Chapter 5 Mechanical Purification

By Peder Maribo, 14.06.2003. rev 01.09.2009. 5.1 Introduction Components in wastewater can be separated from the water by physical means on the basis of the physical character of the components. Dense particles can be removed by sedimentation and light particles by flotation. Filters can retain small particles and membranes can even retain molecules from the flow of water. Such physical means of separating water and pollutants constitutes a significant element in modern wastewater treatment. The most typical applications include: • • • • • Screening of the raw wastewater Removal of sand, gravel and grease by sedimentation and flotation. Removal of suspended solids (MLSS) by sedimentation (or flotation) prior to biological treatment Removal of biological sludge (MLSS) after biological treatment by sedimentation, flotation or even membrane separation. Filtration of the biologically purified wastewater for removal of non settable MLSS.

In the following section the purpose of these mechanical purification processes will be explained and the main design and dimensioning criteria will be outlined.

5.2 Screens and sieves The raw wastewater may contain large elements such as wood, plastics, metal, cotton sticks, stones and other relatively large objects. Such objects can damage mechanical equipment at the WWTP such as pumps or can cause clogging of pipes. Therefore it is a standard procedure to include a mechanical screening of the wastewater at the inlet of the WWTP. The efficiency of the screening operation depends on the distance between the screen bars: • Fine screening for bar spacing below 10 mm • Medium screening for bar distances between 10 and 40 mm • Coarse screening for bar spacing above 40 mm Screenings accumulating on the screen can be removed by means of a rake or alternatively by movement of some of the bars as done by the “step-screen” types devices (figure 5.1). Screenings are in this way lifted up along the screen bars and dumped directly into a container or on a conveyor belt or screw taking the screenings to a container. Drainage and compacting of the screenings can be included in the transporting device. Most screens used in WWTP are automatically operated, but manually cleaned screens are often installed in overflow structures or as emergency backup.

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that consequently decrease the free passage through the screen and in this way diminishes the effective spacing of the screen. In storm situations the available head loss is typically low and the screen rake is operated more frequently. • In front of the screen the channel should be designed so that deposits of grit and gravel is minimised. By operating the screen based on online measurement of the upstream water level. preferably not more than five times the width of the channel and the channel should be designed with berms (sloping sides) of at least 45 o. the length of it should be kept low. Leftt: Meva Stepscreen (Courtesy of Hydropress).doc Page 29 .Bar spacing down to 3 mm are often preferred in order to eliminate elements such plastic cotton sticks and other smaller elements. Each manufacturer has different requirements to the design of the screen channel. In periods with low flow a significant head loss over the screen can be accepted and the screening is very efficient. The following are some general design considerations and guidelines. The screenings form a mat on the screen. Pm/01-09-2009/H:\My Documents\BTWWTP\Kompendium og Litt\Chap 5 mechanical treatment (p28-41). Screen and screen channel design and dimensioning Various manufactures produce screens with different capacities. In order to avoid deposits in the channel. Below: principle of operation of the two sets of bars for lifting of the screenings. the efficiency of the screen can be increased as it allows for a build up of screenings on the screen. Figure 5.1 Mechanical screens Right: Automatic screen in channel with cover. Closed screenings compactor and transportation system. mode of operation etc.

