat source to FEM mesh the power
assigned to conical heat source was assigned to elements in the
shape of prism. The triangle cross-section of prism reflects the ac-
tual cross-section of HAZ in the analyzed specimen. The elongated
shape of prism takes into account the movement of heat source
along welding trajectory. Geometry of prism is defined by its
depth, length and flare angle. The length is the quotient of tube cir-
cumference and number of prism elements along tube circumfer-
ence. The movement of heat source is represented by production
of power in the consecutive prism elements. At any time power
is produced inside only a single prism element.
Two tubes of different thickness were joined using EBW. Butt
joint was created. One of the tubes has welding collar which facil-
itates fitting tubes to each other. Each of tubes is 50 mm long. Tube
external diameter is 31.8 mm which corresponds to circumference
of about 100 mm. One of the tubes has walls 5 mm thick the other
has walls 3 mm thick. In the vicinity of weld, mesh was thickened
and mesh elements were modified so that they reflect the shape of
heat source. Fig. 5 shows mesh representing tubes. It can be seen
that mesh elements are thickened near conical heat source.
As initial condition temperature of tubes was set to 20 °C. On
the tube walls convection coefficient was set to 0 as welding is per-
formed in vacuum in short time. Calculations were done for three
different welding speeds: 6.7, 10 and 20 mm/s which correspond
to overall welding time of: 5, 10 and 15 s. Welding time of 10 s cor-
responds to actual experiment and welding times of 5 and 15 s
were used for comparative purposes.
Heat is generated in the series of pulses. Compared to continu-
ous beam pulse welding offers higher ratio of fusion zone depth to
width and thus enables creating thin welds as explained in [2].
Modeling of pulse welding requires considerably higher number
of time steps than modeling of continuous welding. For each weld-
ing speed welding time was divided into 72 periods. Each of peri-
ods corresponds to 5° rotation of heat source which gives together
full 360° rotation. Single pulse lasts 20% of period time and idle
time between pulses corresponds to 80% of period time. There
are 72 pulses and 72 prism elements. Each of pulses is assigned
to the appropriate prism element. For welding speeds 6.7, 10 and
20 mm/s single pulse lasts 0.042, 0.028, and 0.014 s, respectively.
One EB pulse is represented by 20 time steps and idle period be-
tween pulses is represented by 80 time steps. Power density of
heat source during pulse welding is shown in Fig. 6. During active
period power density equals 9 Â 10
11
W/m
3
. The actual beam
power was 9900 W. Power absorption coefficient equal to 60%
was assumed in the simulation.
Tubes were made of 30HGSA steel according to PN-89/H-
84030/04 standard. This is chromium–manganese–silicon steel
with chemical constitution presented in Table 1. 30HGSA steel is
used for mills, average machines and high-strength parts. 30HGSA
steel has limited weldability especially for thick cross-sections.
During welding processes allowable hardness is often exceeded.
For large elements it is advisable to apply intermediate annealing.
Immediately after end of welding process it is advisable to apply
soft annealing or toughening. In case of materials that had under-
gone heat treatment prior to welding it is possible that within HAZ
strength properties will deteriorate. In order to restore these prop-
erties in HAZ appropriate heat treatment should be applied.
The following material properties were assumed for 30HGSA
steel:
– thermal conductivity 50 W/mK
– specific heat 472 J/kgK
– density 7850 kg/m
3
– Young’s modulus 210 GPa
– Poisson ratio 0.3
– yield stress 850 MPa for 20 °C
150 MPa for 1350 °C
– strain hardening modulus 85 MPa for 20 °C
0 MPa for 1350
o
C,
– coefficient of thermal expansion 11 Â 10
À6
K
À1
4. Modeling results
Finite element method program ADINA allows for convenient
modeling of pulse EBW process. Theoretical model representing
physical process allows us to estimate changes occurring in
welded tubes. Modification of welding speed enables us predict
how this change will impact temperature distribution. Tempera-
ture range will depend on welding speed and the assumed material
Tube 1
Fixed Surface
Single heat source
Tube 2
X
Y
Z
Fig. 5. Tubes cross-section with conical heat source.
0
2e+11
4e+11
6e+11
8e+11
1e+12
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45
H
e
a
t
,

W
/
m
3
Time, s
Fig. 6. Amount of heat generated during pulse EBW for welding speed 10 mm/s.
