Efficient Large Displacement Elastoplastic Dynamic Analysis of Steel Frames

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A. S. Elnashai
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B. A. Izzuddin

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P. J. Dowling

*

SUMMARY A newly’ developed computer code frr elastoplastic laige displacement dynamic analysis of structures is presented. The program ADAPT uses the concept of adaptive mesh refine ment with a combination of plastic hinge and elastoplastic cubic elements to arrive at an accurate solution starting from the coar sest possible mesh. In dynamic analysis, independent lumped and distributed “mass” elements are used. Time-step adjustment is employed with the Newmark integration scheme. Verification examples indicate that the developed code is not only veiy accur ate, but also exceedingly efficient. KEY WORDS: Dynamics non linear, elastoplastic.

1. Introduction Notwithstanding the importance of experimental testing, the development of accurate and efficient analysis models is of utmost importance in quantifying response characteristics of complex structural configu rations. In recent years, concerted research efforts have been focusing on the dynamic analysis of steel frames /1, 2, 3, 4, 5/. Several analysis tools are available using a variety of modelling and solution techniques. Several of these studies in Europe are driven by the need to define behaviour factors for various structural forms, necessary for the determination of seismic de sign forces /6/. A critical review of existing analysis tools /7/ revealed the following: Detailed models for member behaviour exist. Recent trends use the concept of concentrating the elasto plastic deformations in the bottom region of a canti lever member. This approach was shown to be inef ficient when implemented in dynamic analysis programs /8/.

The formulations are based on moment-curvature idealization. Some assumption regarding the leniti of plastic hinge zones is required to convert cur\a tures to rotations. Formulations based on conventional finite element beam-column models are prohibitively expensive and cannot be used to conduct systematic parametric stn dies. Modelling of the large displacement response. cou pled with elastoplastic behaviour, requires a fin mesh. For complex structures, it is very difficult determine a-priori areas of expected plasticity. It was concluded that a fresh approach to the prnd 1cm is called for, hence a research project was initiated, with the objective of developing new modelling tech niques for steel frames /9/. In the following sections, a brief review of the can bilities of the developed code is presented. This is lowed by numerical examples demonstrating th versatility and extreme efficiency of the prograTe ADAPT. All analysis times quoted are for a Micro \ II computer with 8 Mb of virtual memory.

2. Review of Static Formulations The program is capable of dealing with a variety static problems on two levels of accuracy, as descrTh in Section 2.1 below. It has built-in facilities to predn: the post-ultimate response of frames subjected to portional loads, and has an option for analyses whc the loads vary independently in the time domain. ‘I L formulations implemented in ADAPT are beam’oi umn finite elements accounting exactly for large nvTd 1 displacements, but modelling the effects of mater’: nonlinearity with varying degrees of accuracy. ‘I Eulerian (chord) system forms the basis of derivatn’n. and exact relations are used to establish transform: tions between chord and global systems /9, 10/. The tnr mulations, presented in detail in reference /9/. C described briefly hereafter.
EUROPEAN EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
iong

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Imperial College, London, UK. Received aug. 1989, revised dec. 1989.

