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Scientific Resume & List of Publications
• Dr Abhas Kumar Mitra, b. June 03, 1955 (Official Date) • Educational Milestones M.Sc. (Univ. Calcutta), Ist Class, 1977 (Exams Held in 1979!). BARC Training School (Equivalent to M.Phil), 1980. Ph.D. Thesis “A New Theory of Ultra High Energy Gamma Ray Production From Cygnus X-3 ” was ready for submission to Kashmir Univ. 1990. Got Ph.D. from Mumbai Univ. in 1994! • Post. Doc. History Got selected for European Commission -DST (India) Post Doc. at Cambridge with Prof.(Sir) Martin Rees. Not Done. Got qualified and shortlisted as Senior National Research Council Research Associate at NASA Goddard Sp. Fl. Centre, High Energy Astrophysics Lab. in 2004. Short Visiting Positions in Int. Centre for Theor. Physics, Trieste (1995); Hong Kong Univ. (2000); Visiting Prof. in Max Planck Kern Physics, Heidelberg, 2006. • Job & Profession Scientist in Bhabha Atomic Resaerch Centre, Nuclear Research Lab, Kashmir 1980-1990; in BARC, Mumbai since 1990. Head, Theoretical Astrophysics Section, Astrophysical Sciences Division since 2004. Adjunct Prof. in Homi Bhabha National Science Insititute since 2010. • Awards & Honors First Prize in “Young Physicist Colloquium” organized by Indian Physical Society in 1989. Life Member of Indian Physics Association, Astronomical Society of India, Indian Nuclear Society. Hon. Fellow of “Istituto Internazionale di Fisica ed Alta Matematica, Einstein-Galilei”, Prato, Italy. Member of International Astronomical Union; former Full Member of American Astronomical Society. • Professional Services Ph.D. research guide (Physics) of Mumbai University and HBNI. Has acted as a referee for Astrophysical J., Astrophysical J. Letter, General Relativity & Gravitation, International J. Modern Physics (D), Pramana, Current Science, Foundations of Physics Letters, Gravitation & Cosmology, International J. Astronomy & Astrophysics, Ingeniera y Ciencia, Hadronic Journal, Turkish J. Physics, J. Cosmology, Int. J. Theoretical Phys. Has reviewed several research proposals on the request of “Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences, India”. One of the Chairmen for the Interviewing Committees for selection of Physics Trainess for BARC Training School. • Research Interests He has carried out research in a very wide area such as Classical Mechanics, Experimental Gamma Ray Astronomy, Cosmic Ray Acceleration, High Energy Gamma Ray Production Mechanism, Evolution of X-ray Binaries and Millisecond Pulsars, Radiative Gravitational Collapse and Cosmology. He initiated research in Theoretical Astrophysics in BARC, one of the premier R&D institutes of India. He is also associated with the R&D of TACTIC, India’s first imaging based Very High Energy Gamma Ray Telescope, and MACE, the 21m imaging based Gamma Ray Telescope being set up by BARC in collaboration with TIFR. He has coined two basic terms in astrophysics: (i) Eternally Collapsing Object (ECO), and (ii) Einstein -Eddington Time Scale of contraction of self-gravitating objects. The trem “ECO” has been translated in French, Spanish, Chinese, Russian, Chinese, Italin, Polish, Romanian and many other languages. In connection with his research, he gave BBC Radio interview in 2000. Innumerable news paper and internet articles (Nature India, Times of India, Indian Express, Mid-Day, Asian Age, Hindustan Times, Rediff, and many more) highlighted his research which claimed to have shown that General Relativistic Gravitational Collapse should lead to Quasi Black Holes rather than true Black Holes. In this context, he has been interviewed by Indian TV channels such as NDTV, Headlines Today, Aaj Tak, India TV and ETC News. In 2006, his research paper defining Einstein-Eddington Time Scale was selected as one of the Highlight Publications of Max Planck Society, Germany. • Science Popularization He has been writing several series of scientific blogs (“Eternal Blog”) on the platforms of (i) Google, (ii) Wordpress and (iii) Science2.0 since Oct. 2011. As of Nov, 2012, his blogs have received more than 5000 hits.

2 • Books or Review Papers Mentioning Research Related to A. Mitra 1. “Fundamental Questions of Practical Cosmology: Exploring the Realm of Galaxies” by Yurij Baryshev, Pekka Teerikorpi (Springer, 2011) 2. “Sacred Cows In Science: No Objectivity Allowed, (Create Space 2011, ISBN-10: 1456585169)” 3. “Astronome Indien: Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, Aryabhata, Thanu Padmanabhan, Varahamihira, Abhas Mitra, Kamalakara” (in French) (General Books LLC, 2010, ISBN1159389861). 4. “Abhas Mitra” by Gerd Numitor (Editor) (Flu Press, 2011, ISBN : 9786138192923) 5. “Creation or Evolution? Consider the Evidence Before Deciding”, by Dr. E. Norbert Smith (Create Space, 2010, ISBN-10: 1456468278) 6. “The Explorer’s Guide to the Multiverse” by Pranav Sivakumar (Create Space, 2010, ISBN-10: 1453623728) 7. “The Manual of Scientific Style: A Guide for Authors, Editors, and Researchers” By Harold Rabinowitz and Suzanne Vogel , Academic Press, 2009 (ISBN-10: 012373980) 8. “State of the Universe 2008, New Images, Discoveries, and Events” ( Popular Astronomy) by Martin Ratcliffe (Praxis Publishing, UK, 2008) 9. “DaGNEHM: The Gravity’s Near Event Horizon in the Making” (Popular Astronomy) by Lawrence Smith (Author House, 2006, ISBN-10: 142596902X) 10. “New Developments in Black Hole Research”, Editor: Paul V. Kreitler (Nova Sciences, NY, 2005, ISBN: 159454-641-X) 11. “Focus on Black Hole Research”, Editor: Paul V. Kreitler (Nova Sciences, NY, 2005, ISBN: 1-59454-460-3) 12. “Discovery of Cosmic Fractals” by Yurij Baryshev, Pekka Teerikorpi (World Scientific, 2002) 13. “An overview of the current understanding of Gamma-ray Bursts in the Fermi era”, P. N. Bhat& S. Guiriec, Special issue of the Bulletin of the Astronomical Society of India on Transients from Radio to Gamma rays, 39, 471-515 (2011) 14. “Magnetic fields in the galactic Universe, as observed in supershells, galaxies, intergalactic and cosmic realms”, J.P. Vallee, New Astronomy Reviews, 55, 91154 (2011). 15. “Astrophysics in 2006”, Space Sc. Review, Volume 132, Number 1 / September, 2007, by Virginia Trimble, Markus J. Aschwanden and Carl J. Hansen 16. “Gamma Ray Bursts”, T. Lu, Y.F. Huang, Z.G. Dai, D.M. Wei in Cosmic Gamma Ray Sources, ed. K.S. Cheng, G.E. Romero, (Kluwer Acad. Publisher, 2004) 17. “The Physics of Gamma-Ray Bursts”, T. Piran, Reviews of Modern Physics, 76, 1143-1210 (2004) This review paper contain 447 references and has received almost 700 citations. And the only reference of India bases authors it cites is A. Mitra, A&A Lett. 313, L9-L12 (1996). 18. Stellar Astrophysics, Astrophysics and Space Science Library, Volume 254, Section VI, 355-368, (2001) 19. “Gamma-Ray Bursts: Afterglows and Central Engines”, K.S. Cheng & T. Lu, Chinese Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics, Vol. 1, p. 1-20 (2001). 20. “Gamma-Ray Bursts: Challenges to Relativistic Astrophysics”, Sir Martin Rees, 18th Texas Symposium on Relativistic Astrophysics and Cosmology (1996), ed. Angela V. Olinto, Joshua A. Frieman, and David N. Schramm. River Edge, N. J. : World Scientific, (1998) Mitra’s paper finds a place amongst the 21 references contained in this review; and the only one of Indian origin

