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The Second Law of Thermodynamics Applied to Processes A formal definition of the second law of thermodynamics is "In any closed system

, a process proceeds in a direction such that the unavailable energy (the entropy) increases." In other words, in any closed system, the amount of disorder always increases with time. Things progress naturally from order to disorder, or from an available energy state to one where energy is more unavailable. A good example: a hot cup of coffee cools off in an insulated room. The total amount energy in the room remains the same (which satisfies the first law of thermodynamics). Energy is not lost, it is simply transferred (in the form of heat) from the hot coffee to the cool air, warming up the air slightly. When the coffee is hot, there is available energy because of the temperature difference between the coffee and the air. As the coffee cools down, the available energy is slowly turned to unavailable energy. At last, when the coffee is room temperature, there is no temperature difference between the coffee and the air, i.e. the energy is all in an unavailable state. The closed system (consisting of the room and the coffee) has suffered what is technically called a "heat death." The system is "dead" because no further work can be done since there is no more available energy. The second law says that the reverse cannot happen! Room temperature coffee will not get hot all by itself, because this would require turning unavailable energy into available energy. Now consider the entire universe as one giant closed system. Stars are hot, just like the cup of coffee, and are cooling down, losing energy into space. The hot stars in cooler space represent a state of available energy, just like the hot coffee in the room. However, the second law of thermodynamics requires that this available energy is constantly changing to unavailable energy. In another analogy, the entire universe is winding down like a giant wind-up clock, ticking down and losing available energy. Since energy is continually changing from available to unavailable energy, someone had to give it available energy in the beginning! (I.e. someone had to wind up the clock of the universe at the beginning.) Who or what could have produced energy in an available state in the first place? Only someone or something not bound by the second law of thermodynamics. Only the creator of the second law of thermodynamics could violate the second law of thermodynamics, and create energy in a state of availability in the first place. As time goes forward (assuming things continue as they are), the available energy in the universe will eventually turn into unavailable energy. At this point, the universe will be said to have suffered a heat death, just like the coffee in the room. The present universe, as we know it, cannot last forever. Furthermore, imagine going backwards in time. Since the energy of the universe is constantly changing from a state of availability to one of less availability, the further back in time one goes, the more available the energy of the universe. Using the clock analogy again, the further back in time, the more wound up the clock. Far enough back in time, the clock was completely wound up. The universe therefore cannot be infinitely old. One can only conclude that the universe had a beginning, and that beginning had to have been caused by someone or something operating outside of the known laws of thermodynamics. Is this scientific proof for the existence of a Creator God? I think so. Evolutionary theories of the universe cannot counteract the above arguments for the existence of God. Evidence such as this helped to convince me to believe in God, and to accept His plan of

Science has given humanity more than its share of letdowns. It has set limits to our technology. I have written a short testimony. James Joule and Lord Kelvin developed a theory of energy and heat to understand how they work and what limited their efficiency. All are running down. Material things are not eternal. everything in nature is obedient to its unchanging laws. . medical bills. The effects of the 2nd Law are all around. The 2nd Law of Thermodynamics describes basic principles familiar in everyday life. However. Everything ages and wears out. painting. computer memory. It is partially a universal law of decay.). the second law of thermodynamics might well be the biggest. when steam engines were transforming the world and physicists such as Rudolf Clausius. The natural tendency of complex. thermodynamics has become one of the most important branches of physics and engineering. Each year. Their energy is transformed into lower levels of availability for further work. But of all the comedowns. not just steam engines but also bacterial colonies. of which the second law is only one part. in accordance with the second law. Ironically. threadbare. and ultimately returns to dust. It says we live in a universe that is becoming ever more disordered and that there is nothing we can do about it. clothing becomes faded. all these systems behave the same. touching everything in the universe. Not only does the second law squash the dream of a perpetual-motion machine. it suggests that the cosmos will eventually exhaust its available energy and nod off into an eternal stasis known as heat death. From these nitty-gritty beginnings. they can never completely avoid wasting some energy and running down. dates to an era of technological optimism. left to themselves. and confronted us with inconvenient truths. It is well known that. Once the force is released. The mere act of living contributes to the inexorable degeneration of the world. such as the impossibility of reaching the speed of light. as with global climate change. Outside forces can increase order for a time (through the expenditure of relatively large amounts of energy.salvation through His son Jesus Christ. the science of thermodynamics. In deep ways. etc. they do not ultimately become more complex. Everything appears to change eventually and chaos increases. Ultimately. Nothing stays as fresh as the day one buys it. the mid-19th century. processes return to their natural direction . even black holes in the cosmos. No matter how advanced our machines become. and through the input of design). Nicolas Sadi Carnot. vast sums are spent to counteract the relentless effects of this law (maintenance. such reversal cannot last forever. chemical compounds ultimately break apart into simpler materials. failed to overcome our vulnerabilities to cancer and other diseases.greater disorder. the ultimate cause of why everything ultimately falls apart and disintegrates over time. Even death is a manifestation of this law. For further detailes about my conversion to Christianity. ordered arrangements and systems is to become simpler and more disorderly with time. It is a general theory of the collective properties of complex systems.

