Governance is the act of governing. It relates to decisions that define expectations, grantpower, or verify performance.

It consists of either a separate process or part ofmanagement or leadership processes. These processes and systems are typically administered by a government. When discussing governance in particular institutions, the quality of governance within the institutions is often compared to a standard of good governance. In the case of a business or of a non-profit organisation, governance relates to consistent management, cohesive policies, guidance, processes and decision-rights for a given area of responsibility. For example, managing at a corporate level might involve evolving policies on privacy, on internal investment, and on the use of data. To distinguish the term governance from government: "governance" is what a "government" does. It might be a geo-political government (nation-state), a corporate government (business entity), a sociopolitical government (tribe, family etc.), or any number of different kinds of government, but governance is the physical exercise of management power and policy, while government is the instrument (usually collective) that does it. The term government is also used more abstractly as a synonym for governance, as in the Canadian motto, "Peace, Order and Good Government". Government is broadly defined as the administrative organization with authority to govern a political state.In British English (and that of the Commonwealth of Nations), a government more narrowly refers to the particular administrative bureaucracy in control of a state at a given time[2]—known in American English as an administration. In American English, government refers to the larger system by which any state is organized.[3] Furthermore, government is occasionally used in English as a synonym forgovernance. In the case of its broad definition, government normally consists of legislators, administrators, andarbitrators. Government is the means by which state policy is enforced, as well as the mechanism for determining the policy of the state. A form of government, or form of state governance, refers to the set of political institutions by which a government of a state is organized. States are served by a continuous succession of different governments.Each successive government is composed of a body of individuals who control and exercise control over political decision-making. Their function is to make and enforce laws and arbitrate conflicts. In some societies, this group is often a self-perpetuating or hereditary class. In other societies, such as democracies, the political roles remain, but there is frequent turnover of the people actually filling the positions. [5] Government of any kind currently affects every human activity in many important ways. For this reason,political scientists generally argue that government should not be studied by itself. They argue that government should be studied along with anthropology, economics, history, philosophy, science, andsociology.

The Executive departments of the Philippines are the largest component of the national executive branch of the government of the Philippines. There are a total of nineteen executive departments. The departments comprise the largest part of the country's bureaucracy. The heads of these departments are referred to as the Cabinet of the Philippines. During the presidency of Ferdinand Marcos, upon the mandate of the then 1973 Constitution, he changed the departments into ministries from 1978 to the end of his government. Thus, the Department of Education became Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports. The legislative power is vested in the Congress of the Philippines which shall consists of the Senate and House of Representatives. The upper house is located in Pasay, while the lower house is located in Quezon City. The district and sectoral representatives are elected for a term of three years. They can be re-elected but they may not run for a fourth consecutive term. The senators are elected to a term of six years. They can be re-elected but may not run for a third consecutive term. The House of Representatives may opt to pass a for a vacancy of a legislative seat, which leads to a special election. The winner of the special election will serve the unfinished term of the previous district representative, and will be considered as one elective term. The same rule also applies in the Senate, however it only applies if the seat was vacated before a regular legislative election. The current Senate President is Juan Ponce Enrile, while the current Speaker of the House of Representatives is Feliciano Belmonte, Jr. The executive power is vested in the President of the Philippines. The current executive branch is headed by President Benigno S. Aquino III of the Liberal Party. The President is also the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, and is elected by popular vote to a term of six years. The president then appoints his or her cabinet over whom he or she presides. The executive seat of government is administered officially from Malacañan Palace in Manila. The president may not run for re-election unless he or she had become president through constitutional succession and had served for no more than four years. The president was assisted by his or her cabinet that is made up of different departments and is headed by a secretary. The president appoints the secretary with the consent of the Commission on Appointments. The second highest official, Vice-President Jejomar Binay of the PDP-Laban party is also elected by popular vote. The Vice-President is first in line to succession if the President resigns, is impeached or dies. The Vice-President usually, though not always, is a member of the president's cabinet. If there is a vacancy in the position of vice-president, the President will appoint any member of Congress (usually a party member) as new vice-president. The appointment must then be validated by a threefourths vote of the Congress. The judicial power is vested in the Supreme Court of the Philippines and lower courts established by law. The judicial branch is headed by the Supreme Court, which has a Chief Justice as its head and

