BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY In Mechanical Engg. SUBMITTED BY Name of the Candidates –Amit,Arun,Gaurav,Mohit,Nippun Roll Number:4609359,360,362,363,365

UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF ONE GUIDE Guide Name :Er. Manoj saini Designation :HOD Mech. Department GRIMT, Radaur


Global Research Institute of Management & Technology, Radaur Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra Year : 2012




Mechanical Engg.

SUBMITTED BY Name of the Candidates-Amit,Arun,Gaurav,Mohit,Nippun Roll Number: 4609359,360,362,363,365

UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF one Guide Guide Name :Er. Manoj Saini Designation:HOD Mech. Department GRIMT, Radaur


Department of Mechanical Engineering

Global Research Institute of Management & Technology, Radaur Year:2012

Global Research Institute of Management & Technology (GRIMT) Nachraon, Raduar , Distt.-Yamuna Nagar-135133(HARYANA)
Approved by Haryana Government and All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE)

Affiliated to Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra Ph: 01732-296106, 296220 , Telefax: 296104 Website: www.grimtradaur.com, Email: info@grimtradaur.com


I hereby certify that the work which is being presented in the PROJECT entitled, “PROJECT Title-POWER PRODUCE BY ROLLER BREAKER”, by

AMIT,ARUN,GAURAV,MOHIT,NIPPUN roll nos.4609359,360,362,363,365 in partial fulfillment of requirement for the award of degree of B.Tech. (Mechanical Engineering) submitted in Global Research Institute of Management & Technology, Radaur is an authentic record of my own work carried out during a period from 7-9-2012 to 10-11-2012 under the guidance of Er.Manoj Saini, Desigation-HOD, Department-Mechanical, GRIMT, Radaur. The matter presented in this PROJECT has not been submitted in any other University / Institute for the award of B.Tech Degree.

Signature of the Student

This is to certify that the above statement made by the candidate is correct to the best of my/our knowledge Signature of the H.O.D Signature of the Guide


PROJECT work is an important aspect in the field of engineering. We express my sincere gratitude to Global Research Institute of Management & Technology, Radaur and Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra for giving us the opportunity to work on the PROJECT during our final year of B.Tech.

We would like to thank Er. Manoj Saini, H.O.D, Mech. Department and to the members of Departmental Research Committee for their valuable suggestions and healthy criticism during PROJECT WORK. Give acknowledgement to Guide.

We would also like to thank everyone who has knowingly & unknowingly helped us throughout our PROJECT.

We would also thankful for the authors of all those books and papers which we had consulted during our PROJECT work as well as for preparing the report.

(Name of the student) Amit,Arun,Gaurav,Mohit,Nippun Roll 4609359,360,362,363,365 Number-


Our project is the electricity produced by roller breaker. In which a roller placed on rod and both end of the roller connected with the Dynamo. The function of dynamo is recharge battery. When roller more or rotate by the moving Vehicle on it then dynamo is instanced is series 3v+3v=6v for maximum power.

Candidate’s Declaration Abstract Acknowledgement List of Figures i ii iii iv

1.1 1.2 Introduction Alternative Method


1.2.1 Roller Mechanism 1.3 1.4 Convert Mechanical to Electrical Energy Material Required

Chapter 2 : DYNAMO
2.1 2.2 2.3. 2.4. Introduction Construction View of Dynamo Faraday Principal Terminology


Chapter 3 : ROLLER
3.1 3.2 Introduction Diagram


Chapter 4 : BATTERY
4.1 Principle of operation



Types of Battery

4.2.1 Primary Battery 4.2.2 Secondary Battery 4.3 Battery cell types

4.3.1 Wet cell 4.3.2 Dry cell

Chapter 5 : FUTURE SCOPE


Chapter 1 : POWER PRODUCE BY ROLLER BREAKER 1.1 Introduction:
In this model we show that how we can generate a voltage from the busy traffic. Conversion of the mechanical nergy into electrical energy is widely used concept. It’s a mechanism to generate power by converting the potential energy generated by a vehicle going up on a speed breaker into rotational energy. We have used that simple concept to the project. We connect one mechanical rod with the dynamo and fit this rod on the surface of the road. When any vehicle moves from this roller then due to friction, vehicle Rotate the rod or roller and roller then move the dynamo. When dynamo move then it generates a voltage and this voltage now connects to the bulbs. In actual practice with the help of this voltage we will charge the battery and then we use this voltage to light the small bulb. If we install this unit to the any small flyover then with the help of this voltage we generate a small voltage, and with the help of this voltage we light the bulb.

