D 2.

4 Quality Management Concept

Project acronym: EDC-11145 EUROROADS/28646 Deliverable: D2.4 Nature: Public Author: Thilo Kaufmann, Thomas Wiltschko Date: 06-02-20 Version: FD 0.1

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Document control
Version WD 0.0.1 WD 0.1 FD 0.1 Date 2005-12-05 2006-02-06 2006-02-20 Editor Thilo Kaufmann Thilo Kaufmann, Thomas Wiltschko Thilo Kaufmann Thomas Wiltschko Comment First structure Working draft send out for WP2-reviewing Comments from WP2-reviewing are insert and Final draft send out for PMG-reviewing

Table of contents
1 Introduction.......................................................................................................................3 1.1 1.2 2 Aims and scope ........................................................................................................3 Methodology and sequence .....................................................................................3

Quality management – basics ..........................................................................................3 2.1 2.2 ISO 9000-series........................................................................................................3 PDCA-cycle ..............................................................................................................4

3

Quality management for EuroRoadS................................................................................5 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 Quality model............................................................................................................6 Probabilistic model ...................................................................................................7 Cause and effect diagram ........................................................................................8 FMEA........................................................................................................................9 Quality assurance measures ..................................................................................10 Evaluation methods ................................................................................................12 Documentation of quality within metadata ..............................................................13

4

Examples of quality management in demonstration.......................................................15 4.1 Modelling of information processes and their impact on quality .............................15 Updating processes in (Austria)......................................................................15 Checks and reworking (Sweden)....................................................................17 Speed limit information in the testfield “Ansbach” (Bavaria) ...........................19 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.2 4.2.1

Evaluation of quality ...............................................................................................19

5

Conclusion and outlook ..................................................................................................20

Annex .....................................................................................................................................22 Annex A: References .........................................................................................................22 Annex B: Glossary..............................................................................................................23

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1 Introduction
1.1 Aims and scope
In EuroRoadS report D2.4 a quality management concept for information processes is to be formulated. The concept of report D2.4 is the basis for quality management in the EuroRoadS-demonstrator of work package 7. The report and its proposed quality management concept only deals with the quality management of road data and their data providing processes. A quality management of the project and its workflow is not subject of this report.

1.2 Methodology and sequence
The EuroRoadS report D2.4 “Quality Management Concept” is structured as follows: First the mindset of quality management in general according ISO 9000-series and PDCA-cycle is presented. In chapter 3 the general phases of quality management (Plan, Do, Check, Act) are subdivided into different tasks for quality management of road data processing. For each of these tasks corresponding methods are suggested. The implementation of these tasks and methods within EuroRoadS processes is illustrated exemplarily.

2 Quality management – basics
2.1 ISO 9000-series
According to EN ISO 9000 quality management is defined as „coordinated activities to direct and control an organization with regard to quality”. Direction and control with regard to quality generally includes establishment of the quality policy and quality objectives, quality planning, quality control, quality assurance and quality improvement:
• • • •

quality planning is focused on setting quality objectives and specifying necessary operational processes and related resources to fulfil the quality objectives quality control is focused on fulfilling quality requirements quality assurance is focused on providing confidence that quality requirements will be fulfilled quality improvement is focused on increasing the ability to fulfil the quality requirements

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2.2 PDCA-cycle
An important mindset of quality management is the so-called PDCA-cycle (Fig. 1). This cycle including the four components Plan, Do, Check and Act (PDCA), was originally conceived by Walter Shewhart in the 1930`s, and later adopted by W. Edward Deming. The model provides in general a framework for the improvement of a process or system and is an iterative four-step quality strategy (cf. Deming 1982).
take actions to the outcome for necessary improvement (e.g. improve, Act standardize) establish objectives and processes necessary to deliver results in accordance to Plan specification

monitor and evaluate processes and results against objectives and specifications

Check

Do

implementation of processes

Fig. 1: PDCA-cycle The cycle begins with investigation of the present situation, in order to formulate a plan for improvement (Plan). In the following the planned processes are realised (Do) and evaluated whether the desired improvement was obtained (Check). In positive case the measures become standard and/or can be reworked in a new iteration (Act). Herein a starting point for constant improvement of quality and the linked work with it can be seen.

