Organ Systems

Introduction The human body is made up of several organ systems that all work together as a unit to make sure the body keeps functioning. There are ten major organ systems in the body, each of which plays a different role in helping the body work. Circulatory System This system is made up of the heart, blood, blood vessels, and lymphatics. It is the body’s delivery system, concerned with circulating blood to deliver oxygen and nutrients to every part of the body. Digestive System The purpose of the digestive system is to turn the food you eat into something useful for the body. When you eat, your body uses this system to digest food so your cells can use it to make energy. The organs involved in this system include the mouth, stomach, and intestines. Endocrine System This system is made up of a collection of glands, including the pituitary and thyroid glands, as well as the ovaries and testes. It regulates, coordinates, and controls a number of body functions by secreting chemicals into the bloodstream. These secretions help control moods, growth and development, and metabolism. Integumentary System This system consists of the skin, hair, nails, and sweat glands. Its main function is to act as a barrier to protect the body from the outside world. It also functions to retain body fluids, protect against disease, eliminate waste products, and regulate body temperature. Muscular System This system is made up of muscle tissue that helps move the body and move materials through the body. Quite simply, muscles move you. Muscles are bundles of cells and fibers that work in a simple way: they tighten up and relax. Nervous System The nervous system is the control center of the human body. It is made up of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. It receives and interprets stimuli and transmits impulses to organs. Your brain uses the information it receives to coordinate all of your actions and reactions. Reproductive System The human reproductive system ensures that humans are able to reproduce and survive as a species. It is made up of organs such as the uterus, penis, ovaries, and testes.

Respiratory System The primary function of the respiratory system is to supply the blood with oxygen in order for the blood to deliver oxygen to all parts of the body. The respiratory system does this through breathing. It consists of the nose, larynx, trachea, diaphragm, bronchi, and lungs. Skeletal System The skeletal system provides the shape and form for our bodies in addition to supporting and protecting our bodies, allowing bodily movement, producing blood cells, and storing minerals. This system consists of bones, cartilage, and joints. Urinary System The purpose of the urinary system is to filter out excess fluid and other substances from your bloodstream. Some fluid gets reabsorbed by your body but most gets expelled as urine. The organs found in this system are the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra.

Circulatory System
Circulatory System Problems and Diseases The major parts of the circulatory system are the heart, blood vessels, and blood. There are many problems and diseases associated with them A healthy circulatory system is necessary for the body, since it is responsible for supplying nutrients and oxygen to the body cells and tissues. With each heartbeat, blood is pumped into the blood vessels in order to deliver the essential nutrients to various organs of body. Due to the importance of the circulatory system for survival, it is often referred to as 'the lifeline of the body'. As we all know, the circulatory system or cardiovascular system comprises the blood, heart, and blood vessels. The blood consists of red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), platelets, and blood plasma. Blood vessels, on the other hand, comprise the veins, arteries, arterioles, and capillaries. All of these parts contribute a lot to the proper unctioning of the circulatory system. An abnormality in any of these components result in medical conditions, which may vary from a mild symptom to a lifethreatening disease. There are two types of circulatory system problems, viz. congenital (present at birth) and acquired (developed after birth). Common circulatory system problems and diseases include the following. Aortic Aneurysm Aortic aneurysm is bulging in the wall of the aorta, the largest artery of the body. It is caused due to aortic dissection (tear in the aortic wall) or defect in the aortic wall. A rupture of the bulging may cause

and smoking. High Blood Pressure High blood pressure or hypertension is a condition. A person suffering from this problem experiences sharp pain in the affected area. chest pain lasts for about 10 minutes. it can occur at any stage of life. calcium. In severe cases. Aortic aneurysm can be developed as a complication of other diseases such as obesity. stops the blood flow. it is always advisable to consult and seek advice from a qualified health practitioner before self ingesting any type of drugs. Problems and diseases related to the circulatory system may also be caused due to intake of certain drugs like oral contraceptives and diuretics. One word of advice for people who smoke cigarette and have circulatory problem would be to quit smoking. atherosclerosis. and high blood pressure. which is caused due to blockage in the blood vessels leading to the heart. Atherosclerosis may hamper the blood circulation or at times. Peripheral Vascular Disease Peripheral vascular disease is a disorder in the blood vessels that are not part of the brain and heart. Digestive System Digestive System Disorders: Common Digestive System Diseases and Disorders . heart disease can cause heart attack. The plaque is composed of cholesterol. heart failure. The symptoms of angina are observed when there is insufficient supply of oxygen and blood to the heart muscles. Atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis is hardening of the arterial wall (usually medium and large arteries) due to formation of plaque or atheroma. In case of acquired arrhythmia. and several other fatal health problems. Symptoms of this system may vary from very slow to fast heart rhythm. It can be hereditary or develop as a complication of obesity. Arrhythmia can be a congenital or an acquired problem. Usually. To avoid such a case. when the systolic pressure exceeds 140 mmHg and diastolic pressure exceeds 90 mmHg. characterized by irregularity in the heart rhythm. Angina Angina is pain or discomfort in the chest area. This disease is caused due to fatty acid deposits in the arteries of the leg portion. Arrhythmia Arrhythmia is a heart problem. It is mostly caused due to hereditary reasons or unhealthy lifestyle habits such as heavy drinking and smoking. and fatty deposits. as it can worsen the existing condition by constricting the blood vessels.heavy bleeding or hemorrhage. high blood pressure.

