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STACKS REF 181.1 C74sm
Confucius.
The sayings of Confucius
[1939]

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THE SAYINGS OF OMTwd DECORATED BY PAUL MCPHARLIN /efet? jL/e jL/awpei? Ji/tes5 MOUNT VERNON NEW YORK .

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ON GOVERNMENT 7 15 ON DOCTRINE ON ETHICS ON VIRTUE l8 23 ON LEARNING ON MARRIAGE ON FAMILY RELATIONS ON THE SUPERIOR MAN ON REVENGE ON PROPRIETY ON DUTIES OF SONS 2/ 35 3Q 43 51 52 59 65 73 75 ON MUSIC ON FRIENDSHIP ON WOMEN ON DUTIES OF RULERS 78 ON RICHES 84 6860510 .

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U?e (Ja^ittcjs of C^O .

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not lite the States are without them. Confucius thieves. . which princes. what minister is correct in in aiding the govern difficulty will he have ment? If he cannot make himself upright. his own conduct. were them to do it. "If you. and when he finds he can retires. a minister should not descend to things beneath him. nor ac If a cept an introduction to improper people. they would you'should reward not steal. not do so In the service of a ruler. not covetous.rude tribes of the North have their of our land. sir. although said. what has he to do with making others upright? distressed about the number of asked advice of Confucius." C KE K'ANG. who serves his ruler accord ing to what is right. nor set a high value on speeches. Here we have what is called C THE a great minister.

" She replied. Go before the people with your example. who will dare not to be upright? Employ the upright and put means to CTo GOVERN way the crooked can be made to be upright. There is good government when those who are near are made happy." The Master said. and now my son has died in the same way. "Your wailing. The Master pressed for ward and drove quickly to her. He who exercises govern ment by means of his virtue may be compared aside all the crooked." said he. fucius C IN passing by the side of Mount Thai. in this to the polar star. then he sent Tze-lu to question her. Con came on a woman who was weeping by a grave. My husband was also killed. and all C ACCORDING to the nature of man. and when those who are afar is ment are attracted. the stars turn toward it.make right. Once my husband's father was killed here by a tiger. govern the greatest thing for him. If you lead the people uprightly. "That is so. its affairs before the and to The art of government is to keep mind without weariness. "There is no oppressive government . attend to them with undeviating con sistency. "Why do you not leave the place?" The an bitterly swer was. which keeps its place. and spare yourself not in their affairs. "is that of one who has suffered sorrow on sorrow.

In hearing litigations I am to What is necessary is any other body. when the fa prince. asked about government. The Master said. and actions the same. When right principles prevail in the empire. When a country is well governed. have no litigations. his government is effective without the . Desire to have things done quickly prevents their being CTszE-HAE. and the son is son. Looking at small advantages prevents great affairs from being accomp lished. riches and honors are something to be ashamed of. When a country is ill governed. ther is father. done thoroughly. there will be THERE no discussion among the common like people. "Do not be desirous to have things done quick ly. the actions may be lofty and bold. C WHEN good government prevails in a State. language may be lofty and bold." The Master then said. being governor of Keufou." C WHEN a prince's personal conduct is cor rect. When bad government prevails. but the lan guage should be with some reserve. poverty and a mean condition are something to be ashamed of. do not look at small advantages. "Remember this." my children: oppressive terrible than tigers.here. government is more is government when the prince is the minister is minister.

just as the growth of vegetation is rapid. Government is like an easily growing !T is necessary that there should be suffi ciency of good. When old ministers and friends are not neglected by them. That exemption has been made from a desire to place the ruling taries C THE would cause them veneration. When those who are in high sta tions perform well all their duties to their rela tions.issuing of orders. rush. If his personal conduct is not correct. classes before the public in such a light as to be regarded with special 10 . mean men C DIGNITIES should not be conferred on of evil practices. he may issue orders. sufficiency of military equip ment. If they be. exemption of nobles and high digni from the application of the penal laws was based upon the assumption that men des tined to occupy such honorable and prominent positions would be found superior to the faults and failings of those who had not enjoyed the advantages of fortune. but they will not be obeyed. the people are preserved from ness. how can the people set themselves to correct their ways? With the right men the growth of government is rapid. the people are aroused to virtue. and the confidence of the people in their ruler.

and when they are accepted. drinking was not intended to have bad yet cases of litigation were more numerous in consequence of it.A MINISTER. It is the excessive drink ing which produces the evil. these four C ORPHANS. C A MINISTER in the service of his ruler will words of counsel. feasting accompanied by effects. he was like an arrow. Hence. Therefore the 11 . in serving his prince. an old old were considered as the most forlorn of heav en's people. for they had none to they could tell their wants. When good government prevailed in his State. and the things for which he may be blamed will be is fewer and fewer. Truly straightforward was the historiographer Yu. These all received regu lar allowances. whatever service a ruler requires from his first offer minister. In this way the salary he receives not obtained on false pretences. whom C CEREMONIAL. he was like an arrow. the minister will die in support of his words. man without sons. he will bow and voluntarily offer his person to make good his sincerity. rever ently discharges his duties. an man who has lost his wife. and makes his emolument a secondary consideration. and an old woman who has lost her husband. When bad government prevailed.

It was by these five things that they maintained the stability of the kingdom. to the noble and to the old. Where there is but one presentation of the cup at one time. "He who in his con duct preserves a sense of shame. deserves to be called an officer. This was the way in which those kings guarded against this evil. the reverence they paid to the aged. he knows not how to act. guest and host may bow to each other a hundred times without getting drunk.old kings framed rules to regulate drinking. of what practical use are they?" CTHE silk. CTszE-KuNG a man possess "What qualities must him to become an officer?" The Master said. king's words are at first as threads of but when sent forth they become as cords. when intrusted with governmental commission. or if. when sent to any quarter on a mission. he cannot give of himself the proper replies. yet if. Though a man be able to recite the three hundred odes. 12 . the honor which they paid to the virtuous. and when asked. to entitle sent to any quarter will not disgrace his prince's commission. C THERE were five things by which the an cient kings secured the good government of the whole kingdom. and their kindness to the young. notwithstanding his attainments.

Or. At of the old. pardon small of virtue and raise to office men and talents. they are at first as cords. The Master services of faults. he Knowing how knows how other men. being chief minister to the head of the Ke family. Knowing how to govern how to govern the king dom. Therefore. eighty a son was free from all government ser vice. CCnuNG-KuNG. "Employ first the your various officers. he knows govern other men." C THE kings of three dynasties. but when sent forth they become as ropes. in taking care always had the ages of those con nected with them brought to their notice. and their actions can be spoken of without risk. nor does the actions which. said. with its States and families. The superior man does not speak words which may not be embodied in deeds. C To BE fond of learning is near to wisdom. He who knows these three things knows how to cultivate his to cultivate his to own own character. character. the words of the people may be carried into action without risk. When this is the case. At ninety all the members of the family 13 . asked about govern ment. and to be conscious of shame is near to fortitude. to practise with vigor is near to benevolence. the great man does not lead in idle speaking. may not be expressed in words.

he is to be found in office. If this is weakness. charge for three months.were released from government duty In the case of those who were disabled or ill. 14 . he can roll his principles up and keep them in his breast. is Keu Pihyuh. govern a country a hun good dred years. Those mourning for their for three years. and re quired attendance. indeed. C A SUPERIOR man. When bad govern ment prevails. to remove them. to raise them to office and not be able to do so quickly. Those parents had a discharge for a year or nine months had a dis mourning . To see bad men and not be able to remove them. one man was discharged from those duties. When CTo raise SEE men of worth and not be able to them to office. this is treating them with disrespect. and dispense with capital men were to punishments. but not to send them far away. good government prevails in his State. they would be able to transform the violently bad.

and. and the flight of the soul produces the change in their constitution. He perceives how the union of essence and breath forms things. Thus he knows what can be said of death and life. for drying them there is nothing more there parching 15 .OH. contemplates the bril phenomena of the heavens. Thus he knows the causes of darkness and light. He traces from their things beginning and follows them to their end. for scattering them is nothing more effective than wind. Thus he knows the characteristics of the anima and the animus. CWHEN we speak of spirit we mean the subtle presence of God with all things. examines the definite arrangements of the earth. looking liant down. looking up. C THE sage. For putting things in motion there is nothing more vehement than thunder.

