Prepared as a compulsory part of Post Graduate Diploma in Energy Audit & Management Course Presented by Abhijit Midder Udiptya Das Sudipta Sutradhar Amartya Shankar Chakraborty


Introduction  Understanding Coal Fired Power Plant  Energy Efficiency  Various Energy Loses  Various Energy Savings Potential  Environmental Effects



India’s Installed Capacity


India’s Present situation of power generation


6% 55%
Coal & Lignite Gas Hydro

The Question is………. Why we need to install more power plant ?

Nuclear Other Renewables

If we need new power plants then why we are going for coal fired plant……

What is the present scenario of newly installed coal based plant in respect of energy conversion, efficiency, losses…….
Is it safe for environmental issues? We will see shortly………

750 REQUIREMENT 700 650 600 550 507 500 450 483 467 2001 2002 498 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 519 546 523 548 559 579 591 631 624 AVAILABILITY 691 737 665 4 .Electricity Demand and Supply in India     Robust economic growth – The Driver GDP GROWTH TARGET OF 9% SET BY GOVT. DURING XI PLAN (2007-2012). ELECTRICITY IS AN IMPORTANT INPUT TO THE MARCH OF PROGRESS OF ANY COUNTRY TODAY. BE COMMENSURATE WITH GROWTH IN GDP. IT IS THEREFORE NATURAL THAT THE GROWTH IN ELECTRICITY GENERATION & AVAILABILITY.

000 MW required in the next 10 years to satisfy India’s power needs New capacity will need to come from a combination of coal. nuclear and wind projects    5 . gas.Electricity Demand and Supply in India  India is facing energy shortages of 11% of demand and even higher peak shortages of 14% Demand-supply gap is more acute in Western region (where 70% of the Project’s power will be supplied) with energy deficit at 16% and peak deficit at 21% Capacity additions of 160. hydro.

340 NATIONAL ELECTRICITY POLICY TARGETS PER CAPITA AVAILABILITY OF 1000 KWH BY 2012 6.240 2.425 7.442 8.701 Source: UNDP Human Development Report 2007-08 – Data for 2004 6 .459 14.684 2.Electricity Demand and Supply in India In 2006 India Egypt China Brazil Russia Germany Japan USA World Average 665 618 1.465 1.

CAPACITY ADDITION EXPECTED DURING 11th PLAN (2007-12) (Conventional) – 78.627MW.5343 MW.890 MW.000 MW 7 .380MW. 3.5130MW.513MW ( Coal – 51. 59. 75% Thermal – 59.520 MW HYDRO. 21% NUCLEAR. 15. Lignite. 4% THERMAL. Gas.000 MW : Captive – 12.2280 MW) Additional capacity expected : New Renewable – 14.

Understanding Coal Fired Power Plant 8 .

2. Interruption due to transmission line fault is less.  Only Washed Coal should be transported to load centre stations 9 . Power quality will be better. Fuel transportation cost is higher. 3. Disadvantages: 1. Environmental pollution will effect populated area.Understanding Coal Fired Power Plant  LOCATION: Load Center Based Advantage:  Power Transmission cost is less 1.

Mainly the populated area is located far away from mines. 2. so the pollution rate is less in that area. Fuel Transportation cost is less. Disadvantage: 1. Power Transmission cost is higher.  Only Washed Coal should be transported to load centre stations  Keeping in view the problems of fly ash and the high ash content coal.Understanding Coal Fired Power Plant Fuel center based Advantage: 1. the desirable option would be to develop large pit head coal projects and transmit the power to the load centers. 10 .

Understanding Coal Fired Power Plant The basic energy cycle involved in the plant is as follows : Chemical Energy Mechanical Energy Electrical Energy 11 .

Understanding Coal Fired Power Plant 12 .

The reported efficiency of Indian power plants is generally lower as compared to efficiency of plants abroad. primarily due to : • • • Poorer condenser vacuum due to hot climatic conditions Higher un-burnt carbon losses in boiler due to low grade high ash Indian coal Efficiency is reported on HHV basis of coal (same as the practice followed in USA) as against LHV used elsewhere. transmission and distribution of which major loss is in the form of heat.  13 . The remaining 60-70% is lost during generation. higher heating value basis) to produce 1 kWh of net electrical energy output.Energy Efficiency in Coal Fired Power Plant  Most thermal power plant uses 30-40% of energy value of primary fuels. Higher Heat Rate value of the components. (The heat rate of a plant is the amount of fuel energy input needed (Btu.

the power market is set to attract a lot of investors and competition With tariff based bidding becoming a norm. utilities have to bring down their cost of generation to remain competitive Increased emphasis on Environmental considerations for clean technology CDM opportunities arising out of global warming concerns Fuel. Land & Water availability becoming more and more difficult Efficiency enhancement feasible in future plants as well as existing plants         14 .Drivers for higher plant Efficiencies Demand of power is set to grow with growing economy Large capacity needs to be added to meet the projected growth in demand With Electricity Act 2003 coming into vogue.