3 • More Research Highlights 1. First astrophysicist to highlight that the photomeson process could be a dominant mode of Ultra/Very High Energy Gamma Rays in Ultra Compact X-ray binaries (A& A Lett., 1990). 2. After Prof. R. Cowsik, he is the 2nd Indian astrophysicist to work on cosmic ray acceleration mechanism such as “Diffusive Shock Acceleration” (Astrophys. J. 1989). 3. Even when there were innumerable reports on detection Ultra High Energy γ-rays from the X-ray binary, Cygnus X-3; predicted that such reports could be fictitious and this was proved to be indeed so (Astrophys. J. 1991). 4. Has worked on various aspects of the enigmatic X-ray binary Cygnus X-3. The relevant papers have been cited by more than 50 authors. His work on Cygnus X-3 got discussed/cited in Sky & Telescope Magazine and in News & Views of Nature. 5. First India based astrophysicist to work on various aspects of modern paradigm of cosmic Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) like formation and propagation of fireball. Emphasized that powerful long duration GRBs must be originating from gravitational collapse to a level much deeper than the Neutron Star level. His GRB papers are cited in many leading Review Articles on the topic starting from the one by Sir Martin Rees (1996). And often, his GRB papers happen to be only relevant citations of Indian origin in such reviews. This indeed shows that as far as the theory of GRBs are concerned, he had a pioneering role amongst India based researchers. 6. His paper (J. Math. Phys. 2009) has shown that the integration constant appearing in the vacuum Schwarzschild/Hilbert solution is actually zero; α0 = 2M = 0. This means that exact BHs have zero gravitational mass M0 = 0. This is in perfect accordance with the fact earlier finding by Luis Bel (J. Math Phys. 1969) that the Event Horizon behaves like a point singularity. Further this result is also in agreement with Arnowitt, Deser & Misner (Phys. Rev. Lett. 4, 375, 1960) result that the “dressed” mass of a neutral point particle is zero. Since the BH paradigm is based on the assumption that α0 > 0, it is incorrect, and the BH Candidates cannot be true BHs. This however does not prevent in having finite mass objects whose interior is not vacuum. See Nature India’s Science News on this paper: http://www.nature.com/nindia/2009/090511/full/nindia.2009.130.html 7. He showed that trapped surfaces do not form in spherical gravitational collapse: 2GM/Rc2 ≤ 1. This would mean that for continued gravitational collapse upto R → 0, one must have M → 0 in accordance with the result that α0 = 0. His research on non-occurrence of trapped surfaces have remain unchallenged since 1998 and has been appreciated by India’s two seniormost and noted relativists: 1. Prof. P.C. Vaidya (See Attachment at the end) and 2. Prof. K.D. Krori (author of 120 GR papers and some books) (See: Are Singularities Integral to General Theory of Relativity? by K. Krori, S. Dutta, Journal of Cosmology, 7424-7429, 2011) 8. He gave the idea that continued gravitational collapse to a point singularity will never happen, and mathematically, the collapse would be “eternal”; accordingly he first conceived that the final stage of sufficiently massive collapsed objects would be an “Eternally Collapsing Object” (ECO) rather than a BH. He alongwith Norman Glendenning, Stanley Robertson and Darryl Leiter suggested that ECO is a hot ball of plasma whose radiation pressure counterbalances the pull of gravity in a quasistatic manner. As the ECO keeps on losing mass-energy, it approaches the true BH state marked by M = 0. Thus ECO concept is in agreement with vacuum Schwarzschild/Hilbert solution because α0 = 0. He also first suggested that stellar mass ECOs should have intrinsic magnetic field much larger than typical neutron star values. Later Darryl Leiter, Stanley Robertson and he coined the name “Magnetospheric ECOs” or MECOs. Leiter & Robertson constructed a specific model of MECOs and showed that some BH candidates in X-ray binaries may be MECOs rather than BHs. Further, by analyzing detail microlensing data, Rudy Schild, Darryl Leiter and Stanley Robertson showed that the central engine in some quasars are likely to be MECOs rather than BHs: The pertinent press release by Harvard University may be found at: http://www.cv.nrao.edu/tuna/past/2006/NEW QSO STRUCTURE FOUND.pdf

