Laboratory Activity 1


a. b. c. d. e. f. g.

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OBJECTIVES: a. To perform with diligence the procedures enumerated and discuss the validity of the results in accordance with the way the experiment was done. b. To validate the concept of Reynolds Number c. To apply the concept of flow rate and mean velocity in aid of this activity. Theoretical Background Reynolds number was developed by Osborne Reynolds to mathematically define the difference between laminar flow and turbulent flow.

Fig 1: Laminar and Turbulent flow

Reynolds number is a dimensionless figure (no unit of measurement). It is mathematically defined as Where: Re = Reynolds Number V = Mean Velocity D = diameter of conduit v = kinematic viscosity The value of 2000 is set as the minimum number for a flow to be considered as turbulent and any value below that is set to be laminar. It is written as Other than volume. it can be computed by relating it to the flow rate. Flow rate is defined as the quantity (volume) of fluid that flow in a section over time. Which can be manipulated to be . flow rate can also be written in terms of mass and weight Mean velocity is defined as the average velocity of particles that consists a fluid flowing in a defined segment. Fig 2: fluid particle flowing at various speeds as affected by velocity and friction Mean velocity is originally calculated by getting the average velocity of each particle but since this is a very difficult task.

d. ribbon like flow indicates laminar flow and a diluted ink flow indicates turbulent. The kinematic viscosity of this mixture is then set to 0. Stop watch Procedure: a. From the measurement Glass conduit – d = 15.00 mm f. A straight. Gently open the valve at the glass conduit (do not open full) and after a short while open the valve of the ink tank g. 2g color dye (jovus) b. Prepare the color fluid by mixing 2g of colored dye on 500ml of water b. 500ml of water c.3 mm Acrylic water tank – d = 140.893 x 10-6 m2/s c. Repeat procedure g to I. Observe the ink in the glass conduit. Pour the color fluid in the ink tank of the Reynolds apparatus and add clean water at the bottom tank. Maintain safety by keeping the plug and your hands dry. i. Reynolds Apparatus d. h.Materials: a. Switch on the apparatus by plugging it. in which the valve opens much wider than before Data: Trial 1 2 3 4 Calculations Time for water to drop 1 cm Computed flow rate Computed Mean Velocity Computed Reynolds # Conclusions: . Measure the time it took for the water in the acrylic water tank to drop 1 cm. e.

Find a.Recommendations Problems: 1. The volume flow rate in m3/s and liters/sec . Water flows through a 75mm diameter pipe at a velocity of 3m/s.

a. Compute for the Reynolds number 5. The mass flow rate in kg/s c. Compute the viscosity of oil in stokes b. Air at 300C and 110kPa flows at 20 M/s through a rectangular duct that measures 160mm x 320mm. The kinematic viscosity of oil is 5. The velocity of oil flowing through a 30mm diameter pipe is equal to 2m/s. Oil has a kinematic viscosity of 5 x 10-5 m2/s. If the pipe has a length of 120m compute the Reynolds number 4. Benzene flows through a 100mm pipe at mean velocity of 3m/s a. A 40mm diameter pipe has a length of 120m Oil flows at a velocity of 2 m/s.b.2 x 10-5m2/s. The weight flow rate in N/s 2. Find the mass flow rate in kg/s . Use Gas constant R = 29.3 m/0K 3. Find the volume flow rate in li/min b. Compute the average velocity and volume flux. Find the weight flow in kN/s c.