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3 Quality management for EuroRoadS
The described general mindset of PDCA-cycle is adapted for special issues of road data processing. Therefore the general phases of quality management (Plan, Do, Check, Act) are subdivided into different tasks for quality management of road data processing. For each of these tasks (e.g. “detection sources of error”) corresponding methods are developed and/or adapted (e.g. probabilistic model, cause and effect diagram) In Tab. 1 a compilation of methods and their corresponding tasks is illustrated.
methods: quality model tasks: specification quality requirements detection sources of error development of quality assurance measures verification of the efficiency of quality assurance measures implementation of quality assurance measures determination of information quality proof efficiency of quality assurance measures documentation of quality documentation of processes Plan Do Check Act X X X X X X X X X X X X X X probabilistic model cause and effect diagram failure mode and effects analysis quality assurance measures evaluation methods metadata catalogue

X X X X X X X X X X X X

Tab. 1: Compilation of methods and tasks for EuroRoadS quality management According to this structure the methods and their application within EuroRoadS quality management concept are explained in the following.

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3.1 Quality model
The first task of the phase Plan is specification of quality requirements, which have to be formulated individually for each use case. Therefore a threshold value for data quality result has to be used to determine how well a dataset meets the criteria set forth in user requirements. So each data supplier can formulate its own and individual quality objective for its database by specifying quality requirements. As well as a data user can specify quality requirement for the service. EuroRoadS quality model, which is specified for a uniform and objective description of quality of all data and data types within the entire information chain (EuroRoadS report D2.2.) can be used for specification of quality requirements. The EuroRoadS quality model is structured as follows:
availability up-to-dateness
Quality phenomenon

Quality characteristic describe
make concret

completeness consistency correctness accuracy

QualitätsQuality parameter parameter

quantify determine

QualitätsQuality forderung requirement

formulated by

Quality Qualitätsparameter parameter value

Quality evaluation method

Fig. 2: Structure of EuroRoadS quality model A quality requirement, which means a mandatory level of quality, is formulated by a quality parameter value (e.g. 98%). This numerical value, which is to be determined by quality evaluation method (cf. chapter 3.6), is the quantification of a quality parameter (e.g. rate of omission). These parameters make concrete quality characteristics (e.g. completeness).

fixed set of inherent quality characteristics

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3.2 Probabilistic model
The first step for detecting sources of errors within processes can be documentation of information processes. This can be done by the graphical part of the probabilistic model (cf. EuroRoadS report D2.3). This intuitive understandable information flow chart consists in general of input data, which are transformed by an application to output data:
input input data data application application output output data data

Fig. 3: Basic elements of information flow chart An application can be: AND-linkage OR-linkage logical average for two or more input information will be used, if at least one input is necessary for the generation of the output information divides the information flow into two paths in dependence of a query divides the information flow into two paths in dependence if a requirement is fulfilled or not fulfilled is used for the connection of disjunctive system states as a result of a single branching or single check
check no

&

〈 1

single branching single check

yes no

yes

exclusive OR-linkages

=1

Based on the documentation of processes error of sources can be detected as illustrated in the examples (cf. chapter 4.1.1 and 4.1.2). Additionally quality assurance measures (e.g. checking and editing) can be developed and their efficiency can be verified by using the analytical part of the probabilistic model, like it is illustrated in Fig. 4. That means that effects of planned quality assurance measures can be analysed in a simulation before they will be integrated costly in real processes. The computing procedure for verification of efficiency is described in detail and illustrated with examples in EuroRoadS-Report D2.3.
I RN = [0.999, 0.99, 0.98]
road network matching & merging & speed traffic sign

I Map = [0.998, 0.970, 0.931]
road network & speed traffic sign

CM = AV AV = 1/AV

AV AV I Trans = 1 / I Map CM AV I Trans = I Map

storage &

road network & speed traffic sign (EuroRoadS - shop)

I TS = [0.999, 0.98, 0.95]