In power generation using speed breaker we can use different mechanism to convert the mechanical energy into the electrical energy from the speed breaker. The generation of electricity using the vehicle weight can considers as an input. The possible three different mechanisms are given below: -shaft mechanism

In that project we have introduced a roller mechanism to convert the mechanical energy into the electrical energy. connected a roller to the shaft of a dynamo when roller moves it rotates the shaft of the dynamo by that process electricity is generated. In a roller mechanism the maintenance is required of the high level. Material selection is also a important task for the roller type mechanism. The below figure 1.1 shows the basic mechanism of roller type. In that one roller is linked with chain to the shaft of a dynamo, when vehicle moves over a speed breaker then potential energy is converted into a rotational energy which rotates the shaft of a dynamo due to that electricity is generated.

One rod with the dynamo is placed like a speed breaker. Dynamo means a generator that produces direct current with the use of a commutator. The dynamo uses rotating coils of wire and magnetic fields to convert mechanical rotation into a pulsing direct electric current through Faraday's law. A dynamo machine consists of a stationary structure, called the stator, which provides a constant magnetic field, and a set of rotating windings called the armature which turn within that field. Movement of vehicle just rotates the dynamo shaft and electricity is generated. This voltage is to be stored in the chargeable battery. In this model we show that how we generate a voltage from the busy road traffic. In all the city’s traffic is very much high and on some road, traffic move like a tortoise. If we employ a speed breaker type generator on the road then we utilize the friction of vehicle into mechanical energy and then this mechanical energy is further converted into electrical energy with the help of the powerful dynamo. So we install a one powerful dynamo on the road. Output of the dynamo is connected to the L.E.D. in this project. When we move the shaft of the dynamo then dynamo generate a voltage and this voltage is sufficient to drive the L.E.D. In actual practice we use this dynamo to generate a voltage and after generating a voltage we charge the battery. When battery is fully charged then we use this battery as a storage device.

After the general layout of the speed breaker system has been made of successful working it is necessary to select proper material for the system of refrigeration. This involves the consideration of many facts about available material such as dynamo weight, size shape of the component material cost, fabrication cost, overhead charges and many other properties peculiar to the use of which to member is to be fitted. The following four types of principle properties of material effect their selection. 1. Mechanical 2. Physical 3. Chemical 4. Form manufacturing point of view. It is important that the material to be used in such a way as to take full advantage of their natural characteristics following material is selected for the fabrication of speed breaker by road which is extensively used in speed breaker to generate a electricity are made from a materials like synthetic rubber, rumble strips etc for a low weight vehicles and medium weight vehicles like bikes, scooters, bicycles, auto rickshaw, cabs etc

2.1 Introduction:
The dynamo uses rotating coils of wire and magnetic fields to convert mechanical rotation into a pulsing direct electric current through Faraday's law. A dynamo machine consists of a stationary structure, called the stator, which provides a constant magnetic field, and a set of rotating windings called the armature which turn within that field. On small machines the constant magnetic field may be provided by one or more permanent magnets; larger machines have the constant magnetic field provided by one or more electromagnets, which are usually called field current. The commentator was needed to produce direct current. When a loop of wire rotates in a magnetic field, the potential induced in it reverses with each half turn, generating an alternating current. However, in the early days of electric experimentation, alternating current generally had no known use. The few uses for electricity, such as electroplating, used direct current provided by messy liquid batteries. Dynamos were invented as a replacement for batteries.