14 Associate Justices. The justices serve until the age of 70. The justices are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Judicial and Bar Council.[1] Other court types of courts, of varying jurisdiction around the archipelago, are the: Lower Collegiate Courts:
  

Court of Appeals Court of Tax Appeals Sandiganbayan

Regular Courts:
    

Court of Appeals Regional Trial Courts Metropolitan Trial Courts Municipal Trial Courts Municipal Circuit Trial Courts

Muslim Courts
 

Sharia District Courts Sharia Circuit Courts

OMBUDSMAN: The government and all three of its branches are independently monitored by the office of the Ombudsman. The Ombudsman is given the mandate to investigate and prosecute any government official allegedly guilty of crimes, especially Graft and Corruption. The Ombudsman, or otherwise called as Tanodbayan, is assisted by six deputies, namely the Overall Deputy, the Deputy for Luzon, the Deputy for Visayas, the Deputy for Mindanao, the Deputy for the Armed Forces, and the Special Prosecutor. The Government of the Philippines, also known as the Philippine National Government is the national government of the unitary state of the Republic of the Philippines. It is a a presidential, representative, and democratic republic where thePresident of the Philippines is both the head of state and the head of governmentwithin a pluriform multi-party system. The government has three interdependent branches: the legislative branch, the executive branch, and the judicial branch.Executive power is exercised by the government under the leadership of the president. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the two-chamberCongress of the Philippines—the Senate is the upper chamber and the House of Representatives is the lower chamber. Judicial power is vested in the courts with theSupreme Court of the Philippines as the highest judicial body. To tax (from the Latin taxo; "I estimate") is to impose a financial charge or other levy upon a taxpayer (an individual or legal entity) by a state or the functional equivalent of a state such that failure to pay is punishable by law. Taxes are also imposed by manyadministrative divisions.

Taxes consist of direct tax or indirect tax, and may be paid inmoney or as its labour equivalent (often but not always unpaid labour). A tax is a "pecuniary burden laid upon individuals or property owners to support the government [...] a payment exacted by legislative authority."[1] A tax "is not a voluntary payment or donation, but an enforced contribution, exacted pursuant to legislative authority" and is "any contribution imposed by government [...] whether under the name of toll, tribute, tallage, gabel, impost, duty, custom, excise, subsidy, aid, supply, or other name."[1] Politics (from Greek politikos "of, for, or relating to citizens") as a term is generally applied to the art or science of running governmental or state affairs, including behavior within civil governments, but also applies to institutions, fields, and special interest groups such as the corporate,academic, and religious segments of society. It consists of "social relations involving authority orpower" and to the methods and tactics used to formulate and apply policy.[1] Modern political discourse focuses on democracy and the relationship between people and politics. It is thought of as the way we "choose government officials and make decisions about public policy". [2]
The President of the Philippines (Filipino: Pangulo ng Pilipinas) is the head of stateand head of government of the Philippines. The president leads the executive branch of the Philippine government and is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. The President of the Philippines in Filipino is referred to as Ang Pangulo orPangulo (or informally, "Presidente").Eligibility

Under Article 7, Section 2 of the Constitution of the Philippines, in order to serve as President, one must be:
    

at least 40 years old and above; a registered voter, single or married; able to read and write; male or female a Filipino citizen by birth; and a resident of the Philippines for at least 10 years immediately preceding election.[5]

A person who meets the above qualifications is still disqualified from holding the office of president under any of the following conditions:

Under Article 7, Section 4 of the Constitution of the Philippines, a person who has already been elected to the Office of President can no longer be eligible to the same office. No person who has succeeded as President and has served as such for more than four years shall be qualified for election to the same office at any time.