all under heaven. under the toils which they impose. While you do not know about life. for giving them satisfaction there is nothing more grateful than a lake or marsh. Without recognizing the ordinances of Heav en it is impossible to be a superior man. that would show a want 16 of .than fire. for moistening them there is nothing more en riching than water. C HEAVEN produced the virtue that is in me. how can you serve their spirits? In deal ing with the dead. how can you know about death? While you are not able to serve men. and thereby comforting. C HEAVEN overspreads all without partiality. thun der and wind do not act contrary to each other. The sun and moon shine on all without partiality." C THE great attribute of heaven and earth is the giving and maintaining of life. if we treat them as if they were entirely dead. Rev erently displaying these three characteristics. It is in this way that these are able to change and transform. is what is called "The Three Impartialities. mountains and collections of water in terchange their influences. for bringing them to an end and then giving them fresh impetus there is nothing more completely adapted than Kan. Thus water and fire assist one another. and to give completion to all things. Earth sustains all without partiality.

and there is nothing without them. all things got their existence. yet they enter into all things. after wards came the arrangements of propriety and righteousness. and should not be done. if we treat them as if they were entirely alive. All things having existence. but do not hear them. that would show a want of wisdom. too. afterwards husband and wife. CHow abundantly do spiritual beings dis play the powers that belong to them! We look for them. From father and son there came minister and ruler. When high and low had existence. we listen. C and earth existing. From the existence of male and female there came HEAVEN From husband and wife there came father and son. and should not be done. but do not see them. 17 . afterwards there came male and female. or.affection. From ruler and minister there came high and low.

and at the same time know the bad qualities of the object of their love. not at the proper season. or hate. partial where they feel sorrow and compassion. against which the five punishments are di and there is not one of them greater unfilial. we have the common adage: "A man does not know the richness of his growing corn. and like." To FELL a single tree. partial entertain feelings of respect. Hence. to kill a single ani mal.CM EN and are partial where they feel affection where they despise and dis where they stand in awe. Thus it is that there are few men in the world who love. than being 18 . partial know the good qualities of the object of their hatred. rected. is contrary to filial piety. and yet love. partial where they are arrogant and rude. There are three thousand offences.

Some are born with a knowledge of these du ties. Those are three.C MAN is is born for uprightness. and energy. Knowledge. magnanimity. eign between elder brother and younger. and those belonging to the intercourse of friends. C to your THE and the duties of universal obligation are five. But the knowledge being possessed. WISDOM. some gain them as the result of painful experience. benevolence. and some by dint of great 19 . his escape from mere good fortune. and fortitude these three are the universal virtues. In the Book of Poetry are three hundred pieces. thing. and the means by which they carry these obliga tions into practice is singleness of purpose. it comes to one and the same. Some practise them with the ease of nature. some for the sake of their advantage." C WHAT you do not lite when done self. between father and son. If a man lose his uprightness and yet live. five are the duties of universal obligation. some know them by study. The means by which they are practised is another thing. do not do to others. but the de death sign of all may be embraced in the one phrase. virtues wherewith they are practised The duties are those between sover and minister. these three are the virtues universally binding. "Have no depraved thoughts.

and recompense kindness with kindness. sorrow. yet affecting to be full. "Is not reciproc such a word? What you do not want done ity to yourself. "Is there one word may serve as a rule of practice for all The Master said. yet not upright. comes to But when the work of them one and the same thing. Ardent. then." The Master said. do not do to others. influence of anger The same will if he be under the influence of or of fond regard. it is difficult C HAVING with such characteristics to be consistent. stupid. yet affect ing to be in easy circumstances.effort. sir. ness? "With what. to treat them tenderly." C SOME one said. in regard to the young. and yet not attentive. will you recompense kind Recompense injury with justice. straitened. empty. is done. to hear your wishes. C IF a man be under the be the case his conduct will not be correct. to show them sincerity. in regard to friends. "What do you say concern ing the principle that injury should be re turned with kindness?" The Master said. such persons I do not understand." not. to one's life?" give them rest. yet affecting to have." Tsze-loo then said. simple. "In regard to the aged. it which CTszE-KuNG asked. or dis- 20 . or of terror. and yet not sincere. "I should like.

Hence. . and that small deeds of evil do no harm. If acts of evil be not accumulated. He who attains to sincerity is he who chooses the good. let own one who is in a low situation be fond of arrogating the directing of things. the sage He is who naturally and easily follows the right course. taste of we eat. When the mind is do not see. and firmly holds it fast. hear. we look.tress. let one who is in the present age go back to the is calamity ways of antiquity sure to come. is on all such. eat. and we do not know the This is what is meant by saying the cultivation of the individual de pends on the right education of the mind. are not sufficient to give its stamp to one's they OF reputation. what we C LET a his man who is ignorant be fond of using judgment. The small man thinks that small acts of goodness are of no benefit. and does not do them. C SINCERITY the way of heaven. and does not refrain from them. to The ac quirement of sincerity belongs who is sincere hits what is right. but we we and we do not understand. acts of goodness be not accumulated. they are not sufficient to destroy one's reputa tion. and his guilt so great that it can not be pardoned. not present. man. wickedness becomes so great that it his cannot be concealed. He and appre hends without the exercise of thought.

others. faithfulness principles. that what was of slight im portance has been greatly cared for. and the strong make it their study. at the same time. this is the strength of CHoLD self. HUMANITY is like a heavy vessel. he who travels the road cannot accomplish nothing that has so all its distance. different degrees as tries to nerve him under arms and meet death without is the strength of Northern regions. There is many humanity. and like a long road. Are there not gamesters and chess-players? To be one of these would still be better than doing nothing at all. It never has been the case that what was of great importance has been slightly cared for. and. and the good man makes it his study. To show forbearance and gentleness in teaching lie To regret this and not revenge unreasonable conduct. When and sincerity as first friends not equal to your have faults. He who tries to lift the vessel can not sustain its weight. what springs from C IT cannot be when the root is neglected that it will be well ordered. Southern regions.C HARD is the case of him who will stuff him self with food the whole day without applying his mind to anything. Have no you abandon them. and thus who self to compass it finds it a difficult task. do not fear to .

Thoughts being sin cere. they first cultivated their persons. to order well their States. first to regulate their hearts. they be sincere in their thoughts. they first regulated their families. Their families being regulat23 . their hearts were then made right. their first ordered well own States. Wishing sought to Knowledge lay in the investigation of things. Wishing to be sincere in their thoughts. they first made their hearts right.C THE ancients who wished Wishing to illustrate vir tue throughout the Empire. their persons were cultivat ed. knowledge became complete. their thoughts were sincere. Hearts being made right. they first extended to the utmost their knowledge. Things being investigated. Wishing to regulate their families. Wishing to cultivate their persons. Knowledge being complete. Persons being cultivated. their families were regulated.

the simple and the modest are near to virtue. Their States being well governed.were rightly governed. there have been. nor in his dwelling-place does his ease. C HE who aims he is in earnest in what he is doing. yet not always virtuous. alas! But there has never been a mean man. their States to be a man of complete vir not seek in his food to gratify his ap tue. C THE 24 . C Is any one able for one day to apply his strength to virtue? I have not seen the case in which his strength would be insufficient. and careful in company his speech. he frequents the be of men of principle that he may kept upright. It is only the truly virtuous man who can love or can hate others. He has nearly attained to perfect virtue. Superior men. C THE firm. Such a person deed to love to learn. There is Huoy. does he seek petite. He is often in want. may be said in C FINE words and an insinuating appearance are seldom associated with virtue. Is he not a man of perfect virtue who feels no discomposure though men may take no note of him? virtuous will be sure to speak up but those whose speech is upright may rightly. the enduring. the whole Empire was made tranquil and happy. ed. and virtuous.

wisdom small and plans great. C Is virtue a thing remote? I wish to be virtu ous. "It is every one as you were receiving a great guest. each of four horses. strength small and bur den heavy. when you go about to if C CHUNG-KUNG to The Master behave said. He who practises it will have neighbors. and none in the family. but on the day of his death the people did not praise him for a single virtue. to employ the people as if you were assisting at a sacrifice.not be virtuous. virtue is at hand. I have seen men die from treading on water and fire. and lo. Virtue is not left to stand alone. to have no murmuring against you from the public. P'ih-e CTHE and Shuh-ts'e died of hunger at the foot of ple Showyang mountain. asked about perfect virtue. but those of principle are sure to who are bold may not al ways be men a of principle. Virtue is more to than either water or fire. not to do to others as you would not wish done to yourself. and the peo down to the present time praise them." C high. it is VIRTUE small and office . where such conditions exist. Men be bold. Duke of Ts'e had a thousand teams. but I have never seen a man die from treading the man course of virtue.