In 1831-1832 Michael Faraday discovered that a potential difference is generated between the ends of an electrical conductor that moves perpendicular to a magnetic field. He also built the first electromagnetic generator called the 'Faraday disc', a type of homopolar generator, using a copper disc rotating between the poles of a horseshoe magnet. It produced a small DC voltage, and large amounts of current. The first dynamo based on Faraday's principles was built in 1832 by Hippolyte Pixii, a French instrument maker. It used a permanent magnet which was rotated by a crank. The spinning magnet was positioned so that its north and south poles passed by a piece of iron wrapped with wire. Pixii found that the spinning magnet produced a pulse of current in the wire each time a pole passed the coil. Furthermore, the north and south poles of the magnet induced currents in opposite directions. By adding a commutator, Pixii was able to convert the alternating current to direct current. Unlike the Faraday disc, many turns of wire connected in series can be used in the moving windings of a dynamo. This allows the terminal voltage of the machine to be higher than a disc can produce, so that electrical energy can be delivered at a convenient voltage. The relationship between mechanical rotation and electric current in a dynamo is reversible; the principles of the electric motor were discovered when it was found that one dynamo could cause a second interconnected dynamo to rotate if current was fed through it.

The parts of a dynamo or related equipment can be expressed in either mechanical terms or electrical terms. Although distinctly separate, these two sets of terminology are frequently used interchangeably or in combinations that include one mechanical term and one electrical term. This causes great confusion when working with compound machines such as a brushless alternator or when conversing with people who are used to working on a machine that is configured differently than the machines that the speaker is used to.

namo or motor.

-producing component of an alternator, generator, dynamo or motor. The armature can be on either the rotor or the stator. . The field can be on either the rotor or the stator and can be either an electromagnet or a permanent magnet.

Suited for where heavy loads must be moved in confined spaces without loss of precision or rigidity, Tschudin and Heid linear roller cages and guides allows displacement of moving parts in axial direction via use of parallel shafts and sleeves; no radial movement is possible. Rollers offer line contact with guide, enabling low pre-load at assembly to be maintained. Rollers are arranged within plastic or metallic cage in spiral fashion, spread over entire surface area of shaft and sleeve. Tschudin & Heid linear roller cages and guides are components for machine, instrument, tool and fixture applications. The novel design of the rollers and cages allows the displacement of moving parts in an axial direction through the use of parallel shafts and sleeves. No radial movement is possible. This novel construction is particularly appropriate in cases where heavy loads must be moved in confined spaces without loss of precision or rigidity.The use of special "rollers" instead of balls results in line contact with the guide rather than point contact as with ball-type guides. Because of this line contact, pre-load at assembly can be kept low, which produces a low surface pressure between the rollers and guides. In spite of this, the bearing is rigid, accurate and can be heavily loaded.

3.2 Roller Diagram

The rollers are arranged within a plastic or metallic cage in spiral fashion, spread over the entire surface area of the shaft and sleeve, leading to a longer service life of the guide unit. This is also a low maintenance unit, requiring only a thin lubricating film for normal operation. Complete cylinder linear guides, comprising shaft and sleeve with matched roller cage can be supplied ready for fitting to customer's specifications. Advanced Machine & Engineering Co., is a manufacturer located in Rockford, Ill., serving the Machine Tool Industry with precision components and accessories, including spindle interface components, work holding devices, and, through our sister company, Hennig, machine enclosures, chip removal and filtration systems. The Fluid Power - Safety markets are served with cylinder rod locks and safety catcher devices; and the Production Saw market with our Am Saw carbide saw machines and Speed cut blade

4 BATTERY Introduction:

Various cells and batteries (top-left to bottom-right): two AA, one D, one handheld ham radio battery, two 9-volt PP3, two AAA, one C, one camcorder battery, one cordless phone battery. An electrical battery is one or more electrochemical cells that convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy. Since the invention of the first battery (or "voltaic pile") in 1800 by Alessandro Volta, batteries have become a common power source for many household and industrial applications. According to a 2005 estimate, the worldwide battery industry generates US$48 billion in sales each year, with 6% annual growth. There are two types of batteries: primary batteries (disposable batteries), which are designed to be used once and discarded when they are exhausted, and secondary batteries (rechargeable batteries), which are designed to be recharged and used multiple times. Miniature cells are used to power devices such as hearing aids and wristwatches; larger batteries provide standby power for telephone exchanges or computer data centers.

