Unemployment (or joblessness) occurs when people are without work and actively seeking work.

The unemployment rate is a measure of the prevalence of unemployment and it is calculated as a percentage by dividing the number of unemployed individuals by all individuals currently in the labor force. During periods of [2] recession, an economy usually experiences a relatively high unemployment rate. In a 2011 news story, BusinessWeek reported, "More than 200 million people globally are out of work, a record high, as almost twothirds of advanced economies and half of developing countries are experiencing a slowdown in employment growth Classical The word classical has several meanings. In general, these meanings refer to some past time, works of that era or later works influenced by that time. Classical things are often seen as ordered and part of high culture or a golden age, and contrasted to earlier or later things which may be seen as chaotic, elaborate or emotional. Frictional Frictional unemployment is the time period between jobs when a worker is searching for, or transitioning from one job to another. It is sometimes called search unemployment and can be voluntary based on the circumstances of the unemployed individual. Frictional unemployment exists because both jobs and workers are heterogeneous, and a mismatch can result between the characteristics of supply and demand. Such a mismatch can be related to skills, payment, worktime, location, attitude, taste, and a multitude of other factors. New entrants (such as graduating students) and reentrants (such as former homemakers) can also suffer a spell of frictional unemployment. Workers as well as employers accept a certain level of imperfection, risk or compromise, but usually not right away; they will invest some time and effort to find a better match. This is in fact beneficial to the economy since it results in a better allocation of resources. However, if the search takes too long and mismatches are too frequent, the economy suffers, since some work will not get done. Therefore, governments will seek ways to reduce unnecessary frictional unemployment. Structural unemployment Structural unemployment is a form of unemployment resulting from a mismatch between demand in the labour market and the skills and locations of the workers seeking employment. Even though the number of vacancies may be equal to, or greater than, the number of the unemployed, the unemployed workers may lack the skills needed for the jobs, or they may not live in the part of the country or world where the jobs are available Structural unemployment is a result of the dynamics of the labor market, such as agricultural workers being displaced by mechanized agriculture, unskilled laborers displaced by both mechanization and automation, or industries with declining employment. Many of these displaced workers are "left behind" due to costs of training and moving (e.g., the cost of selling one's house in a depressed local economy), inefficiencies in the labor markets, such as discrimination or monopoly power, or because they are unsuited for work in growing sectors such as health care or high technology.


particularly a computer. etc. scripts. Below is a listing of several different programming languages and scripting languages currently listed in our database. i. mainly in the computer field. such as those that support functional programming or logic programming. ``descriptions'' or ``rules'' that define how to manipulate data. Some languages are defined by a specification document (for example. while other languages. and were used to direct the behavior of machines such as Jacquard looms and player pianos[citation needed]. as a sequence of commands. have a dominant implementation that is used as a reference. A programming language is a computer language programmers use to develop applications.e. including knowledge of the application domain. Most programming languages describe computation in an imperative style. Programming is instructing a computer to do something for you with the help of a programming language.e.programming Computer programming (often shortened to programming or coding) is the process of designing. such as Perl 5 and earlier. although some languages. i. debugging. Thousands of different programming languages have been created. The earliest programming languages predate the invention of the computer. representing ``objects'' we want to manipulate procedures. Conceptual: It is a framework within which we organize our ideas about things and processes. Python. Programming languages can be used to create programs that control the behavior of a machine and/or to express algorithms precisely. specialized algorithms and formal logic. C#. Programming language A programming language is an artificial language designed to communicate instructions to a machine. According to the last statement. The process of writing source code often requires expertise in many different subjects. This source code is written in one or more programming languages (such as Java. use alternative forms of description. testing. the C programming language is specified by an ISO Standard). C++. or other set of instructions for a computer to execute. ALGOL FORTRAN Prolog . in programming we deal with two kind of things:   data. with many more being created every year. and maintaining the source code of computer programs. writing. The role of a programming language can be described in two ways: 1. The description of a programming language is usually split into the two components of syntax (form) and semantics (meaning). Technical: It is a means for instructing a Computer to perform Tasks 2. The purpose of programming is to create a set of instructions that computers use to perform specific operations or to exhibit desired behaviors..).

