# DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING KALYANI GOVT.

ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KALYANI CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY Paper Code: EE-593 5th Semester

INDEX
Sl. No. 1. Name of the Experiment Familiarization with MATLAB Control System Toolbox, MATLAB Simulink Toolbox. Simulation of Step Response & Impulse Response for Type – 0, Type – 1 & Type – 2 Systems with Unity Feedback using MATLAB. Determination of Root Locus, Bode Plot, Nyquist Plot using MATLAB Control System Toolbox for a Second Order System & Determination of Different Control Systems Specifications from the Plot. Determination of PI, PD & PID Control Action of a First Order Simulated Process using MATLAB. Page No. 2 - 16 Date of Submission 19th November, 2012 Teacher’s Signature

2.

17 - 27

19th November, 2012

3.

28 - 45

19th November, 2012

4.

46 - 55

19th November, 2012

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING KALYANI GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KALYANI CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY Paper Code: EE-593 5th Semester

EXPERIMENT NO.: 01
TITLE: FAMILIARIZATION WITH MATLAB CONTROL SYSTEM TOOLBOX, MATLAB SIMULINK TOOLBOX.

OBJECTIVE: To get acquaintance with the MATLAB control system toolbox & SIMULINK toolbox. ASSIGNMENTS: 1. Enter the system transfer function given below by separately specifying the numerator & denominator as vectors containing co- efficient of S in descending powers of S. G1(S) = a) Display G1(S) & G2(S). Soln: n1 = [10]; d1 = [1 1 0]; s1 = tf(n1,d1) n2 = [1 1]; d2 = [1 0 0]; s2 = tf(n2,d2) Result: s1 = 10 ------s^2 + s Continuous - time transfer function. s2 = s+1 ----s^2 Continuous - time transfer function. & G2(S) =

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING KALYANI GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KALYANI CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY Paper Code: EE-593 5th Semester b) Find the transfer function of the resultant system when G2(S) is connected in series with G1(S) & display the result. Soln: n1 = [10]; d1 = [1 1 0]; s1 = tf(n1,d1) n2 = [1 1]; d2 = [1 0 0]; s2 = tf(n2,d2) sys = s1*s2 Result: s1 = 10 ------s^2 + s Continuous - time transfer function. s2 = s+1 ----s^2 Continuous - time transfer function. sys = 10 s + 10 --------s^4 + s^3 Continuous - time transfer function.

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING KALYANI GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KALYANI CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY Paper Code: EE-593 5th Semester c) Find the transfer function of the resultant system when G2(S) is connected in parallel with G1(S) & display the result. Soln: n1 = [10]; d1 = [1 1 0]; s1 = tf(n1,d1) n2 = [1 1]; d2 = [1 0 0]; s2 = tf(n2,d2) sys = s1+s2 Result: s1 = 10 ------s^2 + s Continuous - time transfer function. s2 = s+1 ----s^2 Continuous - time transfer function. sys = s^3 + 12 s^2 + s ---------------s^4 + s^3 Continuous - time transfer function.

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING KALYANI GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KALYANI CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY Paper Code: EE-593 5th Semester d) Find the transfer function of the resultant system when G1(S) is connected in forward path with G2(S) in the feedback path with i.) positive feedback & ii.) negative feedback & display the result in each case. Soln: i.) n1 = [10]; d1 = [1 1 0]; s1 = tf(n1,d1) n2 = [1 1]; d2 = [1 0 0]; s2 = tf(n2,d2) sys = feedback(s2,s1,1) Result: s1 = 10 ------s^2 + s Continuous - time transfer function. s2 = s+1 ----s^2 Continuous - time transfer function. sys = s^3 + 2 s^2 + s --------------------s^4 + s^3 - 10 s - 10 Continuous - time transfer function.

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING KALYANI GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KALYANI CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY Paper Code: EE-593 5th Semester ii.) n1 = [10]; d1 = [1 1 0]; s1 = tf(n1,d1) n2 = [1 1]; d2 = [1 0 0]; s2 = tf(n2,d2) sys = feedback(s2,s1,-1) Result: s1 = 10 ------s^2 + s Continuous - time transfer function. s2 = s+1 ----s^2 Continuous - time transfer function. sys = s^3 + 2 s^2 + s --------------------s^4 + s^3 + 10 s + 10 Continuous - time transfer function.