03 L/PE/hour. The reason for this is the relative low surface to volume ratio of these organic particles making them difficult for the microbiology to hydrolyse and decompose.e. 0. The screen room should be equipped with a detection device for hexane and H2S with alarm. The quantity of screening removed from the wastewater varies much depending on the catchment area and the bar spacing of the screen. sand and grit are abrasive and cause wear to pumps and other mechanical equipment in the plant. diffusers without rubber membranes should always be chosen. 2. Furthermore. In situations with waste water with an unusually high contend of grease. emulsified or otherwise dissolved in the water. Typical quantities in Denmark from a 5 mm screen are in the order of 10 – 20 L/PE/year. The principle in the removal of grit is to allow dense particles to settle while the less dense organic particles are kept in suspension. stones and sand that could otherwise form permanent deposits at the bottom of the following process tanks.3 Grit and grease removal The purpose of the grit and grease removal chamber is to 1. silicone rubber membranes or diffusers without membranes should be chosen for the aeration tank. 5. The screen channel should be designed for a water velocity of maximum 0. The screen channel after the screen should have critical depth at the outlet (typically to the grit and grease removal chamber).5 m/s and minimum 0. This is in particular important in hot climate and if the sewer system is long and pressurised. grease that is not dispersed.25 m/s both in front of and after the screen. This can be secured by having the bottom level of the channel in the level of minimum water level of the subsequent reactor (typically the grit and grease removal chamber). For grit and grease removal tanks. Variations over the week and day are considerable and a screen and compactor should be dimensioned for in the order of 10 to 15 times this quantity i.doc Page 30 .• • • • • Pressurised sewers should be introduced perpendicular to the direction of the screen channel in order to reduce the momentum of the water in front of the screen. One speciality regarding emulsified or liquid grease is that it has a tendency to harden rubber air-diffuser membranes made of EPDM rubber and consequently increase air blower head loss and thus decreasing aeration intensity. Eggshells. Screen and screen channel should be equipped with a cover and a suction ventilation system to avoid most of the malodorous and toxic compounds entering the screen room. remove particulate grease i. Screenings constitute some of the most malodorous and pathogenic by-products of wastewater treatment and should be handled with hygienic care and taken to incineration or a controlled dump. as the particulate grease is difficult to decompose by the biology of a WWTP. remove grit. coffee grounds and fruit Pm/01-09-2009/H:\My Documents\BTWWTP\Kompendium og Litt\Chap 5 mechanical treatment (p28-41).e.

Grit removal is typically done in rectangular chambers often with an agitation causing a spiral flow around a horizontal axis I the flow direction.3 Right: Sedimentation velocity of sand particles with a density of 2. The sedimentation speed of sand with a density of 2. The sedimentation speed of a spherical particle is proportional to the diameter and the density of the particle and furthermore depends on the viscosity of the water. (settling velocity in cm/s as function of particle diameter in mm).2 Left: Grit and grease removal chambers.65 kg/l.2 Figure 5. mm Figure 5. The grit will contain high concentrations of micro organisms and is pathogenic. Tchobanoglous et al (2003). see figure 5.seed tend to settle out with the grit. The major challenge in the design is to keep as much of the organic matter in suspension while as much of the inorganic sand and grit is removed.3. Left: Required settling area for sand precipitation. L. Tchobanoglous et al (2003). Denmark.65 kg/l is given in figure 5. Right: Vortex-type grit removal chamber. et al (1998). Odder WWTP. Vortex type design are an alternative to this made for circular reactors in which centrifugal forces are used in the separation process.doc Page 31 . Creation of a mild controllable turbulence in the sedimentation chamber – typically by coarse Pm/01-09-2009/H:\My Documents\BTWWTP\Kompendium og Litt\Chap 5 mechanical treatment (p28-41). From Wintrher.

doc Page 32 .1 and 5. Water turbulence as caused by aeration increases aggregation of grease particles and facilitates the subsequent flotation of the grease. on the other hand. The design criteria are most often removal of that fraction of the grit that would otherwise settle on the WWTP for all flow regimes. Grease removal by flotation is often done in combination with the removal of grit. typically flows unhindered to the plant in dry weather situations and a reduced efficiency in grease removal in the rare storm situations is not significant to the long term purification efficiency of the plant.4 Section Plane and section of aerated grit and grease removal chamber. typically in the order of 8 – 12 minutes. Air is introduced at the far left side of the structure approximately equally distanced from the water surface and Pm/01-09-2009/H:\My Documents\BTWWTP\Kompendium og Litt\Chap 5 mechanical treatment (p28-41). For removal of grease the retention time should be higher. Grit and grease removal structures . along with the main dimensioning requirements. Grease removal aims mainly at removing the particulate grease and a significant decrease in the efficiency of the grease removal are normally accepted during peak flow situations. The grease removal criterion is however often only enforced in dry weather situations. Measures in cm. a minimum retention time of 4 – 6 minutes (at peak flow) is normally considered sufficient.bubble aeration – is the most common means to establish stable sedimentation conditions relatively independent of flow variation. Pit volume not included in effective volume Figure 5. In the below figure 5. The reason for this is that grit and sand deposited in the sewage network is re-suspended and transported to the WWTP during peak flow situations.4 and tables 5.2 one design of an aerated grit and grease removal chamber for municipal wastewater is given. and significant quantities of grit may thus be led to the WWTP with the first flushes of a storm event.design and dimensioning The dimensioning of combined aerated grit and grease removal chambers are most often done based on hydraulic retention time. Grease. A small concrete beam with a lattice wall of pressure creosoted planks separate the grit removal section (left) from the grease removal section (right). For the removal of grit.

