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**characterizing thin film/ multilayer structures
**

Reading course -2

Report submitted to the faculty of

Homi Bhabha National Institute

In partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of

Doctor of philosophy

Submitted By

AMOL SINGH

Guided by

Dr. M.H.MODI

Dr G.S. LODHA

Indus Synchrotron Utilization Division

RAJA RAMANNA CENTER FOR ADVANCE TECHNOLOGY

INDORE, M.P- 452013

August 2011

ii

CONTENTS

1- Introduction

2- Scattering geometry

3- Basic principle

4- Layered system

4.1- Single layer film on substrate

4.2- Bilayer film on substrate

4.3- Multilayer structure

5- Effect of interfacial width on reflectivity

6- Types of roughness

7- Effect of roughness on reflectivity of a surface

7.1-From a single surface

7.2- From a thin film (A single layer on a substrate)

8- Experimental techniques

9- Books referred

1

1-Introduction-

Precise characterization of thin film/multilayer structures in terms of their structural

properties is of utmost importance for their performance evaluation. These artificial structures

are deposited under non-equilibrium conditions; there exists considerable deviation of the

parameters from the designed values. The structural parameters of importance are layer

thicknesses, density, roughness, interdiffusion, crystal structure, and crystallite size. The

techniques used to extract information about these parameters are grazing incidence x-ray

reflectivity, wide angle x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron

microscopy etc. The present reading course covers the details of x-ray reflectivity technique and

its application for characterizing thin film/ multilayer structures.

Structural characterisation with x-rays is a non-destructive way of studying the surfaces

and interfaces at atomic scale. Moreover, the x-ray techniques can be made surface sensitive by

working at grazing angles of incidence since the penetration depth is restricted to the surface

layers. In the x-ray region, the refractive index of all materials being less than unity, total

external reflection occurs when the radiation with wave vector

is incident on a

medium from vacuum for grazing angles less than the critical angle

, where

is

classical electron radius and

**is the electron density. Below the critical angle, the wave vector
**

inside the medium is purely imaginary and hence the wave cannot propagate. Thus only an

evanescent wave which decays exponentially inside the medium exists within the penetration

depth shown in figure-1

Fig-1 Evanescent wave (exponentially decaying with increasing distance from the interface)

2

The typical value of penetration depth is ~50 Å. For incidence angles

**, the refracted ray
**

bends away from the normal as given by the Snell‟s law. A schematic of reflection and refraction

taking place at the boundary between vacuum and medium of refractive index n is shown in

figure-2.

2-Scattering geometry:-

In a coplanar geometry of x-ray scattering the incident wave, reflected wave and surface

normal vector lie in the same plane (figure-2) and wave vector defines the direction of

perfectly monochromatic wave. Distribution of scattered intensity in a reciprocal space gives the

information about structural parameters of a sample.

In the following section the mapping of Cartesian component of wave vector transfer in a

sample is discussed along with the formalism of a multilayer reflectivity for smooth and rough

interfaces. Geometry of x-ray scattering from a medium of refractive index is shown in figure-

2. In specular reflection condition, both incident and reflected waves, defined by wave vector

and

respectively, make equal angles u with the boundary. Since both

and

propagate

in the same medium (vacuum), their magnitudes are equal i.e.

.

Fig-2 (a) Reflection and transmission of plane electromagnetic wave, represented by wave vector from

the surface of a medium optically characterized by refractive index . (b) Vector scattering diagram

3

However the change in momentum transfer vector perpendicular to the surface is

1

2

The parallel component of momentum transfer vector lying in xy plane is zero. The

perpendicular component (along z-direction) given by above equation is changed either by

varying incident angle at the fixed wavelength or by varying wavelength at the constant angle u.

A general case of scattering is depicted in figure-3.

It is shown that if the incident and reflected angles

and

**are not equal, then the momentum
**

transfer takes place in x direction also. Such scans where the two angles are kept unequal are

subject of diffuse scattering experiments. These experiments yield the information about the

lateral surface structure.

Fig-3 If incident and reflected wave vector

and

make the angle

and

**from the scattering surface,
**

respectively then momentum transfer along the x and z directions is given by

and

**Sample surface lies in the xy
**

plane while xz is a scattering plane.

4

The general form of wave vector transfer can be written as

3

4

These x and z components can be varied experimentally in four different ways by coupled and

independent motion of the sample and detector as listed below:

(a) Specular scan-

If both sample and detector are rotated such that the incident and reflected angles

are equal i.e.

then it results in

while

**. This scan is known as
**

„ scan‟.