Adoption of Clean Coal Technologies ― Supercritical / Ultra supercritical Technology ― Circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) ― Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Suitable for Indian Coal 15 . Establishment of Energy Efficiency cells at thermal power stations    Energy Conservation through legislation Promotion of Renewable Energy Sources.Initiatives Towards Higher Plant Efficiencies  Improvement in efficiency and performance of existing generating units through :    Renovation and Modernisation schemes with emphasis on Energy Efficiency Partnership in excellence. 5% of the total investment must be Solar energy.

Restore de-rated capacity Extension of economic life. 16 . Safety requirements. auxiliary power consumption. heat rate/efficiency.Efficiency Improvement Through Renovation & Modernization   A COST EFFECTIVE APPROACH …… CONTINUE GETTING THE BEST OUT OF EXISTING FLEET  Improvement in performance parameters – PLF. Availability. partial loading & forced outage.      Obsolescence & non availability of spares Environmental issues/other statutory requirements.

. aims at to minimising losses ( to approach design values) Efficiency improvement through technology intervention/enhanced R&M. e. 17 . targeting efficiency enhancement even beyond design value.    Shift in focus from ‘Generation Maximization to ‘Plant Performance Optimization’ – Older units have many more opportunities to reduce heat rate than newer units. Use of high end technology solutions for efficiency enhancement to manage rising costs & reduce carbon.  Steam flow path modification  Steam turbine and boiler upgrades  Improved plant control   Efficiency improvement as a result of normal R&M.Major Initiatives …………….. Retirement of very old small size low efficiency units and replacement with higher efficiency units. foot prints.g.

Various Energy Losses in Coal Fired Power Station TYPICAL PLANT LOSSES 18 .

Various Energy Losses in Coal Fired Power Station TYPICAL BOILER LOSSES 19 .

Various Energy Losses in Coal Fired Power Station TYPICAL CYCLE LOSSES 20 .

b. If APH leakage exceeds design value then it requires corrective action. c. Air & flue gas cycle:a. Attending the air & flue gas leakages: . auxiliary cooling water (ACW) system. Compressed air system.. fuel & ash cycle.Many thermal power plants have oversize fan causing huge difference between design & operating point leads to lower efficiency. 21 .Leakages in air & flue gas path increases fan loading. There is tremendous scope of energy saving potential in each system/cycle. Use of Thermo vision monitoring can be adopted to identify leakages in flue gas path. Equipment cooling water (ECW). Optimizing excess air ratio: .Major energy saving potential areas in Thermal Power Plant Thermal power consist of various sub cycles / systems like air & flue gas cycle.It reduces FD fan & ID fan loading. Use of HT VFD for PA & ID fan can be the solution. main steam. HVAC system etc. Replacement of oversize FD and PA fan: . Electrical auxiliary power & lighting system. Air preheater performance is one crucial factor in leakage contribution. feed water & condensate cycle .  1.

Attending passing recirculation valve of BFP: .BFP Power consumption Increases due to passing of R/C valve. g. Steam.        22 . Installation of HT VFD for CEP: .It is not advisable to keep steam line unnecessary charge if steam is not utilized since there energy loss occurred due to radiation. e. It affects pump performance. Hence cartridge replacement is necessary.Major energy saving potential areas in Thermal Power Plant 2. Optimization of level set point in LP & HP heater: b. c.CEP capacity is underutilized and also there is pressure loss occurs across Deareator level control valve. f. Isolation of steam line which is not in use: . Charging of APRDS from CRH line instead of MS line: -APRDS charging from cold reheat (CRH) is always more beneficial than from MS line charging. Replacement of BFP cartridge: . It requires corrective action. causing short circuit of feed water Flow inside the pump.BFP draws more current If Cartridge is wore out. Feed water and condensate cycle:a. There is large scope of energy saving which can be accomplished by use of HT VFD for CEP or impeller trimming.

d.Dry deashing system consumes less power & also minimizes waste reduction. 23 .running hrs.grade coal instead of only using F.grade coal: . Use of Wash Coal or Blending with A. Hence ball loading is to be Optimized depending upon coal fineness report. c.F-grade coal has high ash content. mill fineness. Fuel & ash Cycle:Optimized ball loading in Ball tube mill: .Excessive ball loading increases mill power. Avoiding idle running of conveyors & crusher in CHP Use of Dry ash Evacuation instead of WET deashing System: . e. Optimize mill maintenance:-Mill corrective/preventive maintenance is to be optimized depending parameter like. degree of reject pipe chocking etc.Major energy saving potential areas in Thermal Power Plant a. Overall performance can be improved by using Wash coal or blending of F-grade coal with A.grade coal. bottom ash unburnt particle. 3. b.

b. Power consumption. Use of heat of compression air dryer instead of electrically heated air dryer: . Power consumption of screw compressor is less than reciprocating air compressor leads to reduce aux. Installing absorption refrigeration system instead of vapor compression system c. Power consumption. Optimizing discharge air pressure by tuning loading/unloading cycle: .Major energy saving potential areas in Thermal Power Plant 4. Use of screw compressor instead reciprocating compressor: . thus reduces sp.Heat of compression air dryer use heat generated in compression cycle. c. 5. Compressed air system:a. Cooling tower performance improvement b. Use of wind turbo ventilators instead of conventional motor driven exhauster 24 .Sp. HVAC system a.It helpful to reduce sp. power consumption.

