Environmental Engineering II

Calculations and observations:
1. Amount of titrant used

2. Amount of dissolved oxygen:

Sample descriptio n Lab prepared Lab prepared Lab prepared

Samp le vol(m l) 100 100 100 100 100 100

Volume of titrant (Na2s2o3)us ed (ml) 4 3.5 3.5 4.4 4.2 4.2

3

2

Dissolv ed Oxygen (DO) (mg/lit) 2.69 2.36 2.36 2.96 2.83 2.83

Mean Dissolved Oxygen (DO) (mg/lit) 7.41

NoSample

8.62

1

Gives white precipitation. So, no dissolved oxygen

MUHAMMAD ALI

2008-CIVIL-66

and sewage. The type of organisms present (plant. Questions: 1- What are the factors upon which solubility of oxygen depends? The factors upon which solubility of oxygen depends • Temperature The colder the water. because of higher atmospheric pressure • The type and number of organisms in the water body During photosynthesis. the more oxygen can be dissolved in the water. Organic waste is decomposed by bacteria. which shows that there is no dissolved oxygen in sample 1. salts) Oxygen is more easily dissolved into water with low levels of dissolved or suspended solids. animal droppings.g. dead plants or animals. these bacteria remove dissolved MUHAMMAD ALI 2008-CIVIL-66 . • Organic Wastes Organic wastes are the remains of any living or once-living organism.Environmental Engineering II Comments: When we add alkali azide in sample 1 containing 1 ml of Mnso4. DO concentrations at one location are usually higher in the winter than in the summer. plants release oxygen into the water. During respiration. plants remove oxygen from the water.. • Elevation Oxygen is more easily dissolved into water at low altitudes than at high altitudes. And sample 2 has the maximum dissolved oxygen. fungi) affect the DO concentration in a water body • Dissolved or suspended solids (e. Bacteria and fungi use oxygen as they decompose dead organic matter in the stream. grass clippings. Organic wastes that can enter a body of water include leaves. Therefore. bacteria. we get white precipitation.

which is the indicator of water quality. MUHAMMAD ALI 2008-CIVIL-66 . As shown in fig (b) O O I OHH H I H H H OH OH H OH OH (a) Iodine attach inside the ring the ring (b) iodine attach outside 3- Write the significance of this test in environmental engineering. 2- Why starch is added when light yellow color appears? If we add starch in the start when the color of solution is reddish. If more food (organic waste) is available for the bacteria. and the DO concentration will drop. The ratio of the dissolved oxygen content (ppm) to the potential capacity (ppm) gives the percent saturation. As shown in Fig (a) But when light yellow color appears the concentration of iodine is less. so when we add starch at this stage. the iodine concentration will be more than the starch and iodine will attach inside the ring and permanent violent color will be attained and end point cannot be achieved. more bacteria will grow and use oxygen.Environmental Engineering II oxygen from the water when they breathe. it will attach outside the ring and end point can be achieved. This test gives us the amount of dissolved oxygen in water. and knowing the amount of dissolved oxygen is very important in following aspects:  Adequate dissolved oxygen is necessary for good water quality.

Thiosulphate ion coming from sodium thiosulphate reacts with iodine. The lower the concentration. the greater the stress. As the reddish brown sample having I2 will be titrated against sodium thiosulphate. Oxygen levels that remain below 1-2 mg/l for a few hours can result in large fish kills.0 mg/l. Alkali azide is a mixture of potassium iodide and potassium azide. So addition of alkali azide instead of alkali in Winkler test is called azide modification MUHAMMAD ALI 2008-CIVIL-66 . alkali azide is added. this is a very rare occurrence. 2S2O3-1 + I2 S4O6-2 + 2I-1 5- What is azide modification? If nitrates NO2-1 and NO3-1will present in water.  Depletion in the dissolved oxygen can cause major shifts in the kinds of aquatic organisms found in water bodies. they will change the results because they convert iodide ions to iodine before performance of experiment.  Concentrations above a certain level can be harmful to aquatic life. plants and aerobic bacteria all require oxygen for respiration. 4- What type of titration is involved in the above test? For the determination of amount of dissolved oxygen in water. in which iodometric titration (I2 Titration) is involved. Winkler method is adopted. As dissolved oxygen levels in water drop below 5. To remove interference caused by NO2-1 and NO3-1. however. aquatic life is put under stress. invertebrates. Fish in waters containing excessive dissolved gases may suffer from "gas bubble disease".Environmental Engineering II  Fish.