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING KALYANI GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KALYANI CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY Paper Code: EE-593 5th Semester 2. Obtain the pole zero map of the following system: G(S) = Soln: num = [1 2]; den = conv(conv([1 0],[1 1]),[1 3]); sys = tf(num,den) pzmap(sys) Result:

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING KALYANI GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KALYANI CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY Paper Code: EE-593 5th Semester 3. See the step response of an open loop transfer function using Simulink toolbox. Soln:

Result:

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING KALYANI GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KALYANI CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY Paper Code: EE-593 5th Semester 4. Change the input block to Sine Wave Generator & set the amplitude to 1, frequency to 10 rad/sec. & phase to 0 rad. See the output response using Simulink toolbox. Soln:

Result:

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING KALYANI GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KALYANI CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY Paper Code: EE-593 5th Semester 5. Change the input block to Pulse Generator & observe the result. Soln:

Result:

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING KALYANI GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KALYANI CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY Paper Code: EE-593 5th Semester 6. Reduce the following blocks using MATLAB commands: a) R(S) C(S)

Soln:

n1 = [1 0]; d1 = [1 0 2]; s1 = tf(n1,d1) n2 = [1]; d2 = [1 1]; s2 = tf(n2,d2) n3 = [5 0]; d3 = [1 3]; s3 = tf(n3,d3) sys1 = feedback(s3,s2,-1) sys2 = feedback(sys1,s1,-1) step(sys2) Result: sys2 = 5 s^4 + 5 s^3 + 10 s^2 + 10 s -------------------------------------s^4 + 14 s^3 + 10 s^2 + 18 s + 6 Continuous - time transfer function.

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING KALYANI GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KALYANI CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY Paper Code: EE-593 5th Semester

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING KALYANI GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KALYANI CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY Paper Code: EE-593 5th Semester b)

R(S)

C(S)

Soln:

n1 = [1 0]; d1 = [1 5]; s1 = tf(n1,d1) n2 = [3 0]; d2 = [1 0 6]; s2 = tf(n2,d2) n3 = [1 1 0]; d3 = [1 5 6]; s3 = tf(n3,d3) n4 = [7]; d4 = [1]; s4 = tf(n4,d4) n5 = [1]; d5 = [1 0 1]; s5 = tf(n5,d5) sys1 = feedback(s2,1,-1) sys2 = series(sys1,s3) sys3 = feedback(sys2,s4,-1) sys4 = series(s1,sys3) sys5 = feedback(sys4,s5,1) step(sys5) Result: sys5 = 3 s^6 + 3 s^5 + 3 s^4 + 3 s^3 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------s^7 + 34 s^6 + 194 s^5 + 319 s^4 + 466 s^3 + 468 s^2 + 276 s + 180

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING KALYANI GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KALYANI CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY Paper Code: EE-593 5th Semester Continuous - time transfer function.

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING KALYANI GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KALYANI CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY Paper Code: EE-593 5th Semester c)

R(S)

C(S)

Soln:

n1 = [1 0]; d1 = [1 0 2]; s1 = tf(n1,d1) n2 = [1]; d2 = [1 1]; s2 = tf(n2,d2) n3 = [1 0]; d3 = [3 5]; s3 = tf(n3,d3) n4 = [1]; d4 = [1 3]; s4 = tf(n4,d4) n5 = [1]; d5 = [1 2]; s5 = tf(n5,d5) sys1 = series(s2,s5) sys2 = feedback(s1,sys1,1) sys3 = series(s2,s3) sys4 = feedback(sys3,s4,-1) sys5 = series(sys2,sys4) sys6 = feedback(sys5,1,-1) step(sys6) Result: sys6 = s^5 + 6 s^4 + 11 s^3 + 6 s^2 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------3 s^7 + 26 s^6 + 94 s^5 + 194 s^4 + 273 s^3 + 284 s^2 + 195 s + 60

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING KALYANI GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KALYANI CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY Paper Code: EE-593 5th Semester Continuous - time transfer function.

