- Computational Fluid Dynamics
- Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Design Using Cfd Tools
- Chapter 11
- ANSYS Grantec Article May 2010
- Recent Advances in Educational Methods
- cfd_intro
- Fluent.02.Introtocfdanalysis
- +FEM-modeling-of-nonlinear-problems
- Fluidyn_PANEPR
- labyrinth
- Keyhole Example
- ANSYS reference
- 3. Mech - Ijme -Numerical Investigations of the Air Flow - Egypt
- CFD modelling and measurement.pdf
- Strand7 Theoretical Manual Contents.pdf
- TB70 2013 Krysl April 19
- 086376 01 Introduction
- acam_2005_pp113_118
- Viva Question
- Plates
- Numerical Model Fsw
- FEA Tutorials
- FVM - CFD.ppt
- m.tech Thermal Syllabus
- WCECS2011_pp673-678
- finite elements
- Phd Topics
- 01667
- 82883_01
- IJETR032825
- Clarifiers and Thickeners
- PED 97-23-EC.pdf
- abaqus python script.pdf
- Buckling of Double Bellows Expansion Joints.pdf
- Sample
- Piping Ga and Support Marking Plan
- Truss Deflection
- m1l6 - Copy
- Bellows Types Application
- ME101 Lecture05 KD
- Agitator.pdf
- C_5.pdf
- Detailed Design of Trusses
- Created Xf
- Deflection of Truss by Unit Load Method
- WATER FILTER
- ansys
- 19 Buckling Print
- second-clarifiers.pdf
- clarifiers-and-thjickeners.pdf
- anandh
- Clarifiers and Thickeners
- Second Clarifiers
- Expansionjoints_asme2010-Gimbal and Hinged
- Acf Report
- ansys fatigue
- 3366dcvd
- SPUSSELS
- Flange Sizes

Qin Yin Fan Ｓｏｆｔｗａｒｅ Ｃｒｄｌｅ Ｔｅｃｈｎｉｃａｌ Ｃｅｎｔｅｒ， Ｃｈｉｎａ Oct. 11, 2008

CCFD

**Important Key Words
**

Fluid Structure Interface = FSI Computational Fluid Dynamics = CFD Pressure Displacement Analysis = PDA Thermal Stress Analysis = TSA

CCFD

2

A Part of the Reference

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3

Why It Is Important ?

Automobile (export, engine) Construction (bridge, road etc.) Electronic parts (base, MEMS) ……anywhere you can meet the needs of the coupled analysis of thermal flow and thermal stress.

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4

**What Kind of Analysis Should be ?
**

We can divide them into 2 types

Pressure on the solid surface

Fluid and pressure displacement of the solid

**Convection coefficient on the solid surface
**

Fluid and thermal stress of the solid

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5

**Pressure on The Solid Surface
**

Steady Static

Small displacement ( Linear ) Big displacement

Linear ,Nonlinear

Transient

Small displacement ( Linear ) Big displacement

Linear ,Nonlinear

Fatigue of displacement

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6

**Pressure on The Solid Surface
**

Steady Static FSI

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7

**Pressure on The Solid Surface
**

Steady Static FSI

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8

**Pressure on The Solid Surface
**

Transient FSI

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9

**Pressure on The Solid Surface
**

Transient FSI

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**Pressure on The Solid Surface
**

Transient FSI

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11

**Convection on The Solid Surface
**

Temperature distribution in the solid part and the thermal stress must be considered

Steady Static Transient

Linear of Property Nonlinear of Property

Fatigue of Thermal Stress

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The Status

Always define a uniform film coefficient at the solid part surface

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The Problems

Effect of the flow can not be estimated correctly, especially for turbulent flow

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The Problems

This kind of analysis is not easy to do

You must understand CFD (computational fluid dynamics) You must be familiar with thermal stress analysis (TSA) too

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The Problems

When problem spans both TSA and CFD, the analysis procedure may be less established. This typically occurs because:

a stress analysis system and a CFD system tend to be developed independently from each other much less attention is paid to the interface between them, although both of CFD and TSA are classic subjects.