2 26.6 SAf [m2] 2.20 7.70 2. fig.80 8.3 15.10 L [m] 3.6 7. Vf and Vs: volume of the grease and grit removal compartment respectively.8.60 5.8 10.8 15. Nd : Number of coarse bubble diffusers – each with the capacity of 8 Nm3/hour.70 2.the sloping bottom.h [m3/h] < 107 < 219 < 323 < 453 < 606 < 760 < 840 Qdw.h [m3/h] < 59 < 121 < 183 < 240 < 308 < 380 < 420 SAs [m2] 5. Nd 3 4 5 6 6 7 8 Tabel 5.45 4.70 3.6 14. Air-lift pumps for removal of grit are installed at the bottom in the two pits of the structure.85 6.3 7. Pm/01-09-2009/H:\My Documents\BTWWTP\Kompendium og Litt\Chap 5 mechanical treatment (p28-41).95 1.15 D [m] 1.4 33.3. 20.2 61.8.40 4. SAf and SAs are the surface area of the grease and grit removal compartment respectively.85 Tabel 5. Q. causing a slow rotation of the water transversely to the direction of the wastewater flow.h are the peak flow and dry weather max flow (e. Removal of accumulated grease can be done manually by a surface scraper but most often this element is automated and done e.dw.h.15 1. Such grit can be utilised for e.55 1.30 2.3 10. Washing of the grit can remove much of the organic matter.2 Vf [m3] 3.70 1.5 30. TYPE (vol) 13 27 41 59 81 107 124 b [m] 1.3 9.10 2. incineration or a controlled waste dump. 85%-tyile) respectively.3 82.f fig 5.75 1.g. In Denmark the usage of grit washers is becoming increasingly widespread for this reason. and grit washing devices may lead to as low as a few percentage of organic matter (dry matter loss by ignition) in the grit.35 1.6 19.25 5.doc Page 33 .4.20 B [m] 2.9 5.f.2 24.90 2. 5.5). Qmax.2 Hydraulic capacity of aerated grit and grease removal chamber c.10 3.1 20.00 7.g.65 5. 4 TYPE 13 27 41 59 81 107 124 Qmax.2 16.g. Vs [m3] 9.30 2. road foundation and high landfill costs can be avoided.40 6.6 12.1 Main dimensions of aerated grit and grease removal chamber – c.1 30.80 d [m] 0.50 3.55 3.50 2.6 44.90 4.05 4.65 0. by a scraper mounted on a travelling bridge or a small chart and taken to a grease well from where water is drained off and grease taken by a truck to either a biogas plant. Grit pumped from the grit removal chamber can be taken to a container with drain facility or to a regular grit classifier finally separating grit and water and transporting the grit to a container (figure 5.

Grit quantities are typically in the region of 5 – 12 L/PE/year.doc Page 34 . The quantities of grit and grease removed from the wastewater in this way vary much with the composition of the raw wastewater – hence the nature of the sewer system and the associated industry.Figure 5. Grease in the order of 2 – 3 L/PE/year as average for urban wastewater. • The grease well for storage of accumulated grease should be situated as close to the structure as possible and the pipe for grease should be with a steep slope and accessible for inspection and cleaning. Guidelines for the design of the grit and grease removal structure are: • The variations in water level caused by variations in flow must be acceptable to the grease skimming device. Pm/01-09-2009/H:\My Documents\BTWWTP\Kompendium og Litt\Chap 5 mechanical treatment (p28-41). • Bottom slopes must be at least 45 o to avoid accumulation of solid grit deposits.5 Cross section of a grit classifier. Tchobanoglous et al (2003). unless a bottom scraper for grit removal is included.