(b) Offset scan-

If both sample and detector are rotated such that a constant offset angle between

them is maintained i.e.

**This scan is called „offset scan‟.
**

(c) Sample rock scan-

If detector is kept fixed at a constant angle

**and only sample is
**

rocked around a central value , then this scan is called „sample rock scan‟.

(d) Detector scan-

When sample is kept fixed at a constant incidence angle and only detector is

scanned i.e.

fixed and

**varied. (detector scan).
**

These scans are useful to probe the sample structure along the x and z direction both.

In scan, wave vector transfer restricts in the z-direction. Thus, this scan yields the structural

information of a sample in the perpendicular direction, where it is assumed that the sample is

laterally homogeneous and scattering process will not change the degree of coherence of the x-

rays. Nevertheless, the laterally inhomogeneous or rough structure destroys the degree of

coherence of the waves. Because of the non-homogeneity arising from, surface roughness, the

surface normal is not uniquely defined, and it increases the diffuse scattered background. The

5

scan modes described above are used to record the diffuse scattering components, which yield

the information of roughness correlation.

3-Basic Principle-

Reflection and refraction of electromagnetic radiation at the interfaces between two

materials depend on the optical index contrast of the materials. Since the frequency of x-ray

radiation is greater than the resonance frequency of the medium (in medium, electron undergoes

harmonic oscillations in presence of the electric field of radiation), the refractive index is found

close to unity for all the materials and is given as where o and | are real and

imaginary parts of refractive index, If

**is exit angle of refracted radiation for vacuum/medium
**

interface, the law of refraction gives

. For

**, the wave cannot propagate in
**

the medium. The corresponding incidence angle is called the critical angle, which is defined

as

, where

**is electron density of the medium. Below the critical angle, the
**

wave vector inside the medium

**is purely imaginary. Thus, wave
**

cannot propagate inside the medium for all incident angle

**. Except for small losses due
**

to absorption; all other incoming radiation will be reflected. Penetration depth in the critical

angle region is restricted to few tens of angstrom and defined as:

5

6

Therefore the x-ray reflectivity technique becomes highly surface sensitive at extreme

grazing angles. A typical penetration depth curve for two different wavelengths, (hard

x-rays) and (soft x-ray), in molybdenum material is shown in figure-4.

6

Below critical angle the penetration depth is few tens of angstrom whereas for

it

increases drastically. As soft x-rays are highly absorbing in all materials

the

penetration depth is only few hundreds of angstrom even in

**region, while the same goes
**

in micrometer range for harder x-rays where absorption term is very small

.

Reflection from a single smooth boundary can be calculated using the well-known Fresnel

formulas written below. For a single vacuum/medium interface, the Fresnel reflection and

transmission coefficients for s polarized light can be written as:

7

8

where

and

**are glancing angles of incidence and refraction respectively. For p
**

polarized radiation (electric field vector in the scattering plane), reflection and transmission

coefficients gets modified; but for grazing incidence, either state of polarization yields identical

results for . The above coefficients are complex since the refractive indices are complex. In

Fig-4 X-ray penetration depth inside molybdenum film at two different wavelengths (hard x-rays)

and (soft x-ray)as a function of normalized angle of incidence

[Ref-2]

7

an experiment, the measured parameter is the Fresnel reflectivity R

F

that is given as the modulus

square of the amplitude reflection coefficient „r‟.

The equation for Fresnel reflectivity can be simplified in the small angle approximation

for

as

9

An example of s-polarized reflectivity from a single smooth surface as a function of

normalized incidence angle

**is given in figure-5. Below the critical angle the reflectivity is
**

almost 100%, if | is negligible. At the critical angle

**, the reflectivity drops drastically
**

and the reflectivity fall is inversely proportional to the fourth power of momentum transfer

vector for all

**. The total external reflection region below the critical angle is very
**

sensitive to the ratio |/o. As absorption increases or ratio increases the shape of the curve

changes.