4 And this was also featured as a Breaking News article in New Scientist: http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn9620-mysterious-quasar-casts-doubt-on-black-holes.html 9. In Newtonian gravitation, one important ingredient is “virial theorem” Eg + 3 P dV = 0. Several authors have (unsuccesssfully) tried to find the GR version of this more than 100 yr old equation. In 2006, Mitra successfully obtained the GR version of this theorem (Phys. Rev. D). In addition, he showed that, for a static self-gravitating sphere, the Active Gravitation Mass Density (AGMD) is ρ − 3p/c2 rather than what is usually mentioned, i.e., ρ + 3p/c2 (Phys. Lett. B, 2010). 10. He is the first relativist to find the so-called “Tolman Mass” (Einstein Energy) of the universe in the Big-Bang model. And it confirms the apprehension that energy of the universe is not conserved in the Big-Bang model. And energy would be conserved only if the Active Gravitational Mass Density would be zero which in practice is possible only for vacuum. Of course, in a static model, energy would be conserved (Gen. Rel. & Grav. 2010). The correct form of 1st law of thermodynamics by taking into account spatial curvature has been offered by him (Found. Phys. 2011). 11. The paper entitled “ Possible identification of unidentified EGRET sources with Wolf-Rayet stars” by R.K. Kaul & A. Mitra, in 4th Compton symposium. AIP Conference Proc., Volume 410, pp. 1271-1274 (1997) happens to be the only paper of Indian origin cited in the Science Brochure of GLAST/FERMI of NASA: http://fermi.gsfc.nasa.gov/public/resources/pubs/gsd/GSDweb.pdf 12. Recently, he has formulated the revised 1st Law of Thermodynamics by taking into account the spatial curvature (Found. Phys. 2011). For the 65 year old problem of gravitational collapse of a uniform density sphere, he has shown that even the solutions offered by Bondi & Nariai are misleading because the problem is actually synonymous to Oppenheimer Snyder collapse (Grav. Cosmology 2012). Before this, by applying Birkhoff’s Theorem, he has shown that the Oppenheimer Snyder collapse with zero pressure subtly corresponds to zero density too so that the singularity found there has no physical reality (Astr. Sp. Sc. Lett. 2011). 13. He has shown that “Cosmological Constant” should be zero, and “Dark Energy” an illusion due to lumpy ingomogeneous structure or other reasons (IJAA, Scientific Reports). 14. Has shown that radial collisionless propagation of test particles in the Big Bang Model implies that FRW metric intrinsically corresponds to nil pressure and hence nil temperature. Therefore, the FRW metric cannot describe an universe having pressure & radiation; and actual universe must be lumpy and different (Astrophys. Sp. Sc., JMP).

• Alternative Ideas About “Black Holes” Following Mitra’s work in 1998 In 1998, he first tried to show that even though the idea of a BH is apriori mathematically correct, exact BHs may not be realized. He argued that Hilbert (mistakenly known by the name of Schwarzschild) BHs have a unique gravitational mass of M = 0 and the EH itself is the central singularity Rg = 2M = 0. Much later, he proved this rigourously (J. Math. Phys. 2009). He also argued that during continued gravitational contraction, the collapsing body must lose mass-energy by radiation in such a manner that neither any “trapped surface” nor any “Event Horizon” would ever be formed. Following this several authors put forward serious proposals for“Alternative to BHs”; some authors invoked the specific idea of Mitra that “trapped surface” formation may be avoided due to loss of mass energy. A brief list of such proposals for “Alternative to BHS” after Mitra’s work in 1998: 1. In 2002, P. Mazur & E. Mottola of Los Alamos National Lab. Claimed that BHs are actually ”Gravastars”: http://www.lanl.gov/news/releases/archive/02-035.shtml 2. In 2003, Borkar & Karade showed that Event Horizon has the character of a physical singularity: “On the Singularity of Spherically Symmetric Space Times”, S.M. Borkar & T.M. Karade, Ind. J. Pure & Applied Maths., 34, 1219 (2003) 3. “Black holes: a prediction of theory or fantasy?”, A.A. Logunov, M.A. Mestverishvili, V.V. Kiselev, Phys.Part.Nucl. 37 317-320 (206); arXiv:gr-qc/0412058

5 4. In 2005, R. Goswami and P.S. Joshi of Tata Institute of Fundamental Research used the idea that singularity may be avoided because of radiation: “A resolution of spacetime singularity and black hole paradoxes through avoidance of trapped surface formation in Einstein gravity” (arXiv:gr-qc/0504019) They collaborated with other authors to invoke similar ideas elsewhere too: “Quantum Evaporation of a Naked Singularity” R. Goswami, P.S. Joshi and Parampreet Singh, Physical Review Letters, vol. 96, Issue 3, 031302 (2006); (arXiv:gr-qc/0506129) 5. In 2005, Samir Mathur of Ohio State University claimed in that black hole could actually be “fuzz balls made of elementary string: INFORMATION PARADOX SOLVED? IF http://researchnews.osu.edu/archive/fuzzball.htm SO, BLACK HOLES ARE FUZZBALLS

6. In 2006, George Chaplin of Lawrence Livermore National Lab (Livermore) claimed that BHs are actually “Dark Stars: http://www.nature.com/news/2005/050328/full/news050328-8.html 7. In 2007, Tanmay Vachaspati, Dejan Stojkovic and Lawrence M. Krauss of Case Western Univ. published paper in Phs.Rev. D. claiming BHS do not exist: http://blog.case.edu/case-news/2007/06/20/blackholes 8. In 2008, R. Torres and F Fayos of Department of Applied Physics, UPC, Barcelona, Spain, too considered the possibility that singularity may be avoided due to loss of mass energy by radiation: “ A class of interiors for Vaidya’s radiating metric: singularity-free gravitational collapse Class. Q. Grav., Volume 25, Issue 17, pp. 175009 (2008) 9. In 2009, Carlos Barcel, Stefano Liberati, Sebastiano Sonego and Matt Visser have proposed that Black Holes could actually be something else: Scientific American (October 2009) Black Stars, Not Black Holes 10. In 2010, Christian Corda and Herman J Mosquera Cuesta, Herman proposed that black hole singularity may be removed by nonlinear electodynamics: “Removing black-hole singularities with nonlinear electrodynamics”, Mod. Phys. Lett. A, 25, 2423(2010). 11. “The physical inconsistency of the Schwarzschild and Kerr solutions”, V.V. Kiselev, A.A. Logunov, A. A. & M.A. Mestvirishvili, Theoretical and Mathematical Physics, 164, pp.972-975 (2010) 12. “Hilbert’s causality principle and equations of general relativity exclude the possibility of black hole formation”, A.A. Logunov& M.A. Mestvirishvili, Theoretical and Mathematical Physics, 170, pp.413-419 (2012) 13. “Gravitational collapse without black holes”, Trevor W. Marshall, Astrophys. Sp. Sc., 342, pp. 329332 (2012)

