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3.1 Introduction The induction machine is used in wide variety of applications as a means of converting electric power to mechanical power. Pump steel mill, hoist drives, household applications are few applications of induction machines. Induction motors are most commonly used as they offer better performance than other ac motors. In this chapter, the development of the model of a three-phase induction motor is examined starting with how the induction motor operates. The derivation of the dynamic equations, describing the motor is explained. The transformation theory, which simplifies the analysis of the induction motor, is discussed. The steady state equations for the induction motor are obtained. The basic principles of the operation of a three phase inverter is explained, following which the operation of a three phase inverter feeding a induction machine is explained with some simulation results.

3.2. Basic Principle Of Operation Of Three-Phase Induction Machine

The operating principle of the induction motor can be briefly explained as, when balanced three phase voltages displaced in time from each other by angular intervals of 120o is applied to a stator having three phase windings displaced in space by 120o electrical, a rotating magnetic field is produced. This rotating magnetic field

45

Depending on the shaft load the rotor will always settle at a speed ω r . there will be no emf resulting in zero torque production.1) ωr = P ωm . The stator windings of which are identical. currents start circulating in them.1.has a uniform strength and rotates at the supply frequency. the reaction is to counter the source of the rotor currents. and with the same strength. These currents would become zero when the rotor starts rotating in the same direction as that of the rotating magnetic field. ωe and ω so is given as [13] ω so = ωe . When the differential speed between these two become zero then the rotor currents will be zero. with N s equivalent turns and resistance rs . producing a reaction. has electromagnetic forces induced in it. 46 . three-phase wye-connected induction machine is shown in Figure 3.2) 3.ωr If ω m is the mechanical rotor speed then (3. Thus the rotor starts rotating trying to catch up with the rotating magnetic field. This differential speed is called the slip speed ω so . As the rotor windings are short circuited. sinusoidally distributed in space with a phase displacement of 120o . The relation between. which is less than the supply frequency ωe . the rotor that was assumed to be standstill until then. As known from Lenz’s law. 2 (3.3 Derivation Of Three-Phase Induction Machine Equations The winding arrangement of a two-pole.

with N r effective turns and a resistance of rr .8.bs axis as' br axis cs ar ' cr br bs ar axis ωr θr as axis ωe br ' bs' cr ' ar cs' as cs axis cr axis Figure 3. Two-pole three-phase symmetrical induction machine. The voltage equations for the stator and the rotor are as given in Equations 3.4) (3. The rotor is assumed to symmetrical with three phase windings displaced in space by an angle of 120o . For the stator: Vas = rs I as + pλas Vbs = rs I bs + pλbs Vcs = rs I cs + pλcs (3.5) 47 .3) (3.1.3 to 3.

Both rs and rr are diagonal matrices each with equal nonzero elements. For a magnetically linear system.For the rotor the flux linkages rotate at the speed of the rotor. (3.6) (3.7) (3. (3. which is ω r : Var = rr I ar + pλar Vbr = rr I br + pλbr Vcr = rr I cr + pλcr .9) (3.13) The winding inductances can be derived [16] and in particular 48 . the flux linkages may be expressed as λabcs Ls λ = T abcr ( Lsr ) Lsr iabcs Lr iabcr (3.12) In the above two equations ‘s’ subscript denoted variables and parameters associated with the stator circuits and the subscript ‘r’ denotes variables and parameters associated with the rotor circuits.8) The above equations can be written in short as Vabcs = rs I abcs + pλabcs Vabcr = rr I abcr + pλabcr where (3.where Vas.10) (Vabcs )T = [Vas Vbs Vcs ] (Vabcr )T = [Var Vbr Vcr ] . and Vcs are the three phase balanced voltages which rotate at the supply frequency. Vbs .11) (3.