Fig-5-X-ray reflectivity from a single surface as a function of normalized angle of incidence

Below

critical angle, the total external reflection yields the 100% reflectivity if |=0. As ratio increases the

reflectivity profile gets modified.[Ref-2]

8

The Fresnel reflectivity is plotted as open circles in figure-6 against

**in the small angle
**

approximation for a silicon surface. The solid line corresponds to the Porod law

Porod law is applicable to small angle x-ray scattering which has a similar functional

dependence. The deviation of the Porod law at small q-values is due to the approximations

involved viz. neglect of refraction and multiple scattering effects. This regime is also known as

the Born approximation (BA) or the kinematical approximation. In the Born approximation, the

scatterer is assumed to be illuminated by a plane wave and the scattering is calculated as if the

scatterer is absent. Each element of the sample scatters the incident wave and the resulting

scattered field by all the elements at a distant point are summed up to calculate the total

scattering. This neglects the multiple scattering effects and is thus valid for weak scattering,

where reflectivity is approximately less than 10%. It can be observed that the reflectivity drops

by five orders of magnitude over a range of 10 times the critical wave vector transfer. Hence a

very intense x-ray source is required for reflectivity measurements to collect the data over a

sufficient q-range so as to enable the determination of the electron density variation with good

accuracy. The Fresnel transmitted reflectivity is shown in the inset. For

**, the incident and
**

Fig-6- Fresnel reflectivity of silicon surface at with

and

is shown as open circles. The solid line is the

**decay corresponding to the Porod law applicable
**

to small angle x-ray scattering. The inset shows the Fresnel transmitted intensity for the same set of parameters.

[Ref-3]

9

specular wave fields are in counter-phase at the surface which leads to zero intensity in the

transmitted (evanescent) wave field. For

**, the phases of the two waves match at the
**

surface which gives rise to a two-fold enhancement in the transmitted (evanescent) wave field in

the medium. This leads to a four-fold enhancement in the transmitted intensity in the absence of

absorption.

4- Layered System:-

Fresnel‟s reflectivity formalism for a single smooth surface can be extended to explain

the x-ray reflectivity from a layered media of different materials. Adding the wave field reflected

from different boundaries in a recursive manner and applying the proper boundary conditions

yield the reflected intensity from a multilayer structure.

4.1-Single layer film on a substrate:-

In case of a thin film of a material deposited on the substrate, there are two

interfaces viz. vacuum/film and film/substrate that are separated by the film thickness„d‟. The

interference between the radiation scattered from the two interfaces results in the net reflectivity

of the structure. Let the Fresnel reflected amplitude of the top and bottom interfaces

be

and

respectively and

**be the normal component of the wave vector transfer in
**

vacuum, film and substrate respectively. The reflected amplitude of the thin film structure is

given as,

10

with

11

Where is the phase difference between the scattered amplitude from the two interfaces

which give rise to the oscillatory behaviour in the reflectivity pattern measured as a function of

angle or the wave vector transfer. The oscillation frequency determines the thickness of the film;

if Δq is the difference in wave vector transfer (in the film taking refraction into account) between

10

any two successive maxima/minima, then gives the thickness „d‟ of the film. The

amplitude of the oscillations is proportional to the contrast in electron density between the film

and the substrate.

If only the single scattering events from the two interfaces are considered, the resultant

reflectivity can be described by the numerator of eq

n

-(10) alone and the denominator term can be

neglected. The multiple scattering effects give rise to higher order terms and the denominator

term in eq

n

-(10) becomes significant. Another important aspect is the relation between the film

thickness and the oscillation frequency. As the thickness of the film increases, the angular

separation between two successive peaks decreases. This can be understood by the fact that the

reflectivity is the Fourier transform of the electron density variation in the real space. This is

illustrated in figure-7 which shows the simulated curve of a 200 Å and 800 Å thick Pt film on a

silicon substrate.

Fig-7- X-ray reflectivity spectra of Pt film of thickness200 Å and 800 Å on Si substrate . Figure shows the

dependence of the oscillation frequency on the film thickness.

0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0

10

-5

10

-4

10

-3

10

-2

10

-1

10

0

R

e

f

l

e

c

t

i

v

i

t

y

Incidence Angle degree

B

11

4.2-Bilayer film on a substrate:-

The formula for single layer film on the substrate can be extended to that of a two

layer film, A and B, on the substrate. The reflectivity would be due to the interference of

radiation scattered from three interfaces viz. vacuum/A, A/B and B/substrate. Due to the

presence of two layers, the oscillation frequency of the thicker layer is modulated by that of the

thinner layer. Using the analogy given in the above section for single layer films, the difference

in wave vector transfer (in the medium) between the successive maxima of the high (low)

frequency modulation gives the thickness of the thicker (thinner) layer. Figure-8 shows x-ray

reflectivity spectra corresponding to different thicknesses of Mo/C bilayer structures. Curve

corresponding to Mo and C layer thickness of 50Å is marked as „a‟ where two frequency

modulation viz. 50Å and 100Å are shown. Similarly curve marked as „b‟ is corresponding to C-

Mo bilayer of 100 and 800Å thicknesses respectively. This clearly shows the high frequency

oscillations due to the thick Mo layer modulated by the thinner C layer.