." may not be HAVE CI not seen one who loves virtue as of the he loves beauty. wishing to be enlarged himself. seeks also to establish others. these quali neglected. in the management of business to be reverently attentive. That is The perfect virtue. The Master said "It is in retirement to be sedately grave. C FAN-CH'E asked about perfect virtue. wishing to be estab lished himself. Now. Though a man go among ties rude. in intercourse with others to be strictly sincere.the seldom that they do not come to naught. uncultivated tribes. Heaven have doings Supreme neither sound nor smell. he seeks also to enlarge others. man of perfect virtue.

and values a gen erous enlargement of mind.0. nor the low of fice of serving a prince of a State. he will not call forth any to veneration. and thus smoothes off all his corners and angles. Although the offer were made to 27 . C THE scholar fit who cherishes a love of com fort is not be deemed a scholar. A scholar whose mind is set on truth and who is ashamed fit of his bad clothes and bad food. If the scholar be not grave. is not to talk to. and his learning will not be solid. he makes himself acquainted with elegant accomplish ments. He learns extensively that he may know what should be done. C THE scholar will not take the high office of minister to the Son of Heaven. He is watch ful of himself in retirement. and at the same time is bold and resolute in his intercourse with others.

and follow them. There is clouding here leads to rudeness. is is C WHEN I walk along with two may C THE Six Becloudings: There is the love of being benevolent without the love of learning. The beclouding here leads to insubordination. There is the love of knowing without the love of learning. The beclouding here leads to foolish sim plicity. they prove to be my teachers. and thought without learning perilousTf -*j others. their bad qualities. It was no use. Such are the rules and conduct he pre scribes for himself. He will not take a ministry. occu pied with thinking.share a State with him. There is the love of firmness without the love of learning. CI HAVE been the whole day without eating and the whole night without sleeping. The beclouding here leads to ex travagant conduct. There is the love of boldness without the love of learning. and avoid them. The be quences. 18 . I will select their good qualities. leads to an injurious The beclouding here disregard of conse the love of straightforward ness without the love of learning. it would be no more to him than the small weights of a balance.yLearning without thought labor lost. The better plan is to learn. he will not take an of fice.

It is difficult to win him. but difficult to retain him. he knows Knowing how to govern the Empire with all its States acter. how to govern other men. but considers the establishment of righteous ness his domain. but easy to pay him. To act with vigor is to be near to energy. there will be distinction of classes. Water has no particular relation to any of the five colors. To possess the feeling of shame is to be near to magnanimity. He who knows these three things knows how to cultivate his own charac ter. he knows and C families. but without it they cannot be harmonized. C THE compared ancients in prosecuting their learning different things and traced the analogies between them. Knowing how to cultivate his own char how to govern other men. The drum has no special relation to any of the musical notes. It is easy to pay him. but without it they cannot be dis to played. He does not desire a great accumulation of wealth. He does not desire lands and territory. being instruction. but looks on many accomplishments as his riches. Learning has no particular relation 29 . THERE no C THE scholar does not consider gold and jade to be precious treasures.C To be fond of learning is to be near to knowl edge. but loyalty and good faith.

if get fixed in those principles with them. nor does he so treat his Master. we will find them unable to weigh occurring events along with us. It may be one basketful ress is is a mound. Though but thrown off at a time. Or. CIs it not pleasant to learn with unfailing perseverance and application? Learn as if you could not reach your object. If there be wanting but one basketful to complete the mound and I stop. we CL. C THE scholar recommends members of his own family to public employment without 30 . the prog my own going forward. are some with whom we may study common. but without it they can not be regulated. but we shall find them unable to go along with us to principles. When one is impersonating his ancestor he does not treat him as a subject. We may go on with them to principles.EARNING may be compared to what hap pens in raising a mound. but we will find them C THERE in unable to get fixed in those principles.any of the five senses. C THERE are two among his subjects that the ruler does not treat as his subjects. the stopping is compared to levelling my own work. and also feared lest you should lose it.

but he cannot be disgraced. He may be gently admonished of his errors eating 31 .hesitation because of their kinship. but cannot be forced upon him. He may be killed. putting them for him. It was from these four things that the teaching was so flourishing. The ruler thus gets what he wishes. of the worthy and bringing forward the CWiTHOUT impossible to knowing the force of words it is know men. ward without expecting any recompense from them. In his dwelling he will not be extravagant. and takes into consideration all their services. Near associations with him may be sought. Such his place in promotion and employment able. the timeliness of instruction just when it was required. selecting those of virtue and ability. the suitability of the lessons in adaptation to circumstances. the scholar does is not seek riches or honors for himself. but no attempt must be made to restrain him. In his and drinking he will not be luxurious. CTnE rules aimed at in the Great College were the prevention of evil before it was mani fested. and if benefit results to the State. C WITH the scholar friendly relations may be cultivated. and pro poses others without regard to their enmity to He estimates men's merits. and the good influence of example to all those concerned.

Instruction 32 . it gives a great sound. and he cannot it learn the other three. I do not repeat my lesson. and. though weak. struck with a great one. he will use a hundred. But let it be struck leisurely and properly. such is his boldness failings. OF this another man succeed by one effort. Let a man way. he will use a thousand. he become strong. If another succeed by ten. C THE master who skillfully waits to be ques may be compared to a bell when it is with a small hammer. C IT is not possible for one to teach others cannot teach his own family. and it gives out all the sound of which it is capable. it gives a tioned struck. nor help any one who is not anxious to help himself. Struck small sound. C I who . and can not be carried out successfully. he is come intelligent. proceed in sure to be is sure to C PROHIBITION of evil after it has been manifested meets with opposition. though stupid.and but he should not have them enumerated to his face. and determination. B o not open up the truth to any one who is not eager. When I have presented one from corner of a subject to any one.

them became com sincere. The per33 . and fails in its object. causes injury and dis order. Friendships with the dissolute lead to the neglect of one's learning. and without intelligence. Friend ships of festal occasions lead to opposition to one's Master. Things being investi gated. the person was cultivated. and with lack of fitness. the knowledge of plete. affairs cannot be carried to success. Learning alone and without companions makes one feel soli tary. the Knowledge being complete. were The thoughts being hearts were made upright. The hearts being upright. he can be a Master indeed. CTHE extension of knowledge is by the in vestigation of things. In language it is simply required to convey the meaning. Giving les sons in an undiscriminating manner. of learning. rude. ing. If lan guage be not in accordance with the truth of things. C WHEN a man of talents and virtue knows the difficulty and the ease in acquiring learn ing. the thoughts sincere. and knows the good and the bad qualities he can vary his methods of teach can vary his methods of teach ing. language is not in accordance with the truth of things. When he C IF names be not correct.given after the time for it is past is done with toil and prosecuted with difficulty.

Families being regulated. the States were rightly governed." 34 . and when you do not know a thing. the whole kingdom was made tran quil and happy.son being cultivated. The States being rightly governed. is? When you know a edge. to allow that you do not know it. shall I teach you what knowledge thing. This is knowl C "YEW. families were regulated. to hold that you know it.

with a view in its retrospec tive character to maintaining the services in the ancestral temple. Yes.O CM. C THE ceremony of marriage was intended to be a bond of love between families of two dif ferent surnames. In their regulation of those rules. the ceremony of marriage lies at the founda tion of government. and in its prospective character. For the extreme manifestation of reverence. C CEREMONIES are the first thing to be at tended to in the practice of government. reverence was the rules of great point. their practice of gov ernment. In their regulation of the love of men. the love of men was the great point. we find the best illustration in the great rite of marriage. the C WITH the ancients in ceremony was the great point. to secure the continuance of the 35 .

family

Therefore the greatest men, the ancient rulers, set a great value upon it.
line.