P. Lacki, K. Adamus / Computers and Structures 89 (2011) 977–985 981
properties. According to [18] temperature of 25,000 °C can be
achieved during EBW. Hai-Xing and Chen [19] analyzed plasma
temperature during laser beam welding, which offers beam power
similar to EBW, show that keyhole temperature can reach about
13000 °C. During simulation the maximal temperature of 6216 °C
was reached within 2.125 s for welding speed of 6.7 mm/s.
Changes of temperature distribution in HAZ were presented in
Fig. 7. Within about 2 s from beginning of the process HAZ devel-
ops in non-stationary way. Subsequently stationary stage is
achieved for HAZ. During stationary stage HAZ does not change
its shapes and it merely changes its position relative to its initial
position moving along welding trajectory.
Fig. 8 presents temperature values as a function of time for
points at the same distance from heat source in normal direction
to welding trajectory and at different depths, for welding speed
of 10 mm/s. Initially as the depth increases temperature signifi-
cantly decreases. After period of 1 s for all points temperature ap-
proaches 250 °C and starts to linearly decrease. It can be seen that
during first second temperature values have tendency to create
wave which reflect pulse character of electron beam.
Fig. 9 presents temperature values as a function of time for
points at the same depth and different distances from heat source
in normal direction to welding trajectory, for welding speed of
10 mm/s. Only for two points closest to the heat source pulse char-
acter of heat source can be seen. After the period of about 1 s tem-
perature for all points stabilizes.
Fig. 10 presents changes of temperature values as a function of
time for point P
2
and different welding speeds. Plot analysis shows
that as welding speed increases maximal temperature decreases
for point P
2
. Also temperature amplitude of consecutive pulses
decreases.
As the welding speed increases the amount of power generated
in weld decreases. Smaller amount of power results in lower key-
hole temperature and smaller size of HAZ. Fig. 11 presents three
material volumes for temperatures above 500 °C and for different
welding speeds. It can be seen that as welding speed increases
the volume of material above 500 °C decreases and temperature
in center of volume also decreases. HAZ for welding speeds of 10
and 6.7 mm/s has shape of solid of elliptic base that decreases in
one direction. For welding speed of 20 mm/s HAZ has the shape
of half-ellipsoid with growing cone that represents heat generated
by EB pulse.
The assumed heat source model allows for distinction between
solid and liquid phase based on temperature calculated for 3D solid
elements. Due to the assumed kind of finite elements the processes
occurring in HAZ cannot be analyzed for temperatures above melt-
ing point.
4.1. Thermomechanical analysis
Thermomechanical coupled, TMC, analysis was used to deter-
mine the magnitude of thermal stresses. Similar approach was ap-
plied in [20]. Thermal elasto-plastic material model was assumed
in the numerical model. Martensitic phase transformation that
may occur during cooling period was neglected. The face of thicker
tube shown in Fig. 5 was fixed. All degrees of freedom were taken
away for the mesh nodes in the surface corresponding to the tube
face.
Fig. 12 shows results of TMC numerical analysis. Temperature
distribution and the corresponding effective stress distribution
are presented in Fig. 12. Fig. 12a presents distribution corre-
sponding to half of pulse duration, Fig. 12b presents distribution
Table 1
Chemical constitution of 30HGSA steel according to PN-89/H-84030/04.
Fe C Mn Si p S Cr
Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max
Residue 0.28 0.34 0.8 1.1 0.9 1.2 0 0.025 0 0.025 0.8 1.1
Ni Mo W V Ti Cu Al
Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max
0 0.3 0 0.1 0 0.2 0 0.05 0 0.05 0 0.3 0 0.1
TEMPERATURE
1350.
1260.
1170.
1080.
990.
900.
810.
720.
630.
540.
450.
360.
270.
180.
90.
TIME 0.3056
a) b) c) d)
TIME 0.58333 TIME 0.86111 TIME 1.4167
MAXIMUM MAXIMUM MAXIMUM MAXIMUM
4833. 4947. 5011. 5042.
NODE 25803 NODE 26991 NODE 28179 NODE 30555
Fig. 7. Development of HAZ in numerical model of tube welding process: (a) time 0.3056 s, (b) time 0.58333 s, (c) time 0.86111 s and (d) time 1.4167 s.
982 P. Lacki, K. Adamus / Computers and Structures 89 (2011) 977–985
corresponding to the end of pulse and Fig. 12c presents distribu-
tion corresponding to the end of idle period between pulses.
The impact of temperature on effective stress field can be in-
ferred from the plots. The lowest values of effective stress occur
in the area of molten pool. High values of effective stress surround
welding pool. The highest values equal to 370 MPa occur beneath
welding pool at the end of idle period.