NEVER to allow massive outflow of sludge. several kg of sludge per m3. 20 mg/L– i. Emergency overflow channels with manually cleaned coarse screens are established to secure against flooding in case of power failure or mechanical failure at the screen. This situation of “massive sludge overflow” has been experienced in a number of situations in which the clarifier is not capable to secure sufficient time for settling and concentration of sludge in the clarifier. Primary sedimentation: removal of suspended solids. Pm/01-09-2009/H:\My Documents\BTWWTP\Kompendium og Litt\Chap 5 mechanical treatment (p28-41). Left: Moletai WWTP Lithuania. from the raw wastewater 8after screening and grit removal).e. or if the return sludge pumps strike.doc Page 35 .g.Emergency screen inlet Inlet inlet (Pumped) Inlet Outlet outlet Figure 5. 2. The purpose of the secondary clarifier can be sectioned into two basic requirements: 1. and consequently organic matter BOD.4 Settling tanks Settling tanks or clarifiers are primarily used for two purposes: 1. The situation is devastating to the receiving body of water as sludge concentrations in the outlet may become as high as the concentration in the process tank – i. Courtesy of Degrémont.6 Plan and section of two designs of screen and grit & grease removal chamber. 2. Right: Truust WWTP. Secondary sedimentation after biological treatment for the removal of high concentrations of biological sludge (MLSS) from the biologically purified wastewater. retain the solids to below the outlet requirement in the far majority of time (according to statistics of outlet quality control). 5. Secure a solid separation according to the outlet requirement e.e. Dennark.

Initial (free) settling velocity (red dotted line): 30 mL/min equal to 0. Sludge settling properties – SVI and DSVI Activated sludge will separate from the water phase when left to stand in a non-stirred container. SVI = 115 ml/g. Solbjerg WWTP sludge settling 1200 1000 800 SV [mL] 600 Series1 400 200 0 0 10 20 30 Time [minutes] 40 50 60 Figure 5. time) for activated sludge. After 30 minutes of settling the volume of the sludge phase SV30 is recorded [mL].7 Settling curve (sludge phase volume vs. SV30 = 460 mL. The solid-liquid interface also . Pm/01-09-2009/H:\My Documents\BTWWTP\Kompendium og Litt\Chap 5 mechanical treatment (p28-41). SVI is measured by taking a sample of sludge from the process tank and pouring it into a 1000 mL Imhoff cone (or a graduated cylinder). After 30 minutes the volume of the sludge SV30 is recorded to 420 mL.5 = 93 mL/g.7). and the easier it is to separate from purified water in the clarifier tank.doc Page 36 . This Sludge Volume Index (SVI) is used to describe the settling characteristics of activated sludge. often revealing a very distinct transition between a clear water phase and the sludge (SS) phase. Example 1 L of activated sludge from an aeration tank at the concentration XA = 4.5 g SS/L is poured into an Imhoff cone and left to settle. The settling ability – or settling speed – of the solids that are to be separated from the water is a key characteristic parameter that determines the capacity and performance of a clarifier. XA = 4. The lower the SVI the better (faster) the sludge settle and concentrate.67 cm/min. the SVI is calculated as SVI = SV30 / (XA · 1 L).The principle and design of settling tanks are described in Tchobanoglous et al (2003): p 396-411 + 686-688 + 820-822 (supplementary reading: 823-832) + 833 – 840. The concentration of drymatter in the sludge from the aeration tank XA is measured [g SS/L].0 g/L. The SVI is calculated as SVI = 420/4. These pages are found later in this chapter.called the sludge blanket – will move downwards with time as the sludge settles and concentrates (figure 5. The unit of SVI is [mL/g] and express the volume of one gram of sludge take up after 30 minutes of settling.