C HENCE in regard to the various introduc tory ceremonies: the proposal with its accom panying gift, the inquiries about the lady's

name, the notice

of the approving divination,

receiving the special offerings, and the re quest to fix the day these all were received

by the principal party on the lady's side, as he was seated on the mat or leaning stool in the
ancestral temple.

C WHEN they arrived, he met the messenger and greeted him outside the gate, giving place to him as he entered; after which they ascended to the hall. Thus were the instruc tions received in the ancestral temple, and in this way the ceremony was respected, and watched over, and its importance was shown and care taken that all its details should be
correct.

C THE respect, the caution, the importance, the attention to secure correctness in all the
details and then mutual affection. These were the great points of the ceremony, and

served to establish the distinction to be ob served between
righteousness to

man and woman, and

the

be maintained between hus band and wife. From the distinction between

man and woman came
36

the righteousness be-

tween husband and wife; from that righteous came the affection between father and son; and from that affection the right feeling between ruler and minister. Whence it is said, "The ceremony of marriage is at the root of
ness

the other ceremonial observances."

C THEREFORE, formerly the young lady, for three months before her marriage, was taught in the high temple of the ancestor of her sur

was still standing, as befitting the hall of the head of that branch of the public surname to which she belonged. She was name,
if it

taught there the virtue, the speech, the car riage, and the work of a wife. When the teach
ing was over, she offered sacrifice to the an cestor, using fish for the victim, and soups

made

of

duckweed and pondweed. So was she

trained to the obedience of a wife.

SPECIAL apartment was prepared in the palace for the child, and from all the concu bines and other proper persons there was
sought one distinguished for her generosity of mind, her gentle kindness, her mild integrity, her respectful bearing, her carefulness and freedom from talkativeness, who should be

CA

appointed the boy's teacher. One was next chosen who should be his indulgent mother,

and a third who should be his guardian mother. These all lived in his apartment, which others did not enter, unless on business.
37

C

FORMERLY

divided the

harem

the queen of the Son of Heaven into six palace halls, occu

pied

by three ladies called the fu-zan, nine called the pin, twenty-seven the shih-fu, and eighty-one the yu-khi. These were instructed

in the domestic and private rule which should prevail throughout the kingdom, and how the deferential obedience of the wife should be
illustrated. Thus internal harmony was every where secured and families regulated. In the same manner, the Son of Heaven appointed six official departments, in which were dis

tributed the three kung, the nine khing, the twenty-seven ta-fu, and the eighty-one sze of

the highest grade. These were instructed in all that concerned the public and external gov

ernment
of the

mony

kingdom, and how the duties should be illustrated. Thus har was secured in all external affairs, and
of the

man

the States were properly governed.

38

seeing how their teach could transform the people. and none lected their parents." ancient kings. and the people They went roused themselves to the practice of these. and the people had no quarrels. They led them on by the rules of propriety and by music. therefore. of the people neg They set forth to them and righteousness. and enjoy the pleasure of your wife and chil dren. and the people were harmon39 . "Happy union with wife and children is like the music of lutes and harps. before the people with reverence and courtesy.C IT is said in the Book of Poetry. When there is concord among brothers the harmony is delightful and Thus may you regulate your family enduring. the example of the most all- C THE embracing virtue love. set before ings them.

and places on a level those who do not show ability. They served their mothers with filial piety. and therefore they served Heaven with intelligence. that while she loves the worthy. reverently nourishes them. bitions. while his parents are alive. The saying that a superior . and their example established the relation between superiors and inferiors. is CFoRMERLY their fathers the intelligent filial kings served with piety.and benignant. That he 40 they are dead. C HERE now is the affection of a father for his He loves the sons: worthy among them. But that of a mother for them is such. The who father is intent on showing them honor. when man mourns all his life for his parents has reference to the day of their death. and not concerned with his affections. His thought to the end of his life is how not to disgrace them. and therefore they served the earth with discrimi nation. reverently sacrifices to them. C THE superior man. she pities those do not show ability. They pursued the right course with their seniors and juniors. They showed them what they loved and what they disliked. and is not concerned with showing them honor. and the people understood their desires and prohi ious . and. The mother deals with them through her affections.

the correlate of Heaven. His parents give birth to his person all complete." C FILIAL piety is the constant rule of Heaven. man is the noblest. as on other days. and the practical duty of man. and to return it to them all complete may be called a filial duty. Of all that Heaven produces and nourishes. with his so. Hence a superior man does not care to take the But slightest step in forgetting this filial duty.not does not do his ordinary work on that day does mean that it would be unpropitious to do means that on that day his thoughts are occupied with them. 41 . When no member has been mutilated and no disgrace done to any part of the person. CTuE disciple Shan said. there is none so great as man. it may be called complete. "I venture to ask whether in the virtue of the sages there was not something greater than filial piety." The Master replied. it private and personal affairs. now I forget the way of that. the righteousness of earth. and he does not dare to occupy himself. "Of all natures produced by Heaven and earth. and therefore I wear the look of sorrow. In the reverential awe of one's father there is nothing greater than in making him piety. Of all the actions of man there is none greater than filial In filial piety there is nothing than the reverential awe of one's greater father.

and their government. . and as nourishing those par ents is practised. The teaching of the sages. What they proceeded from was the root. without being rigorous. severe. to teach reverence. the affection daily merges into awe. love.C Now the feeling of affection grows up at the The sages proceeded from this awe and from affection to teach parents' knees. was effective. without being was successful.

not firm superior man thinks of virtue. What is right he will follow. The pride without dignified ease. but not adulatory. The superior man is CTHE quiet and calm.On C CVWan man is rightly firm. the mean man has superior THE merely. He is affable. He is sociable. while the mean man walks in dan gerous paths. The superior man is catholic and not partisan. looking for lucky occurrences. the small man thinks of comfort. 43 It is . waiting for the appointments of Heaven. the mean man is a partisan and not catholic. CLoNG has the attainment of perfect difficult hu only manity been among men. The su perior man is dignified but does not wrangle. superior man does not set his mind either for anything or against anything. but not clannish. The superior man has dig nified ease without pride.

in this way to produce uniformity people. costume to dis tinguish it. A man of rank having valor without righteousness. He desires among the C THE superior man bends his attention to established. Filial piety and fraternal submission are they not the root of all what is radical. will commit rob bery. will be guilty of in subordination. good faith to bind it to them.the superior man who Is able to reach it. having valor without righteousness. He enjoins the rules of ceremony to regulate conduct. and if they do not try to follow them. "The supe rior est man holds righteousness to be of the high importance. "Does the superior man esteem valor?" The Master said. Therefore he does not distress men by requir ing from them that which only himself can do. may ashamed be stimulated to endeavor. That being benevolent actions? CTszE-Loo asked." C THE superior man has nine things which are with him subjects of thoughtful considera44 . one of the lower class. nor put them to shame because of what they can not down rules of conduct does not the rule. that they shall be Hence the sage in laying make himself but gives them his instructions so do. all right courses naturally follow. right demeanor to set it off. friendship to perfect it.

tion. should be reverently careful. As to his counte nance. propriety. Vast and exten sive are the effects of his virtue. he thinks of the his anger may involve him in. he is anxious to see clearly. that it be sincere. C IT clear is only the sage that is possessed of that discrimination and high intelligence that fit him for filling a high station. he is anxious that it be respectful. or chariots run. and who is so deeply learned in polite learning and good principles. wherever the sun and 45 . Wherever ships sail. justice. sees he may acquire gain. It is broad as heaven. In re he is anxious to ques tion others. he is anxious that it should be benign. who is actuated by that benevolence. that command rev erence. he wishes to hear distinctly. he thinks of righteousness. and knowledge. In regard to his ears. It is like the deep and living stream that flows unceasingly. he is anx ious that it gard to matters of doubt. In regard to the use of his eyes. and profound as the great abyss. In regard to his speech. wherever the heavens over-shadow or the earth sustains. who pos who ness that sesses that enlarged liberality fit him for bearing with others. In conducting business. as to qualify him rightly to discriminate. In regard to his demeanor. difficulties When he When he is angry. and mild firm manifests that firmness and magnanimity that enable him to hold fast to good principles.