DISCUSSIONS:

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING KALYANI GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KALYANI CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY Paper Code: EE-593 5th Semester

EXPERIMENT NO.: 02
TITLE: SIMULATION OF STEP RESPONSE & IMPULSE RESPONSE FOR TYPE 0, TYPE 1 & TYPE 2 SYSTEMS WITH UNITY FEEDBACK USING MATLAB .

OBJECTIVE: To simulate the step response & impulse response for Type – 0, Type – 1 & Type – 2 systems with unity feedback using MATLAB. ASSIGNMENTS: 1. Consider the open loop transfer function of the following unity feedback systems. Obtain the output response curves of each system with unity step input. Also find out the steady state errors. G(S) =

…………………………………………

Type – 0 System

G(S) =

……………………………………….. …………………………………

Type – 1 System

G(S) =

Type – 2 System

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING KALYANI GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KALYANI CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY Paper Code: EE-593 5th Semester

Soln:

 Type- 0 System
num = [1]; den = [1 1]; s = tf(num,den) sys = feedback(s,1,-1) step(sys) Result:

 Steady state error is 0.5.

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING KALYANI GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KALYANI CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY Paper Code: EE-593 5th Semester

 Type – 1 System
num = [1]; den = conv([1 0],[1 1]); s = tf(num,den) sys = feedback(s,1,-1) step(sys) Result:

 Steady state error is 0.

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING KALYANI GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KALYANI CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY Paper Code: EE-593 5th Semester

 Type – 2 System
num = conv([2 1],[4 1]); den = conv([1 0 0],[1 2 8]); s = tf(num,den) sys = feedback(s,1,-1) step(sys) Result:

 Steady state error is 0.

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING KALYANI GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KALYANI CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY Paper Code: EE-593 5th Semester

2. Obtain the output response curve of the above systems with unit impulse input. Soln:

 Type – 0 System
num = [1]; den = [1 1]; s = tf(num,den) sys = feedback(s,1,-1) impulse(sys) Result:

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING KALYANI GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KALYANI CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY Paper Code: EE-593 5th Semester

 Type – 1 System
num = [1]; den = conv([1 0],[1 1]); s = tf(num,den) sys = feedback(s,1,-1) impulse(sys) Result:

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING KALYANI GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KALYANI CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY Paper Code: EE-593 5th Semester

 Type – 2 System
num = conv([2 1],[4 1]); den = conv([1 0 0],[1 2 8]); s = tf(num,den) sys = feedback(s,1,-1) impulse(sys) Result:

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING KALYANI GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KALYANI CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY Paper Code: EE-593 5th Semester
3. Consider the following system:

R(S)

C(S)

Obtain the i.) Rise Time (tr), ii.) Peak Time (tp), iii.) Percentage of Peak Overshoot (Mp), from the output response curve with unit step input. Also compare these with the calculated values. Soln: n = [1]; d = conv([1 0],[1 1]); s = tf(n,d) sys = feedback(s,1,-1) step(sys) Result:

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING KALYANI GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KALYANI CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY Paper Code: EE-593 5th Semester From the output response curve,
i.) ii.) iii.)

Rise Time (tr) Peak Time (tp) Percentage of Peak Overshoot (Mp)

= 2.44 seconds = 3.67 seconds = 16.3%

From calculations,
i.) ii.) iii.)

Rise Time (tr) Peak Time (tp) Percentage of Peak Overshoot (Mp)  Hence, the both the results tally.

= 2.42 seconds = 3.63 seconds = 16.3%

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING KALYANI GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KALYANI CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY Paper Code: EE-593 5th Semester
4. Obtain the step response of the second order system for different values of ξ. Transfer

function of the system is G(S) = Soln: for E = 0.0 : 0.1 : 1.1 num = [10]; den = [1 20*E 10]; sys = tf(num,den) step(sys) hold on end Result:

, using for loop concept.