a number of Ultra Mega Power Projects (UMPPs) are planned to be set up at pit head and coastal locations requiring a very large area of land for main plant. ash disposal and other facilities. While deliberating the land requirement for coal based thermal power stations. Further. it was observed that comparatively larger area was being made use for setting up coal based thermal power stations in our country whereas the land requirement in other countries was reported to be much less.Land Requirement for Thermal Power Plant: A GoI Ministry of Power & CEA Approach    During 11th Plan. a coal based thermal capacity of 52905 MW is proposed to be added. especially for the proposed Ultra Mega Power Projects (UMPPs) in the Ministry of Power. Since the availability of suitable land and its acquisition is getting more difficult day by day. 25 . it was felt essential to optimize the plant layouts and thereby to reduce the overall land requirement for thermal power plants. Land is precious and in view of large capacity addition proposed by coal based thermal power projects need has been felt to optimize the land requirement for the thermal plants.

The following has been considered while working out land requirement for various equipment and systems: 1. 7. 26 . if any. 4. This includes area for lay down which will be later converted to green belt. Area for green belt is taken as 1/3rd of the main plant area. 6. 10 km long and 12m/ 14m wide corridor for water pipelines. 5. shall be extra. with 30m /35m width corridor for single track/ double tracks. Water Storage for 10 days requirement with water reservoir of 8m depth. Indigenous Coal with 40% ash for units up to 660 MW and with 34% ash (washed coal) for 800 MW. The space required for diversion of the drains and transmission lines passing through plant area/ash dyke area. 3. 10% ash in imported coal for coastal stations. MGR rail distance of 20 km for pit head stations and 10 km for coastal stations. 2. 765 kV switchyard with 1½ breaker scheme.

Typical Layout of a Ultra Mega Thermal Power Project 27 .

Environmental Effects of Thermal Power Project Coal . a non-renewable resource  Mining site  Land that cannot be reused  Occupational hazard 28 .

The high amount of carbon dioxide emission from thermal power plants contribute to global warming leading to climate change is significant Ground level ozone. which is formed due to photolytic reactions of NOx and its impacts are under study  Mercury vapour is also emitted with these gases and its toxicity has far reaching consequences on all life forms 29 . population living within a 2 -5 km radius of the plant suffers from respiratory disorders .  Epidemiological Studies have shown that of the area surrounding coal based thermal plants. Oxides of Nitrogen and SPM are high. carbon dioxide and ozone are emitted.  Two other gases.Environmental Effects of Thermal Power Project Air Quality  Around the coal based plants the ambient concentrations of Sulphur Dioxide.

Gases produced Increase mean ambient temperature for all beings within the ecological niche  Coal produces carbon dioxide. the main     greenhouse gas Produces oxides of sulfur and nitrogen Mercury a poisonous gas Coal dust Particulate matter in the air 30 .

 Fly ash contains a toxic brew of dangerous chemicals and is the largest contributor to mercury pollution  Water slurry is used to take the ash from the power plant to the ash pond for disposal.  Water slowly seeps into the ground while carrying with it the ash leachate( Lye).Fly Ash………. increases turbidity. leaches into groundwater supplies which get polluted and unsuitable for domestic use.. which have a tendency to leach out over a period of time.  When fly ash comes into contact with water. decreases primary productivity. This Water contains harmful heavy metals like boron. dust nuisance. affects fishes and other aquatic biota Fly Ash Pond 31 .  The release of ash pond decant into the local water bodieswater dries up.

It becomes more alkaline due to the alkaline nature of fly ash.Fly Ash………..  Soft bodied soil workers like earthworms will die out  Food will contain a wider cocktail of chemicals as farmers try to correct the poor productivity of crops 32 .  Large amount of land is used to dispose flyash from the coal based plants  Due to this there is change in natural soil properties.

.Effects on Human……….  The exposure of employees to high noise levels is very high  Increased transportation activities due to the operation of the power plants lead to increase in noise levels in the adjacent localities. 33 .

Water pollution  Vital sources of water culminated 34 .

Temperature rising……  Coal and water slurry must be heated to 800 degrees  Water. already a scarce global resource will be     needed in ever bigger quantities both at the plant and in surrounding areas The used slurry will be released into water bodies and warm them. killing many sensitive life forms The cap of smog will mean more heat: greenhouse effect Enzyme activity in all life forms including human completely stops at 48 degrees Celsius Consequences of loss in the natural pest predator balance will create a higher occurrence in bacteriological diseases on an epidemic scale 35 .

fly ash bricks also called green bricks . raising of dykes.  Uses of Fly ash Fly ash is used in producing very strong high power concrete. mine filling etc..Re Use of Fly Ash………. soil stabilization. Which is called self compacting Concrete(SCC). precast products like tiles and blocks. 36 . agricultural use . fly ash fills roads.