I ER = [1.0, 0.993, 0.984]

...
Quality assurance procedures „checking and editing“

Fig. 4: Verification of efficiency of quality assurance measures by using the analytical part of the probabilistic model

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3.3 Cause and effect diagram
The Ishikawa`s cause and effect diagram is a graphical method for finding the most likely causes for an undesired effect. The method was at first used by Kaoru Ishikawa in the 1960s. Because of its shape, it is also known as the fishbone diagram. The cause and effect diagram is a method used in a root cause analysis. The diagram has to include a horizontal line from left to right side. At the right side of the line the effect is to be labeled. Starting from the horizontal line four to six short diagonal lines are to be drawn in direction left upper and left lower corner of the paper. These are the main bones of the diagram and the categories of main causes are to be labeled. For example, a business may use: material, manpower, method, and machine (the 4 M's). For this main cause categories more detailed categories can be added.

Fig. 5: Cause and effect diagram adapted to the issues of road data processing This general method of quality management can be adapted for finding quality lacks within data providing processes: The quality within the data providing processes generally depends of input data (`material`), operator (`manpower`), software (`method`) and hardware (`machine`). These general causes were identified by the analysis of exemplary providing processes (c.f. EuroRoadS report D2.3). In the following these four main causes are described: • • Data: It is a clear fact, that quality of input data is essential for the processes and for quality of resulting output data. Operator: If it is a manual process (e.g. manual digitising) then human errors can influence the quality of data provision. Thus it is a crucial point for quality of operators, that this specialised staff has continuously advancing training for their tasks. Hardware can also have an impact to quality: Hardware failures and errors can be reduced by use of high-grade hardware, and expert implementation, and maintenance. Software: When a software algorithm is very complex and contains fuzziness in data processing (e.g. raster-vector-conversion, automatic error detection, or coordinate thinning) then the software can have an important influence on data quality. Thus use of professional and debugged software and software components can be important to reduce failures and errors.

In chapter 3.5 these quality assurance measures are described more detailed.

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3.4 FMEA
Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is a method, originally developed for systems engineering, used to examine potential failures in products or processes. It is used to evaluate the priorities of risks, and helps to determine remedial actions to minimize the risk of the failure. It is used in many formal quality systems such as QS 9000 or ISO/TS 16949. The basic process is to take a description of parts of a system, and list consequences if each part fails. In most formal systems the consequences are then evaluated by three criteria and associated risk indices:
• • •

severity (S), likelihood of occurrence (O) (Note: This is also often known as probability (P)) inability of controls to detect it (D)

Each index ranges from 1 (lowest risk) to 10 (highest risk). The overall risk of each failure is called Risk Priority Number (RPN) and the product of Severity (S), Occurrence (O), and Detection (D) rankings: RPN = S × O × D. The RPN (ranging from 1 to 1000) is used to prioritize all potential failures to decide upon actions leading to reduce the risk, usually by reducing likelihood of occurrence and improving controls for detecting the failure.

Fig. 6: Failure mode and effects analysis For these potential failures quality assurance measures are necessary which are described in detail in chapter 3.5.

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3.5 Quality assurance measures
The main objective of quality assurance measures in information processes is to fulfil a required quality level. By using described probabilistic model, cause and effect diagram, and/or FMEA there are firstly to analyse existing processes and to detect existing quality gaps within these processes. Based on these facts adequate measures are to be developed and to be implemented to assure quality: “Error avoidance in sourcing” means that probability of erroneous data can be reduced by using a better quality of sources. The quality of used software, hardware and data sources can be assured by different measures, e.g.: - from suppliers a defined quality level is required - used hardware, software and data have to be checked in regular intervals. - quality influence of human resources (operator) can be assured by continuously advanced training. ”Error control in processing” means that within a process erroneous data has to be identified and reworked. The quality within processes can be assured by different measures, e.g.: - user guidelines are necessary, describing how errors will be identified and reworked. Within the following list only some examples of quality assurance measures are described. These are dependent of each individual case.