A. Pm/01-09-2009/H:\My Documents\BTWWTP\Kompendium og Litt\Chap 5 mechanical treatment (p28-41). temperature pH or other conditions may disturb the sludge flocks and alter their settling velocity. by G.7 Circular clarifier tank. A Comment: A basic clarifier design Various advanced methods can be applied in the sizing of secondary settling tanks.doc Page 37 .g. SVI for the same type of sludge will vary with the initial sludge concentration XA when the sludge concentration becomes high (above 5 – 6 g SS/L). Microthrix Parvicella) in the sludge is known to cause poor settling qualities of the sludge (high SVI). Figure 5. For a DSVI measurement the desired sludge concentration XA before settling is 3 – 4 g SS/L. The DVSI is measured by diluting the sludge sample with wastewater (supernatant from process tank) before it is left to settle. modelling. However. The International Water Association IWA (formerly:IAWQ) Scientific and Technical report no.7) for usage in connection with extended aeration with selector tank and SVI typically around 100 – 120 mL/g (occasionally up to up to 150 mL/g) and complying with outlet criteria of 20 mg SS/L as yearly average of a number of 24-hours flow-proportional samples. Much research has been conducted on the subject of secondary settling tanks.SVI may vary quite a lot at the same WWTP depending on the actual conditions at the WWTP. 6 “Secondary settling tanks: theory. Growth of large quantities of filamentous bacteria (e. Rapid changes in salinity. Ekama et al (1997) is one of the best and most comprehensive compilations on design of secondary settling tanks. design and operation” . A Dilute SVI (DSVI) is more consistent with the actual sludge settling characteristics. the knowledge on the settling properties of the biological sludge is often very limited in the design situation and thus a less advanced approach based on overflow rate and solids loading is used in the following – as also described in Tchobanoglous et al (2003) page 687. The following is a set of design criteria that has proved adequate for design of circular secondary clarifiers (as shown in figure 5. Design for low load activated sludge WWTP for municipal wastewater with anaerobic selector.

8 <10.5 Ø25 – Ø35 3. The height of the settling zone should be at least 50 % of the side water depth heff.h should be used instead of QDW. *) Max: Qh.1 (Ekama et al 1997). The overflow rate (OR) or “Surface loading rate” is defined as OR = Qi/A. • Return sludge pumps must have a capacity to establish a return sludge flow QR of (at least) 85 % of Qh.0 1.e.3 <0. 1991) use a formula for sludge concentration given in below formula 5.25 <0.8 some sludge concentrations curves are shown.h. German ATV standards (standard A131. see p 50.S + QR) must be at least 1.max. i. In the below 5.0 <5.7 <1.5 2.doc Page 38 .S : maximum flow [m3/h] to the WWTP **) DW: Qh. • The weir loading rate is no more than 10 m2/h.0 <5. In order to calculate the required tank volume for sludge concentration will need to establish a sludge concentration curve representative for the plant in question.7 3.4 hours.9 <11. OR does not depend on the return sludge flow.Diameter [m] Overflow rate (OR) Solids loading rate (SLR) (= surface loading rate) [kg SS/(m2·h)] [m/h] < Ø25 Max*) DW**) Max*) DW**) 2.9 >3. If Qmax.0 <0. The weir loading rate is defined as the inlet flow [m3/h] divided by the weir length [m].5 <5.0 <6.max.7 <9. X R = η eff ⋅ ( 1000 3 ) ⋅ th DSVI (5. The consequence is that the tank volume used for concentration of the sludge (hindered settling and concentration) is limited to maximum half of the total tank volume. see p57) Side water depth heff [m] Further requirements to the above design are: • The hydraulic retention time HRT (calculated as the volume of the settling tank divided by the inflow to the clarifier: Qh. for large combined sewer systems with basins for accumulation of storm water) Qmax.3 Design criteria for circular settling tanks for activated sludge WWTP.2 <0. Often a 85 %-tile of the total flow statistics for the sewage area has been used. If Qmax. (Qi + QR) /A.5 <1.0 <6.9 <11.1 <0.h can last for more than 10 – 15 hours and is expected to occur often (i. The Solids loading rate (SLR) is defined as: SLR = XA.1 <0.max.h lasts longer than 3 -4 hours (dependant on an evaluation of how often this situation will occur) one should choose a lower load of the clarifiers (possibly by dimensioning the process tanks for a lover solids content XL).1) In which: XR : return sludge concentration [g/L] Pm/01-09-2009/H:\My Documents\BTWWTP\Kompendium og Litt\Chap 5 mechanical treatment (p28-41). maximum flow to the plant in situations without rainwater.S.e.max.5 Tabel 5..5 1.9 >3.DW Dry weather flow [m3/h].5 <1.8 <10.2 <5.0 <1.85 <10.

