The Working class in Britain

The working class that emerged in Britain was historically a new class-not recognised as a social or institutional collective by itself or others before a specifiable period. The emergence of the Andy Capp working class is the British proletariat which came to be recognised not only by its headgear but by the physical environment in which they lived, by a style of life and leisure, by a certain class consciousness increasingly expressed in a secular tendency to join unions and to identify with the class party of Labour. By the time of Chartism all terms associated with the ancient world of independent small producers and their organisations, denote something like the wage-skilled worker rather that the independent producer. In addition, the term “manufacturer” that referred vaguely to the labour force came to be monopolized by the industrial employer. Polarization of terminology indicates economic transformation. In 1851 there were more shoemakers than coalminers, two and a half times as many tailors as railwaymen. The workshop of the world was not yet the “industry state”, either in scale, pattern, or technology and industrial organization. The new and broadened development of the industrial economy led to the emergence of a unique working class. It greatly increased in size and concentration. In 1911 there were thirty –six cities of over 100,000 inhabitants in Britain, compared to ten in 1851 and they now contained 44% of the total population compared to 25%. There was the rise of large industrial concentrations where none had existed before. Shipyards and railway works sprung up employing thousands of men. The occupational composition of the working classes changed substantially , as witness the rise of the railwaymen from less than 100,000 in 1871 to 400,000 in 1911, and of miners from half a million to 1.2 million in the same period, while the total male population of England increased by only 60%. The growing national integration and concentration of the national economy and its sectors, and the growing role of the state in both, transformed the conditions of industrial conflict. Industrial dispute as a national strike or lock-out does not exist for practical purposes before 1890‟s. The Labour Department of the Board of Trade (1893) was established and senior politicians started directly intervened in labour disputes. There was also a widening of the franchise and mass politics. What proletarian voters might think and want, was henceforth a major preoccupation of the politicians, and conversely, what the central government could be got to do was of much more practical concern to the workers. Belonging to the „Labour‟, ie. Manual labour , took on a political dimension it had not since Chartism. Being a miner now implied being a member of a national working class whose specific political and social aspirations were expressed in an independent party of the Labour with its own newspaper and specific programs. The 1880‟s saw a substantial transformation of the material conditions of the working class life and of what might be called the social and institutional compass bearings of the working-class course across the territory of national life. Football already had a modest subterranean life as a proletarian sport in the later 70‟s. Professional agents

The crucial point about this improvement is not the mere rise in real incomes and consumer expenditures. A class in the social and not merely classificatory sense: a body within which it would be absurd any longer to speak of „the class of miners‟ as distinct from the „class of cotton workers‟. which changed the working class diet. when labour suddenly appears with 24% of the total votes cast. especially with the massive development of cheap public transport in the 1880‟s. but the structural changes that mediated them. By 1914 any picture of masses of British workers anywhere. a convergence between local. proletariat. there was in increasing use of formal schooling as a class criteria. The 1870‟s saw the discovery of the domestic mass market for industrially produced or processed goods and „by-law‟ housing. rise of the Co-ops.and national booking of music hall artists developed in the 80‟s and also saw the birth of a professional trade press for pop music business. Making refined metal was larger than the final product. The map of the football league was virtually identical with the map of industrial England. Most important of them were the. The mass production of tea in standardised packets and the new jams and preserves. that voting Labour can reasonably be used as an index of political class-consciousness. multiple shops and the rise and institutionalization of hire and purchase. which in fact created so much of the environment of the working class life. The working class belts. It is only from 1918 on. As for housing the major development was the growth of segregated working class streets and quarters. dates from 1884. There was also the rise of football as the national. Workers were segregated by expectations. bound together in a community of fate irrespective of its internal differences. Workers were increasingly defined as those who had no education or got nothing out of it. rising to 37. Politicians were aware of this class-consciousness and workers increasingly started to vote for their class representatives. capital and labour force. of what “workers do” from those of other classes. spectator sport and the development of a male football culture. The working class was alienated from the ruling class by the latter‟s conspicuous display of luxury by the rich and the growth of the mass media . it becomes clear that the large and growing masses of British workers regarded voting Labour as an automatic consequence of being workers. the rows of terraced houses. The worker identified his local team against the rest of the world. From the 1900 onwards. but technology was traditional handicraft. yet the pattern of the football culture was the same everywhere. even some segregated working class suburbs. At that point. reveals the familiar sea of flat peaked caps. though residentially stratified formed a coherent quarter. Textile expansion also created direct and indirect demand. This climaxed the total transformation and the emergence of the workers as a coherent working class.5% in 1929. Workers were segregated by the divergence of lifestyles. britain Capital goods industry was substantial in 1700. and unskilled wage rates becomes visible. and indeed. on or off duty . All this amounts to the growing sense of a single working class. regional. Partnerships had . which made for greater national coordination of news and activity. naval dockyards creating huge demand. skilled. This period also saw the development of working class leisure and holidays. which made possible the transformation of working class interiors.