gas and most commonly. thus resulting in heartburn and similar other symptoms. refers to painful open sores in the lining of the stomach or duodenum.is another of the common digestive system diseases and disorders. are pregnant or obese are also at greater risk of developing GERD. Foods high in fat. flow back onto the esophagus. It is an inflammation or infection in the pouches. GERD and reflux esophagitis. This digestive system disease is also recognized as peptic esophagitis. become obstructed or bleed heavily. Digestive system disorders are most common of all health problems. one of the common digestive system disorders. Irritable bowel syndrome occurs when the muscles in your large intestine (colon) start contracting faster or slower than usual. temporary bowel inflammation or infectious diarrhea. may have abdominal pain. In some cases. It is a common disease for people aged 60 and older. Because of digestion. The following are brief descriptions of the common digestive system diseases. Most of the digestive system disorders are results of poor eating habits or improper digestion. Peptic Ulcer Disease Peptic ulcer.The digestive system is one of the essential body systems that carry out one of the vital and most crucial process in the body. Diverticular Disease Common digestive system diseases and disorders also include diverticulitis. Diverticular disease occurs in small pouches that bulge out in the colon. This opposite action can cause irritation in the esophagus. in which the contents of the stomach. Irritable Bowel Syndrome Irritable bowel syndrome – more commonly referred to as IBS . Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) The most common of the digestive system diseases and disorders is GERD. excessive use of laxatives. An individual suffering from diverticulitis. This causes abdominal pain. A perforated bowel is a medical emergency. diarrhea. increased irritation from stomach acid creates this digestive . When the stomach lining breaks down. It is important to diagnose and treat symptoms of diverticulitis when you first notice them. alcohol and fried foods can exacerbate symptoms. emotional stress in your life. cramping and certain changes in normal bowel functioning like bloating. Those who have hernias. This will help prevent the symptoms from worsening and causing more serious problems of the digestive tract. another one of the common digestive system diseases and disorders. including acids. which is the digestion and absorption of essential nutrients that the body needs. which is the first part of the small intestine. the body is able to obtain all the necessary components from the food that we eat and utilize it for the body’s benefits. the bowel may perforate. Besides having a weak esophageal muscle. Digestive system disorders develop when there is a problem in the normal functioning of digestion. most people who suffer from GERD almost always suffer from lifestyle and food choices that aggravate the condition. chocolate. The main causes of irritable bowel syndrome are said to be improper diet with low-fiber content. There are a wide number of common digestive system diseases and disorders. Diverticulitis especially affects the large intestine. which can cause troublesome and persistent symptoms. abdominal tenderness and fever. constipation. One that occurs in the duodenum is called a duodenal ulcer. A peptic ulcer in the stomach is called a gastric ulcer.

digestive system disorders are extremely common. Endocrine System The endocrine system is a network of glands that produce and release hormones that help control many important body functions. When the delicate blood vessels around the anus burst from pressure and straining. thirst DIABETES INSIPIDUS: posterior pituitary does not make enough ADH or its effects are blocked. hemorrhoids are also one of the common digestive system diseases and disorders. especially the body's ability to change calories into energy that powers cells and organs. Constipation or the irregular or infrequent evacuation of the bowels is the major cause of hemorrhoids. It has been shown that by slowing down and reducing stress in one’s life. how your bones and tissues grow. growth disorders. These disorders affect the digestive system badly and even make the body weak. More serious cases may require surgery. Due to poor diet and lifestyle today. itching and pain. Hemorrhoids (also commonly known as piles) are a fairly common condition that occurs when veins in the anus and rectum become swollen and inflamed. Hemorrhoids As the digestive system does include the tract and associated organs from mouth to anus. These are only some of the many digestive system diseases and disorders. sexual dysfunction. The endocrine system influences how your heart beats. The digestive system is an allimportant part of the body that can determine the overall health of an individual. DISORDERS OF THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM DIABETES MELLITUS: pancreas does not secrete enough insulin à cells cannot absorb glucose à low energy levels. many of the symptoms of the most common digestive system diseases may be reduced or prevented entirely. thyroid disease. resulting in bleeding.system disorder. It plays a vital role in whether or not you develop diabetes. ADH helps absorb water in the kidneys à low ADH à causes large volumes of urine HYPERTHYROIDISM (GRAVES DISEASE): . even your ability to make a baby. and a host of other hormone-related disorders. Digestive system disorders can affect anyone at any age. Preventing these digestive system diseases and disorders from happening may help save from a massive amount pain and much of grief. sugar in urine. hemorrhoids form. Abdominal discomfort is the most common symptom of both duodenal and gastric ulcers. Over-the-counter medications are available for mild cases of hemorrhoids. more urine.