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING KALYANI GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KALYANI CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY Paper Code: EE-593 5th Semester DISCUSSIONS:

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING KALYANI GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KALYANI CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY Paper Code: EE-593 5th Semester

EXPERIMENT NO.: 03
TITLE: DETERMINATION OF ROOT LOCUS, BODE PLOT, NYQUIST PLOT USING MATLAB CONTROL SYSYTEM TOOLBOX FOR A SECOND ORDER SYSTEM & DETERMINATION OF DIFFERENT CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIFICATIONS FROM THE PLOT.

OBJECTIVE: To plot root locus, bode plot, nyquist plot using MATLAB control system toolbox for a second order system & determine the gain cross over frequency, phase cross over frequency, gain margin (GM), phase margin (PM) from the plot. ASSIGNMENTS: 1. Note the functions bode, logspace & margin by using help. Soln:

>> help bode
--- help for DynamicSystem/bode ---

bode Bode frequency response of dynamic systems.

bode(SYS) draws the Bode plot of the dynamic system SYS. The frequency range & number of points are chosen automatically.

bode(SYS,{WMIN,WMAX}) draws the Bode plot for frequencies between WMIN & WMAX in radians/TimeUnit (relative to the time units specified in SYS.TimeUnit, the default being seconds).

bode(SYS,W) uses the vector W of frequencies (in radians/TimeUnit) to evaluate the frequency response. See LOGSPACE to generate logarithmically spaced frequency vectors.

bode(SYS1,SYS2,...,W) graphs the Bode response of several systems SYS1, SYS2,... on a single plot. The frequency vector W is optional.

You can specify a color, line style, & marker for each model,

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING KALYANI GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KALYANI CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY Paper Code: EE-593 5th Semester For example: bode(sys1,'r',sys2,'y--',sys3,'gx').

[MAG,PHASE] = bode(SYS,W) & [MAG,PHASE,W] = bode(SYS) return the response magnitudes & phases in degrees (along with the frequency vector W if unspecified). No plot is drawn on the screen. If SYS has NY outputs & NU inputs, MAG & PHASE are arrays of size [NY NU LENGTH(W)] where MAG(:,:,k) & PHASE(:,:,k) determine the response at the frequency W(k). To get the magnitudes in dB, type MAGDB = 20*log10(MAG). The frequencies W are in rad/TimeUnit.

[MAG,PHASE,W,SDMAG,SDPHASE] = bode(SYS) also returns the estimated st&ard deviations of the magnitude & phase of the identified system SYS.

>> help logspace
logspace Logarithmically spaced vector. logspace(X1, X2) generates a row vector of 50 logarithmically equally spaced points between decades 10^X1 & 10^X2. If X2 is pi, then the points are between 10^X1 & pi.

logspace(X1, X2, N) generates N points. For N = 1, logspace returns 10^X2.

Class support for inputs X1,X2:

float: double, single

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING KALYANI GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KALYANI CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY Paper Code: EE-593 5th Semester

Overloaded methods: distributed/logspace codistributor2dbc/logspace codistributor1d/logspace codistributed/logspace

Reference page in Help browser doc logspace

>> help margin
margin Gain & phase margins & crossover frequencies.

[Gm,Pm,Wcg,Wcp] = margin(SYS) computes the gain margin Gm, the phase margin Pm, & the associated frequencies Wcg & Wcp, for the SISO open-loop model SYS (continuous or discrete). The gain margin Gm is defined as 1/G where G is the gain at the -180 phase crossing. The phase margin Pm is in degrees. The frequencies Wcg & Wcp are in radians/TimeUnit (relative to the time units specified in SYS.TimeUnit, the default being seconds).

The gain margin in dB is derived by Gm_dB = 20*log10(Gm)

The loop gain at Wcg can increase or decrease by this many dBs before

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING KALYANI GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KALYANI CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY Paper Code: EE-593 5th Semester losing stability, & Gm_dB<0 (Gm<1) means that stability is most sensitive to loop gain reduction. If there are several crossover points, margin returns the smallest margins (gain margin nearest to 0dB & phase margin nearest to 0 degrees).

For a S1-by...-by-Sp array of linear systems, margin returns arrays of size [S1 ... Sp] such that [Gm(j1,...,jp),Pm(j1,...,jp)] = margin(SYS(:,:,j1,...,jp)) .