Lets take medical machines that are supposedly created to help save lives. It is but a short lived illusory success. “The primary task of technology. we can blame the politics and economics of a rich country that has kept that surplus from reaching the starving people of a poor country. technology has not been able to either predict or even help save lives. but has it helped feed the millions? Yes. But. to focus on technology that does not lead to giantism. If politics cannot be left to experts. a small and beautiful thought that Schumacher gives us to think about is what he terms intermediate technologythan mass productions” Schumacher again. to wonder and think that although technology has helped in many ways. the main content of politics is economics. In natural disasters or man made disasters. is to lighten the burden of work man has to carry in order to stay alive and develop his potential” (the bold highlight is my action). and the main content of economics is technology. it would seem. It is the human hand that helps dig through and pull out people very often. that helps us get to the truth of the matter and increase our knowledge. neither can economics and technology“. or violence and destruction of human-work enjoyment. he urges us to utilize the scientific techniques. Ponder on this a while. rather . yet the underlying factors of alleviation of poverty and unemployment have not been solved by technology at all. is for you dear reader.Technology with a Human Face “Today. And technology that lightens our “production by the masses. Instead of which people have often fallen back on traditional methods and knowledge. speed. Whose lives do they save. The tractor has helped handle large swathes of land. Ah yes. or those who really need it (a very small percentage)? Schumacher never says that technology in itself is bad. All he asks.only those who can afford. But technology has been a factor here that has created that surplus that really cannot be of help. if you please. What he instead asks us is to recapture simplicity in all that we do so as to produce a selfbalancing system of nature.

as well as wars and struggles. also lead us to our own ruin? From the evolution of military weapons. But now we have to pay someone else to help us communicate better. Technology has become a beast of burden of our time—doing things we usually do in the past. and people blame technology for it. What a novel idea and thus save electrical energy and lessen carbon footprints! Technology and the Human Race The human race has indeed gone far with technology. that motion generates power. by all means. But despite all this. It‘s still up to is possessor on how he will apply the power he possesses—whether as a tool of progress. we see its manifestations—from the largest aircraft to the smallest microcomputer chip. It may have brought people closer together. or an element of destruction. Countless wars have sprung. Some even cannot do without their gadgets beside them. and they say technology is the one accountable of all. ready to help him whenever need arises. becomes uncontrollable by human hands? What if this beast of burden eventually becomes a monster? Could this same technology. increase our creativity. And now.burden. technology should never be blamed for all of this. And now. but not necessarily on friendly terms. to the advent of the nuclear age. technology is still just one of man‘s tools. but the wrong use of it. like an able servant at his master‘s side. technology and human way of life have somewhat become inseparable. Yet. he ceased to be a helpless prey to a number of predators to become a god among beasts. Everywhere we look. would help give us better time to relax and do what we would like. which has brought us to a state of luxury and civilization. at the cost of many end. It has brought us times of peace. But what if this technology. but then again we go off to the gym to exercise our muscles paying a huge amount when it can be so easily dealt with by washing and scrubbing and rinsing! An image that has often come to my mind – when people employ the cycle in a gym. the environment is being trampled. . man is gradually realizing the fact that his little creation would someday take him to the very edges of his capacities. and will remain as such. we have created and developed new beginnings. work things with our hands that give us joy. Through technology. animals are being led to extinction. this fact still holds true: that however powerful it could become. which can then be used to move gears in a tub to wash clothes ( in another room). and pay for our own happiness! This brings to mind the Vaccum Cleaner that adds more work than lessens it! Yes the Washing machine certainly lessens the work. as well as dismal catastrophes. so that he can then face the more challenging problems ahead. develop our creativity. it has brought us great prosperities. they say technology is the culprit. From the age when he still used wooden and stone tools to a powerful era of silicon and steel. Man created technology to serve this purpose.

III – ―Man‘s conquest of Nature‖ will be completed when human nature is conquered. or you hope they will not. The first alternative must involve cynical propaganda. humanity is nature. modern humans are faced with a choice between two evils. Modern people who admit this are then likely not to accept all but to reject all. and found to be incurable. The conquest of nature will thus have ended in total surrender to nature. we should develop the proper culture so as to effectively administer this technology that we have. On the assumption of a perfect genetic science perfectly applied. We should prove to be worthy of its possession. The resulting apathy is felt to be highly inconvenient. in the end. Therefore. The only force left to motivate us will be the force of natural impulses. The second alternative means a debunking of all our sense of value. Thus on a closer view he will have confirmed the ―given‖ nature of all moral principles and the need to reject either all or nothing of traditional morality. Values will then be a thing for humans to produce and to modify at will. not to be ruled by. since they believe that morality is human. not a thing to be guided by. but which in fact is a small selection from traditional morality. Abolition of Man A Brief Summary of The Abolition of Man I – By regarding all value judgments as subjective. The innovator will be unable. we may expect this surrender to be for perpetuity. This may in practice be often rejected for moral reasons. II – The attempt to debunk traditional values is often based on a set of values which is considered to be new.The effect of technology on our surroundings is the complete reflection of our values. and nature is a thing to rule. Our wish to ―see through‖ the mainspring of specifically human . although on the subjectivist assumption this comes from a confusion of thought. Either you hope that other people will still believe at least some value judgments to be objective. for technology and corruption is a bad combination. to explain why that selection is retained while the rest is rejected.