of complete virtue. there is none but loves and honors him. we have the manners of a When the accomplishments and solid qualities are blended. Actions come from what is near and their effects are seen at a distance. If they be good they will be responded to at a distance of more than a thou sand li. If they be evil they will rouse opposition at a distance of more and sends forth than a thousand li. or frost and dews fall. How much more will they Words issue rouse in the nearer circle? from the individual and affect the people. His words and actions move heaven and earth. Words and actions are the man. The and spring determine glory or disgrace.moon shine. the accomplishments are in excess of the solid qualities. May he be careless in re gard to them? hinge and spring of the superior movement of that hinge CTHE superior man does what is proper in the position where he is. Where clerk. we then have the man C superior man stays at home and sends forth his words. we have rusticity. the solid qualities are in excess of C WHERE the accomplishments. He stays at home his words. THE How much more response will they find in the narrower circle. he does not wish to 46 . among all who have blood and breath.

as when is 47 . them C WHAT cere" is termed "making the thoughts sin allowing no self deception. When among barbarous tribes. wait ing for the will of Heaven. uses no coarse freedom. he does not find fault with men. In a high position he does not insult or oppress those who are be low him. while the mean man does what is full of risk. looking out for turns of luck. In sorrow or difficulty he does what is proper in such a position. he does not murmur against Heaven. He makes himself right and seeks for nothing from others. The superior man sees and acts accordingly without delay. Above. The superior man can find himself in no position in which he is not himself. C DOES he know the springs of things possess supernatural wisdom? his intercourse The superior man. uses no flattery. In a position of wealth and honor he does what is fitting in a position of wealth and honor. he acts accordingly. below. In poverty and meanness he does what is proper in a position of poverty and meanness. he does not cling to or depend on those who are above him. in with them. In a low position. and in his intercourse with the low. He lives quietly and calmly.go beyond it. Does not this show that he knows the springs of things? Those springs are the earliest indications of the slight beginnings good fortune.

man is must be watchful over himself when he CTszE-KuNG perior asked what constituted a su man? The Master said.we hate a bad smell. There fore the superior man must is himself when he alone. but displayed the utmost filial piety to wards the spirits. naturally and without constraint. accustomed himself to coarse food and drink. concealing his bad qualities and displaying his good. The other beholds him as if he saw his heart and mind. But when he sees a superior man he tries to disguise himself. and love what is beauti ful. Of what use is his disguise? This is an example of the proverb. and afterwards speaks according to his actions. "What is really within will be mani fested without. I can find C THE superior man composes himself before he moves others. living alone." find no fault in the character of Yu." Therefore the superior alone. will not do. but expended all his strength on the ditches and water channels. He lived in a mean low house. He makes his mind restful 48 . His ordinary garments were poor. be watchful over There is no evil which the small man. but he displayed the greatest elegance in I C CAN He his sacrificial cap and apron. "He acts before he speaks. nothing like a flaw in Yu.

his enemies will C IN archery we have something like the way of the superior man. him. to the rules of propriety. the people will not grant When there are none in accord with arise.and easy before he speaks. He settles his inter course with others before he seeks anything of them. When the archer misses the centre of the target. superior man in everything considers performs it righteousness to be essential. the people will not be influenced by him. This perior ing man men with words. If he speak while he is himself in a state of appre hension. brings according He He it forth in humility. and thus needs nothing more. If without intercourse with them he is them. If he try to move others when he is himself disturbed. the people will not respond to his de sire. What the superior man seeks is in him the mean man seeks is in others. He not distressed by his want of by men's not knowing him. The su does not confine himself to prais it He . When he asks about men 49 with sin completes indeed a superior man. The superior man cultivates these three things. The superior man is is distressed ability. CWHAT self. sues his requests. he turns around and looks for the cause of his failure in himself. is cerity. and thus the people are who loyal to him.

Thus his person is man. and his States and clans are preserved. does not forget that danger may come. when not endangered. Therefore his demeanor induces awe. keeps danger in CHE who mind will rest safely in his seat. C THE superior man takes no mistaken steps before men. When in a state of security he does not forget the possibility of ruin. who makes a hole in the wall. he who sets the dangers of disorder before himself will maintain a perior state of order. he could assume the ap pearances of affection. he who keeps ruin in mind will preserve his interests secure. or are suffering from want. he feeds them. When all is orderly. and his words in spire confidence. he clothes them. The superior man does not show his affection in his countenance.men who are suffering from cold. and stamps him as not better than the thief. as if while cold in feeling. all their 50 . That belongs to the small man. his countenance induces fear. and when he praises a man's good quali ties. nor errs in the expression of his countenance nor in the manner of his speech. he does not forget that disorder may come. he goes further and confers rank on him. Therefore the su resting in safety.

" 51 . he must be determined not to live with the slayer under the same sleep heaven." "And how. "if a man has killed one of his cousins?" "He should not take the lead." was weapon. but the reply. though he may then meet the man.On 31 . he should not go back for his fight him. "but not in the same State as the slayer. if he be sent on a mission by his ruler." "He may take office. "how one should act if he has killed a brother.cvcMd-e CZzE-HsiA asked Confucius how a son should act toward the man who has killed his father or mother. he may not fight him. "He should on straw with his shield for a pillow." "Allow me to ask." asked Zze-hsia. concerns does behind." said Zze-hsia. If he whom it chiefly he should support him from weapon in hand. so. If he meet him in the market-place or in the court. The Master said. he should not take office.

there will be good faith. CCouRTESY is near to propriety. Good faith is near to the is truth of things. If a man one where these prevail. Where there is there there is is is courtesy mistakes are few. where truth. Will not failure be rare in the case of those who practise these things? . one may fall into errors. where economy the exercise of forbearance easy. Economy near to humanity.THERE is nothing better than observance of the rules of propriety for giving security to the upper classes and good government to the people. If these virtues are practised with respect and humility. It is virtuous manners which consti tute the excellence of a neighborhood. but they will not be very great. he in selecting a residence does not fix on is not wise.

liking. C "WHAT are the feelings of men? They are joy. He who should attempt to regulate a State with out those rules would be like a blind man with no one to lead him. Truthfulness in speech and the cultivation of amity constitute what are called 'the things valuable to men. liking. he would be like one searching all night in a dark room without a light.CWHAT is the object of the rules of cere mony? It is simply the ordering of affairs. submission on the part of the wife. benevolence on the part of the ruler. and deference on that of juniors. sadness. How could he see anything? FROM the Emperor down to the masses of the people. anger. These ten are the things which men consider to be right. kindness on the part of elders. Groping about how could he find his way? Or. The wise . fear. righteousness on the part of the husband and father. and loyalty on that of the minister. and obedience on the part of the younger. all must consider the cultivation of the person the root of everything else. These seven feelings learned by men. love.man who has affairs to attend to must have a correct way of attending to them. gentleness on the part of the elder brother. What are the things that men consider right? Kindness on the part of the and dis do not have to be and filial duty on the part of the son.' Hence 53 when a sage would .

a superior man conducts the govern ment of his State with a discriminating atten When tion to these rules of propriety he cannot be imposed on by traitors and impostors. Court audiences at illus C THE ceremonies of the the different seasons were intended to trate the righteous relations between ruler and subject. those of social 54 . promote truthfulness of speech and the maintenance of amity. he neglect the rules of propriety.regulate the seven feelings of men. to illustrate the kindly feelings of ministers and sons. as the carpenter's line in determining what is square and what is round. if the line be rightly applied there will be no doubt about the evenness of the surface. how shall he succeed?" tesy. there can he no imposition in the matter of weight. show the worth of kindly consideration and cour and prevent quarrelling and plundering. those of mourning and sacrifice. if C IN the right government of a State the rules of propriety serve the same purpose as the steel yard in determining what is light and what If is heavy. and culti vate the ten virtues. if the square and compass be exact there will be no uncertainty as to the shape of the figure. or. the weights of the steel-yard be true. the friendly messages and in quiries to illustrate the mutual honor and re spect between the feudal princes.