[Gm,Pm,Wcg,Wcp] = margin(MAG,PHASE,W) derives the gain & phase margins from the Bode magnitude, phase, & frequency vectors MAG, PHASE, & W produced by BODE. margin expects gain values MAG in absolute units & phase values PHASE in degrees. Interpolation is performed between frequency points to approximate the true stability margins.

margin(SYS), by itself, plots the open-loop Bode plot with the gain & phase margins marked with a vertical line.

Reference page in Help browser doc margin

2. Obtain the bode plots for the following transfer functions. Also find out the gain margins, phase margins, gain cross over frequencies & phase cross over frequencies from the plots.

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING KALYANI GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KALYANI CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY Paper Code: EE-593 5th Semester i.) Soln: G(S) =

n = [10]; d = [0.01 0.25 1 0]; s = tf(n,d) bode(s) Result:

From the output response curve,     ii.) Gain Margin Gain Cross Over Frequency Phase Margin Phase Cross Over Frequency G(S) = = 7.96 dB = 10 rad/seconds = 22.5ο = 6.08 rad/seconds

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING KALYANI GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KALYANI CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY Paper Code: EE-593 5th Semester Soln: n = [200 400]; d = [1 12 52 80 0]; s = tf(n,d) bode(s) Result:

From the output response curve,     Gain Margin Gain Cross Over Frequency Phase Margin Phase Cross Over Frequency = 3.93 dB = 5.73 rad/seconds = 16.9ο = 4.53 rad/seconds

3. Note the function nyquist by using help.

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING KALYANI GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KALYANI CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY Paper Code: EE-593 5th Semester Soln: >> help nyquist nyquist Nyquist frequency response of dynamic systems. nyquist(SYS) draws the Nyquist plot of the dynamic system SYS. The frequency range & number of points are chosen automatically. See BODE for details on the notion of frequency in discrete-time. nyquist(SYS,{WMIN,WMAX}) draws the Nyquist plot for frequencies between WMIN & WMAX in radians/TimeUnit (relative to the time units specified in SYS.TimeUnit, the default being seconds). nyquist(SYS,W) uses the vector W of frequencies (in radians/TimeUnit) to evaluate the frequency response. See LOGSPACE to generate logarithmically spaced frequency vectors. nyquist(SYS1,SYS2,...,W) plots the Nyquist response of several systems SYS1, SYS2,... on a single plot. The frequency vector W is optional. You can specify a color, line style, & marker for each model, For example: nyquist(sys1,'r',sys2,'y--',sys3,'gx'). [RE,IM] = nyquist(SYS,W) & [RE,IM,W] = nyquist(SYS) return the real parts RE & imaginary parts IM of the frequency response (along with the frequency vector W if unspecified). No plot is drawn on the screen. If SYS has NY outputs & NU inputs, RE & IM are arrays of size [NY NU LENGTH(W)] & the response at the frequency W(k) is given by RE(:,:,k)+j*IM(:,:,k). The frequencies W are in rad/TimeUnit. Response uncertainty computation: [RE,IM,W,SDRE,SDIM] = nyquist(SYS) also returns the st&ard deviations of RE & IM for the identified system SYS. See also: nyquistplot, bode, nichols, sigma, freqresp, ltiview, DynamicSystem. Overloaded methods: DynamicSystem/nyquist resppack.ltisource/nyquist Reference page in Help browser doc nyquist

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING KALYANI GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KALYANI CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY Paper Code: EE-593 5th Semester
4. Obtain the nyquist plot of the system given by G(S) =

. Find the gain

margin from the graph & compare with that obtained by using margin. Soln: n = [11 22]; d = [1 3 0 10]; s = tf(n,d) nyquist(s) Result:

 Gain Margin = -0.823 dB

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING KALYANI GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KALYANI CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY Paper Code: EE-593 5th Semester
 Using margin,

n = [11 22]; d = [1 3 0 10]; s = tf(n,d) margin(s) Result:

 Gain Margin = -0.823 dB • Hence, results from both the curves tally.

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING KALYANI GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KALYANI CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY Paper Code: EE-593 5th Semester
5. Note the function rlocus & rlocfind by using help.