hot HYPOTHYROIDISM (GOITER): an iodine deficiency causes less thyroxine to be released by the thyroid gland thus causing low metabolic rate. and sweat glands. Its main function is to act as a barrier to protect the body from the outside world. and regulate body temperature. puffy. gain weight. eyeballs protrude. stunted GIGANTISM: the anterior pituitary releases too much growth hormone à bones and muscles grow to abnormally large sizes SADS (Seasonal Affective Disorder): pineal gland behind the eye releases too much melatonin à cells prepare for winter. depressed ACROMEGALY: anterior pituitary releases too much growth hormone after the growth plates have fused together. lethargy. also à low thyroxine à breaks the negative feedback loop thus the pituitary keeps releasing TSH à causing the thyroid to swell up HYPOTHYROIDISM (CRETINISM): in babies normal thyroxine levels at birth via the mother through the placenta low thyroxine after birth à abnormal bone development. low body temp. thyroid may be malfunctioning or too much TSH from pituitary. eliminate waste products. weight gain. weight loss. slow pulse. à increased metabolic rate. DISEASES OF INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM Acne .P.. sweating. mental retardation. bones can no longer grow in length but instead widen & thicken Integumentary System This system consists of the skin. lethargy. high B. heart rate. weight gain. sad.hypersecretion of thyroxine by the thyroid gland. It also functions to retain body fluids. tired. hair. edema. inc. nails. hair loss DWARFISM: the anterior pituitary does not release enough growth hormone à reduced muscle and bone growth. cold. sleepy.. protect against disease. stunted growth HYPOTHYROIDISM (MYXEDEMA): in adults low thyroxine à low metabolic rate.

Like basal cell carcinoma. ears. but it is the most serious type. Properly known as tinea pedis. Psoriasis causes skin cells to mature in less than a week. Basal cell carcinoma is the most common form of skin cancer. The cancer presents itself as a small. Burns There are few threats more serious to the skin than burns. Athlete’s foot Athlete’s foot is a common fungus infection in which the skin between the toes becomes itchy and sore. the infection received its common name because the infection causing fungi grow well in warm. In this form of skin cancer. sticky skin cells to form a hard plug that blocks the follicle. showers. bacteria. Increased levels of androgens (male hormones) cause the sebaceous glands to secrete an excessive amount of sebum into hair follicles. . or certain chemicals (such as acids). cells in the lower epidermis that produce melanin. Squamous cell carcinoma affects the cells of the second deepest layer of the epidermis. Two common types are contact dermatitis and seborrheic dermatitis. releasing the sebum. If the lesion is caught early and removed surgically or through radiation. electricity. this type of skin cancer also involves skin exposed to the sun: face. Psoriasis Psoriasis is a chronic (long-term) skin disease characterized by inflamed lesions with silvery-white scabs of dead skin. UV radiation (sunburn). The most common skin disease. In their early stages. but the greatest risk factor seems to be genetic. accounting for about 75 percent of cases. and locker rooms (areas commonly used by athletes). the cancer spreads aggressively to other parts of the body. melanomas resemble moles. Weakened. Burns are injuries to tissues caused by intense heat. It is also the least malignant or cancerous (tending to grow and spread throughout the body). A pimple then forms. and back. cracking and peeling away. The cause of most skin cancers or carcinomas is unknown. and the arms. and arms. It grows rapidly and spreads to adjacent lymph nodes if not removed. the patient has a good chance of recovering completely. They also spread. In addition to invading surrounding tissues. but overexposure to ultraviolet radiation in sunlight is a risk factor. and white blood cells into the surrounding tissues. Overexposure to the Sun may be a cause of melanomas. the backs of the hands. Malignant melanoma accounts for about 5 percent of all skin cancers. Bacteria that normally lives on the skin then invades the blocked follicle. Skin cancer is the single most common type of cancer in humans. Dermatitis Dermatitis is any inflammation of the skin. Skin cancer Skin cancer is the growth of abnormal skin cells capable of invading and destroying other cells. The excess sebum combines with dead. There are many types of dermatitis and most are characterized by a pink or red rash that itches. hands. damp areas such as in and around swimming pools. It is a cancer of the melanocytes. invading the dermis and subcutaneous layer.Acne is a skin disease marked by pimples on the face. Normal skin cells mature and replace dead skin cells every twenty-eight to thirty days. raised bump on the skin with a crusting center. the shoulders. skin cells. they appear as an expanding brown to black patch. Soon. scaling. basal cells in the epidermis are altered so they no longer produce keratin. the follicle bursts open. Shiny. especially the lungs and liver. dome-shaped lesions develop most often on sunexposed areas of the face. chest. The next most common areas affected are the ears.