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Earlier Papers Suggesting/Showing That Finite Mass Black Holes Are Unphysical

1. “Theory of the Relativistic Trajectories in a Gravitational Field of Schwarzschild”, Y. Hagihara, Japanese Journal of Astronomy and Geophysics, Vol. 8, p.67 (1930) 2. “On a Stationary System With Spherical Symmetry Consisting of Many Gravitating Masses”, A. Einstein, Ann. Maths., 40, 922 (1939) 3. “The interpretation of the Schwarzschild metric and the release of gravitational energy”, W.H. McCrea, Astrophisica Norvegica, 9, 89 (1964) 4. “The Singularity in the Schwarzschild Spacetime”, E. Hilton, Proc. Roy. Soc. London, A283, 491 (1965) 5. “Reality of the Schwarzschild Singularity”, A.I. Janis, E.T. Newman, J. Winicour, Phys. Rev. Letts, 20, 878 (1968) 6. “Schwarzschild Singularity”, L. Bel, J. Math. Phys., 10, 1501 (1969) 7. “The Nature Of The Singularity In The Gravitational Field Of A Charged Particle”, T.M. Karade, Acta Physica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 39 (4), 227 (1975) 8. “Free fall of particlesin centro-symmetric Reissner Nordstrom field”, T.M. Karade & J.R. Rao, Acta. Phys. Acad. Sci. Hung., 39, 234 (1975) 9. “Event horizons in static scalar-vacuum space-times”, J.E. Chase, Communications in Mathematical Physics, 19, 276 (1970) 10. “Perspectives on the Schwarzschild singularity”, F.I. Cooperstock & G.J.G. Junevicus, Il Nuovo Cimento B, 16, pp. 387-397 (1973) 11. “Superstars and the Black Hole Myth”, D.H. Menzel, Ministere de l’Education National, Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique, 9, 343-353 (1975); see http : //adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1975M SRSL...9..343M 12. “Black Holes and Tachyons”, V. de Sabbata, Lett. Al Nuovo Cimento 19, 441 (1977) 13. “Alternative Spacetime for the Point Mass”, L.S. Abrams, Phys. Rev. D, 20, 2474 (1979) 14. “The field of a particle in general relativity theory”, N. Rosen, Nuovo Cimento B, 72B, p. 51 - 67 (1982) 15. “Some Schwarzschild solutions and their singularities”, N. Rosen, Foundations of Physics, 15, pp.517-529 (1985) 16. “Gravitation without black holes”, A. G. Agnese and M. La Camera, Phys. Rev. D, 1280 (1985) 17. “The Schwarzschild Solution: Some Conceptual Difficulties”, J.V. Narlikar & T. Padmanabhan, Foundations of Physics, 18, 659 (1988) 18. “Phase volume occupied by a test particle around an incipient black hole”, T. Padmanabhan, Phys. Lett. A, 136, 205 (1989) 19. “A New Type Of Solution Of The Schwarzschild Problem For A Point Source”, S. I. Chermyanin, Astrophys. Sp. Sc. 197, 233-235 ( 1992) 20. “Physical Interpretation of Vacuum Solutions of Einstein’s Equations. Part I. Time-independent Solutions”, W.B. Bonnor, Gen. Rel. Grav., 24, 551 (1992) 21. “The Total Space-Time of a Point Charge and Its Consequences for Black Holes”, L.S. Abrams, Int. J. Theor. Phys., 35, 2661 (1996) Sir Fred Hoyle too rejected the idea of exact “Black Holes” (without due proof). Thus, Mitra’s proof that true black holes have M = 0, and finite mass black hole candidates are quasi-black holes seem to be the logical culmination of the above referred research by various authors

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Research Publications of Dr Abhas Mitra
In Journals 1. “Interpretational conflicts between the static and non-static forms of the de-Sitter metric” A. Mitra, Accepted in “Scientific Reports” (new J. from Nature Publishing Group) (2012) 2. “Deriving Friedmann Robertson Walker metric and Hubble’s law from gravitational collapse formalism” A. Mitra, Results in Physics (New J. from Elsevier), 2, 45-49 (2012) 3. “Kruskal Dynamics for Radial Geodesics” A. Mitra, Int. J. Astron. & Astrophys, vol. 2, issue 03, pp. 174-178 (2012) 4. “Kruskal Coordinates and Mass of the Schwarzschild Black Hole” A. Mitra, Int. J. Astron. & Astrophys. (in press, 10 pages) (2012) 5. “The Mass of the Oppenheimer Snyder Black Hole”, Int. J. Astron. & Astrophys. Accepted (2012) 6. “Revisiting the Old Problem of General Relativistic Collapse of a Uniform Density Self-gravitating Sphere” A. Mitra, Gravitation & Cosmology, 18, 17-21 (2012) 7. “Low-frequency radio spectrum of LS 5039 during periastron and apastron passages” S. Bhattacharyya, S. Godambe, N. Bhatt, A. Mitra, M. Choudhury, Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. Letts., 421, L1-L5 (2012) 8. “TeV gamma-ray observations of Markarian 421 using TACTIC during 2009-10” P. Chandra et a., Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, 39, 045201 (2012) 9. “An Astrophysical Peek into Einsteins Static Universe: No Dark Energy” A. Mitra, International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 1(4), 183-199 (2011) 10. “Why the Big Bang Model Cannot Describe the Observed Universe Having Pressure and Radiation” A. Mitra, Journal of Modern Physics, 2(12), 1436-1442 (2011) 11. “General Relativistic Radiation Pressure Supported Stars as Quasar Central Engines in an Universe Which is Recycling Matter” A. Mitra, Journal of Cosmology, 17, 7376-7382 (2011) 12. “Why No Energy Can Be Extracted From Rotating Kerr Black Holes”, A. Mitra & K.D. Krori, Journal of Cosmology, 17, 7064-7070 (2011) 13. “Macroscopic Form of the First Law of Thermodynamics for an Adiabatically Evolving Non-singular Selfgravitating Fluid” A. Mitra, Foundations of Physics, 41, 1454-1461 (2011) 14. “The fallacy of Oppenheimer Snyder collapse: no general relativistic collapse at all, no black hole, no physical singularity” A. Mitra, Astrophysics Sp. Sc. (Letter), 332, 43-48 (2011) 15. “The matter in the Big-Bang model is dust and not any arbitrary perfect fluid!” A. Mitra, Astrophys & Sp. Sc. 333, 169-174 (2011) 16. “No Uniform Density Star in General Relativity” A. Mitra, Astrophysics & Sp.Sc. 333, 351-356 (2011) 17. “Observations with the High Altitude GAmma-Ray (HAGAR) telescope array in the Indian Himalayas” R.J. Britto et al. Astrophysics and Space Sciences Transactions, 7, 501-505 (2011) 18. “Likely formation of general relativistic radiation pressure supported stars or eternally collapsing objects”’ A. Mitra and N.K. Glendenning, Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. Lett., 404, L50-L54 (2010); (arXiv:1003.3518); Science News in Nature India in 2010.