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The analysis is then Continued using the new mesh configuration in place of the original one. while the remaining unyielded parts are kept as elastic quartic elements. 21. lIllILL II LIII. The accuracy of this formulation is such that only one element per member needs he used for most trame problems as long as elasticity is retained. to hin. ELASTIC QUARTIC ELEMENT (a) Chord forces and displacements 1/2 ‘ II Ii p This element is based on a quartic shape function in :he chord system (Figure 1).e is coverned b a ( 1’—. 11/ revealed in reference 19/ that one quartic element can be equivalent in accuracy to two cubic ele ments.. — IS. and monitors stresses and strains at vari ous points across two Gaussian sections (Figure 2).i) plastic ntcr.ietion eur e. as the analysis .. The analysis is then continued using the plastic hinge quartie formulation described in (2. and the increments of plastic displ. 1 — Parameters of the quartic formulation. L/2 L/(29J -- 4 y 11(217) 1 2 p (b) Locations of the two Gaussian sections Monitoring point (i) (c) Monitoring points for a rectangular section Fig. I). acCounting for the effects of II1lL. The L c1 Chord forces F SI 2F l. dcseribed in 12. 2. are inserted in pre-specified parts of the Origjflal element where yield has been detected in the extreme fibres.Initial imperiection lx) x I. and is formulated to :rodei the beam-column effect as well as initial imper tections. 3. tiOn /10. b) Accurate procedure: Plastic cubic elements. This has significant implications in savings in data preparation and computational time when using quartic instead of cubic elements to model non—linear elastic members. A comparison in the elastic range between the quar tic formulation and the widely used cubic formula. 2 — Parameters of the cubic formulation. .icenienls obey the assoeijted flo rule.3).ltlferent procedures may be followed: a) Approximate procedure: Idealized discrete plas tie hinges are introduced at the ends of the element.2 Pi II( IIt\(l (II \Ril( II ‘dl ‘I rd displacements and imperfections This is in u\lensiull to the elastic quartic lormula— tion.2).. (b) Actual chord deflections 2.ith the option of subdivision into two new elements if plastic hinge has been detected within the element Icnght.1). des cribed in (2. If plas one of two gcitv is detected.3 PLAsTIc CUBIC ELEMENT This element assumes a cubic shape function in the chord system. 1989 33 . [his element t pe is suitable for preliminar inestigations and for dnakses where the material response is essentiall elastic—plastic v ith no Strain hardening. IS..

The advantage of the approximate procedure that only one plastic hinge quartic element per memh. While the second is the more e laborate multi-surface model /12/ which employs a virgin curve (Ku) and a cyclic curve (K. needed ts the iterative procedure. under s loads which are proportional or vary independently in pseudo-time.Plastic loading C main use of this formulation is in parts of members undergoing plastic deformation. 3 — Bilinear elastic-plastic model. and if achieved. the accurate procedure gives identical re suits to a detailed finite element analysis. 4. The stiffness assembly and reduction. the maximun increase of the front width is two nodes. two material str 5 strain relationships arc in use. This meth has a particular advantage in the fact that no major optimization process is required after the subdivision an element into new elements. The approximate and accura:c procedures can be used in the same analysis for diffeo ent members. and performs elastic analysis using one elastic quartic element per member. is performed using the ‘ei established frontal solution method /13/. c/•L an. Static examples Weighting function Fig. approximate or accurate pr cedures can be followed as described in the prcviuu section. hardening under large strain amplitudes. with the vantage that finer meshing is automatically introduce if and where needed. For frames subjected to proportional loads. resentation of material cyclic behaviour including the Bauschinger effect. Program static analysis features —-- Virgin Curve Kb Cyclic Curve W Frames can be analysed. softening under small strain ampli tudes. Moreover.) with a weighting function (W) dependent on the accumulated plastg . Adequa measures arc taken in the implementation to allow the use ol any material law.11/dte Fig. Plasticity is checked continuously in the elements as the analysis proceeds. Three examples are used to demonstrate some of the above-described facilities for static analysis. thus enabling th accurate assessment of the spread of yield along the member length and across the section depth. loads can he either applied nodal forces or prescribed nodal displa cements. On the other hand. Currently. 0 K 3. according to the importance of their role in the total frame response. using ADAPT. 4 — Curves of multi-surface model. EUROPEAN EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING 34 3. The first is based on bilinear elastic—plastic model with kinematic strain har dening (Figure 3). 1939 .. and mean stress relaxation. with the subdivision into two elements per formed only in the case of member buckling. thus providing the capability of modelling members independently. is needed. post-ultimate response can be predicted using contrI of nodes (global) or elements (local) displacements or rotations. The program accounts exactly for large nodal di placements. regardless the number of subdivisions undertaken. For both types of analysis.