the conduct of feudal princes be bad. If the ceremonies of mourning and sacrifice were omitted the kind ly feeling of officers and sons would be less ened. and quarrelsome litiga tions would be frequent. the path of husband and wife would be embittered. and are like water. and there would be many in stances of licentiousness and depravity. to show the order that should prevail between young and old. the order between old and young would be neglected. If the ceremonies of friendly messages and court attendances were discontinued. embankments which prevent the overflow of He who thinks the old embankments useless and destroys them is sure to suffer from the desolation caused by the overflowing water. and he who considers the old rules of propriety useless and would abolish them. the positions of ruler and subject would be impaired. IF the ceremonies of marriage were discon tinued. there would be a revolt from the obser vances due to the dead. would be sure to suffer from the calamities of disorder. If the drinking ceremonies at country feasts were discontinued. and the forgetfulness of those due to the living. and those of marriage to exhibit the sepa ration that should be maintained between males and females.meetings in the country district. and the ruin wrought by re55 . Those ceremonies prevent the rise of disorder and confusion.

strict CHUSBAND If these relations adherence to their several be discharged. CTHEREFORE They good. between ruler and minister there should be parts. without the rules of propriety carefulness without the rules of propriety becomes timidity. "The and superior man is careful at the beginning. causing men to to move daily toward what is keep farther away from that which is evil. a mistake then of a hair's breadth will lead to an error of a thousand Zz. straight-forwardness without the rules of propriety becomes rudeness. affection. without being themselves con scious of it. This is found in the words of Yi. all other things will follow." and wife have separate func between father and son there should be tions. forming powers of ceremonies are stop depravity before it has taken form. When he 56 . It was on this account that the sentiment ancients set so high a value upon them. C WHOEVER enters with his guest yields precedence to him at every door. the instructive and trans subtle. ordination. encroachment. boldness without the rules of propriety becomes insub CRESFECT becomes fussiness.bellion. and oppression would follow.

those on low. how much more should the rich and noble do so! "When the rich and noble come to value propriety. guest must mutually yield precedence. while the attention. and the guest fol From step to step they must bring thenfeet together. if he does not. they do not become proud or dissolute. He ascends the eastern. he must approach the steps of the host. then the host must ascend first. Hence the saying: the rules of propriety should by no means be left unlearned. Since porters 57 . After the guest repeatedly declines to enter he bows to him and goes in. he and giving honor to and peddlers display this virtue. Both host and western steps. the left. they possess mental courage. and then returns to receive his guest. C EVEN in killing men. Propriety is seen safe. in humbling one's self others. the other the western steps. C IF a is man observes the rules of propriety he is in danger. the west. When the poor and mean come to value propriety. the guest through the left. latter must repeatedly decline this Then the guest may return to the he ascending.reaches the innermost one he begs leave to go in and arrange the seats. He passes through the right door. gradually ascending those on the east moving the right feet first. If a guest be of less rank. observe the rules of propriety.

The reverence paid to an elder brother makes younger brothers pleased. Boldness without observing them is called violence. CRESPECT shown rules of propriety is without observing the called vulgarity. This reverence is paid to a few. he followed one who his elder brother more closely. CON the roads. Friends did not pass by one another when going the same way. Forwardness mars gentle ness and benevolence. might be still A 58 . Courtesy without observing these rules. Therefore the reverence paid to a father makes the sons pleased. men took the right side and women the left. In bearing burdens. he took the heavier. The reverence one man makes myriads pleased. A man kept behind another who had a father's years. The reverence to a subjects pleased. though he might do it with one hand. as geese follow one an other in a row. but keeping behind.THE rules of propriety are simply the prin ciple of reverence. man with gray hair was not allowed to carry anything. and the pleasure ruler makes paid to extends to the many. both were borne by the younger. and if the two were too heavy for one. is called for wardness.

the boy should cover his mouth with his hand in answering. and has not made himself heard of. 59 . that his future will not be we know equal to our present? If he reach the age of fifty. he must keep his face toward the quarter to which the older is looking. When the elder has shifted WHEN sword to the back and is speaking to him with his face bent down. When he goes to a lodging house. When he has climbed to the wall of a city. then he will indeed not be worthy of respect. When following one older they ascend to a level.ies of (^ C an older person is holding a boy by the hand. his CA YOUTH How do is to be regarded with respect. let it not be with the feeling he must get whatever he asks for. the boy should hold the elder's hand with both hands. he should not point or call out.

a son may remon with them. In serving his teacher. and make no concealment. He should in every way wait upon and serve him. He should in every possible way wait on him and and nourish him. but not abandon his purpose. a son should conceal his faults. and should then wear mourning for him ac cording to rule for three years. He should serve him laboriously till his death. without being to definite rules. He should in every possible way wait IN on him and nourish him. but gently. tied He should serve him labori ously till his death. and then complete the three years mourning for him. and should serve him untiringly till his death.serving his father. and not speak plainly to him about them. Should they punish him. without being tied to definite rules. C IN serving his parents. he must not allow himself to murmur. he must not go toward him without being invited to do so. strate 60 . In serving his ruler he should remonstrate with him openly strongly. but according to definite rules. When he sees that they do not follow his advice he should show an increased reverence. and mourn for him or in heart for three years. CA BOY should never be allowed to see an instance of deceit. When he sees an intimate friend of his father. it is not his business to reprove him comment on his faults.

CA SON should not occupy the southwest corner of the apartment. if voices be not h^ard. was shut he must shut again. in mourning for them he shows every demonstration of grief. as if bearing the bar of the door. five things. he must not enter. he must not shut it hastily. filial son does for his In his general conduct to them he manifests the utmost reverence. he should not turn. He must be On careful in answering and assenting. Let him not tread on the shoes. This is the conduct of a filial son. On entering a door he must keep his eyes cast down. nor sit in the 61 middle . he should leave it open.nor to withdraw without being told. nor to address him without being questioned. When and outside a door. if there be two shoes voices are heard. As he enters he should keep his hands raised. but his dress let him hold up and move quickly to his corner. when they are ill. it C IF the door if it open. he may enter. In looking up or down. If there are others to enter after him. in his care of them his endeavor is to give them the utmost pleasure. nor stride across the mat. he C THE service is which a parents as follows: feels the greatest anxiety. When he is is a son is complete in these able to serve his parents. going up to the hall he must raise his voice. in sacrificing to them he displays the utmost solemnity.

he will answer. If the if teacher speak to him. He should not assume to determine the rice and other viands at an entertainment. Therefore he will walk in the highway and not take a by-path. he should hasten to him and stand with hands joined across the breast. C A SON should not forget single lifting up of his feet. nor stand in the middle of the doorway. his parents in the nor in the utter ance of a single word. and seeing them when they are not actually there. and to make inquiries in the morning. he should not quit the road to speak to another person. When with their companions they must not in quarrel. he will use a boat and not attempt to wade through a stream. It is the rule for all sons that in the winter they should warm the bed for their parents.of the mat. He should be hearing them when there is no sound from them. in the evening to make everything ready. the C A LAD should not wear a jacket of fur or skirt. and to cool it summer. When he meets his teacher on the his CWHEN road. he is following his teacher. and not incline his head in hearing. not daring with the body left him by 62 . not. He should not act as personator of the dead at sacrifice. he do he will retire with hasty steps. He must stand straight and square.

a son should not dare to consider his wealth his own. he must present himself before his parents. when he returns. should not ascend a height. dark. nor attempt dangerous undertakings. with one five years older. A lest he disgrace his parents. and he must engage in some occupation. He should not CHE indulge in reckless reviling or in derisive filial son will not do things in the laughter. While his parents are alive he will not promise a friend to die. one ten years older than himself as an elder brother. nor will he have wealth that he calls his own. nor ap proach the edge of a precipice. Therefore an evil word will not issue from mouth. WHILE his parents are alive. and not to cause shame to his parents. nor to hold any of it for his private use. and an angry word will not assail him. he should walk 63 . C IN ordinary conversation he should not use the term "old. He should not for get his parents in the utterance of a single word. The region in which he travels must be well known. may be called his filial piety. Not to disgrace his person. C A SON when he is going away must let it be known." He should serve one twice as old as himself as he serves his father.his parents to put it in peril.

only consider how it will disgrace the name of your father. illustrious.shoulder to shoulder. the eldest should have a different mat. 64 . CALTHOUGH dead. hut behind him. and your purpose will he So if you propose to do what is not good. and you will desist from your purpose. only how it will make their names fixed. if you propose reflect your father and mother are to yourself any good work. When five are sitting together.