8 19. “Does Pressure Increase or Decrease Active Gravitational Mass?” A. Mitra, Phys. Lett. B., 685(1), 8-11 (2010) 20. “Einstein energy associated with the Friedmann -Robertson -Walker metric” A. Mitra, Gen. Rel. Gravitation, 42(3), 443-469 (2010); arXiv:0911.2340 21. Comments on “The Euclidean gravitational action as black hole entropy, singularities, and space-time voids [J. Math. Phys. 49, 042501 (2008)” A. Mitra, J. Math. Phys., 50(4) 042502 (2009); arXiv:0904.4754; Science News in Nature India in 2009. 22. “Quantum Information Paradox: Real or Fictitious?” A. Mitra, Pramana, 73(3), 615 (2009); arXiv:0911.3584 23. “Sources of Stellar Energy, Einstein -Eddington Timescale of Gravitational Contraction and Eternally Collapsing Objects” A. Mitra, New Astronomy, 12(2), 146 (2006); astro-ph/0608178 (Highlight Publication of Max Planck Soc. Germany, 2006) 24. “A Generic Relationship Between Baryonic and Radiative Energy Densities of Stars A. Mitra, Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. (Lett.), 367, L66 (2006); arXiv:gr-qc/0601025 25. “Radiation Pressure Supported Stars in Einstein Gravity : Eternally Collapsing Objects A. Mitra, Mon Not. Roy. Asrt. Soc., 369, 492, (2006); arXiv:gr-qc/0603055 26. “Why Gravitational Collapse Must be Accompanied by Emission of Radiation Both in Newtonian and Einstein Gravity? A. Mitra, Physical Review D. 74(2), 024010 (2006); (arXiv:gr-qc/0605066) 27. “Non- occurrence of Type I X-Ray Bursts From Black Hole Candidates A.Mitra, Advance. Sp. Sc., 38, 2971 (2006); (arXiv:astro-ph/0510162) 28. “Quantum limit on computational time and speed” A.K. Pati, S.R. Jain, A. Mitra, & R. Ramanna, Physics Letters A, 301, 125-129 (2002) 29. “On the nature of the compact condensations at the centre of galaxies A. Mitra, Bull. Astron. Soc. India, Vol.30, p. 173-182 (2002); (arXiv:astro-ph/0205261) 30. “On the Final State of Spherical Gravitational Collapse A. Mitra, Found. Phys. Lett., 15(5), 439 (2002); (arXiv:astro-ph/0207056) 31. “The ultra nova model of cosmic gamma ray bursts A. Mitra, Indian J. Phys. (Rapid Comm.), 74B(3), 175 (2000) 32. “Comments on “Polarimetric constraints on the optical afterglow emission from GRB 990123” by Hjorth et al. A. Mitra, Astronomy and Astrophysics, 359, 413 (2000); (arXiv:astro-ph/0003399) 33. “Non-occurrence of trapped surfaces and Black Holes in spherical gravitational collapse: An abridged version A. Mitra, Found. Phys. Lett., 13(6), 543 (2000); (arXiv:astro-ph/9910408) 34. “On the true energy budget of GRB970508 and GRB971214 A. Mitra, Astronomy and Astrophysics, 340, 447 (1998); (arXiv:astro-ph/9807197) 35. Comment on “Bare Quark Matter Surfaces of Strange Stars and e+e- Emission” A. Mitra, Physical Review Letters, 81 (21), 4774 (1998); (arXiv:astro-ph/9802331) 36. “No Massive Black Hole in Cygnus X-3 A. Mitra, Astrophysical Journal, 499, 385 (1998); (arXiv:astro-ph/9802124)