Soln:

>> help rlocus
rlocus Evans root locus. rlocus(SYS) computes & plots the root locus of the single-input, single-output LTI model SYS. The root locus plot is used to analyze the negative feedback loop

& shows the trajectories of the closed-loop poles when the feedback gain K varies from 0 to Inf. rlocus automatically generates a set of positive gain values that produce a smooth plot. rlocus(SYS,K) uses a user-specified vector K of gain values. rlocus(SYS1, SYS2,...) draws the root loci of several models SYS1,SYS2,... on a single plot. You can specify a color, line style, & marker for each model, for example: rlocus(sys1,'r',sys2,'y:',sys3,'gx'). [R,K] = rlocus(SYS) or R = rlocus(SYS,K) returns the matrix R of complex root locations for the gains K. R has LENGTH(K) columns & its j-th column lists the closed-loop roots for the gain K(j). See RLOCUSPLOT for additional graphical options for root locus plots. See also: rlocusplot, sisotool, pole, ISSISO, lti. Overloaded methods: DynamicSystem/rlocus resppack.ltisource/rlocus Reference page in Help browser doc rlocus

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING KALYANI GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KALYANI CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY Paper Code: EE-593 5th Semester

>> help rlocfind
rlocfind Find root locus gains for a given set of roots.

[K,POLES] = rlocfind(SYS) is used for interactive gain selection from the root locus plot of the SISO system SYS generated by RLOCUS. rlocfind puts up a crosshair cursor in the graphics window which is used to select a pole location on an existing root locus. The root locus gain associated with this point is returned in K & all the system poles for this gain are returned in POLES.

[K,POLES] = rlocfind(SYS,P) takes a vector P of desired root locations & computes a root locus gain for each of these locations (i.e., a gain for which one of the closed-loop roots is near the desired location). The j-th entry of the vector K gives the computed gain for the location P(j), & the j-th column of the matrix POLES lists the resulting closed-loop poles.

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING KALYANI GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KALYANI CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY Paper Code: EE-593 5th Semester 6. Obtain the root locus of the following OLTF of a unity feedback system. Find the value of K at points where the locus crosses over the right half of the S – plane & at the break away points. Find the dominant poles where the damping factor is 0.5. Also find out the value of K at that pole. i.) G(S) =

Soln:

num = [1]; den = conv(conv([1 0],[1 1]),[1 2]); sys = tf(num,den) rlocus(sys) Result:

 The value of K where the locus crosses over the right half of the S – plane is 6.  The value of K at break away point is 0.385.

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING KALYANI GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KALYANI CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY Paper Code: EE-593 5th Semester

 For damping factor = 0.5,

 

The dominant poles are -0.33 + 0.571j & -0.33 – 0.571j.

The value of K is 1.02.

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING KALYANI GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KALYANI CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY Paper Code: EE-593 5th Semester

ii.)

G(S) =

Soln: num = conv([1 1],[1 2]);
den = conv([1 -1],[1 0.1]); sys = tf(num,den) rlocus(sys) Result:

 The value of K where the locus crosses over the right half of the S – plane is 2.999.  The values of K at break away points are 0.0937 & 12.9.

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING KALYANI GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KALYANI CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY Paper Code: EE-593 5th Semester

 For damping factor = 0.5,

 The dominant poles are -0.471 + 0.816j & -0.471 – 0.816j.  The value of K is 0.894.

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING KALYANI GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KALYANI CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY Paper Code: EE-593 5th Semester

7. Determine the closed loop stability by applying the nyquist criterion for the unity feedback systems whose open loop transfer functions are given below: i.) G(S) =

Soln:

n = [1 1]; d = [1 -1.5 -1]; s = tf(n,d) nyquist(s) Result:

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING KALYANI GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KALYANI CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY Paper Code: EE-593 5th Semester  As can be seen from the response curve, the closed loop system is unstable.

ii.)

G(S) =

Soln:

n = [1 0.25]; d = [1 1.5 0.5 0 0]; s = tf(n,d) nyquist(s) Result:

 As can be seen from the response curve, the closed loop system is unstable.