14) Llr + Lm 1 Lr = − Lm 2 −1L m 2 1 − Lm 2 Llr + Lm 1 − Lm 2 1 − Lm 2 1 − Lm 2 Llr + Lm (3. Llr and Lm are for the rotor windings. A change of variables is often used to reduce the complexity of these differential equations. Lls + Lm 1 Ls = − Lm 2 −1L 2 m 1 − Lm 2 Lls + Lm 1 − Lm 2 1 − Lm 2 1 − Lm 2 Lls + Lm (3.15) 2π 2π cos(θ r + ) cos(θ r − ) cosθ r 3 3 2π 2π cosθ r cos(θ r + ) . whereupon the coefficients of the differential equations which describe the behavior of these machines are time varying except when the rotor is at standstill. Lls and Lm are the leakage and magnetizing inductances of the stator windings. The inductance Lsr is the amplitude of the mutual inductances between stator and rotor windings. it can be observed that the machine inductances are functions of the rotor speed. For the induction machine under balanced operating conditions the 49 .16) In the above inductance equations. Lsr = Lsr cos(θ r − ) 3 3 cos(θ + 2π ) cos(θ − 2π ) cosθ r r r 3 3 (3. which gives rise to the reference frame theory [16]. From the above inductance equations.

17) where θ s = ∫ ω s t + θ so .synchronous reference frame of transformation is employed in which the reference frame rotates with the same frequency as that of the supply frequency ωe . θ so being the initial angle of the reference frame.19) where f can be voltage current flux or any thing.10 after transforming them in to the synchronous reference frame these equations become Vqs = r s iqs + pλqs + ωe λds Vds = r s ids + pλds − ωe λqs Vos = r s ios + pλos Vqr = r r iqr + pλqr + (ω e − ω r )λdr (3.23) 50 .18) The new variables after the transformation are related to the original variables as f qdo = ( K s (θ s )) f abc (3. The transformation matrix used for the synchronous reference frame transformation is cosθ s 2 K s (θ s ) = sin θ s 3 1 2 cos(θ s − 2π 2π ) cos(θ s + ) 3 3 2π 2π sin(θ s − ) sin(θ s + ) 3 3 1 1 2 2 (3.22) (3.9 and 3. For the equations in 3. The inverse transformation for the above transformation is given as cosθ s sin θ s 1 2π 2π ( K s (θ s )) −1 = sin(θ s − ) cos(θ s − ) 1 .21) (3.20) (3. 3 3 2π 2π cos(θ + ) sin(θ s + ) 1 s 3 3 (3.

axis and usually represent the unbalances in the system. In case of balanced voltages the zero-axis currents. Evaluating each term in the matrix of Equation 3.Vdr = r r idr + pλdr − (ωe − ω r )λqr Vor = r s ior + pλor where (3. Vds .13 yields the flux linkage equations for a magnetically linear system λqd 0 s K s Ls ( K s −1 ) K s Lsr ( K s −1 ) iqd 0 s λ = −1 −1 qd 0 r K s Lsr ( K s ) K s Lr ( K s ) iqd 0 r where (3. I ds . I qs . λds are the d-axis components. I os .14 to 3.28) K s Lsr ( K s −1 (3.26 we get Lls + Lm )= 0 0 Llr + Lm )= 0 0 Lm )= 0 0 0 Lm 0 0 Lls + Lm 0 0 Llr + Lm 0 0 0 0 0 0 Lls 0 0 Llr K s Ls ( K s −1 (3. λqs are the q-axis components.28) (3.16.29) .24) (3. Lr . λos belong to the 0. and Lsr are as defined in Equations 3.27) K s Lr ( K s −1 (3. voltages and flux are zero under normal operating conditions.26) Ls . The flux linkage equations expressed in abc variables given in Equation 3.27) From above the flux linkages the expressions are modified as λ qs = Ls iqs + Lm iqr λ ds = Ls ids + Lm idr 51 (3. and Vos .25) Vqs .

31) (3. which is always less than the angular frequency with which it gets excited.28) (3.37) (3.33) (3.36) Where Te .33 can be expressed in terms of currents as 3 P Te = ( )( ) Lm (iqs idr − ids iqr ) 2 2 (3. Alternative expressions for the torque can be expressed in terms of flux linkages are given in Equations 3.35) (3.35 and 3. 3 P Te = ( )( )(λqr idr − λdr iqr ) 2 2 3 P Te = ( )( )(λds iqs − λqs ids ) 2 2 The expression for the rotor speed is expressed in terms of torque as pωr = P (Te − TL ) 2J (3.30) (3.λ0 s = Lls i0 s λ qr = Lr iqr + Lm iqs λ dr = Lr idr + Lm ids λ0 r = Llr i0 r (3.36.34) where Te is positive for motor action. TL are the electromagnetic and the load torque. respectively. depending on the load torque the motor settles at a speed. The load torque should be positive for motoring operation of the induction machine.32) The expression for the electromagnetic torque in terms of the reference frame variables can be expressed as ∂ P Te = ( )[( K s ) −1 iqdos ]T [ Lsr ]( K s ) −1 iqdor 2 ∂θ r The torque expression in Equation 3. 52 .