yellow or green) can be expressed from under the cuticle. Warts Warts are small growths caused by a viral infection of the skin or mucous membrane. Hand warts grow around the nails. The virus infects the surface layer. the heel. If located on a pressure point of the foot. on the fingers. Accute Paronychia Acute paronychia develops over a few hours when a nail fold becomes painful. they can grow in size and spread into clusters of several warts. The disease commonly occurs in infants. Alopecia Areata Is an autoimmune skin disease that causes the body’s immune system to attack the hair follicles. They appear mostly in areas where the skin is broken. Each affected nail fold (the skin that lies next to the nail) becomes swollen and lifted above the nail. and sometimes a little thick pus (white. caused by overproduction of sebum. Foot warts do not stick up above the surface like hand warts. and on the backs of the hands. red and swollen. is a non-contagious skin disease that causes excessive oiliness of the skin. It may be red and tender from time to time. Foot warts (also called plantar warts) usually appear on the ball of the foot. Seborrheic Dermatitis An advanced form of seborrhea. or the flat part of the toes. They can also pass from one area of the body to another on the same person. It may start in one nail fold but often spreads to several others. If left untreated. Seborrhea is the form of the disease where oiliness only occurs without redness and scaling. most commonly in the scalp. Yellow pus may appear under the cuticle. Muscular System . Chronic Paronychia Chronic paronychia is a gradual process and much more difficult to get rid of. They can easily pass from person to person. milky white skin. It can start suddenly (acute paronychia) or gradually (chronic paronychia). Warts are contagious. It is usually due to “Staph” bacteria germs. these warts can be painful. and the elderly. the substance produced by the body to lubricate the skin where hair follicles are present. and is commonly known in infants as cradle cap Paronychia Is an often tender infection of inflammation around the base of the nail fold. causing baldness in patches. middle-aged people. In some cases fever and painful glands under the arms accompany a particularly severe case of acute paronychia.Vitiligo Vitiligo is a skin disorder in which the loss of melanocytes (cells that produce the color pigment melanin) results in patches of smooth.

drug therapy. In the vertebrates. lips and mouth. muscles that form the pelvic floor remain in a contracted/tightened position. muscles lose their elasticity.The system of the body which facilitates its movement is termed as muscular system. inadequate neck and head muscle development. Orofacial Myology Disorders: The orofacial myological disorders are a set of disorders that affect the muscles surrounding the face. obstructions or constrictions in the upper airway. In uterine atony. muscle cramps and spasms could also be associated with myopathy. muscles of the uterus lose their tone. etc. low-lying tongue resting posture. functioning of muscles is controlled by the nervous system. In gastrointestinal atony. There are many different types of orofacial myological disorders like blocked nasal airways. dental malocclusions. muscle relaxation. Loss of muscle tone hampers the process of blood coagulation and causes acute hemorrhage. the muscular system is also responsible for heat generation and in maintaining the stability of the body. Diastasis Recti: . speech problems. Myopathy: It is one of the many disorders of muscular system. re-education of muscle movement and establishment of adequate labial-lingual postures. The treatment measures used for orofacial myological disorders include restoration of correct/proper swallowing patterns. uterine atony and gastrointestinal atony. Treatment measures used for pelvic floor muscle disorder include physical therapy. skeletal and smooth muscles. biofeedback and use of medications like Tamsulosin. jaw. The different causes of orofacial myological disorders could be as follows: imbalance in dental growth. One might also suffer from problems such as frequent urination or pain in the pelvic region. the coagulation of blood. The atonic seizures are characterized by alterations caused in the brain for a temporary period which in turn is caused by lapse in the muscle tone. etc. Atony: In this disorder. possible reasons behind tightening of muscles could be stress. Causes of the pelvic floor muscle disorder are not exactly known however. it is characterized by muscle weakness which results from improper functioning of muscle fibers. Apart from carrying out body movements. Treatment measures used for myopathy could be the ones which target a specific cause or those dealing with symptoms only. inadequate cranial and facial bone development. This condition is also described as decrease in motor activity of the gastrointesinal tract. This disorder of muscles is exhibited through different conditions (or probably symptoms) such atonic seizures. Different types of muscles which together form the human muscular system are cardiac. trauma. abnormal posture of the orofacial musculature while resting. surgery and bracing for support are amongst the treatment measures used for myopathy. the treatment for each of them is different. strength of muscles is the reason why atony is considered dangerous. Physical therapy. acupuncture. atypical swallowing and chewing patterns. low body tone. The different muscle disorders like stiffness. muscles lose their propulsive ability. Pelvic Floor Muscle Disorder: In the pelvic floor muscle disorder. Disorders of the Muscular System The disorders and problems related to the muscular system are explained in the following paragraphs. Loss of elasticity and thereby. etc. Muscles form 40% weight of our body. Contraction of uterine muscles is responsible for compression of blood vessels and thereby. There are many types of myopathies and hence.

