Learning Objectives

1. To understand the structure, function and characteristics of computer systems 2. To understand the design of the various functional units of digital computers 3. To learn basics of Parallel Computer Architecture. UNIT 1 Computer Evolution & Arithmetic

A Brief History of computers, Designing for Performance, Von Neumann Architecture, Hardware architecture, Computer Components, Interconnection Structures, Bus Interconnection, Scalar Data Types, Fixed and Floating point numbers, Signed numbers, Integer Arithmetic, 2’s Complement method for multiplication, Booths Algorithm, Hardware Implementation, Division, Restoring and Non Restoring algorithms, Floating point representations, IEEE standards, Floating point arithmetic, Register Configuration, BCD Adder, BCD Subtraction. UNIT 2 Organization of Computer

Organization of a Computer Central Progressing Unit (CPU), Stack Organization, Register Stack, Memory Stack, Reverse Polish Notation. Instruction Formats, Three- Address Instructions, Two – Address Instructions, One- Address Instructions, Zero Address Instructions, RISC and CISC Characteristics, Addressing modes.

UNIT 3

Memory Organization

Characteristics of memory systems, Internal and External Memory, Types of memories: ROM: PROM, EPROM, EEPROM, RAM: SRAM, DRAM, SDRAM, RDRAM High-Speed Memories: Cache Memory, Organization and Mapping Techniques, Replacement Algorithms, Cache Coherence, MESI protocol. Virtual Memory: Main Memory allocation, Segmentation, Paging, Address Translation Virtual to Physical. Secondary Storage: Magnetic Disk, Tape, DAT, RAID, Optical memory, CDROM, DVD UNIT 4 Input-Output Organization Modes Of Transfer, Priority Interrupt, DMA, Input-Output Processor (IOP), CPUIOP Communication. UNIT 5 Parallel Organization

Organizations, Closely and Loosely coupled multiprocessors systems, Symmetric Multiprocessors, Clusters, UMA NUMA, Vector Computations,

2nd Edition. “Structured Computer Organization”. Tanenbaum. 3. 2000 ISBN . Paterson. 1991 ISBN 81 – 203 – 1553 – 7 1.RISC: Instruction execution characteristics. “Computer Architecture and Organization”. 4th Ed. 1986 2. Hays. 1990 ISBN 0 – 02 – 946297 – 5 1. “Computer Organization and Architecture: Principles of Structure and Function”. “Computer Organization and Design: The Hardware Software Interface”. 2nd Edition. 1988 ISBN 0 – 07 – 100479 – 3 2. 3.. W. D. Prentice Hall of India. George. “Computer Organization: Hardware and Software”. Morgan Kauffman. Maxwell Macmillan Editions. G. 2nd Edition. 2nd Ed. Stallings William. Hennesy. Prentice Hall of India. McGraw-Hill. RISC architecture and pipelining. RISC Vs CISC Text Books 1. J. J.