25. The equivalent circuit of the machine in the reference frame variables is formed using the equations from 3. symmetrical induction machine in the q-variables.1 Equivalent Circuit Of The Induction Machine rs Lls ωe λds + − (ωe − ωr )λdr − + Llr rr Vqs iqs iqr Lm Vqr Figure 3. The equivalent circuit for the stator is as shown in Figure 3.3. symmetrical induction machine in the d-variables. 53 . The Induction machine equivalent circuit is useful in the analysis of the machine when the motor settles at the rated speed.20 to 3.3. rs Lls ωe λds − + (ωe − ωr )λdr + − Llr rr Vds ids idr Lm Vdr Figure 3.3 Arbitrary reference frame equivalent circuit for a 3-phase.3.2 and that of the rotor is as shown in Figure 3.2 Arbitrary reference frame equivalent circuit for a 3-phase.

20 to 3.42) pωr = (3.39) (3.4 Free Acceleration Characteristics The variables of the induction machine during free acceleration or on no-load are observed which gives a deeper insight as to how the machine operates.38) (3. λqr . pλqs = Vqs − pλds = Vds − pλqr = Vqr − pλdr = Vdr − Te = rs Lr rL λqs − ωλds + s m λqr K K rs Lr rL λds − ωλqs + r m λdr K K rr Ls rL λqr + r m λqs − (ω − ωr )λdr K K rr Ls rL λdr + r m λds + (ω − ωr )λqr K K (3. λds . The machine is simulated with either flux or currents as a state variable.41) 3P Lm (λdr iqs − λqr ids ) 4 Lr p (Te − TL ) 2J 2 (3.44) K = Ls Lr − Lm 54 .25 are used.43. Choosing flux as the state variable the equations are less complicated.3. thus flux is chosen to be the state variable and later from the flux equations the currents are obtained.43) (3. The equations for the computer simulation in terms of flux linkages that is λqs . The nonlinear differential equations as given in equations from 3.38 to 3. λdr are given from 3.40) (3.

rotor ( ω = ωr ) or the stator reference ( ω = 0 ) frame depending on which reference frame will make the analysis simple. which show the load torque. It can be seen that when the load is added the speed drops down and when it is removed the speed builds up again to its rated value of 377 rad/sec as it is operating at 60 Hz supply frequency.5 sec and the currents have been magnified in this region. torque and currents was plotted against time. Since the Induction machine is symmetric in both the stator and the rotor in the sense the stator and the rotor have the same kind of windings choosing any reference frame will not make any difference to simplify the analysis. After solving for the flux expressions currents be obtained from them as iqs = ids = iqr = idr = 1 ( Lr λqs − Lm λqr ) K 1 ( Lr λds − Lmλdr ) K 1 ( Ls λqr − Lmλqs ) K (3. 55 .where ω reference frame speed.46) (3. it can be synchronous ( ω = ωe ). The free acceleration characteristics are plotted in Figures 3. the rotor ‘phase ‘a’ current.48) The induction machine whose parameters are given in Appendix A is simulated using Matlab/Simulink.6 and 3.4 and 3.47) 1 ( Ls λdr − Lmλds ) K (3.7 the a load of 4N-m was put on the machine for about 1 sec and then the plots of speed. rotor speed. the stator phase ‘a’ and ‘b’ currents.45) (3.5. In Figure 3. ω can be any reference frame. The load was added on the machine from 0.5 to 1.

(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Figure 3. (b) torque.4. (a) rotor speed. Free-acceleration characteristics. (c) phase ‘a’ current (d) phase ‘b’ current (e) rotor phase ‘a’ current 56 .

On-load characteristics. (a) rotor speed.5.(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Figure 3. (b) torque. (c) phase ‘a’ current (d) phase ‘b’ current (e) rotor phase ‘a’ current 57 .

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