Impeachment in the Philippines follows procedures similar to the United States. Under Sections 2 and 3, Article XI, Constitution of the Philippines, the House of Representatives of the Philippines has the exclusive power to initiate all cases of impeachment against the President, Vice President, members of the Supreme Court, members of the Constitutional Commissions (Commission on Elections,Civil Service Commission Commission on Audit), and the Ombudsman. When a third of its membership

has endorsed the impeachment articles, it is then transmitted to the Senate of the Philippines which tries and decide, as impeachment tribunal, the impeachment case.[20] A main difference from US proceedings however is that only 1/3 of House members are required to approve the motion to impeach the President (as opposed to 50%+1 members in their US counterpart). In the Senate, selected members of the House of Representatives act as the prosecutors and the Senators act as judges with the Senate President and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court jointly presiding over the proceedings. Like the United States, to convict the official in question requires that a minimum of 2/3 (i.e., 16 of 24 members) of the senate vote in favour of conviction. If an impeachment attempt is unsuccessful or the official is acquitted, no new cases can be filed against that impeachable official for at least one full year. The 1987 Philippine Constitution says the grounds for impeachment include culpable violation of the Constitution, bribery, graft and corruption, and betrayal of public trust. These offenses are considered "high crimes and misdemeanors" under the Philippine Constitution. The President, Vice President, Supreme Court justices, and members of the Constitutional Commission and Ombudsman are all considered impeachable officials under the Constitution.

The state and the justice system
As a military institution, the State is concerned with the allegiance of its subjects as disloyalty is a risk to its national security. Thus arises the law of treason. Criminal acts in general, breaking the peace and treason make up the whole of criminal law enforced by the State as distinguished from the law enforced by private individuals. State justice has taken the place of clan, feudal, merchant and ecclesiastical justice due to its strength, skill and simplicity. One very striking evidence of the superiority of the royal courts over the feudal and popular courts in the matter of official skill is the fact that, until comparatively late in history, the royal courts alone kept written records of their proceedings. The trial by jury was adopted by the Royal Courts, securing it's popularity and making it a bulwark of liberty. By the time of the Protestant Reformation, with the separation of Church and State, in the most progressive countries, the State succeeded in dealing with the business of administering justice.[12]

The state
The making of laws was unknown to primitive societies. That most persistent of all patriarchal societies, the Jewish, retains to a certain extent its tribal law in the Gentile cities of the West. This tribal law is the rudimentary idea of law as it presented itself to people in the patriarchal stage of society, it was custom orobservance sanctioned by the approval and practice of ancestors.[citation needed] The state of affairs which existed in the 10th century, when every town had its own laws and nations like France, Germany, Spain and other countries had no national law until the end of the 18th century, was brought to an end by three great agencies that helped to create the modern system of law and legislation.

The President of the Philippines is the head of state governing the country. According to the Philippine government, the office has been held by politicians who were inaugurated asPresident of the Philippines following the ratification of a constitution that explicitly declared the existence of the Philippines. For leaders of the Philippines prior to the arrival of the Spaniards, see Datu. For leaders prior to the ratification of the 1899 constitution, see Royal Governor of the Philippines. For leaders prior to the ratification of the 1935 constitution, see Governor-General of the Philippines.
Impeachment offenses: The Constitution limits the offenses to the following: culpable violation of the Constitution, treason, bribery, graft and corruption, other high crimes, or betrayal of public trust. In the 1935 and 1975 constitution, betrayal of public trust was not an impeachable offense.

Culpable violation of the constitution
For purposes of impeachment, "culpable violation of the Constitution" is defined as "the deliberate and wrongful breach of the Constitution." Further, "Violation of the Constitution made unintentionally, in good faith, and mere mistakes in the proper construction of the Constitution, do not constitute an impeachable offense."