94 F. bending moments up to M are applied. Whereas the braces are modelled using the approxi mate or accurate procedure to accommodate plasticity. with the difference mainly attributed to the effect of local buckling neglected by the analysis. all the members are modelled using one elastic quartic element. In all cases. . Figure 6 between experimental and analytical results.siw TRUSS BUCKLING Fig. depicted in Figure 5a. where M is the theoretical moment causing the beam to form a circle under pure bending. 6 Tubular beam-column under cyclic loading.n A tubular beam-column subjected to an initial transverse load (Q) and cyclic axial displacements is shown in Figure 6. The prediction of ADAPT is slightly higher than that of reference /14! at the compressive peaks. With the approximate procedure. the specified procedure is followed.-10 kM force F are solved.0 Geometric properties and Fig. the rest of the frame is assumed to remain elastic. only one plastic hinge quartic element is needed per brace. These curves demonstrate that sufficient accuracy can he obtained using two elements.0 E. 4. The material properties were obtained ) 11 from reference /14! where a modified cyclic curve (K Favourable comparison is demonstrated in is proposed. 1989 . 4. shows a beam initially subjected to an axial force F and very large bending moments M at the ends.94/94. U? 0/? 9 1Lr. A E.1. Load-deflection curves using two and four elastic quar tic elements are shown in Figure 5b for all three cases. 1 7Tt[I/1 .05 [0 [A 0 S 905 kM/rn )15n10kN 94.1 E3esi UNDER AXIAL LOAD ANt) BENDING MOMENT This large deformation elastic example. While with 35 3. Initially.10 kM 1. even at an excessive level of deformation.3 P. 5a deflected shapes of beam under bending.2 End 1nPiO[f. with an amplitude of (L!5U0). except for the buckled brace which is automatically subdivided into two elements. The frame buckles in its lower compression brace which has a parabolic imperfection distribution in the direction of buckling.5h — Load detlection curves of beam under bending. as shown in Figure 7. Analytical prediction of the res ponse using ADAPT is based on the accurate approach in which the cubic elements employ the multi-surface material model. possibly due to implemen tation differences in the multi-surface material model. hut when plasticity is detected. 4.1tfl 1 TuBULAR BEAM-COLUMN UNDER CYCLIC LOADiNG Hg. Three cases with different values for the initial axial EUROPEAN E4RTH QUAKE ENGINEERING This is an example of a tubular braced frame which is loaded beyond its ultimate capacity.

In the following sections. cubic with lumped or consistent cubic mass elements). velocities or accele rations. Independent support motion is also possible. I . EUROPEAN EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING 36 3.} - {u.} - {uj) + (I / Fig. - Iii III ( ——— 1 -) {rj + (2) 7’ 2/3 IU inpactrnte ttn. followed by verifica tion examples to assess the accuracy and efficiency of the developed code. : nodal velocities vector at time (t) : nodal displacements vector at time y and f3: Newmark’s parameters. Moreover.} (3) inertial forces contribution of mass ment (e) eL { u. { v. The forcing function may be loads or dis placement time histories. Dynamic analysis Comprehensive dynamic analysis capabilities have been developed in ADAPT. 5. The structure of the pro gram is improved significantly by the way in which mass and damping matrices are implemented. A. Separate nonstructural elements are used to calculate inertia and damping forces without any interference with the “sta tics” elements. 7 — (.2 MAss ELEMENTS The contribution of these elements to the structure global forces depends on their nodal acceleration. given by: [Mel= m 0 0 0 m 0 0 0 0 ] (6) j The nodal accelerations and velocities at time (t+At) are obtained from the relationships presented by Newmark /15/.1 Lumped mass element This element is suitable for representing the inert! forces of masses concentrated at structural nodes. 1989 . for elements with negligible mass. with automatic time-step adjustment. cubic elements employing the bilinear material model are inserted in any of the ten positions pre-specified for each brace if yield is detected in the extreme fibre. 5.} = () ({u. [Mel. 1 is defined as follows: ] }=[K 1 {aF {àu} where {Oue}: iterative increment of nodal displae ments of element (e) within time-step EAt). Direct integration using the unconditionally stable Newmark method is used. is a 3x3 maiL. Figure 7 shows the loaddeflection curves obtained using the approximate pro cedure and the accurate procedure with and without strain-hardening. only the static part of the program is executed.} (it the accurate procedure. in comparison with existing analy sis packages. II.2. These curves demonstrate the postultimate analysis capability in ADAPT. No rotary inertia is taken into account at the cur rent time. where m: concentrated nodal mass. the equive lent static stiffness of mass elements can be written 1=-1 [K [M1 Two types of mass elements are used in ADAPT: 5. and the accur acy of the plastic hinge quartic element in the case of insignificant strain-hardening.} + (lj [ I. the program dynamic analysis capabilities are reviewed. Irb = () {u. i equivalent nodal mass matrix. from equations (1).{a A. The equivalent static stiffness of mass elements 1K ). This enables the analysis to proceed with any combination of static and dynamic represen tations (quartic.l Load dcflcction curve of plastic truss.t) a. a given by the equation: } 1 {F where.}) () {v.1 NEwMARK’s TIME INTEGRATION SCHEME 5.} { u. {F } 1 [MJ = [Me] {a. with displacements. Hence.} : equivalent nodal mass matrix for eL ment (e) : nodal acceleration of element (e). (3) and (4)..