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typ quality assurance measure (examples)

operator

hardware X X

software Scanner with required resolution (dpi), colour depth, etc. has to be used Scanner has to be checked in regular intervals User guideline for scanning has to be documented Input Data with required scale has to be used X Software for postprocessing (e.g. rubbersheeting) has to be used Operator has to be continuously advanced training User guideline for digitising has to be documented Input data with required quality is to source

error avoidance in sourcing X X

error control in process

scanning X

X

X X X X X X X X

X manual digitising X X X semiautomatic digitising automatic digitising X

Monitor with required resolution has to be used Tracing modus has to be used, which inform the operator when ambiguous data are found. Errors of raster-vector-conversion (e.g. round off edge, junction bridge, stubble, junction shifting, island) has to be identified and has to be corrected by editing. For typical conversion errors and their correction a user guideline has to be documented. Blunders of topology generation (e.g. closed polygons, joined network) has to be identified: - topology blunders in road network (e.g. turn offs in road network, direction flow in street network) can be identified by test routing.

X

X

topology generation

X

- explicitly encoded topological characteristics (e.g. closed polygons) of a dataset can be identified by automatically generated comparison with their topological specification. Based on identification has to be corrected by editing. For typical topology errors and their correction a user guideline has to be documented.
Tab. 2: Examples for quality assurance measures

X

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3.6 Evaluation methods
Following the implementation of quality assurance measures into the information processes, quality parameter values are to be determined by using evaluation methods. According to ISO 19114 standard, quality evaluation methods are classified into direct and indirect methods.
• An indirect evaluation method is based on external knowledge. This external

knowledge may include data quality overview elements like information about lineage. According to ISO 19115, lineage is defined as ”information about the events or source data used in constructing the data specified by the scope or lack of knowledge about lineage”
• A direct evaluation method is based on inspection of items within a dataset.

Furthermore it is subdivided into “internal” and “external” depending on the used reference data: - The internal direct evaluation method uses only data from the dataset itself. - The external direct evaluation method uses external reference data. In EuroRoadS report D2.5 the suggested evaluation methods are described in detail, the relation to its effort is illustrated in Fig. 7:
effort
use external reference data

manual semi-automatic automatic pre-estimate Indirect evaluation
use external knowledge or investigations

use only data from data set itself

Direct internal evaluation

Direct external evaluation

Quality evaluation methods

Fig. 7: Effort of evaluation method types For the evaluation procedure the following steps are recommended:

According to the effort an indirect method or direct internal method has to be chosen as far as possible. Otherwise in ISO 19114 an indirect evaluation is recommended only if direct evaluation methods cannot be used. It is clear that an indirect evaluation can not be as accurate as a direct evaluation, but the advantage of indirect evaluation is that with small effort a first gross quality value can be derived. If direct external methods are necessary, a sampling procedure has to be carried out. One has to start with a small sampling size. A sampling size has to be increased as long as the result is statistic reliable. Finally a result has to be transferred to an entire database.

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3.7 Documentation of quality within metadata
Finally the quality improvement has to be standardised; i.e. processes and evaluated data quality have to be documented. Based on this quality documentation a new iteration of PDCA-cycle can be started. For a quality documentation is necessary, that the EuroRoadS quality model is part of the metadata catalogue (EuroRoadS report D6.8), which is integrated in the EuroRoadS exchange format. In this way the quality description within the metadata can be transferred within the whole information chain and can be edited if necessary (cf. Fig. 8). Quality assurance measures can be accomplished to fulfil required data quality based on such a transferable documentation.
data processing
metadata data

EuroRoadS interface

applications

metadata
quality management

e.g.: map-based ADAS

quality management

data
metadata data

quality management e.g.: information retrieval system

quality management

quality management data provider content provider information provider service provider

Fig. 8: Quality documentation in metadata as basis for quality management within the whole information chain In the EuroRoadS metadata catalogue core elements and other important elements of ISO 19115 are included. Furthermore the catalogue contains extended elements, which are important for road databases, their quality description and their international application. The metadata catalogue is integrated into the exchange format (EuroRoadS report D6.11) as well as parts of it into the metadata server (EuroRoadS report D7.2).
ISO 19115 EuroRoadS Metadata Catalogue Subset Quality Metadata Exchange Format Data

Metadata Server

Fig. 9: Connection of EuroRoadS metadata catalogue and ISO 19115 as well as integration into metadata server and exchange format

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The EuroRoadS exchange format is realised by the Swedish road administration Vägverket (WIKSTRÖM 2006). A part of quality documentation within this XML/GMLbased exchange format is illustrated in Fig. 10.