mineral-fuel technology.the problem in 18th C was the availability of conduits for the capital movements. industry suffered when government borrowing in war time increased interst rates. The Jacquard loom increased the cost of capital equipment and this encouraged the merchantcapitalist over the manufacturer. Saffordshire . The supremacy Britain achieved in technology in 1800 was based upon combination of cheap iron and coal. steam engine parts. but had many limitations which were overcome by Watt‟s engine in 1781. These capacities were laid down until the mid 19th C. and economies of scale emerged with use of coke. Coal and steam power were then used in a larger scale. bridge castings. Banking and investment .refining rolling each situated in different part of the country.many capital economizing devices were used and even the heavily capitalizing industries had less tan half of its assets in fixed capital. production became centralised.paying the spinners and weavers for their labour. There were large number of plants relying on division of labour of skilled artisans contributing to productivity.it succeded on a monumental scale with Henry cort‟s invention of puddling furnance and rolling maill.the merchant owened the raw materials. the wars created a financial burden and modest slackening during the late 18th and early 19th C.one of the astonishing things is the extent of gap between invention and the diffusion of innovation to become the representative technique.smelting.canals . coal deposits influenced location of iron and other non-ferrous industries. mercantile credit from merchant suppliers .innovation as opposed ot invention is the relating of individual genius to the profitability in commerce in that age.most innovation were results of amateurs or brilliant artisans. canal ironmongery. skills of accurate metal working and skills of mechanical engineering. Thomas newcomen‟s steam engine was used in the colliery in 1712. Much experimentation went into the effort to make iron-bar successfully from mineral fuel.19th C government realised that almost no trained chemists exsisted in the country to prioduce a flow of innovations from applied sciences. railings. Yorkshire and south Wales dominated the location of iron manufacturers. even in early factories amongst the most heavily capitalised less than one eight of assets were in fixed assets the rest were observed by goods in pipeline or raw materials . pillars and above all guns(military castings) were all the products of industrial revolution. mortgaged loans from private property kinship contacts were important sources after the plough back of retained earnings.in machine building and steam power in particular. manhole covers.after the mid.long term credit was a problem.interests in ore minning. Capital accumulation In aggregate no absolute shortage of savins relative to the demand for productive investment threatened Britain which possessed a rich agriculture and rising lucrative foreign trade.

who needed a alondon correspondent to handle business like sending down supply of gold. Entrepreneurs They sprang from the economic opportunity as much as they created it and depended upon creative environment. Bills of exchange and coins circulated widely and they drove out bank of England notes in 1820‟s in Lancashire. With renewals of its charter it emerged as government‟s banker.child‟s main activity was to lend to the wealthy not in trade and in mortgage business.minting notes. with fines and sanctions imposed by large scale industrialists. They also did agency business for the country banks. This brought a great amount of profit and at the same time the panics in the country banks in 1793 and 1825 hit the private banks severely. new industrialists . and the country bankers. The foundation of bank of England in 1694 was the deal between the Crown. May of the initial industries were set up in isolated areas. extra families had to be housed to provide for the large labour force and in the absence of public provision of services industrialist had to generate employment for men in farms while employing women and children themselves. organiser of outwork to the factory owner. and London merchants and financiers. millers.Three main groups emerged in the banking system that grew in the 18th C England. making short term loan to stock brokers.discounting bills of exchange by banks released mercantile and industrial capital for investment . And at the end of the century the bill broker emerged as an important intermediary between bankers. merchant houses and solicitors. Entrepreneurs did not form a class but a type. which were invested in their business or lent out to farmers.silver and later the bank of England notes. corn merchants. commercial or government stocks. They began to bypass public markets and independent merchants and dealt with importers laying down their specifications. many married wives with savings. after the 1745 panic the bank of England