} : forces contribution of damping ele ment (c) : equivalent nodal damping matrix for element (e) : nodal velocities of element (e).3 0 0 0 l3mL/420 0 13m/35 -l lnzL210 -llmL/210 /140 2 13. Its equivalent nodal mass matrix.3. with cubic and linear distributions used for the :runsverse and axial displacements respectively.g. [T] : transformation matrix of direction r . Four different meshes are used to study the eigenvalue characteristics of the mass ele ment. 7. is a 3 x 3 matrix given by: [T1F [M.] [TI (7) where. For this reason. and a facility for automatic reduction of (zJt) has been in cluded to overcome convergence difficulties. (9) and (10).)] {áu} (10) Hence. 5.3. [CJ. show the increase in accuracy with additional elements. that for structures comprising a number of members. from equations (2). The results. however. the accuracy of modelling other damping mechanisms has negligible effect on the obtained re sults. given along with the theoretical solu tion in Table I. The formulation is derived in an Updated Lagrangian system.Cubic mass clement This element provides a simple yet reasonably eeurate representation of uniformly distributed mass. 7. as dis cussed in Section 2. Since the program accounts for cyclic plasticity. Additional element types relating to the EbROpEAN EAR EHQUAKE ENGlNEERvG An elastic clamped heam is subjected to a dynamic step load of 640 lbs at its mid-length. its accuracy is questionable for mem hers which become severely deformed (e. in L : element total mass : element lenght. hysteretic damping is included. However.n13 0 1 3m. an eigenvalue analysis capability based on Lanczos (16) algorithm has been implemented.1 El NVAEUEs OF. directions of the three global freedoms. the implementation of the [c]= I c /105 2 1 lmL/210 mL 0 9m!70 0 m. is a 6 X 6 matrix sjven by: [. the equiva lent static stiffness of damping elements can he rewrit ten as: An Eigenvalue analysis is performed for a free beam to determine four of its fundamental frequencies (three bending and one axial). 0 K is defined as: {Ff)} = [K. The equivalent static stiffness of damping elements. Therefore. which is largely dependent on the structure natural frequencies and modes of vibration. It should he noted.nLi42O —mL mLTI 05 here. [1}. one mass element n.e. = dynamic formulations in ADAPT as separate (i. j. and demonstrate that two cubic mass elements are sufficient br first mode represen tation. two or more cubic mass elements need to be used per member.n 0 9m 70 l3mL/420 - 0 I3mL 420 /140 2 -mL I. as shown in 37 . Program dynamic analysis features As discussed before.) 0 0 . i’ member gives a good tirst mode representatio of mass is the governing since the global distribution lactor. 6. 35 t) 1 ImL:210 6 1 .FREE BEAN! [fl.J {J (9) {FD} {CJ { t’. The equivalent nodal damping matrix. as given 1w the equation: {FD} where. nonstructural) mass and damping elements has facilitated the full use in dynamic analysis of the previously deve loped static elements without an’ alteration to their features. In such cases. an additional requirement for an accurate dynamic assessment is the proper choice of the time step (ult). Although the cubic mass element provides a much n-ore realistic modelling of distributed mass than the lumped element.1 Concentrated damping clement This element type represents viscous dashpot damp ing at individual nodes. Dynamic examples It 7. iS DaMpiNo ELEMENTS The contribution of these elements to the structure Tubal forces depends on their nodal velocities.j = damping of different nodes can he easily implemented. due to hoc sling). The beam is modelled using elastic quartie structural elements combined with cubic mass elements.2 [KI)1=-fr [C] (11) Cw\uIo BEAM tNOIR CONE! NTRATEI) FOAl) Only concentrated damping elements are currently Used in ADAPT.n6 () (1 0 (12) 0 0 L 0 0 c j and C are damping coefficients in the where C.