Stroustrup found that this paradigm was very useful for software development. It was a program designed to translate C with Classes code to ordinary C. thesis. The C++ programming language has a history going back to 1979. which as the name implies was meant to be a superset of the C language. we have just listed some of the more popular choices for each category History of C++ . and strong type checking in addition to all the features of the C language.is regarded as the first language to support the object-oriented programming paradigm. which was derived from a C compiler called CPre. he began work on "C with Classes". Nonetheless. default function arguments. The first C with Classes compiler was called Cfront. His goal was to add object-oriented programming into the C language. when Bjarne Stroustrup was doing work for his Ph. Cfront would later be abandoned in 1993 after it became difficult to integrate new features into it. Shortly thereafter. which was and still is a language well-respected for its portability without sacrificing speed or low-level functionality. His language included classes. One of the languages Stroustrup had the opportunity to work with was a language called Simula. Cfront made a huge impact on the implementations of future compilers and on the Unix operating system. basic inheritance. namely C++ exceptions. Where to start really depends on the computer programming you wish to do. A rather interesting point worth noting is that Cfront was written mostly in C with Classes. Note: There are several programming languages listed above that may not be listed in a category below that they are capable of doing. . inlining. Instead of listing every language under every category below. which as the name implies is a language primarily designed for simulations. making it a self-hosting compiler (a compiler that can compile itself).Ada AIML Assembly BASIC Batchfile BCPL C C# C++ COBOL CPL D DarkBASIC dBASE FoxPro HDML HTML Java JavaScript JCL LISP Live Script LOGO Pascal Perl PHP Pick Ruby SGML Smalltalk SQL Tcl True BASIC VHDL Visual Basic Visual FoxPro WML WHTML XML Users who are new to computer programming may find the above list confusing and may not be sure where to start. however the Simula language was far too slow for practical use.which was the variant that Stroustrup worked with . Below is a listing of some of the different fields of programming as well as what language you should consider for each of these fields. The Simula 67 language .D.

Some of the new features included regular expression support (details on regular expressions may be found here). The ++ operator in the C language is an operator for incrementing a variable. the C++ standards committee released a technical report (dubbed TR1) detailing various features they were planning to add to the latest C++ standard. the C++ standards committee published the first international standard for C++ ISO/IEC 14882:1998. however. C++ was implemented as a comercial product. Turbo C++ added a plethora of additional libraries which would have a considerable impact on C++'s development. a new C++ time library. the committee responded to multiple problems that were reported with their 1998 standard. and revised it accordingly. making the book a very important reference.In 1983. The Standard Template Library. references with the & symbol. a new for loop syntax providing functionality similar to foreach loops in certain other languages. The language was updated again in 1989 to include protected and static members. the most notable of which are virtual functions. the name of the language was changed from C with Classes to C++. The Annotated C++ Reference Manual was said to be a large influence in the development of the standard. was also included. which would be informally known as C++98. which began its conceptual development in 1979. In 2005. the auto keyword. The changed language was dubbed C++03. Although Turbo C++'s last stable release was in 2006. and some compilers began adding experimental support for the new features. Many new features were added around this time. the const keyword. and single-line comments using two forward slashes (which is a feature taken from the language BCPL). atomics support. In 1990. In 1998. as well as inheritance from several classes. Stroustrup's reference to the language entitled The C++ Programming Language was published. function overloading. In mid-2011. a standard threading library (which up until 2011 both C and C++ were lacking). better support for unions and array-initialization lists. and some of the new modules were derived directly from the corresponding Boost libraries. The language was not officially standardized yet. The Annotated C++ Reference Manual was released. Several technical reports were released up until then. the new C++ standard (dubbed C++11) was finished. new container classes. In 1985. a comprehensive randomization library. The Boost library project made a considerable impact on the new standard. . That same year. which gives some insight into how Stroustrup regarded the language. In 2003. and variadic templates. The same year. Ironically. the new standard would not be released until mid-2011. the compiler is still widely used. Borland's Turbo C++ compiler would be released as a commercial product. The new standard was informally dubbed C++0x as it was expected to be released sometime before the end of the first decade.