Fig. 10: Part of quality documentation in EuroRoadS exchange format (Source: WIKSTRÖM 2006) Furthermore parts of the metadata catalogue are implemented into EuroRoadS metadata server. By using this server a user can achieve quality information before sourcing data and can check if data fulfil his quality requirements. Parts of quality documentation in the metadata server is illustrated in Fig. 11.

Fig. 11: Part of quality documentation in the EuroRoadS metadata server (Source: DDS/PTV 2006)

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4 Examples of quality management in demonstration
4.1 Modelling of information processes and their impact on quality
In this chapter examples of information processes and their impact on quality are illustrated. The examples are modelled, described and interpreted in cooperation with EuroRoadS-project partners Bundesamt für Eichwesen und Vermessung BEV (Austria) and Lantmäteriet (Sweden).

4.1.1 Updating processes in (Austria)
An example for modelling of information processes by using the graphical part of the probabilistic model is illustrated by the following updating processes in BEV (Austria). The two scenarios – the periodical and event-driven update – is analysed with respect to their effects to the quality parameter values of rate of up-to-dateness. 4.1.1.1 Periodical Update Per year 1/7 of the area of Austria is updated, i.e. there is a periodical update with a total duration of seven years which is mainly carried out for cartographic purposes. That means that road category and geometry is kept up-to-date also by means of field work. This is an additional check on completeness. Meanwhile steady data from photogrammetric evaluation are aggregated, nowadays only for lower level roadnetwork.
existing road- data yes no not reworked 6/7 system component: merging system component: „branching: area to be topographically reworked“ data planned to be reworked 1/7 (1)

& lower-order road-data from photogrammetry (continiously aggregated)

merged data

area to be topographically reworked?

(2)

Fig. 12: Modelling of first part of periodical update processes of BEV The first part of periodical update processes – as illustrated in Fig. 12 – can be described as follows: Firstly existing road-data are continuously aggregated, lowerorder road-data from photogrammetry are merged. Then information flow is divided into two paths, depending whether the area has to be reworked topographically.
yes (1) UP check for up-todateness no reworking of attributes and geometry & updated data =1 system component: „merging“ updated road-data data up to date =1 topographically reworked 1/7

system component: „check of up-to-dateness and reworking“

(2)

system component: „merging“

Fig. 13: Modelling of second part of periodical update processes of BEV

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The second part of periodical update processes – as illustrated in Fig. 13 – can be described as follows: The data of the area to be reworked topographically is checked for up-to-dateness. To find out whether the data are up-to-date, orthophotos and name gazetteers are compared for changes. In case of changes, these are mapped in outdoor working. The indoor reworking process afterwards as one consequence affects the road data. Then the data that is up-to-date and the data that was updated are merged. Finally the topographically reworked data and the data, that was not reworked are merged. The updated road-data are the result.
rate of up-todateness 1 st pa 99% 95% 90% 85% 80% 75% 70% 65% time 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07
avera ge all pa of rts

rt

2 nd pa rt

3 rd pa

rt

4 th pa

rt

5 th pa

rt

6 th pa rt

7 th pa

rt

Fig. 14: Analysis of periodical update regarding up-to-dateness In Fig. 14 it is assumed exemplarily that there is an average rate of change of “5 %” in each year. It is also exemplarily assumed that a part of the area has a rate of upto-dateness of approx. “99%” at the date of last update (year 2000 for first part, year 2001 for second part, etc. ). Per year 1/7 of the area is updated, i.e. each of the seven parts of the whole area are updated all seven years. Thus the rate of up-todateness for each part falls from approx. 99% to 65% in seven years. Consequently the average rate of up-to-dateness of all parts of the area is between approx. 85% to 80% each year. 4.1.1.2 Event-driven update For the main roads (Autobahn, Schnellstraße, Landesstraße) an event-driven process called "Laufende Aktualisierung" (ongoing updating) is carried out. BEV gets the information on building activities from contractors and acts upon it as soon as possible. This second process runs independently from the former. It is not formally synchronised with the first, so it is open, whether it runs before or after this process. But it may affect the same roads.
GPS