By their armies and axes they gave the same to then- was by music anger. and the change it produces in manners and customs. C IN music the sages found pleasure. what you like is sound. Now music and sound are akin. and saw that it could be used to make the hearts of the influence it people good. those sounds are combined positions. so as to and when form com airs. but they are not the same. When the feelings are moved within they are mani fested in the sounds of the voice. Because of the deep exerts on a man. All modulations of the voice spring from the minds of men.On C WHAT you ask about is music. we have what are called OT that the ancient kings gave elegant expression to their joy. the ancient kings 65 .

Now man likes is no end of things by which and when his likes and dis are not regulated he is acted upon by ex there is affected. and all the cereals ripened in their season. The dis eased are not nursed. The knowing impose upon the dull. When caused it to was very great and their instruc were honored. the old and young. their virtue tions C Music carried too far leads to sorrow. then they were rewarded by being permitted to have music. To make the grandest music. Thus by we have the deceitful and rebellious heart. the orphans and lonely are neglected. Thus the employment of music by the Son of Heaven was intended to reward the most virtuous among the feudal lords. could be the work should bring with to only of a great sage. The result is he stifles the voice of the heavenly and gives indulgence to the which men may be possessed. ternal things as they are presented to him.be one of the subjects of instruc tion. which it no element of sorrow. Such is the great disorder that ensues. The strong principle within. The many are cruel to the few. 66 . The bold make it bitter for the timid. desires press upon the weak. and frame the completest ceremonies. and coarseness in ceremonies indicates something awry. which could show nothing awry. licentious and violent conduct.

The turns resemble a thing broken off. the high notes rise as if they were borne aloft. There is the utterance of the words. they made music to com memorate them. Quavers are like the hook of a spear. WHEN the ancient kings had accomplished their undertakings. they had established their governments. the laws of government were intended to promote cere monies and music. the low descend as if they were falling to the ground. When ceremonies. laws. Hence singing means the prolonged expres sion of the words. and when the simple utterance is not the 67 . C IN singing. they framed their cere monies. music secured the har monious utterance of their voices. and the completeness of their ceremonies was When according to the comprehensiveness of their government. without irregularity or col lision. the method of kingly rule was com plete. The finale seems like the breaking of a willow tree. Emphatic notes are as if they were made by a square. The excellence of their music was ac cording to the greatness of their undertakings. and punishments to guard against their violation. Those prolonged on same key are like pearls strung together. and punishments had every where full sway. music.CCEREMONIES afforded a clear expression of the people's minds.

when it is moved to joy the sound is exclamatory and soon disappears. that of principles which admit of no alteration. the sound is har monious and soft. the sound itself. Hence the theory of music and ceremonies embraces the whole nature of man. we have the expression of feelings which do not admit of any change. in cere monies. 68 . unconsciously come the motions of the hands and the stamping of the feet. ceremonies distinguish the things in which men differ.sufficient. the production of the modula tions of the voice. the expression of them is prolonged. These six peculiarities of sound are not natural. They indicate the im pressions produced by external things. in anger it is coarse and pleasure. and its source is in the play C Music is of the things. is moved to love. Music embraces what all equally share. is sharp and loses when it is moved to slow and gentle. When these are insufficient. when is sound when it the mood is reverential. is mind as it is influenced by external When the mind is sorrowful. the sound fierce. the frank with a suggestion of humility. When the prolonged expression is not enough there comes the sigh and explanation. On this account the ancient kings were watchful in re gard to the things by which the mind was affected. IN music.

C THE inner nature of man is the province of music." 69 . "Carry out perfectly ceremonies and music. and laws tend is one. and contribute good government. and there will be nothing under Heaven difficult to manage. and to bring them back to the normal course of humanity.CSo. Hence the saying. that of ceremonies is his exterior. punishments. and of the ears and eyes. The end to which cere monies. and punishments to guard against their tendencies to evil. When one's inner and the outer man thus docile. but they intended to teach the people to regulate their tastes. music harmony their voices. that of ceremonies the perfect observance of pro man is harmonious. priety. and give them their outward manifestation and application. C THUS seek we see that the ancient kings in their and music did not institution of ceremonies how fully they could satisfy the desires of the appetite. they look at his behavior and they become neither rude nor indifferent. music. the people see it in his face and do not quarrel with him. The result of music is perfect harmony. they instituted ceremonies to give to direct to men's aims aright. laws to give integrity to their con duct. They are the instruments by which the minds to of people are corrected.

and growing 70 . Hence even beasts know sound. and music is the inter communication of them in their relations and differences. he comes as from in a state of quiet. and the Son of Heaven no cause of anger. His activity shows itself as he is acted on by external things. If cour tesies and bowings marked the government of the Kingdom. his knowl edge is increased. and the masses of the people know the modulations. C ALL modulations of sound take their rise from the mind of man. Then arise the manifesta tions of love and hate. and CWHEN Heaven develops the desires incident to his nature. but not its modulations. Violent oppression of the people would not take place. and there would be no dissatisfied minds. there would be no occasion for the weapons of war. but they do not know music. let ceremony do so and there would be no quarrels. a man is born. Such a state of things would be universal music. there would be what might be called music and ceremony indeed. the princes wotild appear submissively at the court as guests. the common people would have nothing to complain of.LET music attain its full results. and no employment of the five punishments. When these are not regulated by anything within. It is only the superior who can know music. As his perception of things increases.

and the as sumption of the hairpin. the highest style of elegance by its undemonstrativeness. when they instituted their ceremonies and music. ceremonies coming from without produce elegancies of manner. Music coming from within pro duces repose of mind. they maintained the separation that should exist between male and female. The C SIMILARITY and union are the aim of music. and axes. drums. lie can not recover himself. By archery gatherings in the district. CMusic comes from within. By the sackcloth worn for parents. distinction and difference that of cere71 . the waiHngs and the weepings. and ceremonies from without. By the bells. By marriage. shields.knowledge leads more astray without. highest style of music is sure to be distin guished by ease. the blossoming of virtue. feasting at the meetings of princes. they defined the terms of the mourning rites. regu them from of ment consideration of the require humanity. THEREFORE lated the ancient kings. they provided for the correct maintenance of friendly intercourse. and the heavenly prin ciple is lost. they intro duced harmony into their seasons of rest and enjoyment. and the CViRTUEis and music is the strong stem of man's nature. capping.

a tendency to separation. manifestations 72 . Where music prevails. we find weak agreement.mony. From union comes mutual affection. the business of these feelings two to blend people's and give elegance to their outward . from difference. mutual respect. where ceremony It is prevails.

" and began It is marked like a wild cat's head. nor old acquaintances their friendship." was the reply. "It is a long time since to sing. the Master assisted him in preparing the outer coffin. however. When his mother died. acted as if he did not hear. The disciples who were with him said. and passed by him. "Can't you be rid of him?" "I have heard. 73 . I sang to anything. "that relations should not forget their relationship." a man on light grounds breaks off his friendship with the poor and mean. It is like a young lady's hand you hold.CTHERE was an cius called old acquaintance of Confu Yuan Zang. Yuan got up on the wood. Confucious. and C WHEN only on great grounds with the rich and noble. and said.

and brothers must be gentle toward one another. nor does his hatred of evil greatly appear. Do not disgrace 74 . yourself. stop.his love of worth cannot be great. Faithfully admon ish your friend. I do not believe them. C FRIENDS must frankly and sharply ad monish each other. If you find him intractable. and kindly try to lead him. Though others may say that he is not influenced by love of gain.

75 . She not cross the boundaries of a state to ac may company a funeral. and yet those who prefer vanity to virtue. This pre reason.omen CNo instructions or orders must is issue from food. if the master unless for some the house be not in. and preparation and supplying She may take no step of her wine and own may come to no conclusion in her own mind. but a superior man will refrain from intercourse of this sort to avoid suspicion. the harem. Women's business of simply the motion. the threshold of her apartments she Beyond should not he known for evil or for good. of In the intercourse of friends. a visitor. imperative there are serves the people from evil. does not enter. This widow one does not have obstacle would seem to be an to friendship. of a C WITH the son interviews.