9 37. “ The Expected Duration of Gamma-Ray Bursts in the Impulsive Hydrodynamic Models A. Mitra, Astrophysical Journal, 492, 677 (1998); (arXiv:astro-ph/9710063) 38. “Do fireballs in the interstellar medium necessarily imply blast wave propagation? A. Mitra, Astronomy and Astrophysics Lett. .313, L9-L12 (1996) 39. “The probable mass of the companion in Cygnus X-3 A. Mitra, Mon. Not. Royal Astron. Soc., 280(3), 953 (1996) 40. “Probable spectral steepening of UHE gamma-rays of nuclear origin and its consequences” A. Mitra, Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy, 15(2), 179 (1994) 41. “On the new theory of ultra-high-energy gamma-ray production in Cygnus X-3 A. Mitra, Astrophysical Journal, 425(2), 782 (1994) 42. “What drives the mass transfer in Cygnus X-3?” A. Mitra, Astrophys. J., 390, 645 (1992) 43. “Is there a recycled old pulsar in Cygnus X-3?” A. Mitra, Astrophys. J. 384, 255 (1992) 44. “Near-critical spherical accretion onto magnetized neutron stars - Modified magnetospheric radius” A. Mitra, Astronomy and Astrophysics, 257(2), 807, (1992) 45. “Problems of ultra-high-energy particle acceleration in Cygnus X-3 - A critical reappraisal” A. Mitra, Astrophys. J., 370, 345-364 (1991) 46. “Diffusive shock acceleration in the presence of a strong ambient magnetic field” A. Mitra, Astrophys. J., 348, 221 (1990) 47. “The evolutionary history of PSR 0655 + 64 and PSR 1913 + 16” A. Mitra, Astrophys. Sp. Sc., 174(1), 135, (1990) 48. “Towards a proper ultra-high-energy gamma-ray production mechanism in Cygnus X-3” A. Mitra, Astron. & Astrophys. (Lett.), 234, L5 (1990) 49. “Implications for the detection of ultra-high-energy gamma rays from SCO X-1” A. Mitra, Astron. & Astrophys. (Lett.), 219, L1 (1989) 50. “A reevaluation of self-absorption of TeV photon flux from Cygnus X-3” A. Mitra, Astrophys. J., 339, 382 (1989) 51. “A New Theory of Ultra High Energy Gamma Ray Production in Cygnus X-3” A. Mitra, Physics Teachers, Oct-Dec., p.142-145 (1989), (Based on Presentation Made in Young Physicist Colloquium; “Physics Teacher” is a Magazine and not a Journal) 52. “A novel method of solving for the orbit of a classical isotropic oscillator” A. Mitra, Europ. J. Phys., 7(4), 229 (1986) 53. “Spectral differentiation of atmospheric fluorescent events from background Cerenkov emissions” C.L. Bhat, V.K. Sanecha, A.K. Mitra, M.L. Sapru, and H. Razdan, J. Phys.(G), 11(12), 1355 (1985) 54. “Role of integrals of motion in closing an orbit” A. Mitra, Am. J. Phys., 53(12), 1175 (1985) 55. “On the possible equation of state of a giant molecular cloud” A. Mitra, Astrophys. Sp. Sc., 107, 135 (1984)

10 • Recent Invited Articles/Books 1. “Exploring the Origin of the Highest Energy Cosmic Rays” A. Mitra, Invited Talk, Theme Meeting of Very High Energy Gamma Ray Astronomy, Mt. Abu., India (2011) 2. “Eternally Collapsing Objects”; http : //www.scitopics.com/EternallyC ollapsingO bject.html A. Mitra, Prepared at the Invitation by Elsevier for its electronic portal “Science Topics” (2010) 3. “Dark Energy?” A. Mitra, Invited Talk in International Symposium on Experimental Gravitation January 5th 9th 2009, Kochi , Organized by Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai, India, see http://www.tifr.res.in/ iseg/proceedings.html 4. “A New Case for an Eternally Old Infinite Universe” A. Mitra, Invited Talk in, Proc. International Conference ”Problems of Practical Cosmology”, held at Russian Geographical Society, 23-27 June, 2008, in St. Petersburg, Ed. Yurij V. Baryshev, Igor N. Taganov, Pekka Teerikorpi, Volume 1. TIN, St.-Petersburg, 2008, Vol.1, ISBN 978-5-902632, p.42-51 5. “Cosmological properties of eternally collapsing objects (ECOs)” A,. Mitra, Invited Talk in Proceedings of the International Conference held at Russian Geographical Society, 23-27 June, 2008 in St. Petersburg, Ed. Yurij V. Baryshev, Igor N. Taganov, Pekka Teerikorpi, Volume 1. TIN, St.-Petersburg, 2008, Vol.2, ISBN 978-5-902632, p.304-313 6. “Black Holes or Eternally Collapsing Objects: A Review of 90 Years of Misconceptions” A. Mitra, in Focus on Black Hole Research , (Nova Science, New York, 2006); Invited Book Chapter of 94 pages

11

Papers Published in Cornell Univ. Preprint Arxiv & International Conf. Proceedings
1. “An update on the design and implementation of the MACE gamma-ray telescope” R. Koul, R.C. Rannot, A. Mitra & 5 more authors, Proc. 32nd International Cosmic Ray Conference, Beijing, August, OG Session, (2011) 2. “Status of HAGAR Telescope Array in Himalayas” V. Chitnis et al., Proc. 32nd Int. Cos. Ray Conf. (Beijing, 2012) 3. ‘Status of the Himalayan Gamma-Ray Observatory (HIGRO) and observaton with HAGAR at very high energies” R.J. Britto et al., SF2A-2011: Proceedings of the Annual meeting of the French Society of Astronomy and Astrophysics Eds.: G. Alecian, K. Belkacem, R. Samadi and D. Valls-Gabaud, pp.539-543 (2011) 4. “Why No Dark Energy, No Big Bang, But a Likely Fractal Universe” A. Mitra, Proc. 32nd International Cosmic Ray Session, Beijing, HE Session, August (2011) 5. “Status of the Himalayan Gamma-Ray Observatory (HIGRO) and observaton with HAGAR at very high energies” R.J. Britto et al., SF2A-2011: Proceedings of the Annual meeting of the French Society of Astronomy and Astrophysics Eds.: G. Alecian, K. Belkacem, R. Samadi and D. Valls-Gabaud, pp.539-543 (2011) 6. “VHE gamma-ray observations of Mrk 501 and 1ES2344+514 with TACTIC during 2009-10” M.Kothari, et al. presented in “Meeting of Astronomical Society of India”, Raipur, Feb 2011 7. “Mrk 421 in a high TeV emission state during 2010: TACTIC observations” P. Chandra et al. presented at “Meeting of Astronomical Society of India”, Raipur, Feb 2011 8. “Towards new analysis of Gamma-Ray sources at HImalayan Gamma-Ray Observatory (HIGRO) in northern India” R.J. Britto et al., SF2A-2010: Proceedings of the Annual meeting of the French Society of Astronomy and Astrophysics. Eds.: S. Boissier, M. Heydari-Malayeri, R. Samadi and D. Valls-Gabaud, p.137 (2010) 9. “Observations with the High Altitude GAmma Ray (HAGAR) telescope array in the Indian Himalayas” R.J. Britto et al., SF2A-2010: Proceedings of the Annual meeting of the French Society of Astronomy and Astrophysics. Eds.: S. Boissier, M. Heydari-Malayeri, R. Samadi and D. Valls-Gabaud, p.133 (2010) 10. “An astrophysical peek into Einstein’s static universe” A. Mitra, Cornell Univ. Preprint Arxiv:0806.0706 (2008) 11. “Implications of the vanishing of the integration constant in vacuum Schwarzschild solution A. Mitra, Proc. 11th Marcel Grossmann Conf. on General Relativity, pp. 2276 (World Sc. 2008) 12. “Black Holes or Eternally Collapsing Objects” A. Mitra and N.K. Glendenning, Proc. 11th Marcel Grossmann Conf. on General Relativity, pp. 1523 (World Sc. 2008) 13. “Masses of radiation pressure supported stars in extreme relativistic realm” A. Mitra, Black Holes from Stars to Galaxies – Across the Range of Masses. Ed. by V. Karas and G. Matt. Proc. IAU Symposium 238, Cambridge University Press, pp.409 (2007) 14. “The status of high-altitude Himalayan Gamma Ray Observatory at Hanle” B.S. Acharya, V.R. Chitnis, R. Cowsik, R. Koul, R.K. Kaul, A.K. Mitra, T.P. Prabhu, R.C. Rannot, R. Srinivasan and P.R. Vishwanath, Proc. 30th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf., Vol. 3(OG part 2), 1361 (2007) 15. “A Secular Quark Gluon Plasma Phase Preceding Black Hole Formation A. Mitra and Normann K Glendenning, Lawrence Berkeley Lab Scholarly Depository Publication No.5620 (2006)