" that is.. the controlled will be robotlike. He claims that they teach that all statements of value (such as "this waterfall is sublime") are merely statements about the speaker's feelings and say nothing about the object. and. Without the Tao. A fictional treatment of the dystopian project to carry out the Abolition of Man is a theme of Lewis's novel That Hideous Strength. [edit]Men without chests: a dystopian future Lewis criticizes modern attempts to debunk "natural" values (such as those that would deny objective value to the waterfall) on rational grounds. The final chapter describes the ultimate consequences of this debunking: a distant future in which the values and morals of the majority are controlled by a small group who rule by a "perfect" understanding of psychology." Lewis cites ancient thinkers such as Plato. but must be inculcated through education. Aristotle and Augustine.. by every culture ". and may be called "men without chests". being able to "see through" any system of morality that might induce them to act in a certain way. supported by quotations from different cultures. and the Abolition of Man will have been completed. on the contrary. natural law Lewis begins with a critical response to “The Green Book”. this is a philosophical position rather than a grammatical one. the trunk that unites intellectual man with visceral (animal) man. Lewis notes. and the Jew. and who in turn. Lewis says that such a subjective view of values is faulty. In any case. pseudonyms for The Control of Language: A Critical Approach to Reading and Writing (1939) and its authors Alex King and [1] [2] Martin Ketley.‖ Logical positivism vs. Lewis takes the authors to task for subverting student values. certain objects and actions merit positive or negative reactions: that a waterfall can actually be objectively praiseworthy. who believed that the purpose of education was to train children in "ordinate affections. the controllers will no longer be recognizably human. He says that although these values are universal. are ruled only by their own unreflected whims. by “Gaius and Titius”. no value judgments can be made at all. In surrendering rational reflection on their own motivations. He says that there is a set of objective values that have been shared. and so parents and teachers who give such books to their children and students are having them read the "work of amateur philosophers where they expected the work of professional grammarians.". the Pagan. Lewis calls this the Tao (which closely [3] resembles Confucian and Taoist usage). they do not develop automatically or inevitably in children (and so are not "natural" in that sense of the word). the Christian. and that one's actions can be objectively good or evil. to train them to like and dislike what they ought. the traditional moralities of East and West. Those who lack them lack the specifically human element.. . with minor differences. and modern attempts to do away with some parts of traditional morality for some "rational" reason always proceed by arbitrarily selecting one part of the Tao and using it as grounds to debunk the others.. The Green book was used as a text for upper form students in British schools. An appendix to "The Abolition of Man" lists a number of basic values that Lewis saw as parts of the Tao.action is a magician‘s bargain: ―to ‗see through‘ all things is the same as not to see. to love the good and hate the bad.

we get a bit lost. found in no animals. I really respect Lewis’ argument and I think he is. my argument is against the Tao and my argument is true. 2010 I’m a big fan of Lewis. regardless of its religion or culture. His general gist was that Traditional Morality (which he calls the Tao) is a universal Law of reality that demands no proof. When compared with the notes he must have had while writing. it probably made perfect sense.S. presupposing that Truth is good — a traditional moral found only in the Tao). read to an audience that was trained to read ancient Greek and Latin. The Abolition of Man by C. that he tries to counter every argument. predict every objection. and wrap it all up by the end of each chapter. like common sense. and nowhere else in the universe that we know. which is very handy). To become a race that rejects the Tao is to become something other than human. He calls it one of those things that “just is”. This produces a book that is hard for the layman to apprehend. never had the conversations he had nor heard the counter arguments he had. I’m just sad that he packaged such a great message in a book that was originally written as a series of three lectures. but for those of us who are deprived of his notes. and has debated the issues with so many people of vastly differing opinions. has recognized it (he then gives examples of cultures recognizing the Tao from ancient Egyptian to Christian. Babylonian to African. correct. Lewis always casts too wide a net. because one finds that man can not be man without it — it is a defining characteristic of man. education and the things they take for granted. of course.Passages from The Abolition of Man are included in William Bennet's The Book of Virtues which could be said to be a compilation of examples of Lewis's "Tao" system of values or natural law. He gœs on to argue that no one can debunk the Tao because in order to have a defensible position against it. I think I have finally figured out his problem. Lewis Published August 13. He is so knowledgeable. and therefore he makes many presupposition about his audience’s reading. . one must actually invoke it (for example. He enters the parking lot and circles every light post before exiting. The Abolition of Man comes in when one tries to excise the Tao from humanity. but after reading The Abolition of Man. evidence or reason. and it is such a firm-rooted law that every society on earth.

it was good but reading a synopsis of the book would work for most people.Anyways. .