IS 2707 : 1996

Indian Standard CARBON STEEL CASTINGS FOR SURFACE HARDENING - SPECIFICATION ( Fourth Revision )

ICS 11.140.10:77.140.80

0 BIS 1996 BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS MANAK BHAVAN. 9 BAHADUR SHAH ZAFAR MARG NEW DELHI 110002
December 1996

Price Group 2

Steel

Castings

Sectional

Committee,

MTD

17

FOREWORD This Indian Smndnrd (Fourth Revision) finalized by the Steel Castings Sectional Division Council. was adopkd by the Bureau of Indian Standards. Committee had been approved by the Metallurgical after the draft Engineering

This standard was first published in 1964 and was revised in 1973, 1982 and 1989. While reviewing ihe standard in the light of the experiencegained during these years the committee has decided that the standard may bc further revised. In this revision various clauses have been aligned with the recent standards on steel castings. The following are the main modifications: a) b) c) Requirements Requirements Requirements of heat treatment have been modified, been modified, been specified. conditions for heavy where B rough core gears and anvils. : 1991 ‘Skel with a hard and

of non-destructive of residual elements

test have have

Carbon surface

steel casrings are surface hardened for special service for better wear resistance is necessary. for example, of this standard. assistance has been derived purposes’, issued by [he British Standards

In Ihc preparation general engineering

from BS 3100 Institution.

caslings

for

For the purpose of deciding whether a particular requiremem of this standard is complied with, the final VAX, observed or calculared, expressing the result of a test or analysis. shall be rounded off in accordance with IS 2 : 1960 ‘Rules for rounding off numerical values (revised)‘. The number of significant places retained in the rounded off value should he the same as that of the specified value in this standard.

IS 2107 : 19%

Indian Standard CARBON STEEL CASTINGS FOR SURFACE HARDENING - SPECIFICATION ( Fourth Revision )
1 SCOPE
This standard covers the requirements castings for surface hardening. for carbon steel

5 SUPPLY
General castings

OF MATERIAL
to supply of steel in IS 8800:3986.

requirements relating shall he as laid down

2 REFERENCES
The Indian Standards listed in Annex adjuncts to this standard. A xc necessary

6 MANUFACTURE
The steel for the castings shall be made by electric arc or electric induction or such other processes as may be agreed to between the purchaser and the ma”“fact”rer.

3 TERMINOLOGY 3.1 For the purpose of this standard, definitions shall apply.
the following

7 PARTICULARS ORDERING

.TO BE SPECIFIED

WHILE
to be to this

The

product a) One

of any of the following: furnace heat. heat, or

For the benefit of the purchaser, particulars specified while ordering for steel castings specification arc given in Annex B.

8 CHEMICAL

COMPOSITION

b) One crucible

c) A number of furnace or crucible heats of similar composition mixed in a ladle or tapped in separate ladles and poured simultaneously for making a casting.

8.1 The ladle analysis of steel when carried out either
by the method specified in IS 228 and its relevant parts or any other established instrumental/chemical methods shall be as given in Table I. In case of dispute the procedure given in IS 228 shall be the reference method. However. where the method is not given in IS 228, the referee method shall be as agreed to between the purchaser and the manufacturer. 8.2 The manufacturer shall carry out analysis from a sample of each melt of steel and, if so specified by the purchaser at the time of enquiry and order, shall supply a test certificate of chemical analysis of the sample of steel for each melt.

3.1.2 Batch
A group of castings of one grade of material, cast from the same melt and heat-treated under identical conditions.

4 GRADES
This standard covers a total of three grades of carbon steel castings for surface hardening.

Table 1 Chemical

Composition

of Carbon

Steel Castings for Surface Hardening

( Clause 8.1 ) St No. Grade DCSiE”NiO” ConstiluenL~. Percent A si (4)
(IN, Mm O.RO.0.8” 0.60 rwa

/-C (3)

M” 0)
1.0 Mu I .a- t .4” 1.0 M”X

s Mur (6)
0.04” 0.040 0.040

7 P Mu
(7) “.M” 0.04tJ 0.040

(I)
i) ii, iii)

(2)
Gmk I

0.42.0.48 0.39-0.45 0.52.0.158

Cmde 2 Grndt s

I

IS 2707

: 1996 8.3 Product Analysis

10 FREEDOM 10.1 All castings adversely affect

FROM

DEFECTS

If specified at the time of enquiry and order, the product analysis may be carried out from a broken test piece or from n casting representing each melt. Drillings for analysis shall be taken from not less than 6 mm beneath the cast surface, and in such a manner as not to impair the usefulness of any casting selected. The permissible variation in product analysis from the limits specified in Table I shall be as given in IS 6601:1987.

shall be free from dcfccu dut will machining or utility of castings.