became the lender of last resort and its notes replaced gold reserves. short term loans were renewed for further periods and few firms depended on banks for a high proportionof their invested capital like Arkwright. Most enjoyed good social repute and this enabled them to get credit.providing over drafts. William balston(famous paper maker). Strutt. Brokers stood between merchants and industrialists (and their bankers) seeking discount and farmers and land owners (and their bankers) offering credit. all of which were short term activities. They specialised out from every dominant business activity in every redgion in the country cloth merchants. most came from families with savings. handling treasury bills and at the same time in its capacity as a private banker lent to larger trading companies and business men. The untrained labour force in the factories with short duration contracts were subject to extraordinary codes of discipline. To the contrary the London bankers were involved in discounting bills of exchange for merchants and industrialists. tax receivers. With large scale production under the control of single men the power and decision making shifted from the merchant. When adoption of innovation required capital. brewers.In 1826 Bank of England opened branches to facilitate circulation of notes.handling bills of exchange. turnpike trusts managers. The bank had no branches and was confined to London. in desperate need for war time finance. and lending on call. Stamp duies were increased on bills of exchange which gave greater incentive to get into cash. the Bank of England. The London private bankers such as the hoare‟s . the London private banks. even if modest. The country banks first function was to create credit by issuing notes and second by mobilizing savings.

Britain was already a part of a larger network of economic relationship in the European economy. Little initial investment was required and their expansion was financed out of accumulated profits. weak institutional structure. Transport and communications were comparatively easy and cheap. they maintained strict personal probity. Most enjoyed good social repute and . In addition. sucession to partnership. Historical accidents like overseas discovery in the 15th and 16th C. extension of enterprise all tended to run within the same social and religious enclave and often sealed by kinship link. milling.slow communication. Industry in Britain E J Hobsbawm.came from related branches of industry where capital had been accumulated. The two important questions we have to discuss are why did the revolution originated in Britain and why in the 18th C? Hobswam. Men with ordinary literacy. essentially middle a class group. as with the jewish community internationally. distribution of natural resources operate within a given economic and social framework and can‟t be sited as main factors. British revolution was preceded by at least three hundred years of economic development. discusses that climate. The technological problems were simple in the early period. Later with large scale production under the control of single men the power and decision making shifted from the merchant. with fines and sanctions imposed by large scale industrialists. many married wives with savings. geography. most came from families with savings.3. in iron making. even if modest. practical experience and initiative was all that was required to sphere head economic growth. Factory with untrained labour force with short duration contracts were subject to extraordinary codes of discipline. international payments. scientific revolution of the 17th C. Substantial proportion of enterprise lay in the hands of the protestant non-confirmists. familiarity with simple mechanical devices and working of metals. government policy‟s commitment to pursuit of profit from mid 17th C might have given support but aren‟t the fundamental reasons. It was within the capacities of multiplicities of small entrepreneurs and skilled traditional artisans. the Protestant Reformation of the 16th C. personal thrift and absentation in order to plough back more capital back into the business and facilitate rapid expansion. and in banking. capital transfers and migration. characterised by trade. organiser of outwork to the factory owner. Enterpreneurs did not form a class but a type. expensive legal process and limited avenues for raising capital kinship was the organised principle of most businesses. 2. In the 18th C with the bubble act almost prohibiting company form of enterprise in manufacturing industry .&6 Peter Mathais – Chapter 5. brewing.ownership. merchanting. They were widely scattered mainly in trading towns all over the country : in the quaker case. 15 Industrial revolution is 18th C Britain was characterised by acceleration in growth from economic and social transformation in a capitalistic economy led by private enterprises. In 1800 Quakers were well established in grain merchanting. capital.