4.1 PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION:Main article: Electrochemical cell

A voltaic cell for demonstration purposes. In this example the two half-cells are linked by a salt bridge separator that permits the transfer of ions, but not water molecules. A battery is a device that converts chemical energy directly to electrical energy. It consists of a number of voltaic cells; each voltaic cell consists of two half cells connected in series by a conductive electrolyte containing anions and cations. One half-cell includes electrolyte and the electrode to which anions (negatively charged ions) migrate, i.e., the anode or negative electrode; the other half-cell includes electrolyte and the electrode to which cations (positively charged ions) migrate, i.e., the cathode or positive electrode. In the redox reaction that powers the battery, reduction (addition of electrons) occurs to cations at the cathode, while oxidation (removal of electrons) occurs to anions at the anode. The electrodes do not touch each other but are electrically connected by the electrolyte. Many cells use two half-cells with different electrolytes. In that case each half-cell is enclosed in a container, and a separator that is porous to ions, but not the bulk of the electrolytes, prevents mixing.

Each half cell has an electromotive force (or emf), determined by its ability to drive electric current from the interior to the exterior of the cell. The net emf of the cell is the difference between the emfs of its half-cells, as first recognized by Volta. Therefore, if the electrodes have emfs and , then the net emf is ; in other words, the net emf is the

difference between the reduction potentials of the half-reactions.

Primary batteries can produce current immediately on assembly. Disposable batteries are intended to be used once and discarded. These are most commonly used in portable devices that have low current drain, are only used intermittently, or are used well away from an alternative power source, such as in alarm and communication circuits where other electric power is only intermittently available. Disposable primary cells cannot be reliably recharged, since the chemical reactions are not easily reversible and active materials may not return to their original forms. Battery manufacturers recommend against attempting to recharge primary cells.

4.2.2 SECONDARY BATTERY Rechargeable battery Secondary batteries must be charged before use; they are usually assembled with active materials in the discharged state. Rechargeable batteries or secondary cells can be recharged by applying electric current, which reverses the chemical reactions that occur during its use. Devices to supply the appropriate current are called chargers or rechargers. The oldest form of rechargeable battery is the lead-acid battery. This battery is notable in that it contains a liquid in an unsealed container, requiring that the battery be kept upright and the area be well ventilated to ensure safe dispersal of the hydrogen gas produced by these batteries during overcharging. The lead-acid battery is also very heavy for the amount of electrical energy it can supply. Despite this, its low manufacturing cost and its high surge current levels make its use common where a large capacity (over approximately 10Ah) is required or where the weight and ease of handling are not concerns.

4.3 BATTERY CELL TYPES There are many general types of electrochemical cells, according to chemical processes applied and design chosen. The variation includes galvanic cells, electrolytic cells, fuel cells, flow cells and voltaic piles. 4.3.1 WET CELL: A wet cell battery has a liquid electrolyte. Other names are flooded cell since the liquid covers all internal parts, or vented cell since gases produced during operation can escape to the air. Wet cells were a precursor to dry cells and are commonly used as a learning tool for electrochemistry. It is often built with common laboratory supplies, like beakers, for demonstrations of how electrochemical cells work. A particular type of wet cell known as a concentration cell is important in understanding corrosion. Wet cells may be primary cells (non-rechargeable) or secondary cells (rechargeable). Originally all practical primary batteries such as the Daniell cell were built as open-topped glass jar wet cells. Other primary wet cells are the Leclanche cell, Grove cell, Bunsen cell, Chromic acid cell, Clark cell and Weston cell. The Leclanche cell chemistry was adapted to the first dry cells. Wet cells are still used in automobile batteries and in industry for standby power for switchgear, telecommunication or large uninterruptible power supplies, but in many places batteries with gel cells have been used instead. These applications commonly use lead-acid or nickelcadmium cells.

4.3.2 DRY CELL:"Dry cell" redirects here. For the heavy metal band, see Dry Cell (band).

Line art drawing of a dry cell: 1. brass cap, 2. plastic seal, 3. expansion space, 4. porous cardboard, 5. zinc can, 6. carbon rod, 7. chemical mixture. A dry cell has the electrolyte immobilized as a paste, with only enough moisture in the paste to allow current to flow. As opposed to a wet cell, the battery can be operated in any random position, and will not spill its electrolyte if inverted. A common dry cell battery is the zinc-carbon battery, using a cell sometimes called the dry Leclanché cell, with a nominal voltage of 1.5 volts, the same nominal voltage as the alkaline battery (since both use the same zinc-manganese dioxide combination).