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING KALYANI GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KALYANI CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY Paper Code: EE-593 5th Semester

DISCUSSIONS:

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING KALYANI GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KALYANI CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY Paper Code: EE-593 5th Semester

EXPERIMENT NO.: 04
TITLE: DETERMINATION OF PI, PD & PID CONTROL ACTION OF A FIRST ORDER SIMULATED PROCESS USING MATLAB.

OBJECTIVE: To study the performances of P, PI, PD & PID controller action of a first order simulated process using MATLAB commands & also using SIMULINK toolbox. ASSIGNMENTS: 1. Obtain the step response & observe the steady state error for an open loop system with transfer function G(S) = Soln: .

n = [1]; d = [5 1]; sys = tf(n,d) step(sys) Result:

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING KALYANI GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KALYANI CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY Paper Code: EE-593 5th Semester  Steady State Error is 0.

2. Obtain the step response with Kp = 100 & find tr, tp, %Mp, ess, ts. Soln:

n = [1]; d = [5 1]; s = tf(n,d) sys1 = series(100,s) sys2 = feedback(sys1,1,-1) step(sys2)

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING KALYANI GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KALYANI CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY Paper Code: EE-593 5th Semester

Result:

 Rise Time, tr  Peak Time, tp  Percentage of Peak Overshoot, %Mp  Steady State Error, ess  Settling Time, ts

= 0.109 seconds = 0.3 seconds =0 =0 = 0.194 seconds

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING KALYANI GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KALYANI CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY Paper Code: EE-593 5th Semester

3. Obtain the step response with Kp = 100, Ki = 100 & find tr, tp, %Mp, ess, ts.. Soln:

n1 = [1]; d1 = [5 1]; s1 = tf(n1,d1) n2 = [1]; d2 = [1 0]; s2 = tf(n2,d2) sys1 = series(100,s2) sys2 = parallel(100,sys1) sys3 = series(sys2,s1) sys4 = feedback(sys3,1,-1) step(sys4)

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING KALYANI GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KALYANI CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY Paper Code: EE-593 5th Semester

Result:

 Rise Time, tr  Peak Time, tp  Percentage of Peak Overshoot, %Mp  Steady State Error, ess  Settling Time, ts

= 0.0991 seconds = 0.331 seconds = 3.11 =0 = 0.81 seconds

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING KALYANI GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KALYANI CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY Paper Code: EE-593 5th Semester

4. Obtain the step response with Kp = 100, Kd = 5 & find tr, tp, %Mp, ess, ts Soln:

n1 = [1]; d1 = [5 1]; s1 = tf(n1,d1) n2 = [1 0]; d2 = [1]; s2 = tf(n2,d2) sys1 = series(5,s2) sys2 = parallel(100,sys1) sys3 = series(sys2,s1) sys4 = feedback(sys3,1,-1) step(sys4)

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING KALYANI GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KALYANI CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY Paper Code: EE-593 5th Semester

Result:

 Rise Time, tr  Peak Time, tp

= 0.0991 seconds = 0.331 seconds

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING KALYANI GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KALYANI CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY Paper Code: EE-593 5th Semester  Percentage of Peak Overshoot, %Mp  Steady State Error, ess  Settling Time, ts = 3.11 =0 = 0.81 seconds

5. Obtain the step response with Kp = 100, Ki = 100, Kd = 5 & find tr, tp, %Mp, ess, ts. Soln:

n1 = [1]; d1 = [5 1]; s1 = tf(n1,d1) n2 = [1]; d2 = [1 0]; s2 = tf(n2,d2) n3 = [1 0]; d3 = [1]; s3 = tf(n3,d3) sys1 = series(100,s2) sys2 = series(5,s3)

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING KALYANI GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KALYANI CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY Paper Code: EE-593 5th Semester sys3 = 100+sys1+sys2 sys4 = series(sys3,s1) sys5 = feedback(sys4,1,-1) step(sys5)

Result:

 Rise Time, tr

= 0.185 seconds

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING KALYANI GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KALYANI CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY Paper Code: EE-593 5th Semester  Peak Time, tp  Percentage of Peak Overshoot, %Mp  Steady State Error, ess  Settling Time, ts = 0.555 seconds = 2.74 =0 = 1.58 seconds

DISCUSSIONS:

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