bridge castings. The market economy‟s development spanned over three centuries with the receding feudalist economy and emergence of rent seeking landlords. It succeeded on a monumental scale with Henry Cort‟s invention of puddling furnance and rolling mill. was greatest consumer of iron. . essentially middle class group. Thomas Newcomen‟s steam engine was used in the colliery in 1712. in iron making and in banking. canal and even road – were undertaken from the early 18th C. railings. Safford shire. Capital goods industry was substantial in 1700. Partnerships had interests in ore mining. during the period 1780 to 1840 and again from 1840 to 1901. War. The maintained strict personal probity. In 1800. Quakers were well established in grain merchanting. Innovation as opposed to invention is the relation of individual genius to the profitability in commerce in that age. Making refined metal was larger than the final product. coinciding with the industrial revolution. naval dockyards creating huge demand. and economies of scale emerged with use of coke. Ownership. smelting. the growing population. Very substantial and expensive improvements in inland transport-by river. There was large number of plants relying on division of labour of skilled artisans contributing to productivity. particularly coal were the gangplank for the take off. Canals. milling. coal deposits influenced location of iron and other non-ferrous industries. Coal and steam power were then used in a larger scale. brewing. Most innovation were results of amateurs or brilliant artisans. The expansion of demand comes from the domestic market. increase in PCY and substitution of industrially produced goods for older forms of manufacture or imports. refining. food and capital goods. Coal grew almost entirely with the number of urban fireplaces and iron reflected the demand for domestic utensils and stoves. Substantial proportion of enterprise lay in the hands of the protestant non-conformists. foreign market and the government. assisted development because the economy was already dynamic. The domestic market was characterised by growing population. production became centralised. personal thrift and absentation in order to plough back more capital back into the business and facilitate rapid expansion. England in 18th C was a large market economy. Yorkshire and south Wales dominated the location of iron manufacturers. but had many limitations which were overcome by Watt‟s engine in 1781. but technology was traditional handicraft. pillars and above all guns(military castings) were all the products of industrial revolution. and rolling each situated in different part of the country. more and cheaper labour. One of the astonishing things is the extent of gap between invention and the diffusion of innovation to become the representative technique. transfer of people from nonmonetary to monetary incomes. These capacities were laid down until the mid 19th C. Much experimentation went into the effort to make iron-bar successfully from mineral fuel. manhole covers. Textile expansion also created direct and indirect demand. creation of proletariat reserve force and eventually the putting out system. In 18th C England. nationally integrated with a large and growing manufacturing sector. Transport. The population of England doubled. Steam engine parts. though birth and death rates dropped rapidly after 1870‟s.this enabled them to get credit. canal ironmongery. capital and labour force. the navy. capital. succession to partnership. extension of enterprise all tended to run within the same social and religious enclave and often sealed by kinship link.

This led to decentralized and disintegrated business structure in cotton and other 19th C industries. It expressed a new form of society. industrial capitalism based on Factory production ( the city of Manchester). machine-making shops. The flying shuttle by Kay speeded up the weaving in the 1733 and power looms on a large scale after 1825. Arkwright‟s water frame of 1768 and Crompton‟s mule of 1780‟s. The warfare in the 18th C against France. Britain depended on colonial trade for commerce (shipping) and industry (raw materials and market for manufactured goods). located near the ports of Glasgow and Liverpool it exported about two thirds of its output was 1805. established the virtual monopoly of Britain among European powers of overseas colonies and world naval. Her was aims were commercial and naval.in machine building and steam power in particular. skills of accurate metalworking and skills of mechanical engineering. The spinning wheel was revolutionised by the spinning jenny by Hargreaves in 1766. The technical problem was maintaining balance of efficiency between weaving and spinning. The industrialists absorbed innovations with great speed and applied a rigorous rationalism to their methods of production as characterised by the scientific age. The trade in slaves from Africa to America helped commerce and established later colonial pattern. linked with each other by complex web of individual business transaction is the market. The rise of the over seas market for consumer goods expanded. Apart from colonial exploitation commerce helped maintain the balance of payments. The cotton masters lengthened the working day by illuminating their factories by gas in 1805. highly specialised even within branches. Cotton a relatively new industry grew without the guild control. Manchester and Liverpool as important marketing centres for raw material and sales emerged as locations for factories. Cotton manufacture was tied to overseas trade. the ring spinning was left to the foreigners. mineral-fuel technology. spinners. machine servicing facility and factorytrained workers furthered expansion. Raw material was imported from the tropics and sub-tropics. capital. especially colonial commerce and was the pace maker for industrial change. There emerged a complex of firms of medium size. This meant flexibility and . large-scale business. Austria. weavers. Steam power was harnessed in 1785. dyes. The novelty lay not in the inventions but in the readiness of business men and skilled artisans both not wealthy or well educated to enterprise and seize the unsophisticated consumer at home and abroad. The cotton factories of the Industrial revolution were essentially the spinning mills. The spark came from the export industries. printers etc. which grew seventy six percent between 1750 and 1770. The factory system was pioneered on water power and not the steam engine. Convenience of specialised services like bleaching firms. It minimized the need for basic requirements of skills. especially in the underdeveloped world. The cotton manufacturer was the product of expanding international. government organising or planning.merchants. Spain.The supremacy Britain achieved in technology in 1800 was based upon combination of cheap iron and coal. Government was prepared to subordinate all foreign policies to economic ends. finishers bleachers. Arkwright‟s invention required capital in a magnitude greater than before and caused a problem of location that is existence of massive waterpower.