fibrosis and muscle weakness. Nervous System Disorders of the Nervous System Introductory Note: Knowledge of the human nervous system and familarisation with the key terms associated with it is an essential part of training in many therapies . diabetes and lipodystrophy are exhibited by people suffering from laminopathy. Shiatsu. This page summarises basic information about some of the most common diseases and disorders of the nervous system. which is normally joined by the linea alba gets separated into left and right halves.such as Massage. Complications such as development of ventral hernia or umbilical cord are treated by means of surgeries. etc. Laminopathy: It is a genetic disorder in which mutations tend to occur in those genes which encode the proteins present in nuclear lamina. Acupuncture. it becomes important to perform surgeries in extreme cases. In case of adults. many other symptoms like dysplasia.It is a disorder where the rectus abdominis muscle. Aromatherapy. . Further research should help you understand more about these disorders. etc. and many others. Along with muscular dystrophy. The following table lists key terms in alphabetical order. might rupture or exhibit a hyaline appearance. scoliosis. Zenker's Degeneration: Various infectious diseases like typhoid fever. also known as Arthrogryposis Multiplex Congenita is characterized by joint contractures. In this disorder. physiotherapy is used for disorders of a lesser degree/intensity. cause the degeneration of skeletal muscles. Disorders of the muscular system are numerous and many underlying causes are behind them. The treatment measures used for laminopathy are supportive and symptomatic. Central Core Disease: It is a congenital myopathy. hip dislocation. first described in 1956 by Shy and Magee. toxemia. lose their cross striations. muscles become friable and pale. use of triggering anesthetics and muscle relaxants is avoided. The examples mentioned in the article are just a snapshot of various disorders of muscular system. Arthrogryposis: The arthrogryposis disorder. Relatives of patients could be screened for the purpose of detecting mutations of RYR1 type. weakness of facial muscles. There is no specific treatment for this disorder however. This disorder mainly affects pregnant women and newborn babies. Those who suffer from muscular dystrophy are treated with the help of physical therapy. Symptoms of this disease are decreased muscle tone. this condition is referred to as Zenker's degeneration.

squint.) Effect Paralysis of the facial nerve. jaundice and infection. generally occuring before. Cause Unknown.) Cerebal Palsy A nonprogressive disorder of movement resulting from damage to the brain before. may result in inability to close the eye. Rapid involuntary movements of the eyes (nystagmus). Cerebal Palsy is attributed to damage to the brain. which affects the function of the nerves involved. leading to a lack of balance. It is often associated with other neurological and mental problems. Other associated features include epilepsy. Defects in speech pronunciation (dysarthria).There are many causes including birth injury. Multiple Sclerosis The myelin sheaths surrounding nerves in the brain and spinal cord are damaged. Sensation is often affected. hypoglycaemia. (Recovery may occur spontaneously. hypoxia. the motor nuclei in the brainstem. posture and speech are frequently impaired. or immediately after birth. Multiple Scerosis affects different parts of the brain and spinal cord. and behavioural problems. reduced hearing. . and intelligence. during. Loss of taste sensation may also occur. The most common disability is a spastic paralysis. Contractures of the limbs may cause fixed abnormalities. These can include: Unsteady gait and shaky movement of the limbs (ataxia). weakness of the muscles of one side of the face. or immediately after birth. (In some cases the patient's hearing may also be affected in such a way that sounds seem to him/her to be abnormally loud. during. and the corticospinal fibres. Some forms of Motor Neurone Disease are inherited. resulting in typically scattered symptoms. Motor Neurone Disease A progressive degenerative disease of the motor system occurring in middle age and causing muscle weakness and wasting. Motor Neurone disease primarily affects the cells of the anterior horn of the spinal cord.Term Bell's Palsy Definition A form of Neuritis that involves paralysis of the facial nerve causing weakness of the muscles of one side of the face and an inability to close the eye. The underlying cause of the nerve damage remains unknown. visual impairment. The course of this illness usually involves recurrent relapses followed by remissions. A chronic disease of the nervous system that can affect young and middleaged adults. but some patients experience a chronic progressive course.

and cannot be attributed to other disorders. Extreme disabling fatigue that has lasted for at least six months. Neuralgia Maybe due to previous attack of shingles (Postherpetic Neuralgia). an . Unknown. (This term may also be less precisely used to refer to any disease of the peripheral nerves. Painful lymph nodes in the neck and armpits. General malaise. A disease of the peripheral nerves showing the pathological changes of inflammation. Myalgic A condition characterized Encephalomyelitis by extreme disabling (ME) fatigue that has lasted for at least six months. rigidity and poverty of spontaneous movements. Slight fever. which often affects one hand. The fatigue is accompanied by at least some of the following: Muscle pain or weakness.Spastic weakness and retrobulbar neuritis (= inflammation of the optic nerve). Often occurs as a sequel to such viral infections as glandular fever. interfering with such actions as holding a cup. The commonest symptom is tremor. and cannot be attributed to other disorders. Inability to concentrate.) Degenerative disease process (associated with aging) that affects the basal ganglia of the brain. Depression. which may be painful. Associated with a deficiency of the neurotransmitter dopamine. is made worse by physical or mental exertion. A severe burning or stabbing pain often following the course of a nerve. usually causing weakness and numbness. does not resolve with bed rest. Neuritis Parkinson's Disease Tremor. Poor co-ordination. spreading first to the leg on the same side then to the other limbs. Also associated with aging. does not resolve with bed rest. Sore throat. It is most profound in resting limbs. The patient has an expressionless face. is made worse by physical or mental exertion. Inflammation of the nerves. Joint pain.