10.2 When necessary to remove risers or gates by flame or arc or B combination thereof, or by any other process involving intense heat, care shall be taken to make the cut 81 a sufficient distance from the body of the casting so as to prevent any defect being introduced into the casting due to local heating. Any such operation is to be done before final heat treatment. 10.3 In the event of any casting proving defective from foundry causes in the course of preparation, machining or erection, such casting may be rejected notwithstanding any previous certification of satisfactory testing and/or inspection.

8.4 Residual

Elements

8.4.1 Elements not specified in Table I shall not ordinarily be added to the steel and all reasonable precaurions shall be taken to prevent contamination from scrap, etc. to keep them as low as practicable. 8.4.2 The following elements not specified
Corzstituenls

11 FETTLING
limits shall apply in Table I:
Percent, Max

AND DRESSING

for

the All castings shall be properly fettled and dressed, and all surfaces shall be thoroughly cleaned.

Chromium Nickel Molybdenum Copper Total content of the unspecified elements

0.20 0.30 0.15 0.25 0.70

12 HEAT

TREATMENT

12.1 The castings shall be heat-treated in a properly constructed furnace, having adequate means of temperature control, which shall permit the whole of the castings being uniformly heated to the necessary temperature. All castings shall be suitably heat treated so as to attain the specified mechanical properties.
12.2 The test pieces shall be heat treated the castings they represent. along with

8.4.3 Analysis and reporting of the analysis in the test certificate for the residual elements shall be done only when so specified by the purchaser in the enquiry and order. However, the manufacturer shall ensure rhal the residual elements are within the limits specified.

13 MECHANICAL

TESTS

9 WORKMANSHIP

AND FINISH

9.1 The castings shall be accurately moulded in accordance with the pattern or the working drawings supplied by the purchaser with the addition of such letters. figures and marks as may be specified.
9.2 The purchaser shall specify the tolerances on all important dimensions. On other dimensions, lolerances specified in IS 4897:1994 shall apply.

13.1 The mechanical properties specified are those which are to be obtained from test bars cast either separately from or attached to the castings to which they refer and heat treated as given in 12. The test values so exhibited, therefore. represent the quality of steel from which the castings have been poured; they do not necessarily represent the properties of the castings themselves.
13.2 The tensile test shall be carried out in accordance with IS 1608: 1995. The relevant mechanical properties shall be as given in Table 2.

Table 2 Mechanical

Properties

of Carbon

Steel Castings for Surface Hardening

( Clause 13.2 ) SI
N”.

Grade
Designation

lhsite Strfngth Mb, Mh (3)

Yield strcs Mh, &fin (4)

Elongation Percent. Mir,

(1) i)

(2) Gndc I

(5)

620

320 490 370

I2 12 8

ii) iii)

Gmdc Grade

2 3

690 700

2

IS 2701 : 1996 13.3 Hardening Test 15 REPAIR OF CASTINGS

If so specified in enquiry and order. a test piece 13 ~nm in diame1er and 80 mm long shall be machined from a test sample representing each cas1. The tes1 piece shall bc heated IO a temperature between 8OiPC and 84OoC and quenched in water. The test piece shall then be submitted 10 a hardness lest in accordance with IS ISOO:I983 and shall show a Brinell Hardness Number not less than 460 for Grade I and no, less than 535 for Grade 2 and Grade 3. If the foregoing tes1ing is not 10 be done a1 the manufacturer end. the manufac1urer shall nevertheless be responsible 10 guarantee n~tainmenl of the hardness specified.

15.1 Unless otherwise specified by the purchaser in the enquiry and order, castings may be rec1ificd by welding. All repairs by welding shall be carried out in accordance with 1he procedure laid down in IS 5530: 1987. If castings have been subjected 10 non-. destructive testing by agreement between 1hc purchaser and 1he manufacturer, the castings shall be reexamined in the area of repair following any rectifying operation performed on the ca<tings. 15.2 To form the basis of an agreement between the purchaser and the supplier in this respect where relevant. 1he following classification shall apply concerning 1he extent of repair:
a) Weld repair involving a depth no1 exceeding 20 percent of wall thickness or 25 mm, whichever is lower, shall be termed as a minor repair. b) Any weld repair exceeding the above shall be termed as a major repair. Further any single repair having an area exceeding 250 mm square for every millime1re of wall thickness shall also be deemed to be a major repair regardless of the considerations mentioned in (a) above.

14 NON-DESTRUCTIVE

TESTS

14.1 Non-dcstruclive testing shall be applied if specified in 1he enquiry and the order. Under this heading are grouped the tests. which aim at revealing defects which cam01 be revealed by a simple visual examination, such as penetrant, magnetic praclicle. ultrasonic, X-radiographic. or gamma-radiographic inspection: also included under this heading are tests on the surface condition by visual or visual-lactilc examination. Thepurchasershall specify in 1he enquiry and order:
a) The 1ype of non-destructive testing which he intends 10 carry out or 10 have carried ou1; b) The auca or areas of 1he casting 10 which these tcsls apply, and 1hc types of discontinui1y. where relixant; c) Whether castings all, or what proporation. are 10 be tested; of 1hc

15.3 Carbon

Equivalent

d) The severity levels defining the acceptebility or non-accep1abilily of defec1s which may be rwxled; and e) Whether the manufacturer is or is not contracwally responsible for carrying au1 the 1es1s.