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**How to Solve the Problems（１）
**

Experiment: To measure the film coefficient can define a reasonable film coefficient, but it takes cost and time, and the measure points are limited

Too difficult or impossible

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**How to Solve the Problems(2)
**

Calculation(1): to obtain a converged solution. Inner and outer thermal flow around (not including ) the solid part are simulated to get the correct film coefficient for thermal and thermal stress analysis of solid part 3 steps : thermal flow analysis (flow part ) thermal analysis (solid part ) thermal stress analysis (solid part)

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A few iterations between stages might be necessary

**How to Solve the Problems(3)
**

Calculation(2): Inner and outer thermal flow around ( including ) the solid part are simulated to get the correct solid temperature for thermal stress analysis directly 2 steps : thermal flow analysis (solid +flow) thermal stress analysis (solid)

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**The Possible Choices of CFD+TSA
**

FVM CFD calculation > FEM structure analysis

FVM > FEM

**FEM CFD calculation > FEM structure analysis
**

FEM > FEM

FVM (finite volume method) FEM (finite element method) Much easier than experiments

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**Investigation And Comparison
**

FVM > FEM: SC/Tetra + ANSYS FEM > FEM: FLOTRAN + ANSYS Are used for our investigation and comparison In our investigation, we have used one CFD system, SC/Tetra developed by authors [1]. To solve for the thermal stress field, we have used a commercial structure system ANSYS developed by ANSYS.Inc. Both two applications are capable of solving for temperature fields.

21

CCFD

**Investigation And Comparison
**

FVM > FEM: SC/Tetra + ANSYS FEM > FEM: FLOTRAN + ANSYS Are used for our investigation and comparison These solvers are chosen because they are readily available to the authors. But authors insist that the concepts introduced here can be used for coupling between any CFD and any structure applications developed by oneself or of commercial software.

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SC/Tetra

supports hexahedral, prismatic, pyramidal and tetrahedral elements, i.e. a hybrid mesh, generating a tetrahedral mesh first and inserting prism layers along no-slip walls. all variables are defined on nodes of elements.

can be used easily to make a complex mesh model and has a good interface with FEM structure analysis software.

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SC/Tetra

**generating a tetrahedral mesh first and inserting prism layers along no-slip walls. CCFD
**

24

FLOTRAN + ANSYS

Various element types for convenient +speed, 72 for convenient + accuracy, 92 for accuracy, 95 45 must be paid attention There is not any limit for the mesh shape, But FLOTRAN can not be easily used for a complex model

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**ICEM and AI-Environment
**

supports hybrid mesh too generating a tetrahedral mesh first and inserting prism layers along no-slip walls just in the fluid side

ICEM or AI-Environment will help us too

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Element Type

**The marching of element shapes is not easy
**

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**Element Type (first order)
**

first order tetrahedral 4 node element, ET 72 in ANSYS

degenerate first order tetrahedral 8 node element ET 45 in ANSYS

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**Element Type (second order)
**

quadratic displacement tetrahedral 10 node element ET 92 in ANSYS

degenerate quadratic displacement tetrahedral 20 node element ET 95 in ANSYS

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Element Type

Different element types 72 45 92 95 are used in the thermal stress analysis for comparison of element type effect.

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Element Type

CFD analysis can contain hybrid elements in the solid part. In TSA second order degenerate hybrid (such as element type 95) must be considered too. This is a typical difficult of coupling between a CFD system and a structure system for Direct Conversion.

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Other Software

The possible output element shape

ANSYS DesignSpace NASTRAN I-DEAS ABAQUS

○ ○ ○ ○ ○

○ ○ ○

○ ○ ○ ○

○ ○ ○ ○ ○

＃The names of system and products are trade marks or registered marks belong to each company respectively.

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SC/Tetra

Hybrid elements only in the fluid part Only tetra in solid part the coupling process make Direct Conversion very simple and easy. CCFD

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Typical Model

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Calculation conditions

The inner diameter of the main pipe is 2.0m. The inner diameter of the branch pipe is 1.4m. The thickness of the pipe is 0.1m. The inlet velocity is 0.7 m/s. The inlet temperature is773 K. The velocity of inlet 2 is 0.4 m/s. The temperature of inlet 2 is 573 K. The pressure is 0 Pa at the outlet.