The response as predicted by Al)A PT is obtained using quart ie elastic elements v dli three eases of O!i idealization in half the span. May 19/6).08 sec represents approximately a phase angle of (.3 Sv.33H p I kSI i3 332 P 3OOH — a Fig. 9c Absolute displacement of node (c) for svnchronou excitation. - Dvn!inlie response ol elastic beam siil1jeele!l to 3 Iep TdI R33 33 . which amplify geometrically nonlinear effects. This results in 177 reduction in CPU time over the first ease while main taining the same level of accuracy. 1 he time response ol the beam was blamed 7/ using h\ e 8—noded plane by Nlondkar and Powell half the span with lumped mass idea stress elements in hzanon. the earthquake record is applied simultaneously at the two supports (a) and (h). is subjected to synchronous and asynchronous ground excitation using the Gazli earthquake (USSR. 1989 . even though geometric nonlinearities are not allowed for n PAFEC. similar to the idealization in reference /17:. 9 — Ela’. as shown in Figure 9e. S load. — 38 EUROPEAN EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING 3. I * I I I / I-mi) I44) I’3i 3) tIndIflg. Excellent agreement with the results of reference 17/ is demonstrated in Figure S. This agreement is expected. since vertical loads. 9b — Displacement history of the Gazli earthquake. 0.r4) Fig. The reason is that a time delay of 0. but with a scaling factor of approximately (V’/2). ° PAFEC Fig. .11ur. thus saving 25 of CPU time while still providing a good approximation of the response. / = 1/2 and It = 5)) usee. Fig.II1J ih33nI S.i Iu I) /1 / t Figure 8. N. The prediction of PAFEC is in ex Figures 9c cellent agreement with that of ADAPT. and emplovng \ewmark’s time iniegration with ( = 1/1. For the synchronous case. The first ease. a shear wave velocity of 150 msec is used.08 sec in the ground motion input at support (b). shows a similar variation to that of the synchronous case in Figure 9d. 7. The dynamic com ponent of the response. depicted in Figure 9a.inni it’TlJ333L1. as g demonstrated by Figures 9 and 9h. are not applied to the frame. uses live lumped mass elements and the same time integral on procedure.tie trame (7.icumot’iogs ELASTiC FRAME AND A5YNCHRONOLS EXCiTATiON OF C An elastic frame. The response predictions of ADAPT and PAFEC compare favourably for this case as well. s hich implies that the number of structural elements is also reduced to three quartie elements. The absolute and relative responses of the frame as 1 obtained by ADAPT and PAFEC IS are presented in and 9d. The second ease employs a distributed mass idealization using three cubic mass elements.3t7 see). however. This results in a time delay of 0.d 333.31 I l_j1Ic1kis I S.table I — PiCdUi(_’(t . plotted in Figure 9i. For the asynchronous case. The third case employs two cubic elements only.

