Integumentary System Integument: ___________________ Dermat: ____________ ology: ___________________ A.
The skin is the largest organ of the body, covering _________ m2 in adults and accounting for ___% of body weight. 1. The skin is composed of two layers: a. The stratified squamous layer called the ____________________. b. The connective tissue layer called the ______________. connective i. Beneath the dermis is another tissue layer called the ________________ or _________________________ layer.
2. Most of the skin is _____ mm thick, but it ranges from __________ mm thick. B. Functions of the skin 1. Resistance to ________________ and ____________________. a. Epidermal cells contain the protein keratin (kerat: ____________). _____________ is the protein in animal horns and forms the outer layer of our skin. 2. Barrier to _______________, UV radiation, and chemicals. a. The skin can be permeable to some chemicals and drugs (nicotine patch, nitroglycerine patch, etc.) 3. __________________ synthesis a. The first step in vitamin D synthesis, which is needed for ________________ and maintenance, occurs in the skin. 4. ___________________ a. Nerve endings in the skin sense temperature, pressure, touch, vibration, and pain depending on number and location of receptors. 5. ____________________ a. Vasoconstriction and vasodilation of cutaneous blood vessels and sweat glands help maintain ________________________________. C. __________________________ is a keratinized ___________________________ layer that lacks blood vessels and has few nerve endings. 1. There are 5 types of cells in the epidermis
a. ________________ cells are _____________________________ cells that divide to form keratinocytes and are only in the stratum basale. synthesize b. _________________________ are the most ________________ cell in the epidermis and ___________________.
c. _____________________ are located in the stratum basale and synthesize the pigment _________________ which is secreted out of the cells and absorbed by keratinocytes. d. _____________ cells are _____________________ for touch found in the stratum basale. e. _________________________ cells are located in the stratum spinosum and stratum granulosum and are ________________________ that protect the surrounding cells from toxins and other pathogens. D. Layers of the epidermis
1. Stratum ________________is a _____________ layer of cuboidal to low columnar stem cells keratinocytes on the basement membrane. 2. Stratum __________________ is composed of several layers of keratinocytes, and is usually ______________ section except in thick skin.
3. Stratum ________________________ has _________ layers of flat keratinocytes containing granules of keratin. This is the location of _______________________ of the keratinocytes. 4. Stratum _________________ is a translucent zone only in _______________ skin containing cells that lack nuclei and other organelles. 5. The stratum _______________ consists of up to _________ layers of dead keratinized cells. E. The ______________ is a connective tissue layer ranging in thickness between ______________ mm thick. 1. The main component of the dermis is ___________________. a. Other components include _____________ and reticular fibers, _________________, and other cells found in fibrous connective tissue. b. The dermis contains blood vessels, nerve endings, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, hair follicles, and piloerector muscles. 2. The dermis is split into two layers:
a. The _________________ layer is a thin area of ______________ tissue that allows movement of leukocytes between layers, and is highly vascularized.
b. The ___________________ layer is deeper and thicker than the papillary layer. of i. This layer contains thicker bundles of __________________ fibers and groups __________________.
F. The ____________________________ can often be indistinguishable from the dermis with continued amounts of __________________ and ____________________ tissue. 1. _________________________ fat is adipose tissue contained within the hypodermis.
Review Questions 1. Define integumentary and dermatology. 2. What is the body’s largest organ? 3. What are the two layers of the skin? 4. What are the 5 functions of the skin? 5. Why is Vitamin D synthesis important for the body? 6. How does the skin help regulate body temperature? 7. What are the 5 types of cells in the epidermis? 8. What is keratin, and what cells produce it? 9. What is melanin, what cells produce it, and what cells absorb it? 10. What are the names of macrophages found in the epidermis? 11. What is the most abundant cell type in the epidermis? 12. What are the layers of thick and thin skin skin? 13. What layer is present in the thick skin that is not present in the thin skin? 14. What layer is the site of cell death? 15. What is the tissue type of the dermis? 16. What is the primary component of the dermis? 17. What are the two layers of the dermis, and how are they different? 18. What is the hypodermis, what is its function?
Membranes & Glands A. A ___________is a cell or organ that ____________________ substances for use elsewhere in the body or releases them for elimination from the body and are composed of _____________________ cells. 1. Glands can be classified as exocrine or endocrine. a. exo: ________; endo: ___________; crine: ______________________ a duct, b. ________________ glands secrete substances onto a ________________________ using which is an epithelial tube.
c. ________________ glands are ___________________ glands and do not contact a free surface. Endocrine glands secrete ______________________ which function as chemical messengers. 2. Exocrine glands are enclosed in a fibrous ________________ that separate the gland into _____________. a. Exocrine glands are classified as ____________ for a single duct or ___________________ for branched ducts. ____________ forming a b. Exocrine glands can be classified by ____________ of their secretory portion with glands having ____________________________, and _____________ glands ____________________________.
3. Secretions from exocrine glands milk, tears a. ________________ glands produce ____________, _______________ fluids such as sweat, and digestive juices.
b. __________________ glands secrete the glycoprotein ____________ which absorbs water to form ________________, _________________ mucus. 4. Methods of secretion a. ________________ or eccrine glands release their secretions through ______________ released by_______________________. b. ___________________ glands accumulate a product and then the cell __________________ to release the product, which creates a thicker byproduct due to the _____________________________. B. Membranes 1. The largest membrane of the body is the _____________________membrane consisting of a stratified squamous epithelium and a connective tissue layer, and it is relatively ___________ compared to other membranes.
2. There are two types of internal membranes: a. ___________________ membranes or _____________________ line passageways that open to the _____________________ environment namely the cells lining the digestive, respiratory, urinary and reproductive tracts. i. A mucosa has _____________ layers consisting of an _________________, an ____________ connective tissue layer called the _________________________, and sometimes a __________________________ layer called the _________________________ mucosa. _______________ and aa. The function of these membranes is _________________, ____________________________.
b. ____________ membranes or _______________ are _______________________ epithelium that sit on a thin ______________________ connective tissue layer and produce watery ______________ fluid. similar to and form a i. Serous fluid is named because it is derived from the _____________and is ____________________________. ii. Serous membranes line the _______________ of some body ______________ smooth ________________ surface on some of the viscera.
c. ______________________ membranes are made only of _______________________ and line some of the ____________________ in the skeletal system bridging the gap from one ____________to another secreting synovial fluid into the joint. Review Questions 1. Define gland and exocrine and endocrine. 2. Contrast a simple and a compound gland and a tubular and acinar gland. 3. Contrast the merocrine and holocrine methods of secretion. 4. What is the body’s largest membrane? 5. What are the two types of internal membranes? 6. What are the differences between a mucous and a serous membrane? 7. What are the layers of a mucous membrane, and which of the four tissue types compose each layer? 8. What is the name of the membranes that surround joints?