The makeup of a standard dry cell is a zinc anode (negative pole), usually in the form of a cylindrical pot, with a carbon cathode (positive pole) in the form of a central rod. The electrolyte is ammonium chloride in the form of a paste next to the zinc anode. The remaining space between the electrolyte and carbon cathode is taken up by a second paste consisting of ammonium chloride and manganese dioxide, the latter acting as a depolariser. In some more modern types of so called 'high power' batteries, the ammonium chloride has been replaced by zinc chloride. MOLTEN SALT:A molten salt battery is a primary or secondary battery that uses a molten salt as its electrolyte. Their energy density and power density makes them potentially useful for electric vehicles, but they must be carefully insulated to retain heat. RESERVE:A reserve battery can be stored for a long period of time and is activated when its internal parts (usually electrolyte) are assembled. For example, a battery for an electronic fuze might be activated by the impact of firing a gun, breaking a capsule of electrolyte to activate the battery and power the fuze's circuits. Reserve batteries are usually designed for a short service life (seconds or minutes) after long storage (years). A water-activated battery for oceanographic instruments or military applications becomes activated on immersion in water.

5 FUTURE SCOPES In a present scenario such kind of speed breaker are being used for a light vehicles in various countries. Now in a future that technology can be used for heavy vehicles, thus increasing input torque to various mechanism and ultimately output of the generator or dynamo. To enhance the efficiency of that system, engineers have to find out more compact, reliable and suitable mechanism to produce electricity. Future goal of that system to enhance the efficiency, so there should be rapid rotation of the dynamo shaft, to do the same we can employ a flywheel to the system in such a way that it would be increase the rotation per minute of dynamo or a generator. Generally a flywheel used in machines serves as a reservoir which stores energy during the period when supply energy more than the requirement and releases it during the period when the requirement of energy more than the supply. Flywheel energy storage (FES) works by accelerating a rotor (flywheel) to a very high speed and maintaining the energy in the system as rotational energy. When energy is extracted from the system, the flywheel's rotational speed is reduced as a consequence of the principle of conservation of energy; adding energy to the system correspondingly results in an increase in the speed of the flywheel i.e. increasing the rotational energy of the shaft systems have rotors made of high strength carbon filaments, suspended by magnetic bearings, and spinning at speeds from 20,000 to over 50,000 rpm in a vacuum enclosure. Stepper motor can be replaced by the dynamo in single way traffic system to produce electricity from speed breakers.Stepper motors operate differently from normal DC motors, which rotate when voltage is applied to their terminals. Stepper motors, on the other hand, effectively have multiple "toothed" electromagnets arranged around a central gear-shaped piece of iron. The electromagnets are energized by an external control circuit. To make the motor shaft turn, first one electromagnet is given power, which makes the gear's teeth magnetically attracted to the electromagnet's teeth. When the gear's teeth are thus aligned to the first electromagnet, they are slightly offset from the next electromagnet. So when the next electromagnet is turned on and the first is turned off, the gear rotates slightly to align with the next one, and from there the process is repeated. Each of those slight rotations is called a "step." In that way, the motor can be turned by a precise angle.

      Simple construction, mature technology, and easy maintenance. No manual work necessary during generation. Energy available all year round. No fuel transportation problem. Pollution free power generation. No consumption of any fossil

It is an non conventional type of producing the energy. The existing source of energy such as coal, oil etc may not be adequate to meet the ever increasing energy demands. These conventional sources of energy are also depleting and may be exhausted at the end of the century or beginning of the next century. Consequently sincere and untiring efforts shall have to be made by engineers in exploring the possibilities of harnessing energy from several nonconventional energy sources. This project is a one step to path of that way. The overall goal was to design the speed breaker System while keeping the engineering, producer and customer models in check. The reason why this feature was used more than all of the other features are because the other features would not have as much effect on the complete system. By changing the size and desirable price, weight and capacity can be realized.