According to the Revised Penal Code, treason is defined as "Any Filipino citizen who levies war against the Philippines or adheres to her enemies, giving them aid or comfort within the Philippines or elsewhere." IMPEACHING OFFICIALS: 1. Any citizen with an endorsement of a member of the House of Representative may file charges. 2. The House Committee on Justice will decide by majority vote if the complaint has substance. 3. The House Committee on Justice will decide by majority vote if the complaint is sufficient in form. 4. The House Committee on Justice will decide by majority vote if the complaint is sufficient in grounds. 5. The House Committee on Justice will decide by majority vote if there is probable cause in the complaint. 6. The House of Representatives will vote to impeach the official. A one-third vote is needed.  If the vote passes, the complaint will become the "Articles of Impeachment" and the House will appoint prosecutors who may or may not be members of the House.  If the vote fails in any part of the procedure, the official accused can't be filed for impeachment for one calendar year. 7. The Senate will then try the impeached official. Conviction requires a two-thirds vote. 8. If convicted, there are two punishments the Senate can mete out:   Censure or a reprimand, or Removal from office and prohibition to hold any governmental office

In the 1935 constitution, a two-thirds vote was needed to impeach an official by the House of Representatives, while a three-fourths vote in the Senate was required to convict.

The 1987 (current) constitution limits the number of impeachment complaints that can be filed against an official to one per year. There has been controversy over what counts as an impeachment complaint. While some argued that for a complaint to count against the limit it must be voted on, and others have proposed other interpretations, the House has

decided that any complaint filed fulfills the quota regardless of how well-formed it is or who filed it. Therefore, supporters of a vulnerable official can file a weak, flawed, or unconstitutional complaint, thereby using up the quota and protecting that official from impeachment for that year. There has also been debate about whether a year should be a calendar year, say 2006, or a full 12-month period. An example of how this limit works in practice are the attempts to impeach President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. While the Philippine impeachment procedures parallel the United States' impeachment procedures, the two procedures differ in two significant ways: the percentage needed to impeach and the numerical limit on impeachment procedures.

If the President of the Philippines is on trial, such as in 2001, the Chief Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court shall preside but not vote.

Philippines Table of Contents Church and state were officially separate in the 1990s, but religious instruction could, at the option of parents, be provided in public schools. The Catholic Church's influence on the government was quite evident in the lack of resources devoted to family planning and the prohibition of divorce. The Catholic Church and, to a lesser extent, the Protestant churches engaged in a variety of community welfare efforts. These efforts went beyond giving relief and involved attempts to alter the economic position of the poor. Increasingly in the 1970s, these attempts led the armed forces of President Marcos to suspect that church agencies were aiding the communist guerrillas. In spite of reconciliation efforts, the estrangement between the churches and Marcos grew; it culminated in the call by Cardinal Jaime Sin for the people to go to the streets to block efforts of Marcos to remain in office after the questionable election of 1986. The resulting nonviolent uprising was known variously as People's Power and as the EDSA Revolution. The good feeling that initially existed between the church and the government of President Aquino lasted only a short time after her inauguration. Deep-seated divisions over the need for revolutionary changes again led to tension between the government and some elements in the churches. Catholics fell into three general groups: conservatives who were suspicious of social action and held that Christian love could best be expressed through existing structures; moderates, probably the largest group, in favor of social action but inclined to cooperate with government programs; and progressives, who did not trust the government programs, were critical both of Philippine business and of American influence, and felt that drastic change was needed. Progressives were especially disturbed at atrocities accompanying the use of vigilantes. They denied that they were communists, but some of their leaders supported communist fronts, and a few priests actually joined armed guerrilla bands. There appeared to be more progressives among religiousorder priests than among diocesan priests. The major Protestant churches reflected the same three-way division as the Catholics. The majority of clergy and missionaries probably were moderates. A significant number, however, sided with the Catholic progressives in deploring the use of vigilante groups against the guerrillas, asking for drastic land reform, and opposing American retention of military bases. They tended to doubt that a rising economy would lessen social ills and often opposed the type of deflationary reform urged by the IMF (International Monetary Fund). Constitution
The 1987 Constitution of the Philippines declares: The separation of Church and State shall be inviolable. (Article II, Section 6), and, No law shall be made respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof. The free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship, without discrimination or preference, shall forever be allowed. No religious test shall be required for the exercise of civil or political rights. (Article III, Section 5).