between the inputs at the two supports when the funda mental mode (T sec) of the structure is con =0. 1989 Ñ• 39 . With the approximate procedure.317 0 sidered. is sub jected to the Gazli earthquake. that LUSAS requires 4 hrs 53 mins CPU time as compared to 15 mins required by ADAPT.luppsrl SupporT a A 0 ADAPT PAF1C ____ -10 Fig. the frame is analysed by ADAPT using the approximate and accurate pro cedures. — Dynamic component of displacement at node (c) under asynchronous excitation. 9d Displacement of node (c) relative to support (a) — N sec) under synchronous excitation. 9f Relative support movement under asynchronous excitation. For both cases the frame is initially modelled using quartic elastic elements and 6 lumped mass ele ments. since LUSAS does not have the facility for applying accele rations at the supports. depicted in Figure lOa. 9h Displacement of node (c) relative to support (a) under asynchronous excitation.—.08 seconds). plastic hinges are introduced during the analysis at locations where 3. 7.. For the elastoplastic case. Fig. however. — —ADAPT PANt TN l)sec) Fig. ii .. The elastic and elasto plastic responses of the frame are studied using ADAPT and LUSAS /19/.— ADAPT PAFEC TI— —ADAPT * PAFEC I Fig. where excellent agreement is demonstrated. only one element per member is used in both ADAPT and LUSAS. It is noted.4 Emuic EXCITATION OF MULTI-STOREY t)sec) FRAME Fig. 9g — Absolute displacement of node (c) under asynchro flOus excitation. Gravitational forces are ap plied to the frame. The lateral drift of the top floor relative to the supports as predicted by the two programs is plotted in Figure 10 b. For the elastic case. EUROPEAN EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING A three storey frame. 9e Displacement histories at supports under asynchro nous excitation (time lag=0. and the time integration is performed using Ai’=6667 sec. and the earthquake is applied as inertia forces at the lumped masses positions. 9i Fig.

of mu ii s1orc or omc or b analysis using AI)APT. Conclusions The advancement of design guidance.TFq. I II ti • 1 12 13 ii. While with the accurate pro cedure. placement response as well as material nonlinearitk. Fig... The elastoplastic case is also analysed using LUSAS. coupled with automatic mesh refinement and time-stc ping.- r. lOb Dynamic elastic response of multi-storey frame.. cubic elements employing the bilinear material model without strain hardening are inserted automati cally by the program in locations where yielding is detected. — Geometric and dynamic propeilies ci cLopI 1st I 00— so-f Loi ——— 6 ADAPT LUSAS 41 I 1 I 51 I I I I IlseCI ADAPT iIISAS (Approma:e proedue IAc’aIe proeAeI - UTT -20 -30t 4 i ill *1 11+1111 If l.. — 8. IDe frame. EUROPEAN EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING plasticity is detected. while retaining efficiency A new adaptive dynamic analysis capability has hecii developed and presented above. — 6. t - Ls fig. necessitates iL development of accurate and efficient analysis capahiIi ties. of mulii-storc M 3ciim. ‘4 1. using the appru\i mate and accurate procedures respectively. 15 I Ii 14 4 - so I Fig. since the locations of plas ticity are assumed to he unknown beforehand. IDe Comparison between elastic and elastoplastic res ponse of multi-storey frame. Fig. 1989 . The comparative stu dies described in Sections 4 and 7 demonstrate th accuracy and efficiency of the developed program. lila frame. The frame is modelled using 10 elastoplastic finite elements per member. 1 optimum flow-chart and structuring of the progri:. Dynamic elastoplastic response of multi-stores — 0O SD 004PT ———ADAPT — — (Elaslc) {PlasSc hngel ii ii II II I secl -a 331 201 I II II II II i I\ II analysis using LUSAS was terminated at t 2.I. Comparison between the two approaches in Figure lOe demonstrates the accuracy of the approxi mate plastic hinge procedure when strain hardening is negligible. Such tools should take into account the large di. renders this program a valuable tool for the rc listic nonlinear dynamic analysis of structures on rnicro computers. i. compared to 20 mins and 1 hr 20 mins required h ADAPT for the entire earthquake. The 40 3. making use the nonlinear response of structures.w7 i—-- .5 se after 9 hrs 30 mins CPU time had been consumed.