and a shuffling walk. It is characterized by bright red. pink spots around the cervical opening. During the onset of the disease. in oligomenorrhea. Pain felt down the back and outer side of the thigh. and foot. Many mucous glands are present in this region which constantly keep the vagina well lubricated.The onset may be sudden. leading to cervicitis. abnormal functioning of the glands related to secretion of sex hormones. Cervical Erosion Cervical erosion is the condition in which ulcers are formed in the cervix region. infections and other diseases erupting from unknown causes. an increasing tendency to stoop. leg. Oligomenorrhea Oligomenorrhea is a condition characterized by prolonged gaps between two menses. Diseases of reproductive system need immediate attention as the chances of transmission of the disease to healthy individuals is high. This includes all the inherited or acquired diseases. which protrudes laterally to compress a lower lumbar or an upper sacral spinal nerve root. a woman menstruates every 25 to 30 days. a nerve or nerve root. primary amenorrhea and secondary amenorrhea. brought on by an awkward lifting or twisting movement. Given below is the list of reproductive system disorders in men and women. It is classified into two types. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Reproductive system diseases is a generic term that refers to all the diseases that affect the organs of reproductive system in human beings. . Thus. The back is stiff and painful. Sciatica A common condition arising from compression of. or damage to. however. However. patches of mucous are shed by the body. vaginal infections can be transmitted to the uterine cervix. whereas secondary amenorrhea is the abrupt cessation of menstrual cycle after years of regular menses. Secondary amenorrhea occurs in women who have not yet reached perimenopausal age.unmodulated voice. Cervicitis It is basically an inflammation of uterine cervix. Reproductive System Diseases in Women Amenorrhea Amenorrhea refers to a condition in which an individual fails to menstruate. Typically. Usually caused by degeneration of an intervertebral disc. There may be numbness and weakness in the leg. the woman only menstruates for 4 to 9 times in a year. this creates a conducive environment for the growth of bacteria and other microbes. if the disease happens to be a sexually transmitted one. Oligomenorrhea may cause due to estrogen deficiency and may lead to infertility. Primary amenorrhea is the abnormal delay for the menstrual cycle to initiate.

which must be reported to the physician. leading to constant pain during erection. A direct physical injury to testes or other internal disturbances are usually the cause of hydrocele. when the penis gets erect. Once. The raw placenta. Respiratory System . As mentioned above. there are several other diseases of reproductive system which affect a large number of population. Besides these. Prostate Disorders Prostate gland is a major functional gland in men. Enlarged prostate and prostate cancer are such diseases that mainly afflict men in sixties and seventies. Normally. the corpora cavernosa and the corpus spongiosum become engorged with blood so as to render the hardness to the penis. This is an asymptotic condition and it may further lead to testicular tumors if it goes untreated for a longer time. the enlarged parts become tender and painful. fluid accumulates in and around the testes. gynecomastia afflicts only one breast. It is mainly attributed to hormonal imbalance. Usually. the male hormone androgen takes over after puberty. Although. the pain quickly takes over again. Hydrocele In this disease. Priapism This condition refers to painful erection. It is usually reported in older males of age 40 and above. Reproductive System Diseases in Men Gynecomastia This disorder is due to abnormal enlargement of breasts in men. This disease is characterized by a very high fever. the person may experience pleasurable sensation for some time. the development of breasts stops.Puerperal Fever It is also called childbed fever as it mostly occurs within 10 days of childbirth or miscarriage. after separation becomes very prone to infections and lacerations. Any abnormality or dysfunction with this gland results in plethora of diseases and disorders. the symptoms of reproductive diseases must be immediately reported to the physician for early diagnosis and treatment. In priapism.