Fig-8- X-ray reflectivity spectra of Mo/C bilayer film at ì=1.54Å, (a) and (b)

on Si substrate showing the frequency of the total film thickness modulated by the individual layer

thicknesses. The curves are vertically displaced for clarity

0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0

10

-6

10

-5

10

-4

10

-3

10

-2

10

-1

10

0

10

1

R

e

f

l

e

c

t

i

v

i

t

y

Incidence Angle (in degree)

(a)

(b)

12

4.3-Multilayer structure:-

A multilayer structure consists of alternate layers of two materials „A‟ and „B‟

repeated over N periods. Reflection and transmission of the incident wave field inside a layered

media is illustrated in figure-9. Interfaces formed at the boundaries between two materials are

assumed to be sharp. The material and its structure both are homogeneous along the surface that

is parallel to xy plane. The change in material occurs only in the z-direction. N layers of two

materials between vacuum and substrate having the thicknesses

are optically

recognized by the refractive indices

**. Incident wave field hits the multilayer
**

sample at an angle and undergoes the reflections and transmissions at different boundaries

inside the sample. Final reflection amplitude from a multilayer structure is calculated with the

boundary condition that the tangential component of electric and magnetic field vectors.

Fig-9- Representation of incident reflected and transmitted waves inside a periodic multilayer system.

Corresponding vector diagram for incident and reflected wave is also shown.

13

The multilayer structure is characterised by its period (distance between two layers of the same

composition) and its ratio I between the thickness of the high electron density layer to the

period. A multilayer with a value equal to an integer j, suppresses the j

th

-order

harmonic and its multiples. The periodicity„d‟ in the real space gives rise to Bragg diffraction

peaks in the reflectivity pattern at wave vector values of . In addition to the Bragg peaks,

N-2 subsidiary peaks are observed between the Bragg peaks due to the finite total thickness of

the film. As N is increased, the intensity of the Bragg peaks increases and that of the subsidiary

oscillations decreases.

The reflected intensity distribution from a periodic multilayer stack can be represented by

the following equation

12

where

**is the envelope function which depends on the composition profile within the
**

period. The relative thicknesses of the constituent layers in the period modulate the reflected

intensity distributed into different orders of Bragg peaks. The simulated reflectivity pattern of

Mo/Si multilayer having a period of 50 Å for 10 layer pairs (i.e.20 layers) is plotted in figure-10

for three different values of .

Fig-10- Simulated reflectivity spectra of Mo/Si multilayer with a period of 50 Å at using

different Ivalues(a) I =0.40,(b) I =0.50, and(c) I =0.33.

10

-5

10

-3

10

-1

10

-5

10

-3

10

-1

0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0

10

-5

10

-3

10

-1

(a)

R

e

f

l

e

c

t

i

v

i

t

y

gamma 0.4

(a)

(b)

R

e

f

l

e

c

t

i

v

i

t

y

gamma 0.5

(c)

R

e

f

l

e

c

t

i

v

i

t

y

Incidence Angle (in degree)

gamma 0.33

14

- For I=0.40, since 1/I is not an integer, there is no preferential attenuation in the intensity

of the Bragg peaks and the higher orders decrease monotonically in intensity.

- For I=0.50, the intensity at the even orders are suppressed.

- For I=0.33, the third order and its multiples are suppressed.

5- Effect of interfacial width on reflectivity:-

The amplitude reflectance can be written within the Born approximation as:

13

Equation-13 implies that the amplitude reflectance is the Fourier transformation of the

gradient of electron density variation as a function of depth. When the electron density variation

ρ(z) in a medium is known, the calculation of reflectance of the medium is defined as the “direct

problem of reflection”. On the contrary, in practice, of the medium has to be evaluated from

the reflectivity data measured as a function of the wave vector transfer

which is thereby

defined as the “inverse problem of reflection”. The above equation is analogous to the definition

of structure factor in conventional x-ray diffraction. The reflectivity is given as:

14

where

**is the Fresnel reflectivity. For an abrupt interface, is defined as a step
**

function.