roads to be updated yes check for building activity on main roads no unchanged roads System component:event: check for building activity on main roads

roads to be updated

updating with GPS

updated roads

& System component: updating data with GPS

(1)

(2)

Fig. 15: Modelling of first part of event-driven update processes of BEV

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The first step of process as illustrated in Fig. 15 is the „check of building activity on main roads“. It is more or less a query to real world and not to real data. Then the selected roads are updated with the system component GPS.
up-to-dateness (1)

=1

updated road-data

usage of road data &

road data

(2)

system component: merging

system component: usage

Fig. 16: Modelling of second part of event-driven update processes of BEV The following process as illustrated in Fig. 16 can be described as follows: the updated roads and the unchanged roads are merged. Here topological checks by GIS, and database checks for the integrity of attributes are applied. Finally influence of time and involved downgrade of up-to-dateness of data is modelled by the transition symbol.
rate of up-to-dateness 99% 98% time 00 01

Fig. 17: Analysis of event-driven update regarding up-to-dateness In Fig. 17 it is assumed exemplarily that the whole database has a rate of up-todateness of approx. “99%” at the date of last update. The falling of rate of up-todateness is depending on the time delay between building activities on main roads, and date of update in the database. Consequently the rate of up-to-dateness by event driven update could be closely to 99%. It can be presumed that the eventdriven update delivers a higher quality of up-to-dateness. By implementation of a well organized workflow a further increase of quality (here: up-to-dateness) can be realized.

4.1.2 Checks and reworking (Sweden)
The modelled procedures of checking and reworking are examples from Lantmäteriet (Sweden). In the first step of updating process the basic data and the additional new data are geometrically matched together. After that matching process different quality improvements are effected, like geometry and topology checks, and reworking. 4.1.2.1 Geometry check and reworking It is not possible to see whether additional new data are a changed road or a new road. Thus the following “geometry check and reworking” are done (cf. Fig. 18): If a change is inside the buffer zone, it is decided that it is the same road, so the updating

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can be done automatically. If it is outside the buffer zone, it has to be decided whether a road has changed or whether it is a new road.
Specification Change geometry automatically yes =1 no Check the geometry manually & Change geometry manually Data geometrically checked and reworked

Geometrically matched data

Q

Check if geometry is inside buffer zone

Fig. 18: Modelling of geometry check and reworking By using this quality assurance method the following quality parameter value can be upgraded: If geometry of a road is changed, the geometric correctness is upgraded. To evaluate this quality improvement it is assumed, that after geometrical reworking, geometric correctness value is approx. 99%. If exemplarily 2 km from 100 km road are changed geometrically, the geometric correctness is upgraded from approx. 97% to 99%. If a new road is added, then the completeness is upgraded. To evaluate this quality improvement it is assumed that after adding of new roads the completeness value is approx. 99%. If exemplarily to an existing database, including 100 km road, 1 km new road is added, the correctness is upgraded from approx. 98% to 99%. 4.1.2.2 Topology check and reworking The topology check today has the aim to find gaps and overshoots. In case of a minor error within a buffer zone, the error can automatically be corrected. If it is outside the buffer zone, it is not sure that it is an error, therefore someone has to check it manually and, if necessary, also correct it.
Topology error corrected by changing geometry Change geometry automatically Data geometrically and coded correctly yes Q Check if in buffer zone =1 no Check topology manually & Change geometry manually Data topologically checked

Fig. 19: Modelling of topology check and reworking By using this quality assurance method the following quality parameter value can be upgraded: if topology errors like gaps and overshoots are corrected, the topological correctness is upgraded. To evaluate this quality improvement it is assumed that after topological reworking the topological correctness value is approx. 99%. If exemplarily 2 km from 100 km road are changed topologically, the topological correctness is upgraded from approx. 97% to 99%.