with or witho corticosteroids. and difficulty in breathing. especially t house dust mite. exertion. will help to reduce the frequency of attac as will the discouragement of smoking. and air pollution. Chronic Bronchitis: Is not primarily an inflammatory condition. Effect (Symptoms) Treatment: is with bronchodilators. infections. The following table lists them in alphabetical order. Severe asthmatic attacks may need large doses of corticosteroids. Coughing The production of mucpurulent sputum. which changes in severity over short periods of time (either spontaneously or under treatment) and leads to cough. such as hay-fever and dermatitis. however the onset may be delayed into adulthood or even middle or old age. usually administered via aerosol or d powder inhalers. Emphysema Pulmonary emphysema: The air sacs (alveoli) of the lungs are enlarged and damaged.Avoidance of known allergens. as the treatment is quite different. Oral corticosteroid are reserved for patients who fail to respond adequately to these measures. Cause May be precipitated by exposure to one or more of a wide range of stimuli. wheezing. Narrowing of the bronchi due to spasmodic contraction. Term Asthma Definition Bronchial Asthma is the condition of subjects with widespread narrowing of the bronchial airways.The onset of asthma is usually early in life and in atopic subjects may be accompanied by other manifestations of hypersensitivity. The bronchospasm canno always be relieved by bronchodilator drugs. a food additives. Bronchitis Acute Bronchitis: Is caused by viruses or bacteria. Severe emphysema causes breathlessness/severe breathing difficulty. or – if the condition is more severe – vi nebulizer. air pollution. although it is frequently complicated by acute infections. The patient coughs up excessive mucus secrete by enlarged bronchial mucus glands. The disease is particularly prevalent in Britain in association with cigarette smoking.Conditions affecting the Respiratory System This page includes some basic information about certain common conditions of the respiratory system / disorders of the respiratory system. which is made worse by infections. Cardiac Asthma occurs in left ventricular heart failure and must be distinguished from bronchial asthma. emotion. and emphysema. allergens arising from domestic pets. drugs (such as aspirin and other NSAIDs and beta blockers). including allergens. which reduces the surface area for the exchange of Normal lung tissue contains: .

and other plants. Pollens of grasses. and other plants. Malaise. A characteristic ‘rub’ can heard through a stethoscope. together with Cough and chest pai Treatment: Appropriate antibiotic therap based on the clinical situatio and on microbiological studie results in complete recovery .g. in which the air sacs (alveoli) become filled with inflammatory cells and the lung becomes solid.If the allergen identified it may be possible t undertake desensitization. Often due to pneumonia in the underlying lung. According to the clinical environmental circumstances under which the infection is acquired (e. Headaches etc. Pain on deep breathing. or abdomen. Symptoms include those of a infection: Fever. The presence of gas or air gives the affected tissues a characteristic crackling feeling to the touch. and bacteria may form gas in soft tissues. Surgical emphysema: The presence of gas or air gi the affected tissues a characteristic crackling feelin to the touch. smoking. It is easily absorbed once the leak or production is stopped. trees. trees. so that there is pain on deep breathing. diaphragm. Pleurisy is always associated with some other disease in the lung.. Hay Fever A form of allergy due to the pollen of grasses. ‘community- Pneumonia Inflammation of the lung caused by bacteria. Air may escape into the tissues of the chest and neck from leaks in the lungs and oesophagus. and watering eyes are due to histamine release and often respond to treatment with antihistamines. The normally shiny and slippery pleural surfaces lose their sheen and become slightly sticky. chest wall. According to the infecting organism. and it may be visible on X-rays. The symptoms of sneezing. running or blocked nose. Pleurisy Inflammation of the pleura. characterized by inflammation of the lining of the nose and sometimes of the conjunctiva.oxygen and carbon dioxide. Over-expansion of aveloar sacs leads to: Loss of elasticity Loss of surface area Loss of lung capacity Insufficient take-up of oxygen It is particularly common in men in Britain and is associated with chronic bronchitis. occasionally air escapes into other tissues during surgery. Bacteria Pneumonias may be classified in different ways: According to X-ray appearance. and advancing age.

It may be caused by: Virus infection (acute rhinitis). like calcium and phosphorous which are supplied to various body parts through blood. night sweats. Along with the muscles.. kidneys. The skeletal system not only protects vital organs. liver. our skeletal system forms a leverage system that helps us to move our limbs and perform various activities. but also acts as a reservoir of minerals. spinal cord. leading to peritonitis. ‘hospitalacquired (nosocomial) pneumonia’). Bacillus inhaled into the lungs: In pulmonary tuberculosis – formerly known as consumption and pthisis (wasting – the bacillus is inhaled into the lungs where it sets up a primary tubercle and spreads to the nearest lymph nodes (the primary complex). Rhinitis Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose. ligaments as well as teeth. and bones. like brain. Natural immune defences may heal it at this stage. joints. In some cases the bac spread from the lungs to the bloodstream. In atrophic rhinitis the muco membrane becomes thinned and fragile. t membrane. and sometimes spread to other organs. weight loss. The skeletal system forms a supportive framework for the human body. The bones are connected to each other through ligaments and to muscles through tendons. Many people become infected but show no symptoms. In perennial (or vasomotor) rhinitis there is overgrowth o and increased secretion by. tendons. An allergic reaction (allergic rhinitis). Bacillus entering by mouth (usually in infected cow’s milk): Set up a primary complex in the abdominal lymph nodes. Tuberculosis An infectious disease caused by the bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis and characterized by the formation of nodular lesions (tubercles) in the tissues. Preventative measures in the UK include t detection of cases by X-ray screening of vunerable populations and inoculation w BCG vaccine of those with no immunity to the disease. The process of formation and development of blood cells (hematopoiesis) occurs in the bone marrow of long bones. the majority of patients. . heart. Skeletal System The adult human skeletal system comprises 206 bones and the associated cartilage. lungs. setting up millio of tiny tubercles throughout th body (military tuberculosis) migrate to the meninges to cause tuberculous meningitis Treatment:Tuberculosis is curable by various combinati of antibiotics. Symptoms of the active disea include fever. and provides stable anchoring points for soft tissues.acquired pneumonia’. etc. alternatively the disease may smoulder for months or years and fluctuate with the patient’s resistance. Others develop a chronic infection and can transmit the bacillus by coughing and sneezing. and the spitting o blood.