Unless otherwise specified in rhe enquiry and order, or 01herwise agreed to, the Carbon Equivalent (CE) for the purpose of guidance in derennination of 1hc pre- and post-weld treatment applicable to carbon and low alloy steels shall be computed as follows:

C.E. = C + $

+

Cr + MO + V 5

Ni + Cu

+15

14.2 Unless otherwise agreed upon, when destructive testing is to be done, 1he castings be examined as follows:

nonshall

15.4 The welding procedure to be followed for any welding that may be required on the surface hardened area shall be as agreed 10 mutually.

as per IS 7666:1988, a) Ultrasonic examination b) Magnetic particle examination as per IS 3703: 1980,

16 METHOD

OF SAMPLING

C) Liquid pene1ran1 examination 1981. and d) Radiographic 1978.
examination

as per IS 3658: as per IS 2595:

The method of sampling the sleet castings for the purpose of chemical analysis and mechanical tests including re-test shall be in accordance wi1h

IS 6907: 1992. 17 MARKING 17.1 Each casting shall be legibly marked with the following as may be relevant. However, where linkage and traceabiliry are required. the relevan1 marking shall be indelible:
a) The number or identification mark by which it is possible 10 trace 1hc nwlt and the heatueatmenl batch from which it was made; b) The manufacturer’s initials or trade-mark: and

,
shall

14.3 Unlczs otherwise agreed upon the following be rhc acceptance s1andards: a) IS 9565:1995 h) IS 10724:1990 inspection. for ultrasonic for inspecrion.

magnetic

particle inspec1ion. inspection.

c) IS I 1732: lY95 for liquid penctrant and d) IS 12Y38: 1990 for radiographic

3

IS 2707

: 1996 17.3 BIS Certification Marking with the Standard The castings Mark. may also be marked

c) Other idenrification marks in accordance with any agreement between the purchaser and the manufacturer.

17.2 By agreement between the purchaser and the Imanufacturer. castings complying with the wquircments of this standard may, after inspection, be legibly and indelibly marked with an acceptance Inark.

17.3.1 The use of Standard Mark is governed by the provisions of Bureau of Indian Standards Act. 1986 and the Rules and Regulations made’thereunder. The details of conditions under which the licence for the use ofstandard Mark may be granted to manufacturers or producers may be obtained from the Bureau of Indian Standards.

ANNEX A (Clause 2)
LIST IS No. 228 : (in parts) 1500 : 1983 Title Methods for chemical analysis steels ( second revision ) of OF REFERRED INDIAN STANDARDS IS No. 6601 : 1987 Title Permissible deviations in chemical comwxition for product analvsis of sieel castihgs . Methods ( second of sampling revision ) steel castings

Methods for Brine11 Hardness test for metallic materials (second revision ) Mechanical testing of metals Tensile testing ( second revision ) Code of practice for radiographic testing (first revision ) Code of pen&ant revision ) practice for flaw detection liquid (firsf magnetic (second

6907 7666

: 1992 : 1988

I608

: 1995

2595 3658

: 1978 : 1981

Recommended procedure for ultrasonic examination of ferritic castings of carbon and low alloy steel (first revision ) Technical delivery conditions for steel castings (second revision ) Acceptance standards for ultrasonic inspection of steel castings (firsf revision )

8800 9565

: 1986 : 1995

3703

: 1980

Code of practice for particle flaw detection revision ).

IO724

4x97

: 1994

Deviations for untoleranced dimensions and mass of steel castings ( third revision ) Code of procedure for repair and rectification of steel castings by metal arc welding process (first revision )

1990 Acceptance standards for magnetic particle inspection of steel castings (first revision ) 1995 Acceptance.standards penetrant ‘inspection castings (first revision 1990 Acceptance radiographic castings. standards inspection for dye of steel ) for bf steel

II732

5530

: I987

12938

ANNEX B (Chse 7)
INFORMATION B-l BASIS FOR ORDER TO BE SUPPLIED BY THE PURCHASER tests required. if any;

c) Optional/Additional

While placing an order for the purchase of steel castings covered hy this standard, the purchaser should specify the following: a) Mntel-ial specification; of the pattern along with a

d) Whether the castings are to be inspected and tested in the presence of the purchaser’s representative; e) Condition 0 Any special of delivery; requirement; if required. and

b) Drawing or reference number (if supplied by the purchaser). copy of the drawing;

g) Test report, d

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