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# THE THEORY OF INDEPENDENT TIME

©Varun Kulkarni THE OWNER OF THIS RESEARCH DOCUMENT IS VARUN UDAY KULKARNI.

ABSTRACT:In this research paper it has been proved that time may exist independently outside the universe,it is present as a single dimension outside .Some properties of this time are also predicted .This is done using the present concepts of GR(general relativity) and BigBang theory.

INDEX CHALLENGE TO THE CONCEPT OF ACTUAL FUTURE. 1)Conditions to travel in past and future. 2)a:Expansion of universe in future . b:Time inside the universe stands as a barrier for the masses to attain c. 3)Statement of BigBang theory. MAIN HYPOTHESIS 5) Disproval of the challenge i) Logical disproval ii) Technical Disproval iii)Conclusion by Reiss, Perlmutter and Schmidt. iv) Definition of time. v) Some conclusions vi)Statement of Einstein. vii)Some important conclusions. viii)Evidence

CHALLENGE TO THE CONCEPT OF FUTURE:-

Conditions determined to travel in past and future: 1)i) We have direct access to the past through the shortcuts or wormholes in spacetime. ii) Same is not the case for future.We don’t have any shortcuts to travel directly in future directly .We just have to slow the time around us,allow the time around us to pass and only then we can enter into desired time.This is the first difference in the conditions to travel in future.

2)a)It is known to us that expansion of universe is more than c and also accelerating.So,if the future world exists, then the universe must have expanded much more than what it has now. b ( ( ) )
( )

i.e By
( )

,we come to know that mαv and that curvature in dt goes on increasing with increase in

M.So,we come to know that GR says that time inside stands as a barrier for the masses to attain c.[Above metric should not be used directly for sch-radii or sch-blackholes as the metric (not the actual geometry of spacetime) become mathematically undefined here because in sch-blackholes r=2M , which brings 0 at the denominator.This problem can be avoided by the use of other coordinate systems.] 3)BigBang theory says that when universe had not begun,it was t=0 i.e it said that beginning of universe is the beginning of time.So,from this we can come to know that there is no time outside the universe ,as if it would be there,it would also be there ,then it would also be there before the formation of universe. 4)a)By the observation of wavelength shifts of light of type I a supernovae due to universal expansion and by the formulation of ,we could calculate that expansion of universe is more than c and is also accelerating.As proved in 2)a), GR says that time inside the universe doesn’t allows the masses to attain c or more than that of it.By 4a) and 2a),we can assert that GR says Time inside the universe allows the universe itself to expand more than c or time inside the universe does not affects the walls of universe or we can say that time inside the universe dosent affects the walls of our universe as if it would affect,universe wouldn’t have expanded at such a rate.…b) {Note:-BigBang theory says that beginning of universe is the beginning of time.So,there has to be no time outside the universe as, if it would be there,it would also be there before the formation of universe.As proved above,GR says that time inside the universe doesn’t affects the walls of universe.’Time’ is defined as the rate at which a particular situation changes.So,as no time is affecting the walls of universe ,it must not expand i.e present theories give us a result of a static universe.But

experimentally,it was worked out by Schmidt,Reiss and Perlmutter that universe is expanding and expansion is also accelerating.These are the main points of this paper and are scattered throughout the paper.These are gathered here to avoid any confusion.} Therefore, presently,if we draw out a joint conclusion of GR and Bigbang, we get a result of a static universe.This is because- A) From 4a) GR says that time inside the universe dosent affects the walls of the universe. B)From 3) Bigbang says that beginning of universe is beginning of time.So,there is no time outside the universe according to it as ,if it would be there,it would be there outside the universe.