7) DSVI: dilute sludge volume index [mL/g] th: thickening time for sludge in the clarifier concentration zone. • The weirs must be equipped with a scum guard for retaining supernatant (floating) sludge. [kg SS/m3] 10 8 A 6 4 2 0 0 50 100 Time [minutes] 150 200 B C Figure 5.8 Sludge concentration curves. Prevailing wind directions must be taken into account when situating the outlet for supernatant sludge. C: inlet sludge concentration XA = 5 kg/m3 and SVI 130 ml/g.DW Qd. • Secondary settling tanks must be equipped with a supernatant sludge well and means for scraping off supernatant sludge and diverting it to the supernatant sludge well.900 m3/d Pm/01-09-2009/H:\My Documents\BTWWTP\Kompendium og Litt\Chap 5 mechanical treatment (p28-41).S (Maximum flow to unit during storm situations) (Maximum flow during dry weather) Qh.doc Page 39 . Example 5.av (Average daily dry weather flow) 450 m3/h 250 m3/h 2. Further design considerations: • The clarifier must be constructed with an efficient bottom scraper mechanism and sludge pumps for removal of sludge.max.6 (0.1: Dimensioning of a circular secondary clarifier for activated sludge WWTP with nitrification and denitrification Design basis: Qh. B: inlet sludge concentration XA = 4 kg/m3 and SVI 150 ml/g. A: inlet sludge concentration XA = 4 kg/m3 and SVI 140 ml/g.5 – 0. 12 Sludge conc. • In a cold climate heating cables should be casted into the tank rim to facilitate traction of the self propelled scraper bridge (for bridges with peripheral drive only). • The inlet must be designed with a controlled level of turbulence to facilitate flocculation of the sludge.max.ηeff : coefficient for the disturbance of the sludge by the sludge scraper system (typically 0.

It is normal to regulate the return sludge pumping according to the inlet flow. Choosing instead a side water depth of 3. Pm/01-09-2009/H:\My Documents\BTWWTP\Kompendium og Litt\Chap 5 mechanical treatment (p28-41). and the sludge concentration is highest Monday morning.7 m)/(450+383 m3/h) = 1.7 = 365 m2 Note that when calculating the area during storm the maximum return sludge flow is used in calculating the solids loading rate.4 hour is NOT satisfied. checking the additional requirements The hydraulic retention time HRT = V/(QR. Choosing a tank depth As the first choice a total tank depth of 3 m is chosen. A Ø22. denitrification etc.s) = (409 m2 · 2.3 m satisfies the requirement.5 kg SS/m3 /10 kg SS/(m3·h) = 375 m2 A > (QR+Qh.5 kg SS/m3 140 ml/g < 8 mg N/m3 Outlet requirements: Xout (Concentration of suspended solids in purified water) 20 mg/l (control method: 24 hour sample. 1.3 m for freeboard) is often sufficient for smaller clarifiers.1 m/h = 409 m2 A > Qh.dw / 250 m3/h / 0.1 = 1. During dry weather the return sludge flow is assumed regulated down to max. a side water depth of 2.max.dw) · X / 3.max. Requirement to overflow rate gives: A > Qh. The clarifier thus needs to be at least 409 m2 to satisfy all requirements. 3.7 m is OK.QR (Capacity of return sludge pumps: > 85% of Qi ) XA (Concentration of sludge (total) in process tank) SVImax Maximum design SVI for the sludge CNO3 (Nitrate concentration in purified wastewater) 383 m3/h 4. Alternatively a larger tank area A could have been chosen.doc Page 40 .7 m side water depth when leaving 0.85·450 m3/h · 4.5 = 1.max.0 m and a total tank depth of 3. 80 %-tile of 10 samples) Note: The concentration of sludge in the process tanks (aeration.max.s / 1.85·250 · 4.) may vary over the week if excess sludge removal and dewatering is discontinuous.s)·XA / 5.8 m clarifier is sufficient.max + Qh. However if the tank is large (>Ø25m) a deeper tank must be chosen.5 /5. The requirement Th > 1.8 m/h = 313 m2 Requirement to solids loading rate gives: A > (QR+Qh. Calculating required surface area according to table 5. 3 m of total tank depth (giving 2. Since the clarifier diameter is less than 25 m.3.33 hours. 85 % of the inlet flow. either by frequency regulation or by on/off operation of the pumps based on online inlet flow monitoring. 2.max.1 = 450 m3/h / 1. Typically dewatering may not be conducted during weekend.