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Calculation conditions(2)

The working fluid is incompressible air density is 1.2050 kg/m3 viscosity is 1.8135e-05 kg/m·s thermal conductivity is 0.02574 W/m·K specific heat is 1004.0 J/Kg·K

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Calculation conditions(3)

The material of the pipe is iron. density is 7871.40 kg/m3. Young’s modulus is 210e9 N/m. Poisson’s ratio is 0.3. thermal conductivity is 81.168 W/m·K. specific heat is 439.2 J/Kg·K. coefficient of linear thermal expansion is 16.6e-6 K-1.

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4 approaches

CFD Delivered Data TSA 0) FLOTRAN(ET142) – ANSYS(ET95) T to the same nodes 1) SC/Tetra 2) SC/Tetra 3) SC/Tetra

− − −

ANSYS（ET95,72,92） ANSYS(ET95,72,92) ANSYS(ET95,72,92)

T to nodes H mapped to surface T mapped to nodes

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4 approaches(0)

FLOTRAN(ET142) – ANSYS(ET95) T to the same nodes

**Same nodes and same result temperature CCFD
**

39

4 approaches(0)

**No boundary layer mesh in flow domain in FLOTRAN model.
**

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4 approaches(1)

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4 approaches(1)

SC/Tetra – ANSYS(ET95,72,92) T to the same nodes

Same nodes and same result temperature on solid mesh nodes which are a part of the whole mesh CCFD

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4 approaches(2)

SC/Tetra – ANSYS(ET95,72,92) H is mapped to new surface nodes

**Different nodes and mapped result temperature CCFD
**

43

4 approaches(3)

SC/Tetra – ANSYS(ET95,72,92) T mapped to volume new nodes

**Meshes do not need consistency on the common boundary surface CCFD
**

44

4 approaches

Direct Conversion FLOTRAN Direct Conversion Surface Mapping SC/Tetra Volume Mapping

Table 2: Number of elements in computational mesh. Both solid and fluid elements are counted in CFD column.

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Results of case 0

**The CFD result of Case 0
**

Left: velocity field on center cut plane. Right: temperature distribution on the outer surface of the pipe.

CCFD

46

Results of case 1

**The CFD result of Case 1.
**

Left: velocity field on center cut plane. Right: temperature distribution on the outer surface of the pipe.

47

CCFD

Comparison of case 0 and 1

**Temperature distribution on the outer surface of the pipe.
**

Left: Case 1 Right: Case 0 (obtained using ANSYS).

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48

**Thermal Stress Comparison(1)
**

Case 0 ET 95 Case 1 ET 95

CCFD

49

**Conclusion of Transfer Method
**

The similar results of case 0 and 1 shows that a reasonable accuracy can be obtained using Direct Conversion Method of transferring temperature fields from SC/Tetra to ANSYS as well as FLOTRAN to ANSYS.

CCFD

50

**Thermal Stress Comparison(2)
**

Case 2 ET 95 Case 3 ET 95

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**Conclusion of Transfer Method
**

The results in Case 2 and Case 3 are nearly identical and shows that the Surface Mapping and the Volume Mapping can work equally well. The results in all 4 cases are nearly identical and shows that the Direct conversion, Surface mapping and the Volume mapping can work equally well.

52

CCFD

**Effect of Element Type (ET)
**

Tmax

Tmax

92

Tmax

CCFD

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72

**Effect of Element Type look out
**

45 is typical 3D “constant strain triangle” element [5] Low order Et 95 will be the same.

45

Tmax

CCFD

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**Effect of Element Type
**

Different element types 72 45 92 95 are used in the thermal stress analysis for comparison of element type effect.

CCFD

55

**Effect of Element Type (first order)
**

first order tetrahedral 4 node element, 72

degenerate first order tetrahedral 8 node element 45

CCFD

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**Effect of Element Type (second order)
**

quadratic displacement tetrahedral 10 node element 92

degenerate quadratic displacement tetrahedral 20 node element 95

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**Conclusion of Element Type
**

Element type 92 gives the closest result to type 95. Element type 45 cannot produce a good result in bending even if a finer mesh is used, because it is a typical 3D “constant strain triangle” of degenerate tetrahedron Second order elements (type 92 and 95) give better results compared to first order element (type 72).