**is thereby given by a delta function whose Fourier transform is unity which
**

results in

**. Thus an abrupt interface gives rise to a reflectivity that is given by the
**

Fresnel formulae.

In practice, the electron density variation across the interface between two media will not

be abrupt and will have a gradual transition over a finite width. Figure-11 shows a typical

variation of having the functional form of an error function and the corresponding gradient

of is also shown which has a Gaussian distribution of width σ.

15

Equation-(12) will thus become:

15

which causes damping of the reflected intensity by the factor

**, termed as the „static‟
**

Debye-Waller factor. This term is analogous to the Debye-Waller factor used to model the

thermal disorder in conventional x-ray diffraction, the basic difference being that the interfacial

width is a “frozen” disorder. The interfacial width and the profile are the vital parameters to be

determined from the measured reflectivity data.

6-Types of roughness:-

For a single layer film, the interfacial width scales with the film thickness. The same may

not be valid for a multilayer structure due to the different growth behaviour of the two materials

forming the multilayer structure. Roughness in multilayer structures can be divided into four

limiting cases that are schematically shown in figure-12.

Fig-11- Schematics of density variation at the interfaces (a) For ideal case where density varies as step

function at interface, (b) For the real system where density varies gradually at the interfaces. (c) Variation

of

.

16

(a) Uncorrelated type: In this case, no replication occurs towards the free surface. The

roughness profiles of different interfaces are independent.

(b) Cumulative type: The roughness increases towards the free surface, indicating

roughening during growth.

(c) Partially correlated type: The roughness of a layer is partially transmitted towards free

surfaces.

(d) Correlated type: All the interfaces have identical roughness

The damping factor is multiplied with the reflectivity of a smooth surface (Fresnel reflectivity) is

valid when the widths of all the interfaces are identical and corresponds to all the interfaces

being „conformal‟. For a general case, the attenuation factor is multiplied with the Fresnel

reflectance and is given as:

16

The assumption made in the derivation of equation-16 is that the momentum transfer q is

constant within the transition into the material, but the change in refractive index changes the

propagation angle and the value of q within the transition layer from a value q in medium-1 to a

value

**in medium-2, where the refraction can be ignored (Born Approximation). So
**

replacing

by

(geometric average), where q and

**are q values in the two media forming
**

the boundary, gives a very good approximation to a regourous theory (Novot Croce Model) and

yields for the reflectivity reduction in the amplitude and in intensity.

Fig-12- Schematic model of four different types of interface roughness in multilayer structures: (a)

uncorrelated, (b) cumulative, (c) partially correlated, and (d) correlated.

17

Thus equation-16 becomes:

17

7-Effect of roughness on reflectivity of a surface:-

7.1- From a single surface:

Figure-13 shows the effect of interfacial roughness on the reflectivity of a single

surface. As an example, the simulated reflectivity (for a wavelength of 1.54 Å) of a silicon wafer

is shown using the Gaussian interface model, for;

(a)-zero roughness and

(b)-7 Å roughness;

It can be observed that the detrimental effect of roughness on the reflectivity is higher at larger

angles (larger q-values).

Fig-13 Simulated Fresnel reflectivity from a surface with

and

**for different values of root mean square roughness σ. (a) and (b)
**

0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0

10

-7

10

-6

10

-5

10

-4

10

-3

10

-2

10

-1

10

0

R

e

f

l

e

c

t

i

v

i

t

y

Incidence Angle degree

o = 0.0 A

o = 7.0 A

18

7.2 From a thin film (A single layer on a substrate):

As explained above, the amplitude of the interference oscillations from a single

layer film depends on the electron density contrast between the film and the substrate. The

presence of finite roughness

at the vacuum/film interface and

**at the film/substrate interface
**

causes further reduction in the overall reflectivity and amplitude of the oscillations. The two

roughnesses affect the reflectivity pattern differently thereby allowing their independent

determination. The roughness of the top surface

**affects the overall rate of fall in the
**

reflectivity with angle whereas the roughness of the bottom interface

**reduces the amplitude of
**

the oscillations with increase in angle. The amplitudes

and

**which were defined earlier for
**

a smooth interface are modified for a rough interface. Thus by fitting the measured reflectivity

data of a thin film to equation-10, the following parameters can be precisely determined.