12 16. “Contribution of black hole x-ray binaries in galactic diffuse gamma-ray emission at energies above 1 MeV” N. Bhatt., S. Bhattacharya and A. Mitra, Proc. 29th ICRC, OG 4, 31 (2005) 17. “The Himalayan Gamma Ray Observatory at Hanle” R. Koul, R.K. Koul, A.K. Mitra & 8 more authors, Proc. 29th International Cosmic Ray Conference., Vol. 5, p.243 (2005) 18. “On the Probable Nature of the “Dark Particle Accelerators” Discovered by HESS” A. Mitra, Proc. 29th Int. Cos. Ray Conf. Vol. OG 4, 187 (2005) 19. “Magnetospheric Eternally Collapsing Objects: Likely New Class of Source of Cosmic Particle Acceleration” A. Mitra, Proc. 29th Int. Cos. Ray Conf. OG. Vol 3, 125 (2005) 20. “Why the observed black hole candidates do not show spin pulsations” A. Mitra, Poster Presented in COSPAR Colloq. on Spectra & Timing of Compact X-ray Binaries (TIFR) (2005) 21. “The day of reckoning: The value of the integration constant in the vacuum Schwarzschild solution” A. Mitra, Cornell Univ. Preprint Arxiv (2005) (physics/0504076) 22. “Comments on the proposal of Dark Energy Stars by Chapline” A. Mitra, Cornell Univ. Electronic Preprint Arxiv (2005) (astro-ph/0504384) 23. “Why the astrophysical Black Hole Candidates are not rotating black holes” A. Mitra Cornell Univ. Electronic Preprint Arxiv (2004) (astro-ph/0407501) 24. “Why the astrophysical Black Hole Candidates may not be black holes at all” A. Mitra, Cornell Univ. Electronic Preprint Arxiv (2004) (astro-ph/0409049) 25. “A new proof for non-occurrence of trapped surfaces and information paradox” A. Mitra, Cornell Univ. Electronic Preprint Arxiv (2004) (astro-ph/0408323) 26. “General Relativistic Collapse of Neutron Stars to Strange Stars: A Mechanism for Gamma Ray Bursts” **A. Mitra, (MNRAS suggested revision, but not followed up; arXiv:astro-ph/0010311) But cited by F. Halzen & D. Hooper in Reports on Progress in Physics, Volume 65(7), 1025-1078 (2002) and also by Janka,H.-Th.; Ruffert,M. 27. “Cosmic Acceleration: A Natural Remedy For Horizon and Flatness Problems” A. Mitra, Proc. IAU Symp. No. 201 (Manchester, 2000); eprint arXiv:physics/0007066 28. “Why General Theory of Relativity Allows the Existence of Only Extremal Black Holes” A. Mitra, eprint arXiv:hep-th/9905182 29. “Final Comments on “Another view on the velocity at the Schwarzschild horizon” by Tereno” A. Mitra, eprint arXiv:astro-ph/9905329 30. Comment on “Velocity at the Schwarzschild Horizon Revisited” by I. Tereno A. Mitra, eprint arXiv:astro-ph/9905175 31. “On the Nature of the Compact Objects in the Core of Galaxies and AGNs” A. Mitra, 19th Texas Symposium on Relativistic Astrophysics and Cosmology, held in Paris, France, Dec. 14-18, 1998. Eds.: J. Paul, T. Montmerle, and E. Aubourg (CEA Saclay), meeting abstract 32. “Is General Theory of Relativity Actually Free of Singularities” A. Mitra, Abstracts of the 19th Texas Symposium on Relativistic Astrophysics and Cosmology, held in Paris, France, Dec. 14-18, 1998. Eds.: J. Paul, T. Montmerle, and E. Aubourg (CEA Saclay) 33. “A Model for Most Luminous and Long Duration Cosmic Gamma Ray Bursts” A. Mitra, eprint arXiv:astro-ph/9812066