. Journal of the Structural Division. Eurocode 8 Common Unified Rules for Earthquake Resistant Design.. “Large Displacement Elastoplastic Static/Dynamic Analysis of Frames”. Nottingham. Earthquake Engineering Imperial Col lege. ASCE. July 1959. EM6. 1981. 1990. 1980. 11.. Y. 1986. User Manual. Dowling P. 107. Costruzioni Metal liche. ASCE. Jour nal of Structural Engineering. Vol. ESEE 88/4. “A Nonlinear Beam Ele ment for Seismic Analysis of Structures”.. (6. Inc.. “Multi-surface Model Application to Beam-columns Subjected to Cyclic Loads”. ESEE/SCI Research Report. Vol. K. /16/ Hughes T.. “A Method of Computation for Structural Dynamics”... Vol.K... Saigal S. Dec. 0. K. ASCE. /19/ LUSAS. 1970. “Cyclic Metal Plasticity: Experiments and Theory”.. J. “Inelastic Material Models in Earth quake Response”. pp. London. P. vol. R. 2. Lisbon. A. Rahimzadeh J. 253-277.cknowIedgenient The static part of ADAPT was developed with par tial funding from the Steel Construction Institute. 3. Dec. Zayas V. pp. 104. pp. 1988. “Nonlinear Elastic Frame Analysis by Finite Element”. ASCE. 94. /12/ Popov E. No.3/73)-(6. M. EM3. Carlesimo L. M. “Finite Element Analysis of Nonlinear Static and Dynamic Res ponse”. pp.. pp. Proc.. Jan. 5-32. \cOt. No.. Ciampi V. 1989 41 .K. Linear Static and Dynamic Finite Element Analy sis”. 288-312. Thesis to be submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Faculty of Engineering of the University of London. Elnashi A. No. Vol. “A Frontal Solution Program for Finite Element Analysis”. A. P.. March 1968. Billington and J. vol. EC$. ST8. Mahin S. 851-867.. pp. United Kingdom.. Imper ial College. 1984. A. ASCE.. Haroun N.. EAEE. User Manual. 85. Di Palma N. “Frame Analysis Including Change of Geometry”. /8/ Castiglioni C. Vol. /14/ Mizuno F. Vol. “Inelastic Behaviour of X-Bracing in Plane Frames”. 499-520. Vol. pp. /9/ Izzuddin B. Vol. Journal of the Structural Division. 67-94. 13-28. International Journal of Numerical Methods in Engineering. 2375-2390.. U. 1987. International Journal for Numerical Meth ods in Engineering... Prentice-Hall. /10/ Wen R. pp. /17/ Mondkar D. Ward of the above organi ‘ation. United Kingdom. J. Ci. Journal of the Engi neering Mechanics Division.K. STI2. 1987. Izzuddin B. Lisbon. A. 1988. EUROPEAN EARTI-IOUAKE ENGINEERING 3. No.. Vol. Surrey. Popove E. 20. M. “Steel Members under Cyclic Loads: Numerical Modelling and Experimental Verification”. H.. Berkshire. 1371-1388. /13/ Irons B. Journal of the Engineering Mechanics Division. Shepherd R. Kato M.. pp. STI. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering. 1978. London. P. Petersson H. 6.. 627-644. The authors are aratcful for the support and encouragement given by irs. I P P P (/ 7 Hays C. Powell G. Department of Civil Engineering. “A Simple Element for Sta tic and Dynamic Responses of Beams with Mater ial and Geometric Nonlinearities”. Journal of Constructional Steel Re search. /15/ Newmark N. 1988. 106. No.. pp. U. 7. 4. April 1986. Finite Element Analysis System. Vol. Fukumoto Y. /11/ Jennings A. Linear Analysis Program. 764-780. No. /18/ PAFEC. FEA Ltd.. “The Finite Element Method. 112. Journal of the Structural Division.. The authors are also grateful for the support provided by the Edmund Davis fund of the University London. No. S. pp. No. Ward J. 109. Yang T. pp. Nov. of the 8th European Conference of Earthquake Engineering.3-80). PAFEC Ltd... 1977. Journal of the Structural Div ision. ST3. “Inelastic Large Displacements Analysis of Steel Frames”. ASCE. A. ASCE... “Inelastic Cyclic Behaviour of Tubular Braced Frames”.