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4.2 Evaluation of quality
4.2.1 Speed limit information in the testfield “Ansbach” (Bavaria)
For evaluation of quality parameter values an example from initial acquisition of speed limit information in the EuroRoadS-testfield “Ansbach” (Bavaria) is given in the following. The acquisition and evaluation of data is organised in cooperation with EuroRoadS-projectpartners PTV AG and Bavarian board of building (Germany). In the testfield “Ansbach” speed limit information will be acquired by using different acquisition methods:
• • • •

implicit speed regulations (exist due to national laws) use of local knowledge (communities etc.) research in a data base, in which photos of all 20 meters of the major roads in Bavaria are compiled (so called STRADIVARI) field enquiry

The task is, besides others, to evaluate the quality parameter values of attribute correctness of speed limit information. For this purpose the acquired speed limit information of these different acquisition sources will be compared. It is assumed that the field enquiry has a rate of correctness of 99%. Compared to this fact the rate of correctness of other methods will be calculated. Furthermore the effort of different methods is acquired. The result shows a statement about attribute correctness and effort of speed limit information, depending on chosen acquisition methods, as illustrated in Fig. 20.
quality (correctness in%) 99 (3) data base (4) field enquiry

rate of change (2) local knowledge working time effort (working time ( in personmonth ; accumulated

(1) implicit

Fig. 20: Example for relation of correctness and effort depending on chosen acquisition method Furthermore the quality parameter “rate of change“ of speed limit information will be evaluated. For this purpose existing ruling papers will be researched, and as a result a statement can be given about street kilometres, which are concerned by changes of speed limits per year. A detailed description of results of quality evaluation in the testfield Ansbach will be given in the EuroRoadS-Report D7.6 “Measuring results”.

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5 Conclusion and outlook
The objective of the report was to develop a quality management concept for EuroRoadS information processes. Therefore different tasks of quality management for road data processing, which can be structured according to the PDCA-cycle, were identified. For these tasks corresponding methods were developed and/or adapted.
Verfügbarkeit

ISO 19115 ER

Formulation of quality objectives, and definition of the quality requirements Documentation of quality and processes in a quality report Act Plan

Aktualität Vollständigkeit Konsistenz Korrektheit

fester Satz inhärenter Qualitätsmerkmale

GPS-Position

ja Plausibilitäts- 0,90 kontrolle nein 0,10

FzgPosition aus GPS

=1

FzgPosition

FzgPosition aus Prädiktion

Genauigkeit
Radsensor ds Prädizieren der FzgPosition & alte FzgPosition

Verwenden der prädizierten FzgPosition &

FzgPosition aus Prädiktion

Simulation quality assurance measures by analysing procedure

Modelling and evaluation of information process Development and design of quality assurance measures Verification of efficiency of quality assurance measures

Reality Proof of efficiency of quality assurance measures
Direct external evaluation Direct internal evaluation Indirect evaluation

Check

Do

Quality evaluation methods

Using evaluation methods for determination of parameter values

Implementation of quality assurance measures into the information process

Fig. 21: Tasks for quality management of road data processing according the PDCA-cycle In the phase Plan, objectives and processes necessary to deliver results in accordance to a specification are established. For this purpose, the required quality of road information can be described by the fixed set of quality characteristics and formulated by variable quality parameters. Furthermore, the simulation of processes can be included into the phase Plan by using the probabilistic model. Additional to the cycle for real processes a second cycle for simulated processes can be useful. This includes firstly modelling of data providing processes. On the basis of the model of the data providing process, quality lacks in the process can be identified and quality assurance measures can be designed and modelled. Their impact on quality can be evaluated by the analysing procedure. In this procedure the new parameter values in consequence of the simulated assurance measures are calculated and compared with the required parameter values. If this check will lead to the result, that the required quality is reached, the simulated assurance measure can be implemented into real processes. Otherwise, if the quality requirements are not fulfilled, additional measures have to be simulated in a second iteration. For all these phases of simulation the analysing procedures, the probabilistic model can be a helpful tool. After planning, including the described simulation, the phase Do follows. It contains implementation of quality assurance measures in a real data providing process.