unskilled migrants etc. and lending on call. there emerged a strong trade union in an industry characterised by extremely weak or unstable labour organization. They specialised out from every dominant business activity in every region in the country cloth merchants. iron and steel. The deflation the set in after the wars increased pressure on the profit margin already constrained by falling . making short term loan to stock brokers. The problem in 18th C was the availability of conduits for the capital movements. turnpike trusts managers. The early phase of industrial revolution was limited to the textile industry and the capital invested was small and expanded on the backbone of retained earning. which were invested in their business or lent out to farmers. building. Bank of England emerged as the government‟s banker. The statutes of 1856 and 1862 gave permission for incorporation and limited liability.trade unionist and utopian socialist. merchant houses and solicitors. women and children. steam engine and transport. The country banks first function was to create credit by issuing notes and second by mobilizing savings. chemical.rapid initial expansion but. housing and furniture worked in the traditional way. tax receivers. shipbuilding. This poverty constrained the expansion of domestic markets. Pottery developed primitive factory system or large scale establishments based on elaborate internal division of labour. brewers. mortgaged loans from private property kinship contacts were important sources after the plough back of retained earnings. Iron acquired an important export market but domestic demand was much below what we today would consider as necessary for an industrial economy. To meet expanded demand there emerged domestic system. This phase of industrialisation failed to stimulate the heavy capital goods industries of coal. millers. Yet until 1913 home industry was financed only to a small extent by the stock exchange. footwear. Industrialisation limited to textiles was neither stable nor secure and resulted in acute crisis in the 1830‟s and early 1840‟s. Hence. which turned independent artisans to impoverished and specialised labour in urban sellers and garret workshops. because it consisted minority of skilled male mule spinners. The evidence was social unrest: the luddite and radical . rigidities and inefficiencies. long term credit was a problem. Consequently. minting notes. Railways brought along new flood of middle class investors in the 1830‟s and 1840‟s. Brokers stood between merchants and industrialists (and their bankers) seeking discount and farmers and land owners (and their bankers) offering credit. all of which were short term activities. Metal using industries employed elementary mechanisation and power to the small workshops. Railways virtually created the steel industry. The London bankers were involved in discounting bills of exchange for merchants and industrialists. The actual production remained primitive but the bulk of output forced mining to pioneer technical change. brewing. A large number of industries producing clothing (except hosiery). handling treasury bills and at the same time in its capacity as a private banker lent to larger trading companies and businessmen. democratic and chartist. corn merchants. In 1773 the stock market was established but government securities alone were dominantly issued and traded. mercantile credit from merchant suppliers. and then the steel. in the later stages of development necessitating planning and integration. Iron stimulated coal. soap industries participated in the stock market.