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58

Conclusion of Element Type

**The Order of Priority 95＞92＞72 ＞45 Hex ＞45 Tetra or 95 Low order Tetra
**

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59

Example of Exhaust Port

**Using SC/Tetra to do an analysis including solid part
**

Direct Conversion

Using Solid part mesh and temperature result to do thermal stress analysis ET 95

60

Volume Mapping

Transfer Solid temperature to A finer mesh, and then to do thermal stress analysis ET 45,72,92,95

CCFD

**Example of Exhaust Port
**

Mesh Model （right：fluid domain）

**47566 (solid) + 192534 (fluid) elements
**

CCFD

61

192534 (fluid) elements

Example of Exhaust Port

Solid Part FEM Model

**Finer Mesh 198433(solid)
**

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62

Calculation Conditions

mass flow rate at each inlet is 0.0628 kg/s inlet fluid temperature is 1023 K outlet pressure is 138.7 kPa filter condition is applied in the cylinder part film coefficient on the outer wall of the exhaust manifold is set to 2.9 W/m2·K and ambient temperature is set to 573 K node movements are fully constrained at two contact surfaces of the flange (last page)

CCFD

63

Calculation Results

air is treated as an ideal gas: Left: Contour plot of Mach number in the filter cylinder center cross section. Right: flow pattern. CCFD

64

Calculation Results

temperature distribution : Left: air is treated as an incompressible fluid. Right: air is treated as an ideal gas. Temperature scale is in centigrade. CCFD

65

Calculation Results

**Displacement distribution of exhaust model: Left: Direct conversion Right: Volume mapping CCFD
**

66

Calculation Results

SC/ Tetra Memory (Mbytes) CPU Time (sec) 25 692 ANSYS Element Type 45 62 699 95 1516 3152 72 92

Table 3: Expected memory and CPU time requirements for a typical computational mesh containing 100,000 elements, CPU time for CFD is the time to advance 100 cycles. The CPU time is estimated using a PC with Pentium III 866 MHz CPU. Note that considerable deviation can result depending on the geometry, mesh quality, shapes of the elements used in the mesh and other factors. CCFD

67

Conclusions

Even Mach Number M<0.7, compressible should be considered Conductivity can be used as constant The Volume Mapping for solid part temperature has priority The priority for choosing element should be 95,92,72

CCFD

68

Conclusions

The combination of SC/Tetra and ANSYS or other TSA is efficient, flexible and accurate. The volume mapping method is the favored method to couple CFD and thermal stress analysis Element 95 low order tetra and 45 tetra should be prohibited

CCFD

69

Conclusions

For Direct Conversion Method, as one mesh is used in 2 stages of the whole analysis, there is no mapping and mapping error. But most thermal stress analyses use only one mesh shape, hybrid mesh is limited to use. In this case, a mesh generation with only tetrahedral in the solid part will make the coupling much easier.

When there is not mesh shape and memory limitation CCFD

70

Conclusions

For Surface Mapping Method: Because it is possible to use a mesh that spans only the fluid part in the CFD stage and to use another mesh that spans only the solid part in the thermal stress analysis stage, there is no limitation of element shape. And this method can be used for a bigger mesh than that in method 1 and 3 with the same resource. In the reverse, a few iterations between stages might be necessary to obtain a converged solution and an accurate mapping is necessary to avoid the mapping error. Especially, the calculations must be divided into 3 stages (thermal flow analysis in flow part, thermal analysis in solid part and thermal stress analysis in solid part), they will take a bit more effort to do.

To divide the solid and fluid part into 2 mesh model to spare memory

CCFD

71

Conclusions

The Volume Mapping Method is most flexible to couple CFD and thermal stress analysis, but is less suitable than Surface Mapping Method for large-scale models.

CCFD

72

Thanks For Your Attention!

CCFD

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