13 34. “Maximum Accretion Efficiency in General Theory of Relativity” * A. Mitra, eprint arXiv:astro-ph/9811402 4 Citations * 35. “Non-occurrence of Trapped Surfaces and Black Holes in Spherical Gravitational Collapse” A. Mitra, eprint arXiv:gr-qc/9810038, 36. “ Final State of Spherical Gravitational Collapse and Likely Source of Gamma Ray Bursts” A. Mitra, eprint arXiv:astro-ph/9803014; cited by F. Halzen & D. Hooper in Reports on Progress in Physics, Volume 65(7), 1025-1078 (2002) 37. “Towards the Final State of Spherical Gravitational Collapse and Likely Source of Gamma Ray Bursts” A. Mitra; eprint arXiv:astro-ph/9803013; cited by Pen,Ue-Li; Loeb,Abraham; *Turok,Neil in Astrophysical Journal, 509(2),. 537 (1998)* 38. “Constraining the Magnetic Field in Gamma Ray Burst Blast Waves” A. Mitra; eprint arXiv:astro-ph/9802125 (1998) 39. “On the Nature of the Compact Objects in the Core of Galaxies and AGNs” A. Mitra, 19th Texas Symposium on Relativistic Astrophysics and Cosmology, held in Paris, France, Dec. 14-18, (1998) Eds.: J. Paul, T. Montmerle, and E. Aubourg (CEA Saclay) 40. “Is General Theory of Relativity Actually Free of Singularities” A. Mitra, Abstracts of the 19th Texas Symposium on Relativistic Astrophysics and Cosmology, held in Paris, France, Dec. 14-18, 1998. Eds.: J. Paul, T. Montmerle, and E. Aubourg (CEA Saclay) 41. “Likely Physical Mechanism Behind Cosmic Gamma Ray Bursts” A. Mitra, Abstracts of the 19th Texas Symposium on Relativistic Astrophysics and Cosmology, held in Paris, France, Dec. 14-18, 1998. Eds.: J. Paul, T. Montmerle, and E. Aubourg (CEA Saclay) 42. “Is there any evidence for a massive black hole in Cygnus X-3” A. Mitra; The fourth Compton symposium. AIP Conference Proceedings, Volume 410, pp. 818-821 (1997). 43. “Possible identification of unidentified EGRET sources with Wolf-Rayet stars” R.K. Koul & A. Mitra, The fourth Compton symposium. AIP Conference Proceedings, Volume 410, pp. 12711274 (1997). Cited by Romero,G.E.; Benaglia,P.; Torres,D.F., Combi,J.A.; Mukherjee,R.; Gotthelf,E.V.; Halpern,J.; Tavani,M., P.; Eracleous,M.; Bhattacharya,D.; Akyz,A.; Miyagi,T.; Samimi,J.; Zych,A. Gotthelf,E.V., Reimer,A.; Pohl, and M.; Reimer,O. Also this is the only paper written on Indian soil cited by space borne NASA Gamma Telescope, GLAST (FERMI) Brochure, http : //f ermi.gsf c.nasa.gov/public/resources/pubs/gsd/GSDw eb.pdf 44. “Cosmological Limits on the Detection Range of the Tev Gamma-Ray Telescope TACTIC” A.Mitra & C.L. Bhat, JRNL. ASTROPHYSICS & ASTRON. V. 16, NO. SUPPL, P. 148, 1995 45. “Capture of Galactic Cold Dark Matter by the Sun” A. Mitra, Proc. 29th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf. (Roma), 1, 870 (1995) 46. “Need for examining spectral sensitivity of Cherenkov image parameters” C.L. Bhat, A.K. Tickoo, A.K. Mitra & V.K. Gandhi, in Towards a Major Atmospheric Cerenkov Detector, III, ed. Ti Kifune, pp. 207 (Academic Press, Tokyo, 1994) 47. “Radio Halos around X-Ray Binaries?” A. Mitra, Proc. 23rd International Cosmic Ray Conference, Vol. 2, held 19-30 July, 1993 at University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Edited by D.A. Leahy, R.B. Hickws, and D. Venkatesan. Invited, Rapporteur, and Highlight Papers. Singapore: World Scientific, 1993., p.370

14 48. “Probable Spectral Steepening of UHE Nuclear Gamma-Rays” A. Mitra, 23rd International Cosmic Ray Conference, Vol. 4, held 19-30 July, 1993 at University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Edited by D.A. Leahy, R.B. Hickws, and D. Venkatesan. Invited, Rapporteur, and Highlight Papers. Singapore: World Scientific, 1993., p.187 49. “Self-absorption of very high energy photons from Cygnus X-3” A. Mitra, Bull. Astron. Soc. India, Vol. 19, Nos. 1 - 2, p. 87 (1991) 50. “Cygnus X-3: the need for a new classification scheme for X-ray binaries” A. Mitra, Bull. Astron. Soc. India, Vol. 19, Nos. 1 - 2, p. 87 (1991) 51. “An attempt to resolve the anomalous magnetic field of PSR 0655+64” A. Mitra, Bull. Astron. Soc. India, Vol. 19, Nos. 1 - 2, p. 87 (1991) 52. “Cygnus X-3: a possible evolutionary scenario” A. Mitra, Bull. Astron. Soc. India, Vol. 19, Nos. 1 - 2, p. 87 (1991) 53. “Can Inverse Compton Process Generate the PeV Gamma Rays in Cygnus X-3?”, A. Mitra, Proceedings of the 21st International Cosmic Ray Conference. Volume 2 (OG Sessions), p.412 (1990) 54. “Diffusive Shock Acceleration” A. Mitra, Invited Talk, Annual Meeting of Astronomical Soc of India, Srinagar, 1989 55. “A model for possible long-term variation in Cygnus X-3 PeV source” A. Mitra, C.L. Bhat & H.S. Rawat, Proc. 20th International Cosmic Ray Conference, Vol. 9, p. 133 - 136 (1988) 56. “An equation of state of a Giant Molecular Cloud” A. Mitra & C.L. Kaul, Bull. Astr. Soc. India, 13(1), p. 91 (1985) 57. “Fluorescent Light from Cosmic Ray Air Showers” C.L. Bhat, V.K. Sanecha, A.K. Mitra, M.L. Sapru, & H. Razdan, Proc. 18th International Cosmic Ray Conference, held in Bangalore, India, 22 August - 3 September, 1983. Volume 11, p.416 58. “Fluorescent Light Pulses from Cosmic-Ray Air Showers” C.L. Bhat, V.K. Sanecha, A.K. Mitra, M.L. Sapru, & H. Razdan, Proc. 18th International Cosmic Ray Conference, held in Bangalore, India, 22 August - 3 September, 1983. Volume 6 (EA Sessions), p.244A