They will ask whether they want anything. They should also sup port and help their parents in going or com ing. At the first crowing of the cock they should wash their hands and rinse their mouths. enclosed in a bag. by going before or following after. fillet. and it tie the hair at the roots with the They and over should then put on their jacket. comb their hair and draw over it the covering of silk. On the left side they should hang the duster and handkerchief. the sash. In bringing the basket for them to wash. the elder will carry the stand. They will beg to be allowed to pour out the or in any way uncomfortable. C THUS dressed they should go to their par and parents-in-law. the younger the water. and so. the great spike and the borer to get fire with from wood. and when the washing is over. and tie their side they should shoe strings. if they be they should proceed reverently to stroke and scratch the place. Then with gentle voice and bated breath they should ask if they ents are warm or cold. and will then respect76 . will water. the knife and whetstone.WIVES should serve their parents-in-law as they served their own. they hand the towel. thread and floss. On the right hang the needle case. the small spike and the metal speculum to get fire with. if they are ill or suffering. fix this with the hair-pin. They will also fasten on their necklaces.

and honey to sweeten their lets. Gruel. pearance of mil they do with an ap pleasure to make their parents All this feel at ease. MAN is the representative of Heaven and is all things. supreme over Woman yields obedi man and helps him ence to the institutions of to carry out his principles. with dates. rice. When young. and fat and oil to en rich them. though she may not exactly hit the wants of her infant. whatever they wish in fact. also the ordinary or large-leaved vio leaves of the elm tree. spirits or must. she will not be far first to bring THERE from C it. 77 . and when they have done so the young people should withdraw. spinach. dishes. wheat.fully bring it. she must obey her son. when married. On this account she can determine no thing of herself. thick or thin. she must obey her husband. maize. millet. The parents will taste them. and is sub ject to the rule of the three obediences. never has been a girl who learned up an infant that she might after ward be married. If a mother be really anx ious about it. soup with beans. she must obey her father and elder brother. sugar. when her husband is dead. and soothing rice- water to lubricate them. She may not think of marrying a second time.

the loving example of one family a CFnoM whole State tion become loving." Therefore the ruler must embody good qualities in himself. There never was a man who could deal with others 78 . courteous. "Affairs may be ruined by a single sentence. and then he may require them in others. Such is the nature of influence. his ministers will practise. their inferiors will follow.of cX. and what superiors do. This is in accordance with the saying. This is the senti ment in the Book is of Odes: To lead the people very easy.wi ei?5 CA likes RULER and dislikes. and from its courtesies. has only to be careful of what he What the ruler likes. while from the ambi may and perverseness of the one man the whole State may be thrown into rebellious dis order. a State may be quieted by one man.

Hence the accumulation of wealth is the way to disin tegrate the people. they will be led to make the most grateful return for his courtesies. he will have resources for his expendi ture. Possessing the people will give him territory. Thus we may infer own character and how "the govern ment of the State depends on the regulation of the family. by respecting the great ministers. Possessing the wealth. with that which to way to consolidate the people. Possessing the territory will give him wealth. there will be no dissatisfaction among his uncles and brethren. Virtue is the root. and wealth got by im proper means will leave him by the same road.without reference to his wishes. by honoring of the worthy. secondary object and he will only anger the people and teach them dishonesty. CBY the ruler's cultivation of his is set own char acter there which up the example of the course all should pursue. by 79 ." Therefore the ruler must first be careful about his own virtue. he will be kept free from mistakes. by showing affection toward his relatives. Possessing the virtue will give him the people. they will come back him in the same way. he will be preserved from errors of judgment. and the distribution of his wealth is the Likewise. by kindly treatment of the whole body of officers. when his words are not in accord is right. he make the root his the branches his first. If wealth is its branches.

asked Confucius what way a person in authority should act in order to conduct government properly. "Let him honor the five excellent. "When the person in authority is beneficent without great ex penditure. and banish the four bad things.dealing with the mass of people as his chil dren. inferiors try to outstrip one an other in their practice of it." Tsze-chang then asked. they will come to him will be sufficient. C WHEN superiors are fond of showing their humanity. his revenue for expenditure by indulgent treatment of men from a distance. they will be drawn to exhort one an other to what is good. from all quarters. honoring the requirements of humanity by loving the people as their sons. when he lays tasks on the people he without their repining. by encouraging the coin ing of artisans. by his kindly cherishing of the princes of the States. then the peo ple will use their utmost efforts to please their superiors. "What are the five excellent things?" The Master said. all under Heaven will revere him. then he may con duct the government properly. The Master replied. when he 80 . when he pursues what desires without being covetous. Therefore those who preside over the people should cherish the clearest aims and give the most correct lessons.

That course is marked out by benevo lence. to reward men. Benevolence is the chief element in it is hu manity. Therefore the wise ruler 81 . this is cruelty. to re quire from them the full tale having given them warning. to issue orders as if without urgency. when he is imposing without being fierce. yet do it stingily. That character THE must be cultivated by his adhering to a straight course. relatives The and the degrees of affection toward steps of honor paid to the principles of inferiors worthy are determined by the do not have the propriety. Such men are to be got by the ruler's own character. the agree and the greatest exercise of it is in the honor paid to the worthy. of work without this is oppres when sion. this is ing. and the greatest exercise of is in the love of relatives. When confidence of their superiors." C exercise of government depends on get ting the proper men. and. the people can not be governed well.maintains a dignified ease without being proud. being a mere official. "What are meant by the four bad things?" The Master said. "To put the people to death without hav ing instructed them." CTszE-CHANG then asked. and the time comes to exact them with this is injury. generally speak severity. Righteousness ment of actions with what is right.

should not neglect the cultivation of his char
acter. Desiring to cultivate his character, he should not neglect to serve his parents; desir

ing to serve his parents, he should not neglect to know men; desiring to know men, he should

know Heaven. The universal under Heaven is five-fold, and the virtues by means of which it is trodden are three. These are, ruler and minister; father and son; husband and wife; elder brother and younger; and the intercourse of friend and
not neglect to

path for

all

friend.

The duties belonging to these five rela
all.

tionships constitute the universal path for

princely man in dealing with others does not descend to anything low or improper. How unbending his valor! He stands in the

CTHE

middle, arid leans not to either side.
princely
tion,

The

man

enters into

he cannot be himself. If he does not treat with contempt those be low him; if he occupies an inferior station, he uses no mean arts to gain the favors of his su
periors.

no situation where he holds a high posi

He corrects himself and blames not he feels no dissatisfaction. On the one hand, he murmurs not at Heaven; nor, on the other, does he feel resentment towards man.
others;

superior man dwells at ease, en tirely waiting the will of Heaven.

Hence the

CALL who have
pire with
its

the government of the

Em

States

and families have nine
82

standard rules to follow:
of their

viz.,

the cultivation

characters; the honoring of men of virtue and talent; affection toward their

own

relatives; respect

toward the great ministers; kind and considerate treatment of the whole body of officers; dealing with the mass of the
people as children; encouraging the coming of all classes of artisans; indulgent treatment of men from a distance; and the kindly cher
ishing of the princes of the States.

83

OH
THE
of his

small man,

when poor, feels the pinch straitened circumstances; and when

to become proud. Under the pinch he may be tempted to steal, and when become haughty will be oppressive. The

rich

is liable

of poverty

rules of propriety take into consideration these feelings of men, and lay down definite rules

dykes for mankind. and honors so that they should not have the power to make men proud; so that poverty should not
as

for them.

These serve

Hence the

sages dealt with riches

make them
positions of

feel pinched;

and that when in

dinate to

honor men should not be insubor those above them.
without overflowing
is the way And this is true also of any col

C

To

be

full

to

keep

riches.

lection of the riches of Confucius; therefore this little book now ends.

84

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VERNON NEW YORK .SET IN WAVERLEY TYPES PRINTED ON SPECIALLY MADE PAPER AT THE WALPOLE PRINTING OFFICE MT.

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