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The following phase Check includes monitoring and evaluating processes and results compared to objectives and specifications. Therefore evaluation methods for measuring quality parameter values has to be used. Afterwards it has to be verified whether the required product quality is fulfilled. The modifications have to be formalised in a quality report. For this purpose processes of road information as well as measured quality parameters can be integrated into metadata. Based on the documentation, a new iteration is to be started (Act). Herein a starting point for constant improvement of work can be seen.
Road network and SL data from ER supplier
Act Plan

export

EuroRoadS Exchange Format
Act Plan

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Do

QM of data processing
Road network data ( AGF) integration Road network data + SL ( AGF) conversion

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QM of SpeedLimit Service
application Display

GDF Data

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Road network data + SL binary format

Fig. 22: Quality management concept within the EuroRoadS information chain The described tasks and methods of quality management according the PDCA-cycle will be integrated into EuroRoadS information chain (cf. Fig. 22). The first implementations have been started:
• •

Documentation of processes within the EuroRoadS information chain by using the graphical part of probabilistic model. Evaluation of quality parameter values at different steps within the EuroRoadS information chain by using evaluation methods, e.g.: up-to-dateness and correctness for initial acquisition of speed information geometric accuracy for coordinate thinning within the first steps of processing.

• •

Identification of potential failures by using the cause and effect diagram and FMEA Development of quality assurance measures for initial speed limit acquisition within a testfield.

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Annex
Annex A: References
Cerco Working Group on Quality (2000): Handbook for implementing a quality management system in a national mapping agency. CEN – European Committee for Standardization (2000): EN - ISO 9000. Quality management systems – Fundamentals and vocabulary (ISO 9000:2000). Deming, W.E. (1982): Out of the crisis. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Centre for Advanced Engineering Study. ISO 19113 (2002): Geographic information - quality principles. ISO 19114 (2003): Geographic information - quality evaluation procedures. ISO 19115 (2003): Geographic information - metadata. Kaufmann. T.; Wiltschko, T. (2005): Report on evaluation scheme for information quality. EuroRoadS project report D2.5. Kaufmann, T.; Wiltschko, T. (2006): Metadata Catalogue FD2.0. EuroRoadS project report D6.8. Kompfner, P. (2005): Evaluation Methodology. EuroRoadS project report D2.1. (www.euroroads.com) Landwehr, M.; Escher, A. (2005): EuroRoadS: Specification of the technical system and its components. EuroRoadS project report D7.2. Wikstrom, L. (2005): Overview of the EuroRoadS framework documents. EuroRoadS project document of WP6. (www.euroroads.com). Wikström, L. (2006): Final draft specification of Road network exchange format. EuroRoadS project report D6.11. (www.euroroads.org) Wiltschko, T.; Kaufmann, T. (2004): Report on quality frame for information. EuroRoadS project report D2.2. (www.euroroads.com). Wiltschko, T.; Kaufmann, T. (2005): Probabilistic model to describe and evaluate information quality. EuroRoadS project report D2.3. (www.euroroads.com).

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Annex B: Glossary
quality management (ISO 9000) coordinated activities to direct and control an organization with regard to quality NOTE Direction and control with regard to quality generally includes establishment of the quality policy and quality objectives, quality planning, quality control, quality assurance and quality improvement.

quality planning (ISO 9000) part of quality management focused on setting quality objectives and specifying necessary operational processes and related resources to fulfil the quality objectives NOTE Establishing quality plans can be part of quality planning.

quality control (ISO 9000) part of quality management focused on fulfilling quality requirements

quality assurance (ISO 9000) part of quality management focused on providing confidence that quality requirements will be fulfilled

quality improvement (ISO 9000) part of quality management focused on increasing the ability to fulfil the quality requirements NOTE The requirements can be related to any aspect such as effectiveness, efficiency or traceability.

nonconformity (ISO 9000) non-fulfilment of a requirement