. wages of farm workers and unskilled workers improved. Steel production was revolutionized by the Bessemer converter in the 1850. USA into major industrial economies soon comparable to Britain. Hence. The period 1873-1896 was one of gloom about the prospects of the British economy. There was a trend of vertical integration via mergers. especially in the USA. By 1850 railway network was in existence representing an advanced phase of industrialisation outside the areas of the actual industry. Skilled labourers were requires in the vast expansion of engineering. fears of effectiveness of labour organisation in some places combined to make the Great Depression. government and real estate shares.trade union were given modern legal status were developments that stabilised the society and prevented future social unrests to the extent witnessed in the 1840‟s. The share of world trade and production held by Britain fell. Cartels were illegal in England. The world railways construction continued at least until 1880‟s. Falling prices. The transport revolution of railways and steam-ship gave additional impetus to this opening and expansion of markets at home and abroad. iron and steel. open-hearth furnace in the 1860‟s and the basic process in the 1870‟s. And electoral system dependent on the working class votes was recognised. a free weekend. Iron output increased with remarkable increase in the capacity productivity of blast furnaces.prices due to expanded production and competition. Britain struck to free trade and was disinclines to take the path of systematic economic concentration. Sharp reductions in costs in industry and in primary products resulted in the fall in prices and twenty years of deflation. ships etc. severe competition. The factory legislation of 1867 was extended beyond textiles. It showed a new means to mobilize capital accumulations for industry and a vast source of employment. These industries provided jobs for those hitherto unemployed unskilled labourers and drew in the surplus labourers from agriculture. Germany France. shorter and flexible labour contracts. opening up undeveloped areas Germany. Employers tried to keep up prices even by hoarding. This period also saw a fall in the demand for textile exports and a fall in the real income per capital in Britain. Britain ceased to be the „workshop of the world‟. building of machine. the master and servants code was abolishes . falling markets for some. The coal increase was achieved without any labour saving device and vast increase in the number of coal miners. factory inspection. despite which it emerged in the 1890‟s in the textile and as conferences in the shipping industry. A new phase of industrialisation emerged in the 1840‟s with renewed export demand for the capital goods industry based on coal. The ten hour bill of 1847. the English week. 1830 to 1875 has been hailed as he hey day of competition. payments by result. which saw further development in the inter-war years. This period also saw a huge export of British capital especially to USA and other country‟s industrial. legal supervision of working conditions. a great depression in the words of Hobswam. Outright amalgamation of separate companies into combines began after 1880‟s. USA turned to tariffs.

on which the working class depended. The fact the other nations. This suggests lag in the in innovation. some precision engineering in instruments. patents and shoe making. In much light industry and food processing. heavy engineering and armaments UK had an unsurpassed reputation. motor cars. Innovation in Britain lagged in areas which required deliberate and systematic application of scientific knowledge in production. formal imperialism of the partition of Africa I the 1880‟s. of Taylorism. Matthews and Prof. typewriter. This lag could have been a rational response to the prevailing context of factor prices. distilling and brewingBritish enterprise. agriculture machinery. . electrical equipments. innovation.textiles. coal or engineering. it is wrong to assume that the retardation of growth in the late 19th C was irreversible. Despite there being no shortage in capital and low rates of interests. in shipbuilding. tariffs in foreign markets and the missing mechanisation were reasons for stagnation in many industries. in cutting the cost of manufacture were conspicuous by their absence. technology and markets like India and the Far East. some large. artificial fibres. Feinstein indicate that growth of GDP fell from 2. the reluctance of banks to lend long term and inefficient Stock exchange made is difficult for new small firms to get credit. sewing machine. Rostow is that after 1875 capital that previously funded overseas railways project shifted into home thereby increasing production and consumption and leading to fall in prices. in scale of production and expansion had an enviable record.2% p. production and expansion grew but output per worker declined and it was not mechanised. Techniques of production engineering. Problems remained with areas of industrial growth. foreign investment and the international consortia taking over the financial management of weak countries. in coal mining. putting laissez-faire limits to public responsibility proved most damaging.a to 1. For instance. Another reason suggested by Prof. communication.The work of Prof. They also recorded a stagnant growth in total factor productivity. In textiles.a during the periods before and after 1873. chemicals. aircraft.pharmaceuticals. In the steel industry older plants and tariff in foreign markets retarded growth. telegraphy. printing. The ring-spinning was not adopted and in wake of competition the cotton textile confined itself to traditional –style products and. oil. After 1920 new industries and services – vehicles. chemical industry and mining lead had passed on to Germany in 1900. Repair and replace was a rule rather than root.8% p. Hence. technology and technical changes.showed comparable efficiency and innovation. the relatively cheap skilled labour. if existing markets technology could still offer lowest –cost of output relative to market opportunity. Compared with other industrializing countries Britain had low rates of domestic capital formation. the check on exports meant closing up of new investment since three-quarters of output was for exports.and –branch re-equipping and they go to explain the failure to adopt new technology. Here parsimony in public spending. However. restricted domestic market. set about to industrialise and UK saw a structural change towards tertiary sector could attribute to some growth lag. telephone. Total disposable national income did not fall as sharply because of the continuing rise in income from abroad. This initiated an era of imperialism. optics. In metal technology. USA pioneered in brewing.