As it was shown in [21] the yield stress is the key mechanical
property in welding simulation. The yield stress dependency on
temperature must be considered in a welding process simulation
to obtain correct result. Young’s modulus and thermal expansion
coefficient have small impact on the residual stress and distortion
in welding deformation simulation.
4.2. Model assessment
In order to asses numerical model isotherm calculated by the
model were put onto macrostructure picture of weld (Fig. 13).
For temperatures above 1200 °C isotherms are close to each other
which indicates that high temperature gradient occurs. Isotherm in
bottom part of weld is in 95% consistent with lines observed in
macrostructure.
4 mm
1.55 mm
P
1
P
5
P
6
P
7
P
8
P
9
P
10
P
11
P
12
P
13
P
14
P
2
P
3
P
4
P
0
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

[
°
C
]
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6
Time [s]
Fig. 8. Temperature values as a function of time for points P
0
–P
4
at constant
distance from heat source axis. Welding speed of 10 mm/s.
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6
Time [s]
1 mm
15.18 mm
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

[
C
]
°
P
1
P
5
P
2
P
3
P
4
P
0
P
12
P
13
P
14 P
6 P
7
P
8
P
9
P
10
P
11
Fig. 9. Temperature values as a function of time for points P
2
, P
5
–P
14
at the same
depth. Welding speed of 10 mm/s.
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
,
[
°
C
]
Time,[s]
welding speed = 6.7 mm/s
welding speed = 10 mm/s
welding speed = 20 mm/s
Fig. 10. Temperature value changes for point P
2
and different welding speeds.
TIME 0.70833
(a)
(b)
(c)
MAXIMUM
3448.
NODE 30555
TIME 1.4167
MAXIMUM
5042.
NODE 30555
TIME 2.1250
MAXIMUM
NODE 30555
Fig. 11. Volume of material above 500 °C for welding speeds: (a) 20 mm/s,
(b) 10 mm/s and (c) 6.7 mm/s.
P. Lacki, K. Adamus / Computers and Structures 89 (2011) 977–985 983
In upper part of weld isotherms are consistent with actual mac-
rostructure areas to a lesser extent. This is caused by the fact that
after welding finished specimen underwent additional heat treat-
ment with low power electron beam in order to smooth weld face.
The impact of additional low power heat source can be seen in
macrostructure. Second heat source slightly extends HAZ in upper
part and causes discrepancy between calculated isotherms and
macrostructure lines. Further research will focus on including sec-
ond low power heat source in numerical model in order to predict
HAZ shape more accurately.
5. Conclusions
Numerical calculation results and empirical results allowed for
validation of assumed model of EBW process. The model was cre-
ated using ADINA System. The following conclusions can be drawn
from the analysis of results:
– After period of 1 s for points P
0
–P
4
that are 1 mm from heat
source axis the temperature oscillations due to pulse welding
tend to stabilize.
– As welding speed increases maximal temperature decreases for
point P
2
. Also temperature amplitude due to pulse welding
decreases.
– Temperature gradient in the area corresponding to heat source
causes increase of effective stresses. Maximal values of thermal
stresses occur in specimen area beneath heat source. The mag-
nitude of thermal stresses is dependent on yield stress of
welded material at given temperature.
– Comparison of calculated isotherms and weld macrostructure
allowed for validation of the model accuracy. The suggested
numerical model produced results that are satisfyingly consis-
tent with empirical data.
Acknowledgments
Financial support of Structural Funds in the Operational Pro-
gramme – Innovative Economy (IE OP) financed from the European
a)TIME 0.01389 s
b) TIME 0.02778 s
c)
TIME 0.1389 s
EFFECTIVE
STRESS, MPa
373
320
266
213
160
106
53
0
X
Y
Z
MAX TEMPERATURE
2552 C
o
MAX TEMPERATURE
4110 C
o
MAX TEMPERATURE
2435 C
o
TEMPERATURE, C
o
1500
1300
1100
900
700
500
300
100
Fig. 12. Temperature and effective stress distribution for: (a) half of pulse duration, (b) end of pulse and (c) end of idle period between pulses.
0 5mm
TEMPERATURE
TIME 1.4167
3000.
2400.
1800.
1200.
600.
0.
MAXIMUM
5042.
NODE 30555
Fig. 13. Comparison of numerical calculation results and actual results.
984 P. Lacki, K. Adamus / Computers and Structures 89 (2011) 977–985
Regional Development Fund – Project ‘‘Modern material technolo-
gies in aerospace industry’’, No. POIG.01.01.02-00-015/08-00 is
gratefully acknowledged.
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