(a)- Film thickness

(b)-Electron density of the film

(c)-Width of the bottom and top interfaces.

The above aspects are explained with the help of simulated curves in figure-14 where the

following four cases are presented.

Fig-14 Calculated x-ray reflectivity at wavelength for a 200 Å Mo film on Si substrate,

for different combinations of substrate roughness

and film roughness

.[Ref-3]

19

(i)-

and

**: This situation corresponds to an ideal smooth film.
**

(ii)-

and

**: The top interfacial roughness reduces the overall fall in reflectivity
**

with increase in angle.

(iii)-

and

**: The bottom interfacial roughness reduces the amplitude of the
**

oscillations with increase in angle without affecting the envelope. This can be understood by

examining equations (10) and (17) where the roughness term containing

multiplies the

oscillatory terms in the numerator as well as in the denominator whereas the term

containing

**multiplies only the less significant term in the denominator.
**

(iv)-

and

**: The reduction in reflectivity is more severe than the above cases. It
**

can be observed that the amplitude of the oscillations is still preserved even at higher angles and

is because the two waves are reduced approximately by the same amount and hence their

coherence is preserved.

8-Experimental Techniques:-

The experimental requirements for x-ray reflectivity technique are similar to those found

in a standard goniometer, in which a monochromatic x-ray beam is used and the scattering

vector is scanned by scanning the scattering angle. Other experimental considerations are source,

detector, data collection, resolution, etc. which are similar to those for grazing incidence x-ray

scattering measurements. A schematic of the typical angle scanning configuration is shown in

Figure-15.

Fig-15 Schematic diagram of a angle scanning spectrometer

20

The incident and reflected angle are equal so that the scattering vector is aligned normal to the

sample surface (i.e., in the specular reflection orientation). The critical wavevector for total

external reflection is very small, typically on the order of

**. This means that the incident
**

angle on the sample must be about

**. Therefore, the incident beam must be collimated to an
**

angular divergence significantly less than this value, with either slits or a monochromator crystal.

The strict limitation on angular divergence typically precludes the use of focusing optics to

increase the beam intensity. In addition, at this grazing angle, a small error in the position of the

sample will make the beam miss the sample. This problem of the beam “footprint” aligning the

beam to be completely contained on the sample is one of the most significant challenges of x-ray

reflectivity. Further, the strong dependence of the Fresnel reflectivity on the scattering vector

**means that a large dynamic range, typically five to six orders of magnitude, is required
**

to measure a reasonable range of scattering vectors. The scattering geometry is usually chosen to

have the scattering plane vertical to take advantage of the small opening angle of the synchrotron

radiation perpendicular to the plane of the ring. Resolution is determined usually by the rocking

curve width of the monochromator or analyzer crystals.

Furhter energy dispersive x-ray raflectivity has been devloped as an alternative to the

conventional angle-scanning approach described above. In this type of reflectometer,a broad-

band source of radiation is employed in a fixed angle-scattering geometry, using an

energydispersive detector to measure the reflectivity as a function of x-ray energy. A typical in

situ experimental arrangement is shown in Figure-16.

Fig-16 Schematic diagram of an energy dispersive reflectometer.

21

In this type of reflectometer x-ray energies up to 40 keV are typically used to obtain a useful

range of scattering vectors. The characteristic lines of the source provide a convenient energy

calibration for the detector, The detector is an energy-dispersive intrinsic Ge detector. The entire

energy spectrum is collected simultaneously and transferred to computer for analysis. The

resolution of the detector is typically about 1%, which limits the resolution of the

reflectivity spectrum. The optics required are extremely simple. Only slits are used to define the

incident and exit angles.

22

9- Books referred:-

1- Jens Als- Nielsen Des McMorrow, Elements of modern x-ray physics, (John Wiley &

Sons, 2001)

2- Mohammad Hussein Modi, Surfaces and interfaces studies in multilayers. (PhD Thesis

2005).

3- N Suresh, PhD Thesis 1998.

4- E. Spiller, Soft X-ray Optics (SPIE, Bellingham, USA, 1994).

5- Ullrich Pietsch, Vaclav Holy and Tilo Baumbach, High- Resolution X-Ray scattering

From Thin Films to Lateral Nanostructures, (Springer,2004)

6- M. Tolan, X-Ray scattering from soft-matter thin films, Springer Tracts in Modern

Physics, (Springer1999)

7- D. Attwood, Soft x-rays and extreme ultraviolet radiation: Principles and applications

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