leading to disproportionate shortness of the extremities (legs. Cancers Osteosarcoma: . making it difficult for them to walk and move around. one foot or both the feet point downwards and inwards. Osteopetrosis: It is a rare inherited disorder wherein bone reabsorption is altered due to dysfunctional osteoclasts. It is also inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. this disorder involves the development of benign (noncancerous) bone tumors called exostoses. infectious agents. disorders and medical conditions of the skeletal system have been described below. In case of this disorder. Some of the commonly known diseases. Spina Bifida: It is a neural tube defect in which the skeletal tissues surrounding the spinal cord remain underdeveloped. the two sides of each vertebra join together to form a column around the spinal cord. This leads to increased bone density and hardening of bones. Congenital and Hereditary Achondroplasia: It is an autosomal dominant disorder that affects growth and development of long bones. genetic anomalies. Under normal conditions. such fusion does not take place in certain vertebrae. Achondrogenesis: It includes a set of disorders resulting due to growth hormone deficiency. which leads to altered bone and cartilage development. this genetic anomaly leads to underproduction of cartilage causing fragile bones. leaving a slit in the spinal column. fingers and toes) relative to the trunk. It is characterized by bone deformation. and blue sclerae. etc. Clubfoot: Also known as talipes equinovarus. loose joints.The tissues of the skeletal system are affected by degenerative wear and tear. Such tumors cause uneven limb growth and limited joint movements. The infants are stillborn or die shortly after birth. Hereditary Multiple Exostoses: Inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. In babies born with this disorder. it is the most common congenital disorder which affects joints of the feet. Osteogenesis Imperfecta: Also known as brittle bone disease. arms.

and the upper part of limbs are the most common sites of origin. shoulder bones. etc. calcium and phosphate. fever. It is the result of an imbalance in the bone formation and bone reabsorption processes. trauma. either contracted through another infected organ of the body or after surgeries involving metal plates and rods. Ewing's Sarcoma: It is a type of primary bone cancer and may originate in the long bones. Osteoarthritis. Others Arthritis: It is a group of diseases involving inflammation of joints. The cancer then metastasizes to other body tissues as well. nausea. pelvic bones or even flat bones of the skull. with the average age of diagnosis being 15 years. knees. It is characterized by severe pain and inflammation in the infected bone. Osteoporosis: It is one of the most common bone diseases. Chondrosarcoma: It is a malignant bone cancer that originates in the cartilage. chills. Bursitis: It implies the inflammation of fluid-filled sacs called bursae. elbows and hips are the commonly affected joints. rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis are some of the common types. and weakness. wear and tear of the joints and associated tissues. and infection are the common causes. dental and skeletal deformities. The symptoms include pain and tenderness of bones. muscle cramps. It is more common in adults. It mostly occurs during childhood and adolescence. Such inflammation can occur due to infections. Rickets: This disorder involves the softening and weakening of bones due to the deficiency of vitamin D. which serve as a cushion between the bone. The bones become weak and tend to get fractured easily. It is more common in children and generally develops during puberty. or aging. Pelvic bones. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common causative agent. Shoulders. Autoimmunity. Depending on the cause and the tissue affected. and is characterized by reduction in bone mineral density. and the tendons and/or muscles present in joints. Osteomyelitis: It is the result of bone infection.It is a type of bone cancer that involves the growth of cancerous tumors in the fast-growing regions of bones. about 100 different types have been identified. .

connective tissue disorders. and is characterized by formation of a hunchback. degenerative spine diseases. This can occur due to injury. Infections. and muscular dystrophy. and bone dislocations. shoulders. twisting or lifting objects. trauma. Osteonecrosis: Insufficient blood supply to large joints such as hips. It is characterized by chronic backache and lower back pain as well as difficulty in bending. This is termed as osteonecrosis. Urinary System . are some of the causes. congenital or neuromuscular. fractures. It may be idiopathic (spontaneously arising). elbows and knees leads to death of the bone tissues in that area. Kyphosis: This is also a condition of abnormal spine curvature. radiation therapy.Scoliosis: Scoliosis is a condition involving excessive or abnormal curvature of the spine.