By passing through the numerous phases of colonial occupation, the relationships between religions and government in the Philippineshas repeatedly changed. The country had close ties between Roman Catholic Church and the government during the Spanish colonial period from 1565 to 1898. This changed with the separation of church and state of the Philippine republic of 1899. Religious freedomwas introduced during the American colonial period of the early 20th century and is preserved by state today. Political science is a social science discipline concerned with the study of the state, government, and politics. Aristotle [1] defined it as the study of the state. It deals extensively with the theory and practice of politics, and the analysis of political systems and political behavior. Political scientists "see themselves engaged in revealing the relationships underlying political events and conditions, and from these revelations they attempt to construct general principles about [2] the way the world of politics works." Political science intersects with other fields; includingeconomics, law, sociology, history, anthropology, public administration, public policy, national politics, international relations, comparative politics, psychology, political organization, andpolitical theory. Although it was codified in the 19th century, when all the social sciences were established, political science has ancient roots; indeed, it [3] originated almost 2,500 years ago with the works of Plato and Aristotle. Political science is commonly divided into three distinct sub-disciplines which together constitute the field:    political philosophy, comparative politics and international relations.

Political philosophy is the reasoning for an absolute normative government, laws and similar questions and their distinctive characteristics. Comparative politics is the science of comparison and teaching of different types of constitutions, political actors, legislature and associated fields, all of them from an intrastate perspective. International relations deals with the interaction betweennation-states as well as intergovernmental and transnational organizations. Political science is methodologically diverse and appropriates many methods originating in social research. Approaches includepositivism, interpretivism, rational choice theory, behavioralism, structuralism, poststructuralism, realism, institutionalism, and pluralism. Political science, as one of the social sciences, uses methods and techniques that relate to the kinds of inquiries sought: primary sources such as historical documents and official records, secondary sources such as scholarly journal articles, surveyresearch, statistical analysis, case studies, experimental research and model building. "As a discipline" political science, possibly like the social sciences as a whole, "lives on the fault line between the 'two [4] cultures' in the academy, the sciences and the humanities." Thus, in some American colleges where there is no separate School or College of Arts and Sciences per se, political science may be a separate department housed as part [5] of a division or school of Humanities or Liberal Arts. Whereas classical political philosophy is primarily defined by a concern for Hellenic and Enlightenment thought, political scientists are also marked by a great concern for "modernity" and the contemporary nation state, along with the study of classical thought, and as such share a greater deal of terminology with sociologists (e.g. structure and agency). Politics – the exercise of power; process by which groups of people make collective decisions. The term is generally applied to the art or science of running governmental or state affairs, including behavior within civil governments, but also applies to institutions, fields, and special interest groups such as the corporate, academic, and religioussegments of society. A political system is a system of politics and government. It is usually compared to the legal system, economic system, cultural system, and other social systems. However, this is a very simplified view of a much more complex system of categories involving the views: who should have authority, how religious questions should be handled, and what the government's influence on its people and economy should be. Forms of Government:

A republic is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter" (Latin: res publica), not the private concern or property of the rulers, and where offices of states are subsequently directly or indirectly elected or appointed rather than inherited. In modern times, a common simplified definition of a republic is a government where the head of state is not a monarch. Democracy is a form of government in which all eligible citizens have an equal say in the decisions that affect their lives. Democracy allows eligible citizens to participate equally—either directly or through elected representatives—in the proposal, development, and creation oflaws. It encompasses social, economic and cultural conditions that enable the free and equal practice of political self-determination. A monarchy is a form of government in which sovereignty is actually or nominally embodied in a single individual (the monarch). Forms of monarchy differ widely based on the level of legal autonomy the monarch holds in governance, the method of selection of the monarch, and any predetermined limits on the length of their tenure. When the monarch has no or few legal restraints in state and political matters, it is called an absolute monarchy and is a form of autocracy. Cases in which the monarch's discretion is formally limited (most common today) are called constitutional monarchies. In hereditary monarchies, the office is passed through inheritance within a family group, whereas elective monarchies are selected by some system of voting. Historically these systems are most commonly combined, either formally or informally, in some manner. (For instance, in some elected monarchies only those of certain pedigrees are considered eligible, whereas many hereditary monarchies have legal requirements regarding the religion, age, gender, mental capacity, and other factors that act both as de facto elections and to create situations of rival claimants whoselegitimacy is subject to effective election.) Finally, there are situations in which the expiration of a monarch’s reign is set based either on the calendar or on the achievement of certain goals (repulse of invasion, for instance.) The effect of historical and geographic difference along each of these three axes is to create widely divergent structures and traditions defining ―monarchy.‖ Communism (from Latin communis - common, universal) is a revolutionary socialist movement to create a classless, moneyless, and stateless social order structured upon common ownership of the means of production, as well as a social, political and economic ideology that aims at the establishment of this social order.This movement, in its Marxist– Leninist interpretations, significantly influenced the history of the 20th century, which saw intense rivalry between the "socialist world" (socialist states ruled by communist parties) and the "western world" (countries with capitalist economies). Marxist theory holds that pure communism or full communism is a specific stage of historical development that inevitably emerges from the development of the productive forces that leads to a superabundance of material wealth, allowing for distribution based on need and social relations based on freely associated individuals.The exact definition of communism varies, and it is often mistakenly, in general political discourse, used interchangeably with socialism; however, Marxist theory contends that socialism is just a transitional stage on the road to communism.Leninism adds to Marxism the notion of a vanguard party to lead the proletarian revolution and to secure all political power after the revolution for the working class, for the development of universalclass consciousness and worker participation, in a transitional stage between capitalism and socialism.

A sovereign state is a political organization with a centralized government that has supreme independent authority over a geographic area. It has a permanent population, agovernment, and the capacity to enter into relations with other sovereign states.It is also normally understood to be a state which is neither dependent on nor subject to any other power [4] or state. The existence or disappearance of a state is a question of fact. While according to the declaratory theory of state recognition a sovereign state can exist without being recognised by other sovereign states, unrecognised states will often find it hard to exercise full treaty-making powers and engage in diplomatic relations with other sovereign states. The word "country" is often colloquially used to refer to sovereign states, although it means, originally, only a geographic region, and subsequently its meaning became extended to the sovereign polity which controls the geographic region. A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other [1] organization is governed. These rules together make up, i.e. constitute, what the entity is. When these principles are

written down into a single collection or set of legal documents, those documents may be said to comprise a written constitution. Constitutions concern different levels of organizations, from sovereign states to companies and unincorporated associations. A treatywhich establishes an international organization is also its constitution, in that it would define how that organization is constituted. Within states, whether sovereign or federated, a constitution defines the principles upon which the state is based, the procedure in which laws are made and by whom. Some constitutions, especially written constitutions, also act as limiters of state power, by establishing lines which a state's rulers cannot cross, such as fundamental rights. The Constitution of India is the longest written constitution of any sovereign country in the world, containing 448 [3][4] [5] [6] articles, 12 schedules and 100 amendments, with 117,369 words in its English language version, while theUnited [7] States Constitution is the shortest written constitution, at 7 articles and 27 amendments. The term constitution comes through French from the Latin word constitutio, used for regulations and orders, such as the imperialenactments [8] (constitutiones principis: edicta, mandata, decreta, rescripta). Later, the term was widely used in canon law for an important determination, especially a decree issued by the Pope, now referred to as an apostolic constitution. Most commonly, the term constitution refers to a set of rules and principles that define the nature and extent of government. Most constitutions seek to regulate the relationship between institutions of the state, in a basic sense the relationship between the executive, legislature and the judiciary, but also the relationship of institutions within those branches. For example, executive branches can be divided into a head of government, government departments/ministries, executive agencies and a civil service/administration. Most constitutions also attempt to define the relationship between individuals and the state, and to establish the broad rights of individual citizens. It is thus the most basic law of a territory from which all the other laws and rules are hierarchically derived; in some territories it is in fact called "Basic Law".

Key features
The following are features of democratic constitutions that have been identified by political scientists to exist, in one form or another, in virtually all national constitutions.

Type Form Example


in single act (document)

most of the world constitutions

Uncodified fully written (in few documents)

San Marino, Saudi Arabia

Uncodified partially unwriten (see constitutional convention) Canada, Israel, NZ, UK