So,no time should be affecting the walls as time inside the universe dosent affects it and there is no time outside the universe. Now,time is defined as the rate at which a particular changes.Then,if universe is expanding,its size is changing means a situation is changing.But from A and B,no time is affecting the walls of the universe. From2a) we came to know that as universe is expanding,in future universe must have expanded more than what it has now.but expanding universe must have some time affecting its walls.So,for the future to exist,some time must be affecting the walls of the universe.We know that according to the present theories from A and B-no time is affecting the walls of the universe,FUTURE MUST NOT EXIST. 5] DISPROVAL OF THE CHALLENGE THAT FUTURE DOES NOT EXISTS(This is a reason to the problems stated above.) i) LOGICAL PROOF:Calculations leading to the conclusion that wormholes really exist have been extensively tested and accepted by everyone.This means our past is existing.If this is so,we are the future of our past.this means that our future must also be existing. ii)TECHNICAL PROOF:From 4)b) GR says that time inside the universe dosent affects the walls of the universe.Bigbang theory says that beginning of universe is the beginning of time and that there is nothing outside the universe.If we go according to these theories,we come to inference that no time is affecting the walls of universe. iii)According to the experiment conducted by Reiss,Perlmutter and Schmidt,by the observation of Type I a supernovae it was inferred that universe is expanding more than c and expansion is also accelerating. iv) Time is defined as the rate at which the things change or the rate at which a particular situation changes. v)And according to Reiss, Perlmutter and Schmidt,’SIZE OF UNIVERSE IS CHANGING’ which is redshifting the light inside it and moving apart the galaxies from eachother at an increasing rate.This means that ‘A PARTICULAR SITUATION IS CHANGING’.

(This means that some unknown time is affecting the walls of the universe.As GR is experimentally verified to a great extent,the changes must be made in BB(BigBang).)

From 2)a) if in present ,the size of the universe is so and so for us,then in our future ,it’s size must be more than what it is now.And as the universe is expanding,it must have some time affecting its walls.So,for the future to exist,some time must be affecting the walls of the universe because in every obeject’s future,the size of the universe is more than that what is now (i.e situation is changing).

But if we go as per the combination of present theories,no time must be affecting the walls of universe i.e the ‘UNIVERSE MUST BE STATIC’.But as we rely on experimental basis rather than hypothetical prediction,we have to take in consideration the fact that universe is expanding and that some time is affecting its walls. GR is experimentally verified and we know from 2)b) and 4)a) that GR says that time inside the universe dosent affects the walls of the universe.and from above,we know that some time is affecting the walls of the universe.So,if it is not the time inside the universe according to GR,then compulsorily it has to be the

TIME OUTSIDE THE UNIVERSE WHICH IS AFFECTING THE WALLS.
There will be first question arising against it that ‘why only time and why not the space is there outside our universe?’ Ans:If there would be space even outside the universe,then nothing would be expanding.Here,as space is itself expanding, it can be concluded that there is no space but only one dimension i.e time outside the universe. Thus,we come to our conclusion that there is only one dimension –Time outside the universe which is existing which is existing independently. 6)Einstein said that time and space always must exist together.But here we have to make 50% change and the true statement is that –If space is existing,it must have time in it but time can exist independently.

7) So,I come up with some important conclusions:

1) Beginning of universe is not the beginning of time.

2) Time is there outside the universe and it was there before the formation of our universe. 3) It is not necessary that time and space must exist together because time independently exists outside the universe. 4)Time inside the universe stands as a barrier for the masses to attain the speed of light but same is not the property of time outside the universe. This may be because of the fact that there is no space outside the universe as space is itself expanding and time inside the universe behaves in such way because it has combined with the space. 5]There should be no space outside the expanding universe as space is itself expanding.As,there is no space , there should not be any matter outside.So,we can imagine universe as space expanding in a ‘jelly’ of time.So,something must have happened in that time which is yet to be discovered which is responsible for the formation of universe. EVIDENCE:-

As shown in the above figure, a)In the first diagram of spectrum1,the mirror and light are moving in same direction and the mirror is moving at the speed of 1m/s. b) In the second diagram, the mirror is moving with c in the same direction of that of light. c) In the third figure , the CMB radiation is colliding with the wall of the universe in the young age. If we draw out the spectrum of the reflected rays of all three diagrams,the common point will be that all three will be redshifted (just the wavelengths will differ).But the spectrums of 1st and second diagram will be almost same but will differ from that of the CMB.

The above is the Intensity vs wavelength graph of a redshifted light.

We can observe the difference between the two graphs. All three are lights but their spectrums are differing. This must be because the above the redshifted lights (other than CMB) are colliding with ‘masses’ and CMB has collided with something different which compulsorily has to be the one dimensional time as I have stated above in the paper.