6 m gives a maximum weir loading of 450 m3/h / 71.18 times that found in the aeration tank – i.17 h · 383 m3/h / 409 m2 = 0.With a single overflow rim in at the whole tank perimeter of 71. the above sludge would be concentrated to 7.140 l/g · 4.5 h/409 m2 = 0.838 m3/d or 77 m3/h. In dry weather situations the average return sludge flow from the above clarifier would be limited to 2. that has proved adequate for Danish conditions and WWTP with relative good settling quality (SVI < 100 .1/4. Allowing for a sludge concentration time of 30 minutes.1 g/l.17 h) concentration time. The concentration of solid phase here is thus 4. As the return sludge flow is set as max 85 % of the max inflow to the WWTP it can be seen that the return sludge concentration must be at least 1/0.5) = 1.5 = 5. Design and Operation.16 m thick to allow for sufficient concentration of the sludge. In fact the required 5.3 kg SS/m3 . IAWQ Scientific and Technical Report no. Looking at the definition of SVI (or at the sludge settling properties in figure 5.5 g/l = 0. 5. Comments: The above clarifier design and the outlined design principle is one (relative simple) way to make a suitable design.”. References Ekama. flotation and filtration are methods for mechanical purification not dealt with here.3 g/l).A. Whinther L. The remaining 2.6 m = 6. The above design does not directly make usage of the information on the sludge settling properties.5 g/0.6. As mentioned above up to a maximum of 50 % the clarifier volume can be used for sludge concentration purpose without disturbing the solids separation process taking part ion the remaining part of the clarifier volume.3 m3/m/h.84 m of the side water depth can be used for unhindered settling of the sludge solids.5 Other mechanical purification processes Membranes. G.1 g/l – and well above the required 5.63 l = 7. et al (1998) ”Spildevandsteknik” Polyteknisk forlag.900 m3/d / (7.8) it can be seen that a similar sludge with 4.e.et al (1997) ”Secondary Settling Tanks: Theory. The thickness of the sludge blanket layer (for concentration of the sludge) needs thus only to be 0. and well below the maximum of 10 m3/m·h.63 l. However some information can be retrieved.5 kg/m3 and SVI = 140 ml/g needs less than 30 minutes to reach this concentration (after 30 minutes of settling time the sludge volume is 0.18 · 4.3 g/l would be achieved in the order of approximately 10 minutes (or 0. Other more general and sophisticated design principles can be found in the literature. 1. Pm/01-09-2009/H:\My Documents\BTWWTP\Kompendium og Litt\Chap 5 mechanical treatment (p28-41). Modeling.1 m = 10 cm.140 ml/g). 30 minutes of concentration could be obtained in with an average height of the sludge concentration layer of only 77 m3/h · 0.doc Page 41 .85 = 1.